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Sample records for eye examination protocol

  1. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  2. Leader Election Protocol for Energy Efficient Mobile Sensor Networks (EYES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we develop and analyze a wireless wave leader election protocol (WWLE) for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, with emphasis on the resulting energy consumption. Within the operating system of the EYES architecture we apply a power model to schedule tasks in order to minimize energy

  3. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  4. Elderly people need an eye examination before entering nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne; Tubæk, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is well documented that eye diseases develop with ageing and thus more elderly people have a visual handicap. It is important that the elderly are examined well, that they have the correct prescription and optimal aids. This is especially applicable to those residing in nursing...

  5. Eye examinations of laser and radiofrequency radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.

    1988-01-01

    There are a growing number of uses of lasers and radiofrequency radiation in industry. Because these radiations may lead to various ocular effects, examinations of the eye are required for laser and radiofrequency workers as part of safe working practices. Various issues concerning these examinations are raised for discussion including: handling personal data, placement criteria, data collection, quality control, control data, the load on service providers, and costs

  6. The application of a "6S Lean" initiative to improve workflow for emergency eye examination rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarali, Samir; Rayat, Jaspreet; Salmonson, Hilary; Moss, Theodora; Mathura, Pamela; Damji, Karim F

    2017-10-01

    Ophthalmology residents on call at the Royal Alexandra Hospital identified workplace disorganization and lack of standardization in emergency eye examination rooms as an impediment to efficient patient treatment. The aim of the study was to use the "6S Lean" model to improve workflow in eye examination rooms at the Royal Alexandra Hospital. With the assistance of quality improvement consultants, the "6S Lean" model was applied to the current operation of the emergency eye clinic examination rooms. This model, considering 8 waste categories, was then used to recommend and implement changes to the examination rooms and to workplace protocols to enhance efficiency and safety. Eye examination rooms were improved with regards to setup, organization of supplies, inventory control, and maintenance. All targets were achieved, and the 5S audit checklist score increased by 33 points from 44 to 77. Implementation of the 6S methodology is a simple approach that removes inefficiencies from the workplace. The ophthalmology clinic removed waste from all 8 waste categories, increased audit results, mitigated patient and resident safety risks, and ultimately redirected resident time back to patient care delivery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE ROLE OF LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN RED EYE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chernakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze etiological structure of inflammatory diseases of ocular surface. Materials and methods: The study included outpatients (n = 49 who referred to Ophthalmological office at the Herpetic center during the period 2012 to 2014. Complaints duration was 60.65 ± 12.28 days. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examination; tear and/or conjunctival scraping PCR for type 1 and 2 herpes simplex viruses, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, type 6 human herpesvirus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, ureaplasma, chlamydia; conjunctival swab microbiology; eyelash microscopy for eyelash mites. Results: After the examination, all patients were divided into three groups: 1 with herpesvirus infections of the eye (n = 24, 2 with non-herpetic infection of the eye (enterovirus, adenovirus, bacteria, fungi, n = 18, 3 with ocular surface lesions due to non-infectious causes (n = 7. In three cases U. urealyticum was detected, doxycycline was administrated. Identification of pathogens in the groups 1 and 2 resulted in effective causal treatment with subsequent clinical recovery. Exclusion of infection in the third group allowed to avoid inappropriate antibacterial or antiviral therapy. Conclusion: In patients with chronic red eye syndrome of unknown etiology, laboratory examination of tear and/or conjunctival scraping is essential for differentiating between infectious and non-infectious disease.

  8. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  9. Re-examining the security of blind quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingming; Chen Xiubo; Niu Xinxin; Yang Yixian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, blind quantum signature (BQS) protocols have been proposed with the help of a third-party verifier. However, our research shows that some of the BQS protocols are unable to complete the blind signature task fairly if the verifier is dishonest. Indeed, these protocols can be viewed as variants of the classical digital signature scheme of symmetric-key cryptography. If nobody is trusted in such protocols, digital signature cannot be implemented since disagreements cannot be solved fairly.

  10. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  11. Examining the response programming function of the Quiet Eye: Do tougher shots need a quieter eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Symons, Rosanna; Wilson, Mark; Klostermann, Andre; Vine, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Support for the proposition that the Quiet Eye (QE) duration reflects a period of response programming (including task parameterisation) has come from research showing that an increase in task difficulty is associated with increases in QE duration. Here, we build on previous research by manipulating three elements of task difficulty that correspond with different parameters of golf-putting performance; force production, impact quality and target line. Longer QE durations were found for more complex iterations of the task and furthermore, more sensitive analyses of the QE duration suggest that the early QE proportion (prior to movement initiation) is closely related to force production and impact quality. However, these increases in QE do not seem functional in terms of supporting improved performance. Further research is needed to explore QE's relationship with performance under conditions of increased difficulty.

  12. IMPACT OF PHYSICIAN COMMUNICATION ON DIABETIC EYE EXAMINATION ADHERENCE: Results From a Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Philip P; Murchison, Ann P; Pizzi, Laura T; Hark, Lisa A; Dai, Yang; Leiby, Benjamin E; Haller, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of written communication between an ophthalmologist and a primary care physician (PCP) on patient adherence to diabetic eye examination recommendations. In a retrospective cohort study of a multiethnic population at an urban ophthalmology center, records of all patients with diabetes and clinic visits between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, insurance status, hemoglobin A1C, severity of diabetic retinopathy, follow-up examinations, and written communication between a patient's ophthalmologist and PCP. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationship between physician communication and adherence to diabetic eye examination based on the American Academy of Ophthalmology-published recommendations. A total of 1,968 people with diabetes were included. Written communication from an ophthalmologist to a PCP was associated with increased adherence to follow-up eye examination recommendations (Odds Ratio: 1.49; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.16-1.92; P = 0.0018). Communication from a PCP to an ophthalmologist was also associated with increased adherence (Odds Ratio: 1.94; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.37-2.77; P = 0.0002). Multivariable analysis controlling for other factors associated with examination adherence confirmed that communication both to and from an ophthalmologist was independently and significantly associated with increased follow-up adherence. Patients with communication between ophthalmologists and PCPs are more likely to adhere to diabetic eye examinations.

  13. PROTOCOL FOR EXAMINATION OF THE INNER CAN CLOSURE WELD REGION FOR 3013 DE CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-09-16

    The protocol for the examination of the inner can closure weld region (ICCWR) for 3013 DE containers is presented within this report. The protocol includes sectioning of the inner can lid section, documenting the surface condition, measuring corrosion parameters, and storing of samples. This protocol may change as the investigation develops since findings may necessitate additional steps be taken. Details of the previous analyses, which formed the basis for this protocol, are also presented.

  14. The neurophysiology of human touch and eye gaze and its effects on therapeutic relationships and healing: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Fiona; Wiechula, Rick; Feo, Rebecca; Schultz, Tim; Kitson, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map the range of neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze, and better understand their possible links to the therapeutic relationship and the process of healing. The specific question is "what neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze have been reported in relation to therapeutic relationships and healing?"

  15. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  16. Eye-catching?! Using eye tracking to examine the effect of health literacy on the attention-recall relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.; Bol, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how health literacy influences attention to text and illustrations in online health information, and whether such attention is related to recall of information. Sixty-one participants were exposed to either text-only or text-illustrated information. Using eye

  17. Examining drivers' eye glance patterns during distracted driving: Insights from scanning randomness and glance transition matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i.e., forward on-road, phone, mirrors and others). All measurements were calculated within a 5s time window under both cell phone and non-cell phone use conditions. Results of the glance data analyses showed different patterns between distracted and non-distracted driving, featured by a higher entropy rate value and highly biased attention transferring between forward and phone locations during distracted driving. Drivers in general had higher number of glance transitions, and their on-road glance duration was significantly shorter during distracted driving when compared to non-distracted driving. Results suggest that drivers have a higher scanning randomness/disorder level and shift their main attention from surrounding areas towards phone area when engaging in visual-manual tasks. Drivers' visual search patterns during visual-manual distraction with a high scanning randomness and a high proportion of eye glance transitions towards the location of the phone provide insight into driver distraction detection. This will help to inform the design of in-vehicle human-machine interface/systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Doses from pediatric CT examinations in Norway: are pediatric scan protocols developed and in daily use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, Eva G.

    2008-01-01

    Doses to pediatric patients from CT examinations are known to be unnecessarily high if scan protocols developed for adult patients are adopted. This overexposure is most often not recognized by the operating radiographer, due to the digital behavior of the imaging system. Use of optimized size-specific pediatric scan protocols is therefore essential to keep the doses at an appropriate level. The aim of this study was to investigate the doses to pediatric patients from CT examinations and to evaluate the level of optimization of the scan protocols. Patient data, applied scan parameters together with the dose parameters volume computed tomography dose index (CTD vol ) and dose length product (DLP) for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen were collected by means of a questionnaire from five university hospitals. The effective dose was estimated from the total DLP by use of region-specific conversion coefficients (E DLP ). Totally 136, 108 and 82 questionnaires were received for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen, respectively. Large variations in patient doses between the hospitals were observed, addressing the need for optimization of the scan protocols in general. Most of the hospitals applied successive lower mAs with decreasing patient age for all scan areas, while the use of lower tube voltage for small patients and a higher tube voltage for large patients were more rarely. This indicates the presence, to a certain level, of size specific scan protocols at some Norwegian hospitals. Focus on developing size-specific scan protocols for pediatric patients are important to reduce the doses and risks associated with pediatric CT examinations. (author)

  19. Noninvasive Dry Eye Assessment Using High-Technology Ophthalmic Examination Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Sakane, Yuri; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Zheng, Xiaodong; Goto, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the number of dry eye cases has dramatically increased. Thus, it is important that easy screening, exact diagnoses, and suitable treatments be available. We developed 3 original and noninvasive assessments for this disorder. First, a DR-1 dry eye monitor was used to determine the tear meniscus height quantitatively by capturing a tear meniscus digital image that was analyzed by Meniscus Processor software. The DR-1 meniscus height value significantly correlated with the fluorescein meniscus height (r = 0.06, Bland-Altman analysis). At a cutoff value of 0.22 mm, sensitivity of the dry eye diagnosis was 84.1% with 90.9% specificity. Second, the Tear Stability Analysis System was used to quantitatively measure tear film stability using a topographic modeling system corneal shape analysis device. Tear film stability was objectively and quantitatively evaluated every second during sustained eye openings. The Tear Stability Analysis System is currently installed in an RT-7000 autorefractometer and topographer to automate the diagnosis of dry eye. Third, the Ocular Surface Thermographer uses ophthalmic thermography for diagnosis. The decrease in ocular surface temperature in dry eyes was significantly greater than that in normal eyes (P eye opening. Decreased corneal temperature correlated significantly with the tear film breakup time (r = 0.572; P dry eye, sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity was 0.80 after 10 seconds. This article describes the details and potential of these 3 noninvasive dry eye assessment systems.

  20. Spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation following routine annual eye examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joshua R; Werner, Liliana; Owen, Leah; Vasavada, Shail A; Crandall, Alan

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in whom spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation was diagnosed following a routine dilated examination that demonstrated only mild pseudophacodonesis with no evidence of subluxation. Uneventful cataract surgery with placement of single-piece hydrophobic acrylic posterior chamber IOLs had been performed in both eyes 7 years previously. Bilateral IOL repositioning with scleral fixation was performed to correct the dislocation. Postoperative examinations showed remarkable improvement in visual acuity and IOL stability. We hypothesize that zonular weakness secondary to PXF predisposed the patient to bilateral IOL partial dislocation. Pupil dilation in the setting of mild pseudophacodonesis at the time of routine examination may have been a precipitating factor. To our knowledge, bilateral IOL subluxation/dislocation has been described in a limited number of case reports. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic Comorbidities of Dry Eye Syndrome: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Jimmy K; Kim, Martha; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Chang, Min-Wook; Chuck, Roy S; Park, Choul Yong

    2016-02-01

    To identify systemic comorbidities in patients with dry eye syndrome in South Korea. From 2010 to 2012, 17,364 participants aged 20 or older were randomly included in the nationwide Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome and demographics of these patients were investigated. We performed conditional logistic regression analyses based on age, sex, residential area, education level, occupation type, and household income level to obtain the odds ratio for each systemic comorbidity among subjects with and without dry eye syndrome. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome in this study was 10.4%. Age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.02], female gender (AOR: 3.01), and indoor occupation (AOR: 1.30) were associated with a higher prevalence of dry eye syndrome and found to be less prevalent in those residing in rural areas (AOR: 0.73) and with lower education levels (AOR: 0.66-0.99). With regard to systemic comorbidities, dyslipidemia (AOR: 1.63), degenerative arthritis (AOR: 1.56), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR: 1.44), thyroid disease (AOR: 1.79), and renal failure (AOR: 2.56) were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of dry eye syndrome. We found that patients with dry eye syndrome have a higher prevalence of several systemic comorbidities. A more comprehensive therapeutic approach considering the effect of systemic medication may be necessary in these patients.

  2. Radiographic examination protocol and patient dose in lateral cephalometric radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo

    2010-01-01

    To survey the radiographic examination protocol for lateral cephalometric radiographic examinations and to measure their patient doses in Korea and to compare the dose according to the size of hospital, the type of image receptor system, and the installation duration. The radiographic examination protocols (kVp, mA, and exposure time) for lateral cephalometric radiography were surveyed with 61 cephalometric radiographic equipments and their patient dose-area product (DAP) measured with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for 51 cephalometric radiographic equipments. The radiographic examination protocols and patient doses were compared according to the size of hospital (university dental hospital, dental hospital, and dental clinic), the type of image receptor system (film-based, DR and CR type) and the installation duration, respectively. SPSS 12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) was used for independent t-test and ANOVA test. The average protocols were 77.0 kVp, 12.7 mA, 6.2 second for cephalometric radiography. The average patient dose (DAP) was 128.0 mGy cm2 and 3rd quartile dose (DAP) 161.1 mGy cm2 for cephalometric radiography for adult male. There was no statistically significant difference at average patient DAP according to the size of hospital, the type of image receptor system, and the installation duration, respectively. The average patient dose was 128.0 mGy cm2 and the third quartile patient dose 161.1 mGy cm2 for lateral cephalometric radiography for adult male in Korea.

  3. Successful treatment of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing - treatment protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, Lea; Eppler, Bruno; Storf, Magdalena; Schnöbel-Müller, Elizabeth; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2018-02-13

    Methotrexate (MTX), commonly used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), frequently has to be discontinued due to intolerance with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychological method where dysfunctional experiences and memories are reprocessed by recall combined with bilateral eye movements. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of EMDR for treatment of MTX intolerance in JIA patients. We performed an open prospective study on consecutive JIA patients with MTX intolerance. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire prior to treatment, directly after treatment and after four months. Health-related quality of life was determined using the PedsQL prior to and four months after treatment. Patients were treated according to an institutional EMDR protocol with 8 sessions over two weeks. Changes in MISS and PedsQL were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. Eighteen patients with MTX intolerance (median MISS at inclusion 16.5, IQR = 11.75-20.25) were included. Directly after treatment, MTX intolerance symptoms were significantly improved (median MISS 1 (IQR = 0-2). After four months, median MISS score was at 6.5 (IQR = 2.75-12.25, p = 0.001), with 9/18 patients showing MISS scores ≥6. Median PedsQL after 4 months improved significantly from 77.6% to 85.3% (p = 0.008). MTX intolerance in children with JIA was effectively treated using an EMDR protocol, with lasting effect over a period of 4 months. EMDR treatment can potentially increase quality of life of affected patients and enable continued MTX treatment.

  4. Protocol of Radiographic Examination of Children in Order to Improve the Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Gunek, G.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Zagar, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Pulmonary radiograms are essential in the diagnostics of lung diseases of children and youth. In childhood, sometimes immediately after a child's birth, there is a need to apply this diagnostic method. Namely, even in the first days of life some pathological conditions can exist which can lead to progressive respiratory failure (respiratory distress syndrome, aspirational syndrome, lung anomaly). An experienced clinician paediatrician can suspect the pathological condition, but for a sure and a timely diagnosis, a radiographic confirmation is necessary. Long lasting cough, fever and chest pain of unexplained ethiology are also indications for a radiographic examination in childhood. In the evaluation of treatment repeated radiograms are often necessary too. Considering that children are radiovulnerable population, and that during these examinations neighbouring organs (bone marrow, thyroid gland) are also irradiated, it is necessary to undertake all measures to minimise harmful consequences of irradiation during diagnostic X-ray examinations. In order to improve radiation protection, a protocol for radiographic examination of small children was worked out. Paediatricians and child-radiologists worked in producing this protocol closely together. In order to achieve a satisfactory protection of patients during respiratory tract examination the doses of radiation were controlled with thermoluminiscent dosimetric systems which had been found adequate for X-ray diagnostics dosimetry. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for examination of the neurocranium at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, W; Kugel, H; Bachmann, R; Kloska, S; Allkemper, T; Maintz, D; Pfleiderer, B; Tombach, B; Heindel, W

    2003-09-01

    The increasing availability of high-field (3 T) MR scanners requires adapting and optimizing clinical imaging protocols to exploit the theoretically higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the higher field strength. Our aim was to establish reliable and stable protocols meeting the clinical demands for imaging the neurocranium at 3 T. Two hundred patients with a broad range of indications received an examination of the neurocranium with an appropriate assortment of imaging techniques at 3 T. Several imaging parameters were optimized. Keeping scan times comparable to those at 1.5 T we increased spatial resolution. Contrast-enhanced and non-enhanced T1-weighted imaging was best applying gradient-echo and inversion recovery (rather than spin-echo) techniques, respectively. For fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging a TE of 120 ms yielded optimum contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). High-resolution isotropic 3D data sets were acquired within reasonable scan times. Some artifacts were pronounced, but generally imaging profited from the higher SNR. We present a set of optimized examination protocols for neuroimaging at 3 T, which proved to be reliable in a clinical routine setting.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for examination of the neurocranium at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, W.; Kugel, H.; Bachmann, R.; Kloska, S.; Allkemper, T.; Maintz, D.; Pfleiderer, B.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Strasse 33, 48129, Muenster (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The increasing availability of high-field (3 T) MR scanners requires adapting and optimizing clinical imaging protocols to exploit the theoretically higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the higher field strength. Our aim was to establish reliable and stable protocols meeting the clinical demands for imaging the neurocranium at 3 T. Two hundred patients with a broad range of indications received an examination of the neurocranium with an appropriate assortment of imaging techniques at 3 T. Several imaging parameters were optimized. Keeping scan times comparable to those at 1.5 T we increased spatial resolution. Contrast-enhanced and non-enhanced T1-weighted imaging was best applying gradient-echo and inversion recovery (rather than spin-echo) techniques, respectively. For fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging a TE of 120 ms yielded optimum contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). High-resolution isotropic 3D data sets were acquired within reasonable scan times. Some artifacts were pronounced, but generally imaging profited from the higher SNR. We present a set of optimized examination protocols for neuroimaging at 3 T, which proved to be reliable in a clinical routine setting. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for examination of the neurocranium at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwindt, W.; Kugel, H.; Bachmann, R.; Kloska, S.; Allkemper, T.; Maintz, D.; Pfleiderer, B.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of high-field (3 T) MR scanners requires adapting and optimizing clinical imaging protocols to exploit the theoretically higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the higher field strength. Our aim was to establish reliable and stable protocols meeting the clinical demands for imaging the neurocranium at 3 T. Two hundred patients with a broad range of indications received an examination of the neurocranium with an appropriate assortment of imaging techniques at 3 T. Several imaging parameters were optimized. Keeping scan times comparable to those at 1.5 T we increased spatial resolution. Contrast-enhanced and non-enhanced T1-weighted imaging was best applying gradient-echo and inversion recovery (rather than spin-echo) techniques, respectively. For fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging a TE of 120 ms yielded optimum contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). High-resolution isotropic 3D data sets were acquired within reasonable scan times. Some artifacts were pronounced, but generally imaging profited from the higher SNR. We present a set of optimized examination protocols for neuroimaging at 3 T, which proved to be reliable in a clinical routine setting. (orig.)

  8. Examining a Reader's Meaning-Making Process of Picture Books Using Eye Movement Miscue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Maria Perpetua Socorro U.; Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Pelatti, Christina Yeager

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to examine a second grader's reading of picture books using eye movement miscue analysis as a method to further understand reading as a meaning-making process. Two picture books with different relationships (e.g., enhanced and counterpoint) were selected because they elicit varied ways of presenting meaning and thus…

  9. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voils Corrine I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI ≥27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540

  11. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP Applied to Caregivers of Patients With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Passoni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with dementia experience high levels of stress and burden, with effects comparable to those of a traumatic event. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR appear to be effective in recovering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP on the “caregiver syndrome”. Forty-four primary caregivers entered the study. They were randomly assigned to either the “immediate” branch, who received the treatment soon after recruitment, or to the “delayed” branch, who received it two months after recruitment. The treatment consisted of eight group sessions (one per week spanning over two months. Emotional distress was measured before the treatment, immediately after the end of it, and two months later (follow-up, by means of several clinical scales (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R; Caregiver Needs Assessment, CNA; Caregiver Burden Inventory, CBI; Anxiety and Depression Scale-Reduced Form, AD-R. The “immediate” branch improved significantly more than the “delayed” (control branch on The Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Anxiety, and the Depression scales; however, after treatment such an improvement was maintained only in the first scale. The “delayed” branch took less advantage of the treatment, showing significant reduction only on the Depression scale, an effect which disappeared at follow-up. These preliminary results show for the first time that EMDR-IGTP reduces stress-related symptoms, anxiety, and depression in caregivers of patients with dementia. Interestingly, caregivers who were inserted in a waiting list after recruitment showed smaller treatment effects. Larger samples are needed to better interpret such differential clinical profiles.

  12. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol…

  13. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Maslovaric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3, each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4 were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  14. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3), each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4) were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  15. Examining recombinant human TSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Radiation Medicine Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    patients receiving {sup 131}I therapy with the rhTSH protocol was shorter (2 days, range 2-8 days) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (3 days, range 1-8 days) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.007). The mean serum creatinine level was significantly lower in the rhTSH protocol (0.826 mg/dl) than the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (0.95 mg/dl) (p = 0.013), though the mean blood urea level of patients during the rhTSH therapy protocol was slightly higher (22.81 mg/dl) than during the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (21.91 mg/dl) without statistical significance (p = 0.55). The mean serum TSH on day 2 of the rhTSH protocol was 140.99 μIU/ml (range 71-176 μIU/ml) compared to 72.62 μIU/ml (range 2.05-154 μIU/ml) in the traditional protocol after around 4-6 weeks of thyroid hormone withdrawal (p < 0.05). Overall, the rhTSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol was found to be feasible and a good alternative to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol in patients with metastatic DTC. The lesional dosimetry findings need to be further examined in subsequent studies. The rhTSH primed pretreatment scan at 24 h after diagnostic dose is suboptimal to determine whether a metastatic lesion concentrates {sup 131}I and the posttreatment scan is important for the correct impression. (orig.)

  16. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motwani M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction, using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. Results: The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0–1.69D, and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°–89°. Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Conclusions: Using WaveLight® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction. Keywords: WaveLight Contoura, topographic guided ablation, LASIK, PRK, uniform cornea, Contoura with LYRA Protocol, measured astigmatism

  17. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Motwani M

    2017-01-01

    Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in...

  18. Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined the use of think aloud (TA protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Level 2, Level 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (ten minutes after performance, 24 hours after performance and 48 hours after performance. A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.

  19. Examining recombinant human TSH primed 131I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    (0.826 mg/dl) than the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (0.95 mg/dl) (p = 0.013), though the mean blood urea level of patients during the rhTSH therapy protocol was slightly higher (22.81 mg/dl) than during the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (21.91 mg/dl) without statistical significance (p = 0.55). The mean serum TSH on day 2 of the rhTSH protocol was 140.99 μIU/ml (range 71-176 μIU/ml) compared to 72.62 μIU/ml (range 2.05-154 μIU/ml) in the traditional protocol after around 4-6 weeks of thyroid hormone withdrawal (p 131 I therapy protocol was found to be feasible and a good alternative to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol in patients with metastatic DTC. The lesional dosimetry findings need to be further examined in subsequent studies. The rhTSH primed pretreatment scan at 24 h after diagnostic dose is suboptimal to determine whether a metastatic lesion concentrates 131 I and the posttreatment scan is important for the correct impression. (orig.)

  20. A limited, low-dose computed tomography protocol to examine the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, L.; Silberberg, P.J.; Rainbow, A.; Butler, R.

    1993-01-01

    Limited, low-dose, three-scan computed tomography (CT) was shown to be as accurate as a complete CT series in examining the sacroiliac joints and is suggested as an effective alternative to plain radiography as the primary means to detect sacroiliitis. The advantages include the brevity of the examination, a 2-fold to 4-fold reduction in radiation exposure relative to conventional radiography and a 20-fold to 30-fold reduction relative to a full CT series. The technique was developed from studies of anatomic specimens in which the articular surfaces were covered with a film of barium to show clearly the synovial surfaces and allow the choice of the most appropriate levels of section. From the anteroposterior scout view the following levels were defined: at the first sacral foramen, between the first and second sacral foramina and at the third sacral foramen. In the superior section a quarter of the sacroiliac joint is synovial, whereas in the inferior section the entire joint is synovial. The three representative cuts and the anteroposterior scout view are displayed on a single 14 x 17 in. (36 x 43 cm) film. Comparative images at various current strengths showed that at lower currents than conventionally used no diagnostic information was lost, despite a slight increase in noise. The referring physicians at the authors' institution prefer this protocol to the imaging routine previously used. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Medical Ethics in Qiṣāṣ (Eye-for-an-Eye) Punishment: An Islamic View; an Examination of Acid Throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi Tabriz, Amir; Dabbagh, Hossein; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-08-01

    Physicians in Islamic countries might be requested to participate in the Islamic legal code of qiṣāṣ, in which the victim or family has the right to an eye-for-an-eye retaliation. Qiṣāṣ is only used as a punishment in the case of murder or intentional physical injury. In situations such as throwing acid, the national legal system of some Islamic countries asks for assistance from physicians, because the punishment should be identical to the crime. The perpetrator could not be punished without a physician's participation, because there is no way to guarantee that the sentence would be carried out without inflicting more injury than the initial victim had suffered. By examining two cases of acid throwing, this paper discusses issues related to physicians' participation in qiṣāṣ from the perspective of medical ethics and Islamic Shari'a law. From the standpoint of medical ethics, physicians' participation in qiṣāṣ is not appropriate. First, qiṣāṣ is in sharp contrast to the Hippocratic Oath and other codes of medical ethics. Second, by physicians' participation in qiṣāṣ, medical practices are being used improperly to carry out government mandates. Third, physician participation in activities that cause intentional harm to people destroys the trust between patients and physicians and may adversely affect the patient-physician relationship more generally. From the standpoint of Shari'a, there is no consensus among Muslim scholars whether qiṣāṣ should be performed on every occasion. We argue that disallowing physician involvement in qiṣāṣ is necessary from the perspectives of both medical ethics and Shari'a law.

  2. Elder Abuse Identification in the Prehospital Setting: An Examination of State Emergency Medical Services Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodri, Brooke L; Rosen, Tony; Dayaa, Joseph A; Bischof, Jason J; Ramadan, Nadeem; Patel, Mehul D; Grover, Joseph; Brice, Jane H; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2018-03-22

    To describe statewide emergency medical service (EMS) protocols relating to identification, management, and reporting of elder abuse in the prehospital setting. Cross-sectional analysis. Statewide EMS protocols in the United States. Publicly available statewide EMS protocols identified from published literature, http://EMSprotocols.org, and each state's public health website. Protocols were reviewed to determine whether elder abuse was mentioned, elder abuse was defined, potential indicators of elder abuse were listed, management of older adults experiencing abuse was described, and instructions regarding reporting were provided. EMS protocols for child abuse were reviewed in the same manner for the purpose of comparison. Of the 35 publicly available statewide EMS protocols, only 14 (40.0%) mention elder abuse. Of protocols that mention elder abuse, 6 (42.9%) define elder abuse, 10 (71.4%) describe indicators of elder abuse, 8 (57.1%) provide instruction regarding management, and 12 (85.7%) provide instruction regarding reporting. Almost twice as many states met each of these metrics for child abuse. Statewide EMS protocols for elder abuse vary in regard to identification, management, and reporting, with the majority of states having no content on this subject. Expansion and standardization of protocols may increase the identification of elder abuse. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight ® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0-1.69D), and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°-89°). Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Using WaveLight ® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight ® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction.

  4. Partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols for the determination of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Michely Ediani; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Casarin, Maísa; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols with different cut-off points to the full-mouth examination (FME) in the assessment of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 12-year-old adolescents. Following a systematic two-stage cluster sampling process, 1134 individuals were evaluated. Different PMPE protocols were compared to the FME with six sites per tooth. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), relative and absolute biases and the inflation factor were assessed for each PMPE protocol with different cut-off points for the severity of gingival bleeding. The highest AUC values were found for the six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) (0.97), six-site random half-mouth (0.95) and Community Periodontal Index (0.95) protocols. The assessment of three sites [mesiobuccal (MB), buccal (B) and distolingual (DL)] in two diagonal quadrants and the random half-mouth protocol had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than the same protocols with distobuccal (DB) sites. However, the use of DB sites led to better specificity and improved the balance between sensitivity and specificity, except for the two-diagonal quadrant (1-3) protocol. The ≥1 cut-off point led to the most discrepant results from the FME. Six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) and random half-mouth assessments perform better in the evaluation of gingival bleeding in adolescents. However, when a faster protocol is needed, a two-diagonal quadrant assessment using only MB, B and DL sites can be used with no important loss of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory-Part 3: A proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2016-05-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of forensic trace evidence examinations. The apparent need for soil examinations then went through a period of decline and with it the capability of many forensic laboratories to carry out soil examinations. In more recent years, interest in soil examinations has been renewed due-at least in part-to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations. However, much of this renewed interest has been in organisations with a primary interest in soil and geology rather than forensic science. We argue the need to reinstate soil examinations as a trace evidence sub-discipline within forensic science laboratories and present a pathway to support this aim. An examination procedure is proposed that includes: (i) appropriate sample collection and storage by qualified crime scene examiners; (ii) exclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; (iii) inclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; and (iv) higher-level examination of soils by specialist soil scientists and palynologists. Soil examinations conducted by trace evidence scientists will be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Hence, the proposed examination protocol incorporates instrumentation in routine use in a forensic trace evidence laboratory. Finally, we report on an Australian soil scene variability study and a blind trial that demonstrate the utility of the proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil samples by forensic laboratories. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-04-04

    Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on

  7. Guilty in Whose Eyes? Student-Teachers' Perspectives on Cheating on Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amua-Sekyi, Ekua Tekyiwa

    2016-01-01

    The study explored student-teachers' views on cheating during examinations. A mixed method approach which involved a survey and focus group interviews was employed. Nine hundred undergraduate education students from a public university and three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed. Focus group interviews were held with six students from…

  8. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneken, Anne; Neikirk, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer; Kono, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed dark adaptation in patients with macular degeneration is due to an excess of free unliganded opsin (apo-opsin) and a deficiency of the visual chromophore, 11 -cis retinal, in rod outer segments. A total of 50 human autopsy eyes were harvested from donors with and without macular degeneration within 2-24 hrs. postmortem. Protocols were developed which permitted dark adaptation of normal human eyes after death and enucleation. Biochemical methods of purifying rod outer segments were optimized and the concentration of rhodopsin and apo-opsin was measured with UV-visible scanning spectroscopy. The presence of apo-opsin was calculated by measuring the difference in the rhodopsin absorption spectra before and after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. A total of 20 normal eyes and 16 eyes from donors with early, intermediate and advanced stages of macular degeneration were included in the final analysis. Dark adaptation was achieved by harvesting whole globes in low light, transferring into dark (light-proof) canisters and dissecting the globes using infrared light and image converters for visualization. Apo-opsin was readily detected in positive controls after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. Normal autopsy eyes showed no evidence of apo-opsin. Eyes with macular degeneration also showed no evidence of apo-opsin, regardless of the severity of disease. Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11 -cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments.

  9. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ting eSung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50. The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low  2 (reading goals: with vs. without  2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text. The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the nonlinear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students.

  10. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Wu, Ming-Da; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50). The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low) × 2 (reading goals: with vs. without) × 2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text). The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the non-linear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students. PMID:26074837

  11. Using eye-tracking to examine how embedding risk corrective statements improves cigarette risk beliefs: Implications for tobacco regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Tang, Kathy Z; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Campetti, Dana; Cappella, Joseph N; Kozlowski, Lynn T; Strasser, Andrew A

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have deliberately used explicit and implicit misleading information in marketing campaigns. The aim of the current study was to experimentally investigate whether the editing of explicit and implicit content of a print advertisement improves smokers' risk beliefs and smokers' knowledge of explicit and implicit information. Using a 2(explicit/implicit)×2(accurate/misleading) between-subject design, 203 smokers were randomly assigned to one of four advertisement conditions. The manipulation of graphic content was examined as an implicit factor to convey product harm. The inclusion of a text corrective in the body of the ad was defined as the manipulated explicit factor. Participants' eye movements and risk beliefs/recall were measured during and after ad exposure, respectively. Results indicate that exposure to a text corrective decreases false beliefs about the product (pTobacco Control Act. Eye-tracking results objectively demonstrate that text-only warnings are not viewed by smokers, thus minimizing their effectiveness for conveying risk information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protocol for the combined immunosuppression & radiotherapy in thyroid eye disease (CIRTED trial: A multi-centre, double-masked, factorial randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston Laura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significant side-effects with long-term use and recrudescence can occur on cessation. Current evidence is conflicting on the efficacy of radiotherapy and non-steroid systemic immunosuppression, and the majority of previous studies have been retrospective, uncontrolled, small or poorly designed. The Combined Immunosuppression and Radiotherapy in Thyroid Eye Disease (CIRTED trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of radiotherapy and azathioprine in combination with a standard course of oral prednisolone in patients with active thyroid eye disease. Methods/design Patients with active thyroid eye disease will be randomised to receive (i azathioprine or oral placebo and (ii radiotherapy or sham-radiotherapy in this multi-centre, factorial randomised control trial. The primary outcome is improvement in disease severity (assessed using a composite binary measure at 12 months and secondary end-points include quality of life scores and health economic measures. Discussion The CIRTED trial is the first study to evaluate the role of radiotherapy and azathioprine as part of a long-term, combination immunosuppressive treatment regime for Thyroid Eye Disease. It will provide evidence for the role of radiotherapy and prolonged immunosuppression in the management of this condition, as well as pilot data on their use in combination. We have paid particular attention in the trial design to establishing (a robust placebo controls and masking protocols which are effective and safe for both radiotherapy and the systemic administration of an antiproliferative drug; (b constructing effective inclusion and exclusion criteria to select for active disease; and (c selecting pragmatic outcome measures. Trial registration Current controlled trials

  13. Examining the Effects of Chromatic Aberration, Object Distance, and Eye Shape on Image-Formation in the Mirror-Based Eyes of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Daniel I; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Chhetri, Raghav K; Oldenburg, Amy L; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    The eyes of scallops form images using a concave spherical mirror and contain two separate retinas, one layered on top of the other. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that the images formed by these eyes have angular resolutions of about 2°. Based on previous ray-tracing models, it has been thought that the more distal of the two retinas lies near the focal point of the mirror and that the proximal retina, positioned closer to the mirror at the back of the eye, receives light that is out-of-focus. Here, we propose three mechanisms through which both retinas may receive focused light: (1) chromatic aberration produced by the lens may cause the focal points for longer and shorter wavelengths to fall near the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; (2) focused light from near and far objects may fall on the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; and (3) the eyes of scallops may be dynamic structures that change shape to determine which retina receives focused light. To test our hypotheses, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a method of near-infrared optical depth-ranging, to acquire virtual cross-sections of live, intact eyes from the bay scallop Argopecten irradians Next, we used a custom-built ray-tracing model to estimate the qualities of the images that fall on an eye's distal and proximal retinas as functions of the wavelengths of light entering the eye (400-700 nm), object distances (0.01-1 m), and the overall shape of the eye. When we assume 550 nm wavelength light and object distances greater than 0.01 m, our model predicts that the angular resolutions of the distal and proximal retinas are 2° and 7°, respectively. Our model also predicts that neither chromatic aberration nor differences in object distance lead to focused light falling on the distal and proximal retinas simultaneously. However, if scallops can manipulate the shapes of their eyes, perhaps through muscle contractions, we speculate that they may be able

  14. Examining Wrong Eye Implant Adverse Events in the Veterans Health Administration With a Focus on Prevention: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neily, Julia; Chomsky, Amy; Orcutt, James; Paull, Douglas E; Mills, Peter D; Gilbert, Christina; Hemphill, Robin R; Gunnar, William

    2018-03-01

    The study goals were to examine wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant adverse events in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), identify root causes and contributing factors, and describe system changes that have been implemented to address this challenge. This study represents collaboration between the VHA's National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and the National Surgery Office (NSO). This report includes 45 wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events reported to established VHA NCPS and NSO databases between July 1, 2006, and June 31, 2014. There are approximately 50,000 eye implant procedures performed each year in the VHA. Wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events are reported by VHA facilities to the NCPS and the NSO. Two authors (A.C. and J.N.) coded the reports for event type (wrong lens or expired lens) and identified the primary contributing factor (coefficient κ = 0.837). A descriptive analysis was conducted, which included the reported yearly event rate. The main outcome measure was the reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. There were 45 reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. Between 2011 and June 30, 2014, there was a significant downward trend (P = 0.02, R = 99.7%) at a pace of -0.08 (per 10,000 cases) every year. The most frequently coded primary contributing factor was incomplete preprocedure time-out (n = 12) followed by failure to perform double check of preprocedural calculations based upon original data and implant read-back at the time the surgical eye implant was performed (n = 10). Preventing wrong IOL implant adverse events requires diligence beyond performance of the preprocedural time-out. In 2013, the VHA has modified policy to ensure double check of preprocedural calculations and implant read-back with positive impact. Continued analysis of contributing human factors and improved surgical team communication are warranted.

  15. Relative size of the eye and orbit: an evolutionary and craniofacial constraint model for examining the etiology and disparate incidence of juvenile-onset myopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    The principal aim of this research is to provide a new model for investigating myopia in humans, and contribute to an understanding of the degree to which modern variation and evolutionary change in orbital and overall craniofacial morphology may help explain the common eye form association with this condition. Recent research into long and short-term evolution of the human orbit reveals a number of changes in this feature, and particularly since the Upper Paleolithic. These include a reduction in orbital depth, a decrease in anterior projection of the upper and lower orbital margins, and most notably, a reduction in orbital volume since the Holocene in East Asia. Reduced orbital volume in this geographic region could exacerbate an existing trend in recent hominin evolution toward larger eyes in smaller orbits, and may help explain the unusually high frequency of myopia in East Asian populations. The objective of the current study is to test a null hypothesis of no relationship between a ratio of orbit to eye volume and spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) in a sample of Chinese adults, and examine how relative size of the eye within the orbit relates to SER between the sexes and across the sample population. Analysis of the orbit, eye, and SER reveals a strong relationship between relative size of the eye within the orbit and the severity of myopic refractive error. An orbit/eye ratio of 3 for females and 3.5 for males (or an eye that occupies approximately 34% and 29% of the orbit, respectively), designates a clear threshold at which myopia develops, and becomes progressively worse as the eye continues to occupy a greater proportion of the orbital cavity. These results indicate that relative size of the eye within the orbit is an important factor in the development of myopia, and suggests that individuals with large eyes in small orbits lack space for adequate development of ocular tissues, leading to compression and distortion of the lithesome globe

  16. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Pro...

  17. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  18. The "Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents": a resource for the interdisciplinary assessment of the stomatognatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Diana

    2012-11-01

    The Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents (Protocolo de exploración interdisciplinaria orofacial para niños y adolescents, Barcelona, 2008) is very useful in providing a fast, initial, expedient detection of possible morphological and functional disorders, and to guide the patient toward the appropriate professionals. With this tool it is possible to detect the risk factors which can negatively affect morphological and functional harmony and guide patients toward the necessary treatment as early as possible. This Protocol, developed by 4 orthodontists, 1 ENT and 3 speech language therapists, also contributes to the unification of concepts and nomenclature used by distinct specialists, thus making professional understanding easier and more dynamic.

  19. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  20. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Clinical protocol for conducting a bone scintigraphy subsequent SPECT/CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovska, A.; Dimcheva, M.; Doldurova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Like any nuclear medicine study, bone scintigraphy is a diagnostic procedure associated with intravenous injection of a radioactive isotope with low activity - radiopharmaceutical. But recently in clinical practice hybrid imaging methods such as SPECT/ CT (Single Photon Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography) has necessitated, as they provide comprehensive information about the function and structure of the studied organ. Materials and methods: In the Department of Nuclear Medicine in The Specialized Hospital for Active Treatment of Oncology Diseases in Sofia it is installed a two-detector SPECT/CT gamma camera Siemens Symbia T2, on which the whole range of nuclear medicine studies in oncology practice is held: bone scintigraphy, 99mTc - MIBI scintigraphy, Lymphoscintigraphy, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, tireostsintigraphy with 131I/99mTc, dynamic nephroscintgraphy etc. The working algorithm upon choosing the clinical protocols, and setting the parameters for scanning are complied with the requirements and recommendations established by the nuclear medicine standard. The presented are results from studies of patients when after whole body bone scintigraphy, an additional SPECT/CT study was conducted for more accurate diagnostic and interpretation of the results. Results: Practical introduction of hybrid imaging methods require from technicians besides knowledge in working with radioactive sources and practical skills such as: the selection of the matrix size, number of projections, choice of trajectory - circular or elliptical, set the appropriate degree of rotation of the detector (180 or 360). Particularly important in the processing of MR images is the appropriate choice of algorithm of reconstruction: filtered backprojection or iterative reconstruction methods. In MR images processing there is no rule for the optimal filter, which is why the quality of the reconstructed image depends primarily on the experience of the operator

  2. Assessment of a sequential extraction protocol by examining solution chemistry and mineralogical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubec, Nicolas; Pauwels, Hélène; Noël, Hervé; Bourrat, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of heavy metals, such as copper and zinc in sediments, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. The mobility of these metals, which may be harmful to the environment, depends directly on their concentration and speciation , which in turn depend on physico-chemical parameters such as mineralogy of the sediment fraction, pH, redox potential, salinity etc ... (Anderson et al., 2000; Sterckeman et al., 2004; Van Oort et al., 2008). Several methods based on chemical extractions are currently applied to assess the behavior of heavy metals in soils and sediments. Among them, sequential extraction procedure is widely used in soil and sediment science and provides details about the origin, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transports of trace metals elements. It is based on the use of a series of extracting reagents to extract selectively heavy metals according to their association within the solid phase (Cornu and Clozel, 2000) including the following different fraction : exchangeable, bound to carbonates, associated to oxides (reducible fraction), linked to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable fraction) as well as silicate minerals so called residual fraction (Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; Tessier et al., 1979). Consequently sequential extraction method is expected to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions (Arey et al., 1999; Brannon and Patrick, 1987; Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; La Force et al., 1999; Tessier et al., 1979). For three decades, a large number of protocols has been proposed, characterized by specific reagents and experimental conditions (concentrations, number of steps, extraction orders and solid/solution ratio) (Das et al., 1995; Gomez Ariza et al., 2000; Quevauviller et al., 1994; Rauret, 1998; Tack and Verloo, 1995), but it appeared that several of them suffer from a lack of selectivity of applied reagents: besides target ones, some

  3. Protocol of radiographic examination of children in order to improve the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary radiograms are essential in the diagnostics of lung diseases of children and youth. Frontal and lateral chest radiographs are basic for radiological examination of the thorax. Plain radiographic findings and presumptive clinical diagnosis will determine the need for further imaging. To estimate the risk of various damages in children, in our earlier study we measured radiation doses received during radiological examination of thoracic organs using different thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different positions on the body. Results were obtained for 50 patients divided in groups by age. Although the evaluated risks were not alarming, taking into account the average annual number of patients, all patient protection measures should be carried out. It is important to note that X-ray examination should be performed only if detailed history is provided, that clinical and laboratory tests are complete, that a good, specialised children radiology department is available which employs well-trained staff and that an individual radiological approach to every child is assured.(author)

  4. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.W.K.; Chan, T.P.; Cheung, H.Y.; Wong, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  5. Two-year functional and anatomical results after converting treatment resistant eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration to aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørstad, Øystein Kalsnes; Faber, Rowan Thomas; Moe, Morten Carstens

    2017-08-01

    To study the effects of converting to aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend (T&E) strategy in eyes with treatment resistant exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Two-year prospective study of eyes with exudative AMD and persistent macular fluid despite monthly treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Eyes were converted to 2.0 mg aflibercept in accordance with a T&E protocol. Fifty eyes from 47 patients were included. At baseline, the mean central retinal thickness (CRT) was 273 μm and mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 0.25 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR). The mean number of aflibercept injections the first year was 9.2. After 1 year, there was a reduction in mean CRT to 228 μm (p < 0.001); 22 eyes (44%) had a dry macula; and the mean BCVA was 0.24 logMAR (p = 0.531). The mean number of aflibercept injections the second year was 8.0 (p = 0.013 compared to first year). After 2 years, 24 eyes (48%) received treatment more frequently than every eighth week. The mean CRT was 225 μm (p < 0.001 compared to baseline); 31 eyes (62%) had a dry macula; and mean BCVA was 0.32 logMAR (p = 0.005 compared to baseline). Five eyes did not complete 2 years of aflibercept treatment after failing to improve. A majority of eyes showed improved anatomic outcomes. There was a small decrease in mean BCVA after the second year of treatment. About half of the eyes required treatment more frequently than the recommended aflibercept label of an 8-week interval. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  7. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Examination protocol and basic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We examined and analyzed the region activated by the unilateral finger opposition task using motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT). M-SPECT studies were carried out on 11 cases, all of whom were normal volunteers (mean age: 49.4 years), none of whom showed any abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) or any neurological abnormalities. The SPECT images for each case were superimposed on the MRIs using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT study was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensori-motor cortex during the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among 11 patients, 10 cases (90.9%) showed positive M-SPECT findings, and the eleventh case showed negative M-SPECT findings. The asymmetry index (AI) was calculated on the sensorio-motor cortex in the SPECT images before and after motor activation, with the 10 cases with positive M-SPECT having an AI before motor activation of 0.99{+-}0.06 (mean{+-}standard deviation) and an AI after motor activation of 1.14{+-}0.07. This change was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the single case categorized as negative, the AI before motor activation was 1.04, and the AI after motor activation was 1.01. There was no significant difference of AI values between the resting and motor activation stages. The positive M-SPECT was seen in 90.9% of the normal volunteer series using a visual inspection method. In these cases, the blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex significantly increased after application of the finger opposition task using the semi-quantitative method. (author)

  8. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  9. A Prospective Examination of Weight Gain in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa on a Recommended Refeeding Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K.; Michihata, Nobuaki; Hetnal, Katherine; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current refeeding recommendations for adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, starting with low calories and advancing slowly to avoid refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine weight change and clinical outcomes in hospitalized adolescents with AN on a recommended refeeding protocol. Methods Adolescents aged 13.1–20.5 years were followed during hospitalization for AN. Weight, vital signs, electrolytes, and 24-hour fluid balance were measured daily. Percent median body mass index (%MBMI) was calculated as 50th percentile BMI for age and gender. Calories were prescribed on admission and were increased every other day. Results Thirty-five subjects with a mean (SD) age of 16.2 (1.9) years participated over 16.7 (6.4) days. Calories increased from 1,205 (289) to 2,668 (387). No subjects had refeeding syndrome; 20% had low serum phosphorus. Percent MBMI increased from 80.1 (11.5) to 84.5 (9.6); overall gain was 2.10 (1.98) kg. However, 83% of subjects initially lost weight. Mean %MBMI did not increase significantly until day 8. Higher calories prescribed at baseline were significantly associated with faster weight gain (p = .003) and shorter hospital stay (p = .030) in multivariate regression models adjusted for %MBMI and lowest heart rate on admission. Conclusions Hospitalized adolescents with AN demonstrated initial weight loss and slow weight gain on a recommended refeeding protocol. Higher calorie diets instituted at admission predicted faster weight gain and shorter hospital stay. These findings support the development of more aggressive feeding strategies in adolescents hospitalized with AN. Further research is needed to identify caloric and supplementation regimens to maximize weight gain safely while avoiding refeeding syndrome. PMID:22188830

  10. Measurement of patient skin absorbed dose in ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and examination of treatment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohji, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Masaki; Hasome, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    The ablation for atrial fibrillation minute movement done in our hospital is 250 minutes or less, within an average time of 150 minutes during a fluoroscopic time of about 7 hours, with very large average inspection times numerical values. However, the skin-absorbed dose could be understood only from the numerical value of the area dosimeter. It was considered that the total dose that reached the threshold was sufficient, although radiation injury would not be reported from the ablation currently done at our hospital. Therefore, we aimed to examine the inspection protocol in this hospital, and to request the patient be given an inspection dose that was the average skin-absorbed dose by using the acryl board. The amount of a total dose for an inspection of 150 minutes of fluoroscopic time was about 2.7 Gy. Moreover, a value of 1.5 Gy was indicated in the hot spot as a result of repetition in some exposure fields. However, it was thought that the possibility of exceeding the threshold of 2 Gy depending on the inspection situation in the future and other factors was tolerable because these measurements were done so as not to overvalue it more than the necessary. (author)

  11. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M.; Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  12. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  13. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  14. Task-shifting Using a Pain Management Protocol in an Emergency Care Service: Nurses' Perception through the Eye of the Rogers's Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Fabienne; Comte, Pascal; Foucault, Eliane; Morin, Diane; Hugli, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that over 70% of patients waiting in emergency departments (EDs) do not receive analgesics, despite the fact that more than 78% complain of pain. A clinical innovation in the form of a pain management protocol that includes task-shifting has been implemented in the ED of a university hospital in Switzerland in order to improve pain-related outcomes in patients. This innovation involves a change in clinical practice for physicians and nurses. The aim of this study is to explore nurses' perceptions on how well this innovation is adopted. This descriptive correlational study took place in the ED of a Swiss university hospital; the hospital provides healthcare for the city, the canton, and adjoining cantons. A convenience sample of 37 ED nurses participated. They were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 56 statements based on Rogers's "Diffusion of Innovation" theory. Nurses' opinions (on a 1-10 Likert scale) indicate that the new protocol benefits the ED (mean [M] = 7.4, standard deviation [SD] = 1.21), is compatible with nursing roles (M = 8.0, SD = 1.9), is not too complicated to apply (M = 2.7, SD = 1.7), provides observable positive effects in patients (M = 7.0, SD = 1.28), and is relatively easy to introduce into daily practice (M = 6.5, SD = 1.0). Further studies are now needed to examine patients' experiences of this innovation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A faceted eye on intellectual giftedness: Examining the personality of gifted students using FFM domains and facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaras-Dimitrijević Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the personality profile of gifted vs. average-ability students from the perspective of the FFM. The issue was approached by (1 reviewing the literature for well-established personality characteristics of the gifted, (2 establishing correspondences between these traits and FFM domains/facets, and (3 formulating a domain and a facet-level model which were hypothesized to discriminate significantly between gifted and nongifted students. The domain-level model consisted of Openness and Agreeableness. The facet-level model included 14 traits: Anxiety, Impulsiveness, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Fantasy, Feelings, Aesthetics, Ideas, Compliance, Modesty, Tendermindedness, Order, Achievement, and Deliberation. The models were tested on three samples (N1=515 high-school students, 155 gifted; N2=132 psychology students, 28 gifted; N3=443 psychology students, 91 gifted. Results indicate that the domain-level model does not discriminate significantly between gifted and nongifted students in each sample, whereas the proposed 14-facet model yields a significant discrimination across all samples. The latter model may be further adjusted by removing facets which proved inconsistent or unsubstantial in distinguishing between the two groups. This yields a 7-facet discriminant function, which is also significant across samples, indicating that gifted students are consistently distinguished by a combination of high Ideas, Fantasy, Aesthetics, and Assertiveness, but low Gregariuosness, Modesty, and Tendermindeness. Educational implications and limitations are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  16. Unsold is unseen … or is it? Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästlund, Erik; Shams, Poja; Otterbring, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    In visual marketing, the truism that "unseen is unsold" means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  18. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hannerz, Harald; Nyberg, Solja T

    2013-01-01

    scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field. METHODS: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job...... using random effects meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted "job strain") are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom...

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Patient Eye-Lens Dose Reduction in Routine Brain CT Examinations Using Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation and In-Plane Bismuth Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Liao, Ying-Lan; Lai, Nan-Ku; Chen, Tou-Rong; Chen, Jun-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess eye-lens dose for patients who underwent brain CT examinations using two dose reduction Methods: organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and in-plane bismuth shielding method. Methods: This study received institutional review board approval; written informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. Ninety patients who underwent the routine brain CT examination were randomly assigned to three groups, ie. routine, OBTCM, and bismuth shield. The OBTCM technique reduced the tube current when the X-ray tube rotates in front of patients’ eye-lens region. The patients in the bismuth shield group were covered one-ply bismuth shield in the eyes’ region. Eye-lens doses were measured using TLD-100H chips and the total effective doses were calculated using CT-Expo according to the CT scanning parameters. The surface doses for patients at off-center positions were assessed to evaluate the off-centering effect. Results: Phantom measurements indicates that OBTCM technique could reduced by 26% to 28% of the surface dose to the eye lens, and increased by 25% of the surface dose at the opposed incident direction at the angle of 180°. Patients’ eye-lens doses were reduced 16.9% and 30.5% dose of bismuth shield scan and OBTCM scan, respectively compared to the routine scan. The eye-lens doses were apparently increased when the table position was lower than isocenter. Conclusion: Reducing the dose to the radiosensitive organs, such as eye lens, during routine brain CT examinations could lower the radiation risks. The OBTCM technique and in-plane bismuth shielding could be used to reduce the eye-lens dose. The eye-lens dose could be effectively reduced using OBTCM scan without interfering the diagnostic image quality. Patient position relative the CT gantry also affects the dose level of the eye lens. This study was supported by the grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST103-2314-B-182

  20. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  1. Optical calibration protocol for an x-ray and optical multimodality tomography system dedicated to small-animal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Anabela; Leabad, Mehdi; Driol, Clemence; Bordy, Thomas; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Peltie, Philippe; Rizo, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A small-animal multimodality tomography system dedicated to the coregistration of fluorescence optical signal and x-ray measurements has been developed in our laboratory. The purpose of such a system is to offer the possibility of getting in vivo anatomical and functional information simultaneously. Moreover, anatomical measurements can be used as a regularization factor to achieve more accurate reconstructions of the biodistribution of fluorochromes and to speed up treatment. A dedicated acquisition protocol has been established, and the methodology of the reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of the biomarkers under cylindrical geometry consistent with classic computed tomography has been implemented. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate and to fix the parameters for the coregistration. These test experiments were reproduced by considering anesthetized mice that had thin glass tubes containing fluorochromes inserted into their esophagus. The instrument is also used for an in vivo biological study conducted on mice with lung tumors, tagged with near-infrared optical probes (targeting probes such as Transferin-AlexaFluor750)

  2. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  3. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    patient and the transplantation of HCEP cells were done in these right eyes. 6 x 104 HCEP cells isolated from one human cadaver donor cornea were expanded using the polymer based protocol [5] for 26 days. After expansion, the 5x105 HCEP cells obtained were divided into three portions. Using the NC gel sheet as supporting material approximately 1.6 x 105 HCEP cells suspended in saline were infused into the anterior chamber between the recipient endothelium and the NC gel sheets in each patient. The extension arms of the NC gel sheets were buried under the conjunctiva and sutured. All the three patients were kept under observation and examined using slit lamp at regular intervals. After three days the NC gel sheets were removed done under topical anaesthesia and sent for microscopic examination. There were no HCEP cells attached to the NC gel sheet, removed three days after transplantation. In all the three patients, on post-operative Day 11, the cornea became clear with no evidence of bullae. The patients are under long term follow-up. Conclusion: The eye for eyes concept has become a reality by combining the strengths of clinical expertise with cell culture and synthetic material technology in a manner which is easy to reproduce both in the laboratory and clinically.

  4. Acupuncture for dry eye: a multicentre randomised controlled trial with active comparison intervention (artificial tear drop using a mixed method approach protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hee-Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of acupuncture show favourable results for both subjective and objective outcomes of dry eye. However, firm conclusions could not be drawn from these studies because the quality of the trials was too low to establish concrete evidence. Therefore, this study was designed both to avoid the flaws of the existing trials and to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and qualitative characteristics of acupuncture treatment for dry eye. Methods/design One hundred fifty participants with dry eye will be recruited into three independent hospitals from different areas: Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, DongGuk University Ilsan Oriental Hospital and Dongshin University Gwangju Oriental Hospital. The number of participants required was calculated from the data of a previous, relevant study. These patients will be randomly allocated into acupuncture treatment or artificial tear groups. Either 17 acupuncture points (bilateral BL2, GB14, TE 23, Ex1, ST1, GB20, LI4, LI11 and single GV23 will be used 3 times a week or disposable artificial tear drops (Refresh Plus®, ALLERGAN will be provided for use at least once a day for 4 weeks. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI, tear film break-up time (TFBUT, Schirmer I test, visual analogue scale (VAS for self-assessment of ocular discomfort, general assessment (by both acupuncture practitioners and participants and quality of life (QOL through the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile-2 (MYMOP-2 will be assessed for approximately 3-months for each study participant. In addition, qualitative study and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture treatment will be conducted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01105221.

  5. Impact of Partial-Mouth Periodontal Examination Protocols on the Association Between Gingival Bleeding and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediani Machado, Michely; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Ruffo Ortiz, Fernanda; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2017-07-01

    It is not clear how using partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols affects estimates of the association between gingival bleeding (GB) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of the present study is to assess impact of different PMPEs on the association between GB and OHRQoL in 12-year-old adolescents. A total of 1,134 adolescents were evaluated for clinical and subjective variables. GB was determined by full-mouth examination (FME) of six sites (disto-buccal [DB], mid-buccal [B], mesio-buccal [MB], disto-lingual [DL], mid-lingual, and mesio-lingual [ML]) and different PMPEs were calculated using a 15% cut-off point: 1) full-mouth (MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 2) two diagonal quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 3) two randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/ MB-B-DL/MB-DB-ML-DL); and 4) the community periodontal index. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 ). Adjusted negative binomial regression models were used to calculate the rate ratio of CPQ 11-14 scores for each PMPE. Adolescents with GB showed significantly poorer OHRQoL than their counterparts when FME was used. In contrast, more than half of PMPE protocols did not detect significant associations between GB and CPQ 11-14 scores in the adjusted analysis. Using PMPE to assess GB in adolescents significantly affects associations with OHRQoL outcomes, depending on the protocol used. PMPEs that evaluated MB-B-DL sites of randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (1 or 2 and 3 or 4) achieved results closer to those obtained with FME.

  6. 25 years of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): The EMDR therapy protocol, hypotheses of its mechanism of action and a systematic review of its efficacy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo Navarro, Patricia; Landin-Romero, Ramón; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; García, Francisca; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Víctor; Amann, Benedikt L

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new psychotherapy that has gradually gained popularity for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work, the standardised EMDR protocol is introduced, along with current hypotheses of its mechanism of action, as well as a critical review of the available literature on its clinical effectiveness in adult post-traumatic stress disorder. A systematic review of the published literature was performed using PubMed and PsycINFO databases with the keywords «eye movement desensitization and reprocessing» and «post-traumatic stress disorder» and its abbreviations «EMDR» and «PTSD». Fifteen randomised controlled trials of good methodological quality were selected. These studies compared EMDR with unspecific interventions, waiting lists, or specific therapies. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that EMDR is a useful, evidence-based tool for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, in line with recent recommendations from different international health organisations. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Combination Therapy for Patients With Dry Eye Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Will; McMahon, David; Nymark, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Context • Approximately 25% of the US population suffers from dry eyes or some abnormality of the exposed ocular surface. Investigation of effective modalities for their management is needed. Objective • The study intended to examine the efficacy of a proprietary, daily, Dry Eye Protocol consisting of daily use of a moist, heated, ocular compress and intake of an omega-3 dietary supplement in treatment of ocular surface disease. Design • The research team designed a 4-wk, clinically based, open-label, multicenter cohort study. Setting • The study took place at 6 private eye care practices throughout the United States: Beverly Hills, CA, USA; San Diego, CA, USA; Sunnyvale, CA, USA; Park City, UT, USA; Tarpon Spring, FL, USA; and Kennewick, WA, USA. Participants • Participants were adults between 18 and 75 y of age who had established ocular surface disease based on clinical findings and the results of testing using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). Intervention • For period of 30 d, participants used a combined daily protocol that included (1) application of a moist, heated, eye compress and (2) a nutritional therapy via an omega-3 supplement in an oral triglyceride form. Outcome Measures • Measures included the OSDI and a test of tear break-up time (TBUT). Results • Of the original 35 participants, 33 completed the 4-wk protocol. The participants using the proprietary Dry Eye Protocol showed significant improvements from baseline, demonstrated by a 49% decrease in OSDI scores (P = .0015); and 46% of participants reported becoming asymptomatic of dry eye symptoms. A significant improvement was also observed in TBUT, increasing from 3.0 to 5.4 s. Conclusions • Daily use of the proprietary Dry Eye Protocol that included a high dosage of triglyceride omega-3 and use of a moist, heated, compress daily showed significant improvement for participants in OSDI and TBUT and should be considered to be a first-line therapy for patients with dry eye

  8. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  9. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  10. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  11. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  12. Incentives in Diabetic Eye Assessment by Screening (IDEAS): study protocol of a three-arm randomized controlled trial using financial incentives to increase screening uptake in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judah, Gaby; Vlaev, Ivo; Gunn, Laura; King, Dominic; King, Derek; Valabhji, Jonathan; Darzi, Ara; Bicknell, Colin

    2016-03-18

    Diabetes is an increasing public health problem in the UK and globally. Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes, and is one of the leading causes of blindness in the UK working age population. The diabetic eye screening programme in England aims to invite all people with diabetes aged 12 or over for retinal photography to screen for the presence of diabetic retinopathy. However, attendance rates are only 81 %, leaving many people at risk of preventable sight loss. This is a three arm randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of different types of financial incentives (based on principles from behavioral economics) on increasing attendance at diabetic eye screening appointments in London. Eligible participants will be aged 16 or over, and are those who have been invited to screening appointments annually, but who have not attended, or telephoned to rearrange an appointment, within the last 24 months. Eligible participants will be randomized to one of three conditions: 1. Control condition (usual invitation letter) 2. Fixed incentive condition (usual invitation letter, including a voucher for £10 if they attend their appointment) 3. Probabilistic incentive condition (invitation letter, including a voucher for a 1 in 100 chance of winning £1000 if they attend their appointment). Participants will be sent invitation letters, and the primary outcome will be whether or not they attend their appointment. One thousand participants will be included in total, randomized with a ratio of 1.4:1:1. In order to test whether the incentive scheme has a differential impact on patients from different demographic or socio-economic groups, information will be recorded on age, gender, distance from screening center, socio-economic status and length of time since they were last screened. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be performed. This study will be the first trial of financial incentives for improving uptake of diabetic eye screening. If

  13. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  14. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  15. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Takahisa; Samejima, Ryouta; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-01

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  16. Improved assessment of mediastinal and pulmonary pathologies in combined staging CT examinations using a fast-speed acquisition dual-source CT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Franziska M.; Holzner, Veronica; Meinel, Felix G.; Armbruster, Marco; Brandlhuber, Martina; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Sommer, Wieland H. [University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of fast Dual-Source CT (DSCT) and to evaluate the clinical utility in chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT studies. 45 cancer patients with two follow-up combined chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations (maximally ±10 kV difference in tube potential) were included. The first scan had to be performed with our standard protocol (fixed pitch 0.6), the second one using a novel fast-speed DSCT protocol (fixed pitch 1.55). Effective doses (ED) were calculated, noise measurements performed. Scan times were compared, motion artefacts and the diagnostic confidence rated in consensus reading. ED for the standard and fast-speed scans was 9.1 (7.0-11.1) mSv and 9.2 (7.4-12.8) mSv, respectively (P = 0.075). Image noise was comparable (abdomen; all P > 0.05) or reduced for fast-speed CTs (trachea, P = 0.001; ascending aorta, P < 0.001). Motion artefacts of the heart/the ascending aorta (all P < 0.001) and breathing artefacts (P < 0.031) were reduced in fast DSCT. The diagnostic confidence for the evaluation of mediastinal (P < 0.001) and pulmonary (P = 0.008) pathologies was improved for fast DSCT. Fast DSCT for chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations is performed within 2 seconds scan time and eliminates relevant intrathoracic motion/breathing artefacts. Mediastinal/pulmonary pathologies can thus be assessed with high diagnostic confidence. Abdominal image quality remains excellent. (orig.)

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, CDHA (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  18. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  19. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  20. Eye lens radiation exposure in Greek interventional cardiology personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Askounis, Panagiotis; Carinou, Eleftheria; Datseris, Ioannis; Diamanti, Ramza Anastasia; Papathanasiou, Miltiadis

    2017-01-01

    The lens of the eye is one of the radiosensitive tissues of the human body; if exposed to ionizing radiation can develop radiation-induced cataract at early ages. This study was held in Greece and included 44 Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and an unexposed to radiation control group of 22 persons. Of the note, 26 ICs and the unexposed individuals underwent special eye examinations. The detected lens opacities were classified according to LOCS III protocol. Additionally, the lens doses of the ICs were measured using eye lens dosemeters. The mean dose to the lenses of the ICs per month was 0.83 ± 0.59 mSv for the left and 0.35 ± 0.38 mSv for the right eye, while the annual doses ranged between 0.7 and 11 mSv. Regarding the lens opacities, the two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of either nuclear or cortical lens opacities, whereas four ICs were detected with early stage subcapsular sclerosis. Though no statistically difference was observed in the cohort, the measured doses indicate that the eye doses received from the ICs can be significant. To minimize the radiation-induced risk at the eye lenses, the use of protective equipment and appropriate training on this issue is highly recommended. (authors)

  1. Examining Incentives to Promote Physical Activity Maintenance Among Hospital Employees Not Achieving 10,000 Daily Steps: A Web-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marc; White, Lauren; Oh, Paul; Kwan, Matthew; Gove, Peter; Leahey, Tricia; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-12-12

    The economic burden of physical inactivity in Canada is estimated at Can $6.8 billion (US $5 billion) per year. Employers bear a substantial proportion of the economic costs, as they pay more for inactive workers in health care and other organizational costs. In response, many Canadian employers offer wellness programs, though these are often underutilized. While financial health incentives have been proposed as one way of increasing participation, their longer term effects (ie postintervention effects) are not clear. The objective of this paper is to outline the methodology for a randomized control trial (RCT) examining the longer term impact of an existing physical activity promotion program that is enhanced by adding guaranteed rewards (Can $1 [US $0.74] per day step goal met) in a lower active hospital employee population (less than 10,000 steps per day). A 12-week, parallel-arm RCT (with a 12-week postintervention follow-up) will be employed. Employees using Change4Life (a fully automated, incentive-based wellness program) and accumulating fewer than 10,000 steps per day at baseline (weeks 1 to 2) will be randomly allocated (1:1) to standard care (wellness program, accelerometer) or an intervention group (standard care plus guaranteed incentives). All study participants will be asked to wear the accelerometer and synchronize it to Change4Life daily, although only intervention group participants will receive guaranteed incentives for reaching tailored daily step count goals (Can $1 [US $0.74] per day; weeks 3 to 12). The primary study outcome will be mean proportion of participant-days step goal reached during the postintervention follow-up period (week 24). Mean proportion of participant-days step goal reached during the intervention period (week 12) will be a secondary outcome. Enrollment for the study will be completed in February 2017. Data analysis will commence in September 2017. Study results are to be published in the winter of 2018. This protocol was

  2. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  3. Quality indicators for eye bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Acharya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Methods: Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions – “result quality” and “process quality.” The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011–2016. Results: Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%, discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. Conclusion: These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  4. Quality indicators for eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Manisha; Biswas, Saurabh; Das, Animesh; Mathur, Umang; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Ashok; Dubey, Suneeta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions - "result quality" and "process quality." The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA) program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP) with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011-2016. Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%), discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  5. A randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of a STOMA psychosocial intervention programme on the outcomes of colorectal patients with a stoma: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lai, Jiunn Herng; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-06-01

    To report a study protocol that evaluates the effects of a psychosocial intervention on patients with a newly formed stoma. With the loss of a significant body function and distorted body image, stoma patients experience physical, psychological and social challenges. Nurses have an important role in helping patients' make a smooth transition to living with their stoma. Limited studies have examined the effects of psychosocial interventions on improving stoma-related health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial is planned. Eighty-four patients with newly formed stoma in a tertiary hospital in Singapore (Research Ethics Committee approval obtained in January 2013) will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to either a control group who receive routine care or an intervention group who receive STOMA psychosocial intervention besides routine care. Outcome variables include stoma care self-efficacy, days to stoma proficiency, length of hospital stay, acceptance of stoma, anxiety and depression and quality of life. Data will be collected at four time points: before randomization and intervention (baseline), on the day of discharge (mid-intervention), at 4 weeks after discharge (postintervention 1) and at 4 months after discharge (postintervention 2). This study will develop a psychosocial intervention programme, which may improve patients' stoma-related outcomes. The findings will provide direction to health professionals about education and the type of support that could be offered to patients concerning stoma care in the hospital setting, which will eventually improve their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  10. A multi-site randomized study to compare the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) added to TAU versus TAU to reduce craving and drinking behavior in alcohol dependent outpatients: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Wiebren; de Weert-van Oene, Gerdien H; Becker, Eni S; DeJong, Cor A J

    2015-03-18

    Addiction constitutes a major public health problem, and despite treatment, relapse rates remain very high. Preliminary findings suggest that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, may also reduce craving and relapse rates when applied in substance abuse. This study aims to determine the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of EMDR when added to treatment as usual (TAU) for addiction in alcohol dependent outpatients, compared to TAU only. A single blinded study in which 100 adult patients with a primary DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of alcohol dependence or abuse receiving treatment in one of six Dutch outpatient addiction care facility sites, will be enrolled. After baseline assessment participants will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions (allocation ratio of 1:1) using a stratified (per site, per care pathway), blocked randomization procedure. The intervention consists of EMDR (seven weekly 90 minute sessions) + TAU or TAU only. Assessments are scheduled pre-treatment (t0), post-treatment (t0 + eight weeks), and one and six months post treatment. The effects of both treatment arms are compared on indices of (a) drinking behavior, (b) mediators, moderators and predictors of treatment outcome, (c) quality of life and d) safety, acceptability and feasibility of treatment. Repeated measures ANOVA's will be conducted using an intention-to-treat and per-protocol approach. Multiple imputation will be used to deal with missing values when possible. This study adapts and extends the standard EMDR treatment for traumatized patients for use with patients with alcohol use disorders without psychological trauma. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01828866.

  11. The PiGeOn project: protocol for a longitudinal study examining psychosocial, behavioural and ethical issues and outcomes in cancer tumour genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-05

    Genomic sequencing in cancer (both tumour and germline), and development of therapies targeted to tumour genetic status, hold great promise for improvement of patient outcomes. However, the imminent introduction of genomics into clinical practice calls for better understanding of how patients value, experience, and cope with this novel technology and its often complex results. Here we describe a protocol for a novel mixed-methods, prospective study (PiGeOn) that aims to examine patients' psychosocial, cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to tumour genomic profiling and to integrate a parallel critical ethical analysis of returning results. This is a cohort sub-study of a parent tumour genomic profiling programme enrolling patients with advanced cancer. One thousand patients will be recruited for the parent study in Sydney, Australia from 2016 to 2019. They will be asked to complete surveys at baseline, three, and five months. Primary outcomes are: knowledge, preferences, attitudes and values. A purposively sampled subset of patients will be asked to participate in three semi-structured interviews (at each time point) to provide deeper data interpretation. Relevant ethical themes will be critically analysed to iteratively develop or refine normative ethical concepts or frameworks currently used in the return of genetic information. This will be the first Australian study to collect longitudinal data on cancer patients' experience of tumour genomic profiling. Findings will be used to inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as how to effectively obtain informed consent for genomic profiling return results, distinguish between research and clinical practice and manage patient expectations. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods will provide comprehensive and critical data on how patients cope with 'actionable' and 'non-actionable' results. This information is needed to ensure that when tumour genomic profiling becomes part of routine

  12. Evaluation and development of a novel binocular treatment (I-BiT™) system using video clips and interactive games to improve vision in children with amblyopia ('lazy eye'): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Alexander J; Gregson, Richard M; MacKeith, Daisy; Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Hepburn, Trish; Vivian, Anthony; Moore, Diane; Haworth, Stephen M

    2013-05-20

    Amblyopia (lazy eye) affects the vision of approximately 2% of all children. Traditional treatment consists of wearing a patch over their 'good' eye for a number of hours daily, over several months. This treatment is unpopular and compliance is often low. Therefore results can be poor. A novel binocular treatment which uses 3D technology to present specially developed computer games and video footage (I-BiT™) has been studied in a small group of patients and has shown positive results over a short period of time. The system is therefore now being examined in a randomised clinical trial. Seventy-five patients aged between 4 and 8 years with a diagnosis of amblyopia will be randomised to one of three treatments with a ratio of 1:1:1 - I-BiT™ game, non-I-BiT™ game, and I-BiT™ DVD. They will be treated for 30 minutes once weekly for 6 weeks. Their visual acuity will be assessed independently at baseline, mid-treatment (week 3), at the end of treatment (week 6) and 4 weeks after completing treatment (week 10). The primary endpoint will be the change in visual acuity from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints will be additional visual acuity measures, patient acceptability, compliance and the incidence of adverse events. This is the first randomised controlled trial using the I-BiT™ system. The results will determine if the I-BiT™ system is effective in the treatment of amblyopia and will also determine the optimal treatment for future development. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702727.

  13. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  14. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  15. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-04-29

    Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700,000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood development action and policies, using the database as a tool

  16. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  17. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  18. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  1. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  8. Beauty in the eye of the beholder: Using facial electromyography to examine the association between eating disorder symptoms and perceptions of emaciation among undergraduate women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Dorian R; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Lauren N; Fussner, Lauren M; Smith, April

    2017-06-01

    Thin-ideal internalization, drive for thinness, and over-evaluation of the importance of thinness are associated with eating disorders (EDs). However, little research has examined to what extent perceptions of emaciation are also associated with ED symptoms. In the present study, 80 undergraduate women self-reported on ED symptomatology and perceptions of emaciated, thin, and overweight female bodies. While participants viewed images of these different body types, facial electromyography was used to measure activation of facial muscles associated with disgust reactions. Emaciated and overweight bodies were rated negatively and elicited facial responses consistent with disgust. Further, ED symptomatology was associated with pronounced aversion to overweight bodies (assessed via self-report pleasantness ratings), and attenuated negative affect to emaciated bodies (assessed via facial electromyography). The latter association was significant even when controlling for self-reported perceptions of emaciation, suggesting that psychophysiological methods in ED research may provide valuable information unavailable via self-report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-destructive eye surgery, associated depression at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Zimbabwe: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kawome

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructive eye surgery is associated with more complications than just loss of visual functions of the eye and aesthetics. Currently there is very little published literature on post-destructive eye surgery associated depression. Zimbabwe has been experiencing a surge in the rate of destructive eye surgery done at the National Tertiary Eye Unit. This situation could be churning out lots of unrecognized depressed clients into the community who require assistance in one form or another. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of post-destructive eye surgery associated depression among patients attending Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit and assess if the current management protocol of patients undergoing destructive eye surgery at the Eye Unit addresses the problem adequately. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 28 randomly selected patients who had destructive eye surgeries at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital was conducted over five months from 1st March 2012 to end of July 2012. A structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on the following items: gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure done, expectations before and after surgery, adequacy of counseling given and involvement of family was used to collect data. Nine questions to assess depression were adapted from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Setting:  The study was conducted at SekuruKaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare. Results:  Twenty-eight patients who underwent destructive eye surgery during the study period were selected using systematic random sampling. The gender ratio was 1:1 and the mean age was 38.7 years with a range from 24 to 65 years. Fifty percent of the patients in the study had orbital exenteration while the rest had enucleation (14% and evisceration (36%. Twenty-eight percent of the study population had depression. Conclusion: Destructive eye surgery is frequently associated with depression and our current management protocol of

  10. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  11. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Cour, Morten la

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5......, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure...... and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling...

  12. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  13. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Ophthalmic eye examinations were conducted before and after the use of two eye wash stations with opposite water flow directionality. Fluorescein was instilled in both eyes before using an eye wash to measure the effectiveness of the water flow. Subjects were surveyed upon their experiences using the eye washes. Ophthalmic examination found no significant difference in the efficacy of the eye washes with nasal-to-temporal water flow when compared to temporal-to-nasal water flow direction.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  16. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  18. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  19. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  2. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  7. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  8. A Cross-sectional Survey and Cross-sectional Clinical Trial to Determine the Prevalence and Management of Eye Movement Disorders and Vestibular Dysfunction in Post-Stroke Patients in the Sub-Acute Phase: Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Andoret; Eksteen, Carina A; Becker, Piet J; Heinze, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey ( n  = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke. A cross-sectional clinical trial ( n  = 60) will be conducted during phase 2 of the study to determine the effect of the combination of vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) and visual scanning exercises (VSE) (experimental group) integrated with task-specific activities compared with the effect of task-specific activities as an intervention (control group) on patients who present with eye movement impairment and central vestibular dysfunction post-stroke. An audiologist will assess (a) visual acuity (static and dynamic), (b) nystagmus, (c) saccadic eye movements, (d) smooth pursuit eye movements, (e) vestibulo-ocular reflex, and (f) saccular, utricular, and vestibular nerve function. An independent physiotherapist will assess (1) cognitive function, (2) residual oculomotor visual performance, (3) visual-perceptual system, (4) functional balance, (5) gait, (6) functional ability, (7) presence of anxiety and/or depression, and (8) level of participation in physical activity. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Pretoria (UP) (374/2015). The study will be submitted as fulfillment for the PhD degree at UP. Dissemination will include submission to peer-reviewed professional journals and presentation at congresses. Training of rehabilitation team members on the integration of VSE and VRT into task-specific activities in rehabilitation will be done if the outcome of the experimental group's functional performance is clinically and

  9. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  10. Efficacy of 4 Irrigation Protocols in Killing Bacteria Colonized in Dentinal Tubules Examined by a Novel Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Aksel, Hacer; Zhuang, Tingting; Mashtare, Terry; Babu, Jegdish P; Huang, George T-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of 4 irrigation systems in eliminating bacteria in root canals, particularly in dentinal tubules. Roots of human teeth were prepared to 25/04, autoclaved, and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks. Canals were then disinfected by (1) standard needle irrigation, (2) sonically agitating with EndoActivator, (3) XP Endo finisher, or (4) erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser (PIPS) (15 roots/group). The bacterial reduction in the canal was determined by MTT assays. For measuring live versus dead bacteria in the dentinal tubules (4 teeth/group), teeth were split open and stained with LIVE/DEAD BackLight. Coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the canal dentin were scanned by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to determine the ratio of dead/total bacteria in the dentinal tubules at various depths. All 4 irrigation protocols significantly eliminated bacteria in the canal, ranging from 89.6% to 98.2% reduction (P bacteria in the coronal, middle, and apical segments at 50-μm depth. On the other hand, PIPS had the greatest bacterial killing efficiency at the 150-μm depth in all 3 root segments. XP Endo appears to be more efficient than other 3 techniques in disinfecting the main canal space and up to 50 μm deep into the dentinal tubules. PIPS appears to be most effective in killing the bacteria deep in the dentinal tubules. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bounce Back Now! Protocol of a population-based randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a Web-based intervention with disaster-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Davidson, Tatiana M; McCauley, Jenna; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Welsh, Kyleen; Price, Matthew; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Soltis, Kathryn; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nissenboim, Josh; Muzzy, Wendy; Fleeman, Anna; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need for youth and families, who are underrepresented in disaster research. Rapid growth in Internet and Smartphone access, as well as several Web based evaluation studies with various adult populations has shown that Web-based interventions are likely to be feasible in this context and can improve clinical outcomes. Such interventions also are generally cost-effective, can be targeted or personalized, and can easily be integrated in a stepped care approach to screening and intervention delivery. This is a protocol paper that describes an innovative study design in which we evaluate a self-help Web-based resource, Bounce Back Now, with a population-based sample of disaster affected adolescents and families. The paper includes description and justification for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this study design include the use of address-based sampling to recruit a population-based sample of disaster-affected adolescents and parents, telephone and Web-based assessments, and development and evaluation of a highly individualized Web intervention for adolescents. Challenges related to large-scale evaluation of technology-delivered interventions with high-risk samples in time-sensitive research are discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Examining the effects of enhanced provider-patient communication on postoperative tonsillectomy pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial performed by nurses in daily clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Liesbeth M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Thiel, Bram; van Deelen, Gerard W; Immerzeel, Stephanie; Godfried, Marc B; Bensing, Jozien M

    2017-11-03

    Placebo effects (true biopsychological effects not attributable to the active ingredients of medical technical interventions) can be attributed to several mechanisms, such as expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation elicited by a provider's communication. So far, effects have primarily been shown in laboratory settings. The aim of this study is to determine the separate and combined effects of expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation during preoperative and postoperative tonsillectomy analgesia care on clinical adult patients' outcomes. Using a two-by-two randomised controlled trial, 128 adult tonsillectomy patients will be randomly assigned to one out of four conditions differing in the level of expectancy manipulation (standard vs enhanced) and empathy manipulation (standard vs enhanced). Day care ward nurses are trained to deliver the intervention, while patients are treated via the standard analgesia protocol and hospital routines. The primary outcome, perceived pain, is measured via hospital routine by a Numeric Rating Scale, and additional prehospitalisation, perihospitalisation and posthospitalisation questionnaires are completed (until day 3, ie, 2 days after the operation). The manipulation is checked using audio recordings of nurse-patient interactions. Although communication is manipulated, the manipulations do not cross norms or values of acceptable behaviour. Standard medical care is provided. The ethical committee of the UMC Utrecht and the local OLVG hospital committee approved the study. Results will be published via (inter)national peer-reviewed journals and a lay publication. NTR5994; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  14. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  15. Clinical evaluation of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika; Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Theysohn, Jens; Wetter, Axel; Ringelstein, Adrian [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to verify the results of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans. In cooperation with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany), phantom measurements were performed with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD LiF:Mg,Ti) using cranial CT protocols: (I) CT angiography; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scans with gantry angulation at a single and (III) without gantry angulation at a dual source CT scanner. Eye lens doses calculated by the dose monitoring tool based on MCS and assessed with TLDs were compared. Eye lens doses are summarized as follows: (I) CT angiography (a) MCS 7 mSv, (b) TLD 5 mSv; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scan with gantry angulation, (c) MCS 45 mSv, (d) TLD 5 mSv; (III) unenhanced, cranial CT scan without gantry angulation (e) MCS 38 mSv, (f) TLD 35 mSv. Intermodality comparison shows an inaccurate calculation of eye lens doses in unenhanced cranial CT protocols at the single source CT scanner due to the disregard of gantry angulation. On the contrary, the dose monitoring tool showed an accurate calculation of eye lens doses at the dual source CT scanner without gantry angulation and for CT angiography examinations. The dose monitoring software tool based on MCS gave accurate estimates of eye lens doses in cranial CT protocols. However, knowledge of protocol and software specific influences is crucial for correct assessment of eye lens doses in routine clinical use. (orig.)

  16. Clinical evaluation of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guberina, Nika; Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Theysohn, Jens; Wetter, Axel; Ringelstein, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the results of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans. In cooperation with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany), phantom measurements were performed with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD LiF:Mg,Ti) using cranial CT protocols: (I) CT angiography; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scans with gantry angulation at a single and (III) without gantry angulation at a dual source CT scanner. Eye lens doses calculated by the dose monitoring tool based on MCS and assessed with TLDs were compared. Eye lens doses are summarized as follows: (I) CT angiography (a) MCS 7 mSv, (b) TLD 5 mSv; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scan with gantry angulation, (c) MCS 45 mSv, (d) TLD 5 mSv; (III) unenhanced, cranial CT scan without gantry angulation (e) MCS 38 mSv, (f) TLD 35 mSv. Intermodality comparison shows an inaccurate calculation of eye lens doses in unenhanced cranial CT protocols at the single source CT scanner due to the disregard of gantry angulation. On the contrary, the dose monitoring tool showed an accurate calculation of eye lens doses at the dual source CT scanner without gantry angulation and for CT angiography examinations. The dose monitoring software tool based on MCS gave accurate estimates of eye lens doses in cranial CT protocols. However, knowledge of protocol and software specific influences is crucial for correct assessment of eye lens doses in routine clinical use. (orig.)

  17. Eye Care Professionals' Perspectives on Eye Donation and an Eye Donation Registry for Research: A Single-Institution, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-06-01

    A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.

  18. The PiGeOn project: protocol of a longitudinal study examining psychosocial and ethical issues and outcomes in germline genomic sequencing for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-23

    Advances in genomics offer promise for earlier detection or prevention of cancer, by personalisation of medical care tailored to an individual's genomic risk status. However genome sequencing can generate an unprecedented volume of results for the patient to process with potential implications for their families and reproductive choices. This paper describes a protocol for a study (PiGeOn) that aims to explore how patients and their blood relatives experience germline genomic sequencing, to help guide the appropriate future implementation of genome sequencing into routine clinical practice. We have designed a mixed-methods, prospective, cohort sub-study of a germline genomic sequencing study that targets adults with cancer suggestive of a genetic aetiology. One thousand probands and 2000 of their blood relatives will undergo germline genomic sequencing as part of the parent study in Sydney, Australia between 2016 and 2020. Test results are expected within12-15 months of recruitment. For the PiGeOn sub-study, participants will be invited to complete surveys at baseline, three months and twelve months after baseline using self-administered questionnaires, to assess the experience of long waits for results (despite being informed that results may not be returned) and expectations of receiving them. Subsets of both probands and blood relatives will be purposively sampled and invited to participate in three semi-structured qualitative interviews (at baseline and each follow-up) to triangulate the data. Ethical themes identified in the data will be used to inform critical revisions of normative ethical concepts or frameworks. This will be one of the first studies internationally to follow the psychosocial impact on probands and their blood relatives who undergo germline genome sequencing, over time. Study results will inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as informed consent for genomic sequencing, and informing participants and their relatives of specific

  19. Body packers on your examination table: How helpful are plain x-ray images? A definitive low-dose CT protocol as a diagnosis tool for body packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B; Grossbach, A; Gruber-Rouh, T; Zangos, S; Vogl, Th J; Eichler, K

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the clinical value and radiation dose of plain x-rays and CT in examining patients suspected of ingesting drug-filled packets. Thirty-eight patients with suspected internal concealment of drug-filled packets who were examined with plain x-rays or CT or both were included in the study. CT studies were performed using low-dose and standard-dose techniques. All radiographic images were analysed by two radiologists regarding identification of the packets and estimating the effective radiation dose from standard- and low-dose CT versus conventional x-ray examinations. Descriptive calculations were made regarding the number and density of packs and radiation dosage. The diagnostic performance of both radiologists with standard- and low-dose CT was calculated by analysing differences in the mean number of packs found. Thirty-one patients were positively identified as body packers with an average of 13 packs (min: n = 1, max: n = 58, total: n = 390); seven patients were not concealing drug packets. X-ray images were taken of 24 patients prior to CT, thus allowing a direct comparison between the two methods. The correct diagnosis was made in 42%, in 33% the radiologists were uncertain, and in 25% of drug packets were either not or wrongly identified. X-ray imaging had a positive predictive value of 20% with a negative predictive value of 81%. A total of 55 CT examinations were performed on all patients with a mean effective dose of 2 mSv (low dose) versus 9.3 mSv (standard dose). The visibility of packets on low-dose CT images compared to high-dose CT was not reduced: the radiologists identified 385 and 381 of the packets, respectively, with no difference regarding the examination technique (p = 0.24 and p = 0.253, respectively). The radiodensity of all drug-filled packets at CT ranged from 26-292 HU (mean 181.2 HU). X-ray imaging of supposed body packers leads to a significant risk of diagnostic errors and additional need for CT. Instead, a single abdominal low

  20. A multi-site randomized study to compare the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) added to TAU versus TAU to reduce craving and drinking behavior in alcohol dependent outpatients: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Markus, W.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background Addiction constitutes a major public health problem, and despite treatment, relapse rates remain very high. Preliminary findings suggest that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, may also reduce craving and relapse rates when applied in substance abuse. This study aims to determine the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of EMDR when added to treatment as usual (TAU) for addiction in alcohol dependent outpatients, compared ...

  1. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    weeks of treatment. Well-planned, large, high-quality RCTs are warranted to examine participants with dry eye of different severities by using standardized questionnaires to measure participant-reported outcomes, as well as objective clinical tests and objective biomarkers to assess the benefit of AS therapy for dry eye. PMID:28245347

  2. A cross-sectional survey and cross-sectional clinical trial to determine the prevalence and management of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in post-stroke patients in the sub-acute phase: protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoret Van Wyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients post stroke.Methods: In phase 1 a cross-sectional survey (n = 100 will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients that sustained a stroke. A cross-sectional clinical trial (n = 60 will be conducted during phase 2 of the study to determine the effect of the combination of vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT and visual scanning exercises (VSE (experimental group integrated with task-specific activities compared to the effect of task-specific activities as an intervention (control group on patients that present with eye movement impairment and central vestibular dysfunction post-stroke. An audiologist will assess; (a visual acuity (static and dynamic; (b nystagmus; (c; saccadic eye movements; (d smooth pursuit eye movements; (e vestibulo-ocular reflex; and (f saccular, utricular and vestibular nerve function. An independent physiotherapist will assess; (1 cognitive function; (2 residual oculomotor visual performance; (3 visual-perceptual system; (4 functional balance; (5 a patient’s ability to modify gait in response to changing task demands; (6 functional ability; and (7 presence of anxiety and/or depression and (8 level of participation in physical activity. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Pretoria (UP (374/2015. The study will be submitted as fulfilment for the PhD degree at UP. Dissemination will include submission to peer-reviewed professional journals and presentation at congresses. Training of rehabilitation team members on the integration of VSE and VRT into task-specific activities in

  3. Body packers on your examination table: How helpful are plain x-ray images? A definitive low-dose CT protocol as a diagnosis tool for body packers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, B.; Grossbach, A.; Gruber-Rouh, T.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, Th. J.; Eichler, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the clinical value and radiation dose of plain x-rays and CT in examining patients suspected of ingesting drug-filled packets. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight patients with suspected internal concealment of drug-filled packets who were examined with plain x-rays or CT or both were included in the study. CT studies were performed using low-dose and standard-dose techniques. All radiographic images were analysed by two radiologists regarding identification of the packets and estimating the effective radiation dose from standard- and low-dose CT versus conventional x-ray examinations. Descriptive calculations were made regarding the number and density of packs and radiation dosage. The diagnostic performance of both radiologists with standard- and low-dose CT was calculated by analysing differences in the mean number of packs found. Results: Thirty-one patients were positively identified as body packers with an average of 13 packs (min: n = 1, max: n = 58, total: n = 390); seven patients were not concealing drug packets. X-ray images were taken of 24 patients prior to CT, thus allowing a direct comparison between the two methods. The correct diagnosis was made in 42%, in 33% the radiologists were uncertain, and in 25% of drug packets were either not or wrongly identified. X-ray imaging had a positive predictive value of 20% with a negative predictive value of 81%. A total of 55 CT examinations were performed on all patients with a mean effective dose of 2 mSv (low dose) versus 9.3 mSv (standard dose). The visibility of packets on low-dose CT images compared to high-dose CT was not reduced: the radiologists identified 385 and 381 of the packets, respectively, with no difference regarding the examination technique (p = 0.24 and p = 0.253, respectively). The radiodensity of all drug-filled packets at CT ranged from 26–292 HU (mean 181.2 HU). Conclusion: X-ray imaging of supposed body packers leads to a significant risk of diagnostic

  4. The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.; Baddeley, A.D.; Hitch, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more

  5. Can exercise suppress tumour growth in advanced prostate cancer patients with sclerotic bone metastases? A randomised, controlled study protocol examining feasibility, safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Newton, Robert U; Spry, Nigel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Chambers, Suzanne K; Feeney, Kynan T; Joseph, David J; Redfern, Andrew D; Ferguson, Tom; Galvão, Daniel A

    2017-05-30

    Exercise may positively alter tumour biology through numerous modulatory and regulatory mechanisms in response to a variety of modes and dosages, evidenced in preclinical models to date. Specifically, localised and systemic biochemical alterations produced during and following exercise may suppress tumour formation, growth and distribution by virtue of altered epigenetics and endocrine-paracrine activity. Given the impressive ability of targeted mechanical loading to interfere with metastasis-driven tumour formation in human osteolytic tumour cells, it is of equal interest to determine whether a similar effect is observed in sclerotic tumour cells. The study aims to (1) establish the feasibility and safety of a combined modular multimodal exercise programme with spinal isometric training in advanced prostate cancer patients with sclerotic bone metastases and (2) examine whether targeted and supervised exercise can suppress sclerotic tumour growth and activity in spinal metastases in humans. A single-blinded, two-armed, randomised, controlled and explorative phase I clinical trial combining spinal isometric training with a modular multimodal exercise programme in 40 men with advanced prostate cancer and stable sclerotic spinal metastases. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) the exercise intervention or (2) usual medical care. The intervention arm will receive a 3-month, supervised and individually tailored modular multimodal exercise programme with spinal isometric training. Primary endpoints (feasibility and safety) and secondary endpoints (tumour morphology; biomarker activity; anthropometry; musculoskeletal health; adiposity; physical function; quality of life; anxiety; distress; fatigue; insomnia; physical activity levels) will be measured at baseline and following the intervention. Statistical analyses will include descriptive characteristics, t-tests, effect sizes and two-way (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of variance (or analysis of

  6. The ExPeCT (Examining Exercise, Prostate Cancer and Circulating Tumour Cells) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheill, Gráinne

    2017-10-04

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the second most common cancer in Ireland. Many men present with locally advanced or metastatic cancer for whom curative surgery is inappropriate. Advanced cancer patients are encouraged to remain physically active and therefore there is a need to investigate how patients with metastatic disease tolerate physical activity programmes. Physical activity reduces levels of systemic inflammatory mediators and so an aerobic exercise intervention may represent an accessible and cost-effective means of ameliorating the pro-inflammatory effects of obesity and subsequently decrease poor cancer-specific outcomes in this patient population. This study will assess the feasibility and safety of introducing a structured aerobic exercise intervention to an advanced cancer population. This study will also examine if the evasion of immune editing by circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is an exercise-modifiable mechanism in obese men with prostate cancer.

  7. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  8. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  9. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  10. Perceptions of Eye Health and Eye Health Services among Adults Attending Outreach Eye Care Clinics in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Anthea; Yu, Mitasha; Paudel, Prakash; Naduvilath, Thomas; Fricke, Tim R; Hani, Yvonne; Garap, Jambi

    2015-01-01

    To determine how people attending outreach eye care clinics in Papua New Guinea (PNG) perceive eye health and eye health services. An interview-based questionnaire was administrated to a convenience sample of 614 adult participants across four provinces and perceptions of eye health and eye health services were recorded. Presenting and near visual acuity were measured and cause of visual impairment (VI) determined. In this sample, 113/614 participants (18.4%) presented with distance VI, 16 (2.6%) with distance blindness, and 221 (47.6%) with near VI. Older participants and those with near VI were more likely to indicate that it is hard to have an eye examination due to travel time, lack of transport and transport costs. Female participants and those from underserved areas were more likely to report shame and fear of jealousy from others when asked about their attitudes towards spectacles. Participants reporting that they were willing to pay higher amounts for testing and spectacles/treatment also reported higher education levels, higher household incomes and were more likely to be male. A quarter of participants (25.9%) indicated that they did not like having an eye examination because their reading and writing was poor. People attending outreach eye care clinics in PNG reported finding it difficult to attend eye health services due to transport difficulties and anticipated high costs. Negative attitudes towards spectacles were also prevalent, and negative perceptions appeared more frequently among older participants and those with less education.

  11. Importance of the mini-mental status examination in the treatment of patients with brain metastases: a report from the radiation therapy oncology group protocol 91-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kevin J.; Scott, Charles; Zachariah, Babu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Demas, William; Vora, Nayana L.; Whitton, Anthony; Movsas, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Little information is available on the importance of pretreatment Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) on long-term survival and neurologic function following treatment for unresectable brain metastases. This study examines the importance of the MMSE in predicting outcome in a group of patients treated with an accelerated fractionation regimen of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions in 2 weeks. Materials and Methods: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) accrued 445 patients to a Phase III comparison of accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) radiotherapy (1.6 Gy b.i.d.) to a total dose of 54.4 Gy vs. an accelerated fractionation (AF) of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions from 1991 through 1995. All patients had histologic proof of malignancy at the primary site. Brain metastases were measurable by CT or MRI scan and all patients had a Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of at least 70 and a neurologic function classification of 1 or 2. Two hundred twenty-four patients were entered on the accelerated fractionated arm, and 182 were eligible for analysis (7 patients were judged ineligible, no MMSE information in 29, no survival data in 1, no forms submitted in 1). Results: Average age was 60 years; 58% were male and 25% had a single intracranial lesion on their pretherapy evaluation. KPS was 70 in 32%, 80 in 31%, 90 in 29%, and 100 in 14%. The average MMSE was 26.5, which is the lower quartile for normal in the U.S. population. The range of the MMSE scores was 11-30 with 30 being the maximum. A score of less than 23 indicates possible dementia, which occurred in 16% of the patients prior to treatment. The median time from diagnosis to treatment was 5 days (range, 0-158 days). The median survival was 4.2 months with a 95% confidence interval of 3.7-5.1 months. Thirty-seven percent of the patients were alive at 6 months, and 17% were alive at 1 year. The following variables were examined in a Cox proportional-hazards model to determine their prognostic value for overall survival

  12. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeans Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries and energy expenditure (via

  13. TaylorActive--Examining the effectiveness of web-based personally-tailored videos to increase physical activity: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, C; Short, C; Plotnikoff, R C; Hooker, C; Canoy, D; Rebar, A; Alley, S; Schoeppe, S; Mummery, W K; Duncan, M J

    2015-10-05

    Physical inactivity levels are unacceptably high and effective interventions that can increase physical activity in large populations at low cost are urgently needed. Web-based interventions that use computer-tailoring have shown to be effective, though people tend to 'skim' and 'scan' text on the Internet rather than thoroughly read it. The use of online videos is, however, popular and engaging. Therefore, the aim of this 3-group randomised controlled trial is to examine whether a web-based physical activity intervention that provides personally-tailored videos is more effective when compared with traditional personally-tailored text-based intervention and a control group. In total 510 Australians will be recruited through social media advertisements, e-mail and third party databases. Participants will be randomised to one of three groups: text-tailored, video-tailored, or control. All groups will gain access to the same web-based platform and a library containing brief physical activity articles. The text-tailored group will additionally have access to 8 sessions of personalised physical activity advice that is instantaneously generated based on responses to brief online surveys. The theory-based advice will be provided over a period of 3 months and address constructs such as self-efficacy, motivation, goal setting, intentions, social support, attitudes, barriers, outcome expectancies, relapse prevention and feedback on performance. Text-tailored participants will also be able to complete 7 action plans to help them plan what, when, where, who with, and how they will become more active. Participants in the video-tailored group will gain access to the same intervention content as those in the text-tailored group, however all sessions will be provided as personalised videos rather than text on a webpage. The control group will only gain access to the library with generic physical activity articles. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity

  14. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  15. Tromsø eye study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods:  The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population......-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposure from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews...

  16. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  17. EyeAR: Refocusable Augmented Reality Content through Eye Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Constantine Rompapas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR superimposes computer graphics (CG onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated a display that improves coherence by measuring the user’s eye state and continuously adapting CG accordingly. Our tabletop prototype emulates an Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display, a common AR display device. In our evaluation, participants observed three pillars at different depths. We then challenged them to identify a virtual pillar among the three while freely refocusing their eyes. Results show that our design significantly improved realism. Compared to Light Field Displays, our design aims to simplify display-optics while providing similar quality. We could only partially achieve this goal. We discuss the lessons we learned and how we plan to overcome the remaining challenges. The experimental protocol from our evaluation is useful for display developers as it can be used to measure the coherence of a display.

  18. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  19. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  20. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  1. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  2. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  3. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  4. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  8. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  11. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  1. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  7. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  8. Prevalence of dry eye in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana S Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients are more prone to suffering from dry eye than normal subjects. These abnormalities can result in severe complications. Early examination of the diabetic patients for the detection of the ocular surface disorders is indicated.

  9. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  10. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  11. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  13. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  14. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  15. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  16. Parental knowledge and attitude to children's eye care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The early years of life is very significant in the development of the eyes and vision, any disruption at this stage may lead to severe visual impairment or even blindness. Eye examination and treatment of children is not just a right of the child, but also a necessity to properly monitor and evaluate the eyes and ...

  17. Eye Color as a Predictor of Outcomes in Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Allan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between outcomes of behaviorally oriented treatment for children (N=366) and eye color. Findings were consistent with theoretical expectations: Dark-eyed children and teenagers responded better to reactive treatment programs than their light-eyed counterparts, while the reverse was true for self-paced treatment programs.…

  18. Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-10-01

    To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar

  19. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida E. H. Madsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  20. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1yz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IPD-Work Consortium

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  1. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome

  2. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  3. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  4. [Sampling and measurement methods of the protocol design of the China Nine-Province Survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-liang; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng; Ellwein, Leon B; Liu, Hu

    2011-09-01

    To design the protocol of the China nine-province survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery. The protocol design was began after accepting the task for the national survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery from the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China, in November, 2005. The protocol in Beijing Shunyi Eye Study in 1996 and Guangdong Doumen County Eye Study in 1997, both supported by World Health Organization, was taken as the basis for the protocol design. The relative experts were invited to discuss and prove the draft protocol. An international advisor committee was established to examine and approve the draft protocol. Finally, the survey protocol was checked and approved by the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China and Prevention Program of Blindness and Deafness, WHO. The survey protocol was designed according to the characteristics and the scale of the survey. The contents of the protocol included determination of target population and survey sites, calculation of the sample size, design of the random sampling, composition and organization of the survey teams, determination of the examinee, the flowchart of the field work, survey items and methods, diagnostic criteria of blindness and moderate and sever visual impairment, the measures of the quality control, the methods of the data management. The designed protocol became the standard and practical protocol for the survey to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery.

  5. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  6. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  7. The Tromsø Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:  The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality...... of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence...

  8. Perceptual learning modifies untrained pursuit eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Szpiro, Sarit F. A.; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training...

  9. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  10. Corneal permeability changes in dry eye disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Kenji; Gadaria, Neha; Lee, Kyu-In; Barry, Brendan; Asbell, Penny

    2016-05-13

    Diagnostic tests for dry eye disease (DED), including ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, and lissamine staining, have great deal of variability. We investigated whether fluorophotometry correlated with previously established DED diagnostic tests and whether it could serve as a novel objective metric to evaluate DED. Dry eye patients who have had established signs or symptoms for at least 6 months were included in this observational study. Normal subjects with no symptoms of dry eyes served as controls. Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan prior to any fluorescein dye. Fluorescein dye was then placed into both eyes, rinsed with saline solution, and scanned at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min. Patients were administered the following diagnostic tests to correlate with fluorophotometry: OSDI, TBUT, fluorescein, and lissamine. Standard protocols were used. P eyes from 25 patients (DED = 22 eyes, 11 patients; Normal = 28 eyes, 14 patients) were included. Baseline scans of the dry eye and control groups did not show any statistical difference (p = 0.84). Fluorescein concentration of DED and normal patients showed statistical significance at all time intervals (p eyes up to 30 min after fluorescein dye instillation. There may be an aspect of DED that is missed in the current regimen of DED tests and only captured with fluorophotometry. Adding fluorophotometry may be useful in screening, diagnosing, and monitoring patients with DED.

  11. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  12. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  13. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination; Determinacion de dosis absorbida en cristalino y glandula tiroides con protocolos de irradiacion aplicados en equipos de ortopantomografia para panoramica dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M. [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica, Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  14. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silence, an Eye of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the conspicuous features of the twentieth-century West was silence. This idea could be supported by examining reflections of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Fritz Mauthner, John Cage, Samuel Beckett, Ihab Hassan, Franz Kafka, Wassily Kandinsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Virginia Woolf, Wolfgang Iser, Jacques Derrida, and Pierre Macherey. To me, silence is not a mere theory, but rather a phenomenon from which we can get practical benefits. I believe silence is an eye, eye of knowledge. We can broaden our knowledge of the world through silence. To convey the idea that silence is an eye, I have concocted the word slence, where  has replaced the letter i and stands for the eye. This means knowledge can enable us to see, thereby acquiring knowledge of, what used to be invisible, and accordingly unknowable. In other words, through silence, we can achieve a certain type of literacy. I substantiate this claim by exploring the Horus myth, Ojo de Dios, John Cage’s 4' 33", the nature of Expressionist paintings, Hinduism, thoughts of Hermes Trismegistus and Ibn al-Arabi, and practices of Mohammad, the prophet of Islam.

  16. Behavioral economics and diabetic eye exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Liu, Peggy J; Muir, Kelly W; Waxman, Evan L

    2018-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of new blindness among working-age adults in the United States. Timely intervention to prevent vision loss is possible with early detection by regular eye examinations. Unfortunately, adherence to recommended annual diabetic eye exams is poor. Public health interventions have targeted traditional barriers to care, such as cost and transportation, with limited success. Behavioral economics provides an additional framework of concepts and tools to understand low screening rates and to promote regular diabetic eye exams for populations at risk. In particular, behavioral economics outlines biases and heuristics that affect decision-making and underlie pervasive barriers to care, such as not viewing diabetic eye exams as a priority or perceiving oneself as too healthy to need an examination. In this review, we examine the literature on the use of behavioral economics interventions to promote regular diabetic eye exams. From the results of the included studies, we outline how concepts from behavioral economics can improve eye examination rates. In particular, the default bias, present bias, and self-serving bias play a significant role in precluding regular diabetic eye examinations. Potential tools to mitigate these biases include leveraging default options, using reminder messages, providing behavioral coaching, applying commitment contracts, offering financial incentives, and personalizing health messages. When combined with traditional public health campaigns, insights from behavioral economics can improve understanding of pervasive barriers to care and offer additional strategies to promote regular preventive eye care for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    ranging from total blindness to Snellen visual acuity 6/60 receive information letter and questionnaire by post. Completed questionnaires can be returned by post, email or telephone. For each respondent, all eye-related diagnoses will be obtained from national registries. Normally sighted...... and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire...

  18. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  19. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  20. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  2. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  4. Interactions of cervico-ocular and vestibulo-ocular fast-phase signals in the control of eye position in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, N H; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Pettorossi, V E

    1989-01-01

    1. Eye movements in unanaesthetized rabbits were studied during horizontal neck-proprioceptive stimulation (movement of the body with respect to the fixed head), when this stimulation was given alone and when it was given simultaneously with vestibular stimulation (rotation of the head-body). The effect of neck-proprioceptive stimulation on modifying the anticompensatory fast-phase eye movements (AFPs) evoked by vestibular stimulation was studied with a 'conditioning-test' protocol; the 'conditioning' stimulus was a neck-proprioceptive signal evoked by a step-like change in body position with respect to the head and the 'test' stimulus was a vestibular signal evoked by a step rotation of the head-body. 2. The influence of eye position and direction of slow eye movements on the occurrence of compensatory fast-phase eye movements (CFPs) evoked by neck-proprioceptive stimulation was also examined. 3. The anticompensatory fast phase (AFP) evoked by vestibular stimulation was attenuated by a preceding neck-proprioceptive stimulus which when delivered alone evoked compensatory slow-phase eye movements (CSP) in the same direction as the CSP evoked by vestibular stimulation. Conversely, the vestibularly evoked AFP was potentiated by a neck-proprioceptive stimulus which evoked CSPs opposite to that of vestibularly evoked CSPs. 4. Eccentric initial eye positions increased the probability of occurrence of midline-directed compensatory fast-phase eye movements (CFPs) evoked by appropriate neck-proprioceptive stimulation. 5. The gain of the horizontal cervico-ocular reflex (GHCOR) was measured from the combined changes in eye position resulting from AFPs and CSPs. GHCOR was potentiated during simultaneous vestibular stimulation. This enhancement of GHCOR occurred at neck-proprioceptive stimulus frequencies which, in the absence of conjoint vestibular stimulation, do not evoke CSPs. PMID:2795479

  5. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A

    2015-11-18

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement

  6. Influence of delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol on T2-mapping: is it possible to comprehensively assess knee cartilage composition in one post-contrast MR examination at 3 Tesla?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, J; van Tiel, J; Reijman, M; Bron, E E; Klein, S; Verhaar, J A N; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Krestin, G P; Wielopolski, P A; Oei, E H G

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the possibility of assessing knee cartilage with T2-mapping and delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in one post-contrast MR examination at 3 Tesla (T). T2 mapping was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at baseline; directly after baseline; after 10 min of cycling; and after 90 min delay, and in 16 osteoarthritis patients before and after intravenous administration of a double dose gadolinium dimeglumine contrast agent, reflecting key dGEMRIC protocol elements. Differences in T2 relaxation times between each timepoint and baseline were calculated for 6 cartilage regions using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and the smallest detectable change (SDC). After cycling, a significant change in T2 relaxation times was found in the lateral weight-bearing tibial plateau (+1.0 ms, P = 0.04). After 90 min delay, significant changes were found in the lateral weight-bearing femoral condyle (+1.2 ms, P = 0.03) and the lateral weight-bearing tibial plateau (+1.3 ms, P = 0.01). In these regions of interests (ROIs), absolute differences were small and lower than the corresponding SDCs. T2-mapping after contrast administration only showed statistically significantly lower T2 relaxation times in the medial posterior femoral condyle (-2.4 ms, P T2 relaxation times that were not consistent and lower than the SDC in the majority of regions, our results suggest that T2-mapping and dGEMRIC can be performed reliably in a single imaging session to assess cartilage biochemical composition in knee osteoarthritis (OA) at 3 T. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ...

  8. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  9. XI. THE WATERING EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...

  10. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  12. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  14. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  19. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  3. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  8. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ...

  10. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...

  11. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  12. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  13. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  14. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  15. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  16. Effectiveness of Bismuth Shield to Reduce Eye Lens Radiation Dose Using the Photoluminescence Dosimetry in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi Young; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kwon, Soo Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the eye radiation dose when performing routine multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). We also evaluated dose reduction and the effect on image quality of using a bismuth eye shield when performing head MDCT. Examinations were performed with a 64MDCT scanner. To compare the shielded/unshielded lens dose, the examination was performed with and without bismuth shielding in anthropomorphic phantom. To determine the average lens radiation dose, we imaged an anthropomorphic phantom into which calibrated photoluminescence glass dosimeter (PLD) were placed to measure the dose to lens. The phantom was imaged using the same protocol. Radiation doses to the lens with and without the lens shielding were measured and compared using the Student t test. In the qualitative evaluation of the MDCT scans, all were considered to be of diagnostic quality. We did not see any differences in quality between the shielded and unshielded brain. The mean radiation doses to the eye with the shield and to those without the shield were 21.54 versus 10.46 mGy, respectively. The lens shield enabled a 51.3% decrease in radiation dose to the lens. Bismuth in-plane shielding for routine eye and head MDCT decreased radiation dose to the lens without qualitative changes in image quality. The other radiosensitive superficial organs specifically must be protected with shielding.

  17. Influence of eye micromotions on spatially resolved refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Osipova, Irina Y.

    2001-01-01

    The influence eye micromotions on the accuracy of estimation of Zernike coefficients form eye transverse aberration measurements was investigated. By computer modeling, the following found eye aberrations have been examined: defocusing, primary astigmatism, spherical aberration of the 3rd and the 5th orders, as well as their combinations. It was determined that the standard deviation of estimated Zernike coefficients is proportional to the standard deviation of angular eye movements. Eye micromotions cause the estimation errors of Zernike coefficients of present aberrations and produce the appearance of Zernike coefficients of aberrations, absent in the eye. When solely defocusing is present, the biggest errors, cased by eye micromotions, are obtained for aberrations like coma and astigmatism. In comparison with other aberrations, spherical aberration of the 3rd and the 5th orders evokes the greatest increase of the standard deviation of other Zernike coefficients.

  18. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  19. The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Vredeveldt, A.; Baddeley, A.D.; Hitch, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more or less effective during the second free-recall attempt compared with the first, whether eye-closure during the first recall attempt had an impact on subsequent free- and cued-recall performance, a...

  20. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  1. [Pathogenetic relationship between pterygium and dry eye syndrome (clinical and cytological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraevskiĭ, A V; Trishkin, K S

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in patients with initial primary pterygium for determination of a possible pathogenetic role of dry eye syndrome in the development of pterygium. 30 patients with initial primary pterygium; besides conventional ophthalmic assessment, cytological examination of bulbar conjunctiva was performed in all cases. Signs of dry eye syndrome, of similar severity in both eyes, were found in 100% of patients. Dry eye can be one of the precipitating factors of primary pterygium.

  2. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids.

  3. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  4. Biosocial profile of New Zealand prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-10-12

    To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.

  5. Aquaporins 6-12 in the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Holm, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aquaporins (AQPs) are widely expressed and have diverse distribution patterns in the eye. AQPs 0-5 have been localized at the cellular level in human eyes. We investigated the presence of the more recently discovered AQPs 6-12 in the human eye. Methods: RT-PCR was performed on fresh tissue...... from two human eyes divided into the cornea, corneal limbus, ciliary body and iris, lens, choroid, optic nerve, retina and sclera. Each structure was examined to detect the mRNA of AQPs 6-12. Twenty-one human eyes were examined using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques to determine...... was detected in the corneal epithelium, corneal endothelium, trabecular meshwork endothelium, ciliary epithelia, lens epithelium, the inner and outer limiting membrane of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium and the capillary endothelium of all parts of the eye. AQP9 immunolabelling was detected...

  6. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masako; Kawashima, Motoko; Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo) to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms.

  7. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms.

  8. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch ...

  9. Diabetic Eye Problems

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    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  10. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams below to ... part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows ...

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    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables ... Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

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  15. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  19. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L ... (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ...

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... treated? Jan 28, 2016 Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

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    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

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    Full Text Available ... Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs ... Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of ... Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI ...

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  9. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the ...

  13. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful chemicals. Before applying makeup, be sure your face and eyelids are very clean. Always apply makeup outside the lash line, away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower ...

  14. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists ...

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    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  19. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Head and eye echoencephalogram References Coleman DJ, Silverman RH, Lloyd HO, Daly S. Evaluation of the posterior ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research ... iris adjusts the size of the pupil and controls the amount of light that can enter the ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear ... Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please Don’t Shave the Inside ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... eyes don’t make enough tears or something affects one or more layers of the tear film. ...

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    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. ... Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

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  7. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of ...

  8. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

  9. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry ...

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    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  12. Fish eye optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Michalová, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  13. Quantifying Novice and Expert Differences in Visual Diagnostic Reasoning in Veterinary Pathology Using Eye-Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J

    2018-01-18

    Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (preasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.

  14. Dry eye signs and symptoms in night-time workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Makateb; Hamed Torabifard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of night-time working on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: A total of 50 healthy subjects completed a dry eye questionnaire and underwent clinical examinations including basic Schirmer's test and tear breakup time (TBUT) test on two consecutive days, before and after the night shift (12-hrs night-shift). Results: All dry eye symptoms were aggravated significantly after the night shift (P 

  15. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.

  16. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  17. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  18. Eye micromotions influence on an error of Zernike coefficients reconstruction in the one-ray refractometry of an eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Irina Y.; Chyzh, Igor H.

    2001-06-01

    The influence of eye jumps on the accuracy of estimation of Zernike coefficients from eye transverse aberration measurements was investigated. By computer modeling the ametropy and astigmatism have been examined. The standard deviation of the wave aberration function was calculated. It was determined that the standard deviation of the wave aberration function achieves the minimum value if the number of scanning points is equal to the number of eye jumps in scanning period. The recommendations for duration of measurement were worked out.

  19. HAPTIC LOCATION IN PSEUDOPHAKIC EYES AND NONINFECTIOUS POSTOPERATIVE INFLAMMATION- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Baranwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative noninfectious inflammation after cataract surgery, which can be persistent, remains an undesirable consequence despite many advances in surgical techniques. This ocular inflammation after cataract surgery presents ophthalmologists with a treatment dilemma. The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate the IOL haptic location and the presence of noninfectious postoperative inflammation in pseudophakic eyes using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective study, 80 eyes of 80 cataract patients underwent SICS with 6 mm optic non-foldable PCIOL implantation. Post surgery, an examination protocol was followed wherein the patients were assessed by slit-lamp examination on day 1, 2, 7, 14 and 30 for flare and cells. A UBM examination was performed on day 30 for locating the IOL haptic position. Finally, the postoperative inflammation was correlated with IOL haptic position. RESULTS The results showed that IOL haptic position outside the capsular bag significantly increased the amount and duration of postoperative inflammation. CONCLUSION Haptic position outside the bag increases the incidence and duration of postoperative inflammation significantly. In patients undergoing SICS, the aim should be a large continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis within the bag implantation of IOL. UBM examination on day 30 after surgery to know position of IOL haptics outside the bag will be helpful in decreasing apprehension of operating surgeon and suggesting prolonged need of steroids in cases having more than expected postoperative inflammation.

  20. NASA's "Eyes" Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's "Eyes on…" suite of products continues to grow in capability and popularity. The "Eyes on the Earth", "Eyes on the Solar System" and "Eyes on Exoplanets" real-time, 3D interactive visualization products have proven themselves as highly effective demonstration and communication tools for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. This presentation will give a quick look at the latest updates to the "Eyes" suite plus what is being done to make them tools for STEM Education.

  1. Macular Choroidal Thickness in Myopic Eyes with and without a Dome-Shaped Macula: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Assessment of the virtual guide on eye self-examination in the context of HIV/AIDS Evaluación de la cartilla para el autoexamen ocular en el contexto del VIH/Sida Avaliação de cartilha para o autoexame ocular no contexto do HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennara Candido Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of a virtual guide with a view to promoting eye health. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with 130 HIV/AIDS patients from an ambulatory unit between May and August/2010. The data was collected through interviews and observation, using three forms that addressed the socioeconomic profile, understanding and performing the virtual guide eye self-examination. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ² and Fisher-Freeman-Halton tests. It was considered statistically significant p 0.140, excepting only the evaluation of the right eyelid. CONCLUSION: The virtual guide helped developing proper eye self-exam, enabling people to notice alterations in their eyes.OBJETIVO: Analizar la eficacia de una cartilla con vistas a la promoción de la salud ocular. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, desarrollado con 130 portadores del VIH/Sida, atendidos en un consultorio externo, entre Mayo y Agosto/2010. La recolección de los datos fue realizada por medio de entrevista y observación, utilizándose tres formularios que abordaron el perfil socioeconómico, el entendimiento de la cartilla y la realización del autoexamen ocular. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la estadística descriptiva, test de χ2 y Fisher-Freeman-Halton. Se consideraron como estadísticamente significativos aquellos con p0,140, exceptuando la evaluación del párpado derecho. CONCLUSIÓN: La cartilla ayudó en el desarrollo adecuado del autoexamen ocular, permitiendo a las personas conocer las alteraciones en el ojo.OBJETIVO: Analisar a eficácia de uma cartilha com vistas à promoção da saúde ocular. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, desenvolvido com 130 portadores do HIV/aids, atendidos em um ambulatório, entre maio e agosto/2010. A coleta foi realizada por meio de entrevista e observação, utilizando-se três formulários que abordaram o perfil socioeconômico, o entendimento da cartilha e a realização do autoexame ocular. Os

  3. A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial Examining the Impact of an Emergency Department Mechanical Ventilator Protocol on Clinical Outcomes and Lung-Protective Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian T; Mohr, Nicholas M; Drewry, Anne M; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Keeperman, Jacob; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of an emergency department mechanical ventilation protocol on clinical outcomes and adherence to lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Quasi-experimental, before-after trial. Emergency department and ICUs of an academic center. Mechanically ventilated emergency department patients experiencing acute respiratory distress syndrome while in the emergency department or after admission to the ICU. An emergency department ventilator protocol which targeted variables in need of quality improvement, as identified by prior work: 1) lung-protective tidal volume, 2) appropriate setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, 3) oxygen weaning, and 4) head-of-bed elevation. A total of 229 patients (186 preintervention group, 43 intervention group) were studied. In the emergency department, the intervention was associated with significant changes (p protective ventilation from 11.1% to 61.5%, p value of less than 0.01. The intervention was associated with a reduction in mortality from 54.8% to 39.5% (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83; p = 0.02) and a 3.9 day increase in ventilator-free days, p value equals to 0.01. This before-after study of mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrates that implementing a mechanical ventilator protocol in the emergency department is feasible and associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  4. Gender discrimination of eyes and mouths by individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark S

    2010-04-01

    Evidence remains mixed about whether individuals with autism look less to eyes and whether they look more at mouths. Few studies have examined how spontaneous attention to facial features relates to face processing abilities. This study tested the ability to discriminate gender from facial features, namely eyes and mouths, by comparing accuracy scores of 17 children with autism and 15 adults with autism to 17 typically developing children and 15 typically developing adults. Results indicated that all participants regardless of diagnosis discriminated gender more accurately from eyes than from mouths. However, results indicated that compared to adults without autism, adults with autism were significantly worse at discriminating gender from eyes.

  5. Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

  6. Computerized tomography of the eye; Computertomografie des Auges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Maximilian; Greschus, Susanne [Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2017-03-15

    CT findings at the eye are mostly incidental indication during head and neck examinations. A targeted CT of the eye is indicated for instance in the case of suspected bulb perforation or the search for intraocular foreign objects. The contribution is also discussing radiation protection issues.

  7. Causse of Adult Blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano | Olatunji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To identify the cause of adult blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. Materials and methods: It was a hospital-based prospective study. Blindness was defined as vision of <3/60 in the better eye. The history of each patient was taken and a routine ocular examination was conducted using a Snellen or E-chart, a pen ...

  8. Neurodevelopmental changes of reading the mind in the eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther Moor, B.; op de Macks, Z.A.; Güroğlu, B.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; van der Molen, M.W.; Crone, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The eyes provide important information for decoding the mental states of others. In this fMRI study we examined how reading the mind in the eyes develops across adolescence and we tested the developmental trajectories of brain regions involved in this basic perceptual mind-reading ability.

  9. The Genetic Overlap Between Hair and Eye Color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.; Willemsen, G.; Abdellaoui, A.; Bartels, M.; Ehli, E.A.; Davies, G.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hottenga, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    We identified the genetic variants for eye color by Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in a Dutch Caucasian family-based population sample and examined the genetic correlation between hair and eye color using data from unrelated participants from the Netherlands Twin Register. With the Genome-wide

  10. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  11. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  12. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog.

  13. [Emphasis on standardization and refinement in the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z G

    2017-09-11

    Dry eye is the second most common ocular disease. In China, the incidence rate of dry eye has reached 21% to 30%, and dry eye patients have accounted for more than 30% of the total ophthalmology outpatients. Dry eye has become a common health problem that affects the working efficiency and life quality of Chinese people. Over the past decade, due to the rapid development of diagnostic equipments and new treatments for dry eye, dry eye has become one of the areas with greatest concerns in ophthalmology, and many eye institutions have set up their dry eye clinics. Although the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye has been improved in recent years, the awareness of dry eye in Chinese ophthalmologists is still too simple. In the diagnosis, the interrogation and basic examination are not given enough attention, and we are over-relying on equipments. Clinical examination and instrument operation also have not been standardized. This article emphasizes that we should pay attention to the interrogation, basic examination and standardization of clinical examination and equipment operation in diagnosing dry eye. The treatment regimen should be mostly refined and optimized to be individualized and comprehensive based on the causes, types and severity of dry eye. In addition, the physical and adjuvant therapy of dry eye should be given sufficient attention and applied reasonably. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 641-644) .

  14. [Eye symptoms in office employees working at computer stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Zejda, Jan E; Bugajska, Joanna; Braczkowska, Bogumiła; Brozek, Grzegorz; Malińska, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence and intensity of eye symptoms in office workers who use computers on a regular basis, and to find out if the symptoms depend on the duration of computer use and other work-related factors. Office workers employed at large social services companies in two cities (Warszawa and Katowice) were invited to fill in a questionnaire (cross-sectional study). The questions included work history and history of last-week eye symptoms and eye-related complains. Altogether 477 men and women returned the completed questionnaires. Between-group symptom differences were tested by the chi-square test and verified by the results of multivariate logistic analysis. The examined effects included the role of daily computer use and lighting conditions at work stations. The examined persons complained of such eye symptoms as eye strain, visual acuity impairment and mucosal dryness or eye burning. The following values of symptom prevalence were found in women and men, respectively: eye strain 50.7% and 32.6%, disturbed visual acuity 38.3% and 21.2%, mucosal dryness and eye burning 46.5% and 24.2%. The results of multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant effects of lighting intensity and screen flickering on the occurrence of symptoms. Frequent occurrence of eye symptoms and their associatation with some characteristics of the work environment point to the need of observing ergonomic standards of work stations and of the usage of computers at work.

  15. Eye-Pressing by Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, James E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The nature of eye-pressing as a visual stimulation mannerism in children with severely impaired eyesight is examined, and a possible physiological explanation (that self-stimulation occurs when the demand of the brain for meaningful visual information is not met) is offered. (CL)

  16. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  17. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  18. Directionality of large-scale resting-state brain networks during eyes open and eyes closed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Wu, Xia; Wang, Zengjian; Xu, Pengfei; Chang, Song; Liu, Bo; Liu, Ming; Huang, Ruiwang

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined directional connections in the brain among resting-state networks (RSNs) when the participant had their eyes open (E0) or had their eyes closed (EC). The resting state fMRI data were collected from 20 healthy participants (9 males, 20.17 +/- 2.74 years) under the EO and EC

  19. Demographic predictors of eye care utilization among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, D A; Christen, W G; Glynn, R J; Buring, J E

    2000-06-01

    Visual impairment may be preventable or treatable with timely intervention. Differences in the use of eye care services may play a role in fostering the racial and socioeconomic gap in the burden of visual impairment in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of eye examinations in women and how this varies with age, race, marital status, geographic region, profession, education, and income. We used logistic regression models to examine data obtained by mailed questionnaires from 39,876 female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study. Most women (83%) had an eye examination within the past 2 years. The likelihood of having an eye examination in the past 2 years increased with age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.59 for age > or =75 years versus those master's degree versus licensed nurse training; P [trend] = 0.0004), and higher household income (OR = 1.85 for > or =$100,000 versus risk of visual impairment.

  20. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  1. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-01-01

    , and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark......, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use...

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...

  4. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold helps keep down pain and swelling. If pain continues or your vision is blurry, get to a doctor right away. ! If you get hit in the eye with flying metal, wood, or material from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If ...

  5. Robustifying eye interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gaze typing system based on consumer hardware. Eye tracking based on consumer hardware is subject to several unknown factors. We propose methods using robust statistical principles to accommodate uncertainties in image data as well as in gaze estimates to improve accuracy. We...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear ...

  10. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  13. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  14. The Learned Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is ...

  16. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision A tear in the retina A blockage of the small veins that carry ... Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss ... vision If not treated, diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  19. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're wearing? In the United States, the use of color additives is strictly regulated. A number of color ... to color additives that are not approved for use in the area of the eye. Avoid color additives that are not approved for use in ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the white outer coating of the eye. Vitreous humor (VIT-ree-us HYOO-mer) is the clear ... in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

  3. Using an eye tracker for accurate eye movement artifact correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, J.J.M.; Riani, J.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to correct eye movement artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. By using an eye tracker, whose data cannot be corrupted by any electrophysiological signals, an accurate method for correction is developed. The eye-tracker data is used in a Kalman filter to estimate which

  4. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  5. Anterior eye tissue morphology: Scleral and conjunctival thickness in children and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Read; David Alonso-Caneiro; Stephen J. Vincent; Alexander Bremner; Annabel Fothergill; Brittney Ismail; Rebecca McGraw; Charlotte J. Quirk; Elspeth Wrigley

    2016-01-01

    The sclera and conjunctiva form part of the eye?s tough, protective outer coat, and play important roles in the eye?s mechanical protection and immune defence, as well as in determining the size and shape of the eye globe. Advances in ocular imaging technology now allow these tissues in the anterior eye to be imaged non-invasively and with high resolution, however there is a paucity of data examining the dimensions of these tissues in paediatric populations. In this study, we have used optica...

  6. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  7. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  8. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  9. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  10. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  11. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Unilateral Keratoconus after Chronic Eye Rubbing by the Nondominant Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report the development of unilateral keratoconus in a healthy male after persistent unilateral eye rubbing by the nondominant hand which was not needed for professional activities. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 60-year-old male was first seen in our clinic due to decreased vision in his left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the left eye revealed Vogt’s striae, stromal thinning, and a stromal scar. Corneal topography showed a stage 4 keratoconus. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the right eye were normal. Medical history revealed a habit of chronic eye rubbing only in the left eye because of the right hand being occupied for professional needs. During follow-up of 5 years, Scheimpflug images of the right eye stayed normal while the left eye showed a stable cone. Discussion: This case report supports the hypothesis of mechanical fatigue of the cornea due to repetitive shear stress on the surface caused by eye-rubbing.

  13. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  14. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.

  16. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  17. Presenting visual acuities in a new eye centre in Port Harcourt: initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Visual acuity is a fundamental of an eye examination. It establishes in a quantitative way how well an eye can see. Apart from being a starting point in dealing with an eye, it is also a prognostic reference point and a medico-legal tool. Very few studies directly related to visual acuities are available as many ...

  18. Eye size and behaviour of day- and night-flying leafcutting ant alates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; John D. Reeve; José Maunício S. Bento; Terezinha M.C. Della Lucia; R. Scott Cameron; Natalie M. Heck

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of insect eyes often seems to be shaped by evolution to match their behaviour and lifestyle. Here the relationship between the nuptial flight behaviour of 10 Atta species (Hymenoptera: Fonnicidae) and the eye size of male and female alates, including the compound eyes, ommatidia facets, and ocelli were examined. These species can be...

  19. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel; Albietz, Julie M; Tran, Huan; Du Toit, Cimonette; Li, Anita Hui; Yun, Tina; Han, Jee; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-12-01

    Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated. Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial. Twenty-four participants aged 20 to 55 years with contact lens related dry eye were recruited and randomised to two treatment groups; 20 completed the study. One group used Optimel eye drops twice a day for two weeks followed by conventional lubricant (Systane Ultra, Alcon) therapy for two weeks; the other group completed the treatments in the reverse order. Before and after each treatment dry eye symptomology, ocular surface inflammation, and tear quantity and quality were assessed. Participants completed a daily log detailing their usage of treatments and any issues. Dry eye symptoms improved significantly after Optimel treatment. Patients with more severe symptoms at baseline showed a greater improvement in symptoms. No significant differences were observed in the objective signs of dry eye; presumably because of the short treatment duration. Seventy-five% of contact lens wearers reported good adherence to Optimel treatment and 95% reported no issues using this product. Optimel Eye Drops reduce the symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers and are safe to use. A longer treatment period to assess the effect on clinical signs of dry eye is required. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.

    2001-01-01

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  1. Effect of school eye health promotion on children's eye health literacy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Yen, Phung Thi; Kovai, Vilas; Naduvilath, Thomas; Ho, Suit May; Giap, Nguyen Viet; Holden, Brien A

    2017-10-06

    Health promotion intervention in schools is a useful strategy to improve students' health awareness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of eye health promotion interventions on eye health literacy in school children in Vietnam. A piloted questionnaire was administered to 300 children from five secondary schools in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Vietnam at baseline and re-administered after the eye health promotion interventions. McNemar chi-square and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. A total of 300 children aged 12-15 years (mean, 13.3 ± 1.3 years; 60% female) participated in the baseline survey. The participation rate in the post-health promotion survey was 94.7%. After the health promotion interventions, number of children who had correct eye health knowledge increased by 10-20% (60-75% to 70-95%), more children reported having had an eye examination (63.3% to 84.7%; p promotion interventions significantly improve eye health knowledge, attitudes and practices of school children. Additionally, participation of parents and teachers as change agents may further improve children's health literacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development of the New Zealand White Rabbit Eye: I. Pre- and Postnatal Development of Eye Tunics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, M; Haddad, S; Emam, M

    2017-10-01

    The New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit has been and is right now regularly utilized in ophthalmic surgery evaluation. Inside NZW rabbit eye, the visibility of ocular structures throughout surgical procedure is fantastic. Younger rabbits are used in different ages for the evaluation of ophthalmic surgery. Complete studies of ocular development in the NZW rabbits have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the major landmarks and the time course of the pre- and post-natal development of the complete eye tunics of the NZW rabbit to give a superb model as well as a fruitful area for further ophthalmological investigations. Serial histological sections of NZW rabbit prenatal (E13-E28) and post-natal (P1-P14) stages were examined, respectively. The eye of the NZW rabbit developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were at the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, absence of pigmentation which represent an exploited benefit for ophthalmic surgery, remarkable Bowman's membrane at E25, poor developed ciliary stroma and juvenile retinal layer until P9. In human, the basic morphogenetic processes of the development of eye tunics are completed towards the end of the first half of gestation period. However, the latter represents the beginning stage of the development of eye tunics in the rabbit. Thus, allowing various extensive ophthalmic researches to be performed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  4. Continuous Auditory Feedback of Eye Movements: An Exploratory Study toward Improving Oculomotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O. Boyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.

  5. Evaluation of a Web-Based Training in Smoking Cessation Counseling Targeting U.S. Eye-Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Taghrid; Lee, David J.; Lam, Byron L.; Murchison, Ann P.; Mayro, Eileen L.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Gower, Emily W.; Friedman, David S.; Saaddine, Jinan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Smoking causes blindness-related diseases. Eye-care providers are uniquely positioned to help their patients quit smoking. Aims: Using a pre-/postevaluation design, this study evaluated a web-based training in smoking cessation counseling targeting eye-care providers. Method: The training was developed based on the 3A1R protocol:…

  6. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms: meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD plays a pivotal role in dry eye aggravation, and using IVCM to observe MG fibrosis, changes in size and density of MG as well as status of inflammation cells can help not only correctly diagnose the type and severity of dry eye, but also possibly prognosticate in routine eye examination in the occurrence of MGD.

  7. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  8. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, Olivier A

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER)-model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i) activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii) bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  9. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release – TIMER-RIDER – model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  10. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...... of creativity at both process and content levels. The benefits, limitations, and possible applications of the method are considered in the broader context of creativity studies....

  11. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Harper, Daniel E; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye.

  12. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; Pdry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; Pdry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  13. Anxiety symptoms and children's eye gaze during fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Kalina J; Machlin, Laura; Moroney, Elizabeth; Lowet, Daniel S; Hettema, John M; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Averbeck, Bruno B; Brotman, Melissa A; Nelson, Eric E; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children. Participants were 82 youth from a general population sample of twins (aged 9-13 years), exhibiting a range of anxiety symptoms. Participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm where the conditioned stimuli (CS+) were two neutral faces, one of which was randomly selected to be paired with an aversive scream. Eye tracking, physiological, and subjective data were acquired. Children and parents reported their child's anxiety using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Conditioning influenced eye gaze patterns in that children looked longer and more frequently to the eye region of the CS+ than CS- face; this effect was present only during fear acquisition, not at baseline or extinction. Furthermore, consistent with past work in adults, anxiety symptoms were associated with eye gaze avoidance. Finally, gaze duration to the eye region mediated the effect of anxious traits on self-reported fear during acquisition. Anxiety symptoms in children relate to face-viewing strategies deployed in the context of a fear learning experiment. This relationship may inform attempts to understand the relationship between pediatric anxiety symptoms and learning. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  15. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  16. Practical Use of the Eye Camera in Pedagogical Research (Processing of Selected Data Using the Eye Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrabánková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with author’s pilot experiments using the eye tracking method for the primary school children examination. This method enables to gain a large amount of research data based on the tested people’s eye movements monitoring. In the paper, there are processed chosen research data of four gifted students’ examination in the context of their mathematical and logical intelligence.

  17. The application of autologous serum eye drops in severe dry eye patients; subjective and objective parameters before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsova, Katerina; Brejchova, Kristyna; Krabcova, Ivana; Filipec, Martin; Al Fakih, Aref; Palos, Michalis; Vesela, Viera

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of autologous serum (AS) eye drops on the ocular surface of patients with bilateral severe dry eye and to draw a comparison between the clinical and laboratory examinations and the degree of subjective symptoms before and after serum treatment. A three-month prospective study was conducted on 17 patients with severe dry eye. AS eye drops were applied a maximum of 12 times a day together with regular therapy. Dry eye status was evaluated by clinical examination (visual acuity, Schirmer test, tear film breakup time, vital staining, tear film debris and meniscus), conjunctival impression cytology (epithelial and goblet cell density, snake-like chromatin, HLA-DR-positive and apoptotic cells) and subjectively by the patients. The application of AS eye drops led to a significant improvement in the Schirmer test (p treatment. A significant decrease (p eyes. We found that three-month AS treatment led especially to the improvement of ocular surface dryness and damage of the epithelium. The improvement of dry eye after AS treatment correlated well with the clinical, laboratory and subjective findings. From the patients' subjective point of view, the positive effect of AS decreased with time, but still persisted up to three months after the end of therapy.

  18. The refinement of ipsilateral eye retinotopic maps is increased by removing the dominant contralateral eye in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer L Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after eye opening, initially disorganized visual cortex circuitry is rapidly refined to form smooth retinotopic maps. This process asymptotes long before adulthood, but it is unknown whether further refinement is possible. Prior work from our lab has shown that the retinotopic map of the non-dominant ipsilateral eye develops faster when the dominant contralateral eye is removed. We examined whether input from the contralateral eye might also limit the ultimate refinement of the ipsilateral eye retinotopic map in adults. In addition, we examined whether the increased refinement involved the recruitment of adjacent cortical area.By surgically implanting a chronic optical window over visual cortex in mice, we repeatedly measured the degree of retinotopic map refinement using quantitative intrinsic signal optical imaging over four weeks. We removed the contralateral eye and observed that the retinotopic map for the ipsilateral eye was further refined and the maximum magnitude of response increased. However, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in the area of responsive cortex.Since the retinotopic map was functionally refined to a greater degree without taking over adjacent cortical area, we conclude that input from the contralateral eye limits the normal refinement of visual cortical circuitry in mice. These findings suggest that the refinement capacity of cortical circuitry is normally saturated.

  19. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  20. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  1. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; O’Koren, Emily G.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Kan, Matthew J.; Kopin, David; Nelson, Erik R.; Que, Loretta; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC), and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions. PMID:26938654

  2. Emergency Protocol and Violence Prevention in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the emergency protocol and violence prevention methods utilized at an American university. The four research questions were: (1) What are the sources of violence at the university? a. How has the university addressed these sources? (2) What constitutes an emergency in the eyes of the university? (3) How do emergency protocols…

  3. The National Basketball Association eye injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.

  4. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  5. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mahadev Sahasrabudhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes causes blindness in 20-74 year old persons. Blindness in diabetic patients may due to cataract or retinopathy. Dry eye is one of the ocular surface problem increasingly observed in diabetic patients. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients and their contributing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done between April 2016 to September 2016. 70 patients of type 2 diabetes diagnosed at Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Hospital, Nanded, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Dry eye syndrome was assessed with Tear Breakup Time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining apart from routine ophthalmic examination. RESULTS Out of 60 patients, 32 (53% suffer from dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eyes appear to have a common association. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish an aetiologic relationship. As routine dilated fundus examination is an integral part of evaluation of diabetic patients in ophthalmic clinics, examination for dry eye should also be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  6. System and Method for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring the motion of one or both eyes, includes capturing a sequence of overlapping images of a subject's face including an eye and the corresponding non-eye region; identifying a plurality of keypoints in each image; mapping corresponding keypoints in two or more images...... of the sequence; assigning the keypoints to the eye and to the corresponding non-eye region; calculating individual velocities of the corresponding keypoints in the eye and the corresponding non-eye region to obtain a distribution of velocities; extracting at least one velocity measured for the eye and at least...... one velocity measured for the corresponding non-eye region; calculating the eye-in-head velocity for the eye based upon the measured velocity for the eye and the measured velocity for the corresponding non-eye region; and calculating the eye-in-head position based upon the eye- in-head velocity....

  7. Computer-Assisted Eye Examination: Background and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    comiputer would tutor the patient h~ tumanlj Intersiewer dJoes, when he has the time, patience, and( inclination. it h nipt’ler acs-histor% taker...4ra Phtrwl Pharma (di %ederl 14. tahir’jnn R i 9)sl The averaged electrical response to diffuse and to patterned light in the human Elc- n, . n %eiur

  8. Eye muscle proprioception is represented bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Albert, Neil B; Miall, Chris

    2011-01-01

    eye after a virtual lesion with rTMS over the left somatosensory area. However, it is possible that the proprioceptive representation of the EOM extends to other brain sites, which were not examined in these previous studies. The aim of this fMRI study was to sample the whole brain to identify...... the proprioceptive representation for the left and the right eye separately. Data were acquired while passive eye movement was used to stimulate EOM proprioceptors in the absence of a motor command. We also controlled for the tactile stimulation of the eyelid by removing from the analysis voxels activated by eyelid......The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a proprioceptive representation of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the contralateral central sulcus. In humans, we have previously shown a change in the perceived position of the right...

  9. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Review Article: Taking an idea to a research protocol ... step is to identify the knowledge gap within the intended field of research by examining the background ... be found by writing a critical narrative review of the literature.

  10. Oxygen tolerance test : A standardised protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: By following a standardised protocol for Oxygen Tolerance Test, an objective assessment and recordkeeping is possible. This shall entail a more effective screening during the initial diving medical examination.

  11. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Do the Eyes Have It? Using Eye Tracking to Assess Students Cognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiforou, Efi A.; Laghos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Field dependence/independence (FD/FI) is a significant dimension of cognitive styles. The paper presents results of a study that seeks to identify individuals' level of field independence during visual stimulus tasks processing. Specifically, it examined the relationship between the Hidden Figure Test (HFT) scores and the eye tracking metrics.…

  13. DIABETES AND THE EYE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navalgund

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is major health concern globally, affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, over 240 million people have been affected worldwide, and this number is expected to reach 370 million by 2030. [ 1,2 ] This problem is further complexed by the fact that diabetes is a progressive disease and if not treated, can adversely affect healthy functioning of the body. [ 3 ] Just like diabetes, its complications are also progressive and occur because of chronic exposure to hyperglycemia. [ 4 ] Diabetes can cause both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Microvascular complications are often seen in the eye, especially in case of uncontrolled type 1 or type 2 diabetes. [ 5 ] Therefore, routine eye examinations are warranted in individuals with diabetes. Those with type 1 diabetes should have an initial comprehensive eye exam within 3 – 5 years of disease onset. However, in ty pe 2 diabetes, most often, the onset of disease and duration are not known, and therefore these patients should have a complete examination immediately after diagnosis, and regularly followed up annually. [ 6 ] Sadly, only 50% of individuals with diabetes com ply with these recommendations. [ 7 ] Those who have uncontrolled diabetes, and do not follow recommendations are at a higher risk of developing more severe complications. [ 5 ] Diabetes can lead to various ocular complications of which diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most important and common. Others include cataract, glaucoma, dry eyes, keratopathy, refractive changes, oc c ulomotor nerve palsy, and chronic inflammation of the lids. [ 8 ] in the current review, we discuss four important ocular complications of diab etes: DR, cataract, glaucoma and dry eye syndrome.

  14. Eye trauma in Laurel and Hardy movies - another nice mess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Lara DA; Zegers, Richard Hc

    2016-11-01

    One of the characteristics in Laurel and Hardy films is a lot of physical violence. The present study examines the occurrence of eye trauma in Laurel and Hardy movies and discusses the impact they could have been had if the films were set in reality. All 92 movies starring Laurel and Hardy as a pair in leading roles were watched together by the authors and were scored for any eye trauma. Eighty-eight eye traumas happened, of which 48% were directed at Hardy. The eye poke was the most frequently occurring eye trauma and the traumatic corneal abrasion was very likely the most frequently occurring injury. Among the most serious causes of eye trauma were the pin of a door handle, a stick, a champagne cork, a tree branch and tacks. Without a doubt, if their films had been reality, especially Hardy but also Laurel and several other people, would have suffered from serious eye injuries caused by the 88 eye traumas. The findings of the present study might reflect the personality, character and intellectual capacity of both Laurel and Hardy as 'Two Minds Without a Single Thought'. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Peripheral vision benefits spatial learning by guiding eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W

    2013-01-01

    The loss of peripheral vision impairs spatial learning and navigation. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain poorly understood. One advantage of having peripheral vision is that objects in an environment are easily detected and readily foveated via eye movements. The present study examined this potential benefit of peripheral vision by investigating whether competent performance in spatial learning requires effective eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants learned room-sized spatial layouts with or without restriction on direct eye movements to objects. Eye movements were restricted by having participants view the objects through small apertures in front of their eyes. Results showed that impeding effective eye movements made subsequent retrieval of spatial memory slower and less accurate. The small apertures also occluded much of the environmental surroundings, but the importance of this kind of occlusion was ruled out in Experiment 2 by showing that participants exhibited intact learning of the same spatial layouts when luminescent objects were viewed in an otherwise dark room. Together, these findings suggest that one of the roles of peripheral vision in spatial learning is to guide eye movements, highlighting the importance of spatial information derived from eye movements for learning environmental layouts.

  16. Acanthamoeba Keratitis at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mezaine, H.; Al-Muteb, M.; Al-Motowa, S.; Wagoner, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the number of cases and clinical courses of Acanthamoeba keratitis treated at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) between December 1982 and May 2005, and to review their clinical course and response to medical and surgical therapy. Retrospective review of medical records of all patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed by the KKESH Microbiology or Pathology or Pathology Laboratory since the opening of the hospital. During a period of over 22 years, only six cases of confirmed. Acanthamoeba keratitis were diagnosedand treated at KKESH. In two cases the diagnosis was made by corneal biopsy, while four cases required examination of a histopathology specimen obtained at the time of therapeutic keratoplasty to establish the diagnosis. One eye was cured by medical therapy, while five eyes required one (4eyes) or two (1 eye) therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) to achieve a clinical cure. Three eyes achieved good visual acuity (20/40, 20/50, 20/60), one eye achieved fair visual acuity (20/160), and two eyes suffered profound visual loss (hand motions). The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis may be less in Saudi Arabia than reported in Western countries although the clinical is similarly complicated, with most cases requiring therapeutic keratoplasty for definitive education of the organism. (author)

  17. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  18. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  19. Eye-movement evidence of the time-course of attentional bias for threatening pictures in test-anxious students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Yu, L.; Zhou, R

    2017-01-01

    Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high

  20. Eye diseases in Akon Payam, South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Lado L Sube; Joseph Monday Lawrence; Richard Lado L Loro; Anthony Y Lasuba; Oromo Francis Seriano; Almutez Gharaibeh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among patients in Akon payam, Warrap State, South Sudan. Methods and materials: This was a cross-sectional study of 862 patients conducted at Akon in the period 18 – 31 September 2015. The Snellen E chart was used to measure visual acuity, and all patients had a basic eye examination. Their vision status was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were entered and a...

  1. In vitro eye corrosion study of agrochemicals on isolated chicken eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, I; Budai, P; Szabó, R; Lehel, J

    2013-01-01

    Agrochemicals must undergo numberless toxicological tests before marketing. The eye irritation test is part of this test packet. Nowadays, OECD 405 can be used to classify the irritation potential of substances, the base of the OECD 405 guideline is the Draize test, which is one of the most criticized in vivo methods because of the injuries of the test animals and subjective nature of the test in recording the results. Therefore, several in vitro tests have been developed to replace totally or partly the in vivo eye irritation testing. The isolated chicken eye test method (OECD 438), which was used, is one of these alternative methods. Five different agrochemicals were examined in the following way: All test compounds were applied in a single dose onto the cornea of isolated chicken eyes in order to potentially classify the test compounds as ocular corrosive and/or severe irritant. The damages caused by the test substances were assessed by the determination of corneal swelling, opacity, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. These parameters were evaluated pre-treatment and starting at approximately 30, 75, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after the post-treatment rinse. The endpoints evaluated were corneal opacity, swelling, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. All of the endpoints, with the exception of fluorescein retention (which was determined only at pre-treatment and 30 minutes after test substance exposure) were determined at each of the above time points. Positive and negative controls were used and they showed the expected results in each study. In these in vitro eye corrosives and severe irritants studies, using the Isolated Chicken Eye model with five different products, no ocular corrosion or severe irritation potential were observed. These results correspond to the available information about the tested agrochemicals, so these studies with isolated chicken eye are considered to be successful.

  2. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  3. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  4. Radiation dose of digital tomosynthesis for sinonasal examination: comparison with multi-detector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Numano, Tomokazu; Abe, Shinji; Sabol, John M; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ueno, Eiko

    2012-06-01

    Using an anthropomorphic phantom, we have investigated the feasibility of digital tomosynthesis (DT) of flat-panel detector (FPD) radiography to reduce radiation dose for sinonasal examination compared to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). A female Rando phantom was scanned covering frontal to maxillary sinus using the clinically routine protocol by both 64-detector CT (120 kV, 200 mAs, and 1.375-pitch) and DT radiography (80 kV, 1.0 mAs per projection, 60 projections, 40° sweep, and posterior-anterior projections). Glass dosimeters were used to measure the radiation dose to internal organs including the thyroid gland, brain, submandibular gland, and the surface dose at various sites including the eyes during those scans. We compared the radiation dose to those anatomies between both modalities. In DT radiography, the doses of the thyroid gland, brain, submandibular gland, skin, and eyes were 230 ± 90 μGy, 1770 ± 560 μGy, 1400 ± 80 μGy, 1160 ± 2100 μGy, and 112 ± 6 μGy, respectively. These doses were reduced to approximately 1/5, 1/8, 1/12, 1/17, and 1/290 of the respective MDCT dose. For sinonasal examinations, DT radiography enables dramatic reduction in radiation exposure and dose to the head and neck region, particularly to the lens of the eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness and safety of current weekend allied health services and a new stakeholder-driven model for acute medical/surgical patients versus no weekend allied health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Terry P; O'Brien, Lisa; Mitchell, Deb; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Haas, Romi; Markham, Donna; Plumb, Samantha; Chiu, Timothy; May, Kerry; Philip, Kathleen; Lescai, David; McDermott, Fiona; Sarkies, Mitchell; Ghaly, Marcelle; Shaw, Leonie; Juj, Genevieve; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-04-02

    , and patient discharge destination, satisfaction, and functional independence at discharge. This is the world's first application of the recently described non-inferiority (roll-in) stepped wedge trial design, and the largest investigation of the effectiveness of weekend allied health services on acute medical surgical wards to date. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12613001231730 (first study) and ACTRN12613001361796 (second study). Was this trial prospectively registered?: Yes. Date registered: 8 November 2013 (first study), 12 December 2013 (second study). Anticipated completion: June 2015. Protocol version: 1. Role of trial sponsor: KP and DL are directly employed by one of the trial sponsors, their roles were: KP assisted with overall development of research design and assisted with overall project management; DL contributed to project management, administration and communications strategy.

  7. A research protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility of a couple-based mind-body intervention for patients with metastatic lung cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Kathrin; Tsao, Anne S; Liao, Zhongxing; Owns, April; Engle, Rosalinda; Gonzalez, Edrea A; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Given the generally incurable nature of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC), patients and their romantic partners are at risk for existential/spiritual distress. Although a handful of dyadic psychosocial interventions for lung cancer patients and their caregivers exist, none of them target spiritual well-being. Informed by the mindfulness-based intervention literature and our pilot work in couples affected by lung cancer, we developed a brief couple-based mind-body (CBMB) intervention. The primary aim of this research protocol is to determine the feasibility of implementing the CBMB intervention versus an active control (AC) or wait list control (WLC) group in patients with mNSCLC and their partners using a randomized controlled trial design. Seventy-five patients with mNSCLC receiving treatment and their partners are randomized to the CBMB intervention, an AC or a WLC group. Those in the CBMB intervention and AC groups receive four intervention sessions of 60 min each over 4 weeks and complete weekly homework assignments. The first session is delivered in person, and the remaining sessions are delivered via videoconference. The dyads in the AC group discuss cancer-related and personal growth concerns with the interventionist but are not taught coping skills. Patients and partners in all groups complete baseline assessments of quality of life (QOL) prior to randomization. Follow-up assessments are performed 4 weeks and then again 3 months later. The primary outcome is feasibility (i.e., ≥ 30% of eligible couples consent, ≥ 70% of enrolled couples are retained, and ≥ 50% of all CBMB and AC sessions are attended). We will also perform primarily descriptive analyses of the self-reported outcomes (e.g., spiritual well-being and psychological distress) and explore potential intervention mediators (i.e., compassion, communication, mindfulness, and closeness) to inform a larger, future trial. This trial will provide important information

  8. Ultraviolet radiation: the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Sliney, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Under most conditions, the eye is well adapted to protect itself against ultraviolet radiation encountered in the outdoor environment as a result of the exposure geometry of the sun. Only when snow is on the ground does one experience acute effects of UV sunlight exposure (i.e. snow blindness, or photokeratitis). With regard to artificial sources, there are many occasions where one views bright light sources such as tungsten-halogen lamps, arc lamps and welding arcs. Such viewing is normally only momentary because of the aversion response to bright light and due to discomfort glare. However, such an aversion does not take place for germicidal lamps and other UV lamps which do not contain a strong visible component in their spectrum. The adverse effects from viewing such sources has been studied for decades and during the last two decades guidelines for limiting exposure to protect the eye have been developed. The guidelines were fostered to a large extent by the growing use of lasers and the quickly recognized hazard posed by viewing laser sources. (author)

  9. Chapter 2. Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, P.

    1975-01-01

    Ocular scintigraphy can now be carried out with several tracers: 131 I diiodofluorescein and sup(99m)Tc, hypervascularisation indicators; 131 I iodinated chloroquine, melanoma selective. The detector used is an Anger scintillation camera coupled to a multiparameter analysis chain or a computer. The ''pin-hole'' type collimator, which has a stenopaeic opening in front of each eye, is adaptable to any inter-pupil distance. The very simple scintigraphic procedure is described. The results, taken from two statistical studies on 198 and 80 patients respectively, concern the main types of eye disease encountered: malignant melanic tumours, other tumours, metastases, choroiditis, idiopathic detachments of the retina etc... The interpretation of the scintigrams and the problems involved are considered. Finally the main indications of the method are defined with emphasis on the possibilities of double scintigraphy, diiodofluorescein only showing up the hypervascularisation often associated with the tumour whereas iodinated chloroquine, when the result is positive, points to the presence of a malignant melanoma [fr

  10. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  11. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  12. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  13. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head......While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we...

  14. Bilateral Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Caused by Eye Rubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Alfonso; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Carlomusto, Laura; Savastano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a particular condition of a 52-year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed. Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Over a 4-year observational period, his visual acuity decreased to 12/20 in the right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations. An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma.

  15. Perceptual learning modifies untrained pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-07-07

    Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training led to greater overestimation and, remarkably, it modified untrained smooth pursuit. In contrast, pursuit training did not affect overestimation in either pursuit or perception, even though observers in both training groups were exposed to the same stimuli for the same time period. A second experiment revealed that estimation training also improved discrimination, indicating that overestimation may optimize perceptual sensitivity. Hence, active perceptual training is necessary to alter perceptual responses, and an acquired change in perception suffices to modify pursuit, a motor response. © 2014 ARVO.

  16. Smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J G; de Pablo, J; Gaviria, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Vilella, E

    2014-09-01

    To review the scientific literature about the relationship between impairment on smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia. Narrative review that includes historical articles, reports about basic and clinical investigation, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the topic. Up to 80% of schizophrenic patients have impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements. Despite the diversity of test protocols, 65% of patients and controls are correctly classified by their overall performance during this pursuit. The smooth pursuit eye movements depend on the ability to anticipate the target's velocity and the visual feedback, as well as on learning and attention. The neuroanatomy implicated in smooth pursuit overlaps to some extent with certain frontal cortex zones associated with some clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the schizophrenia, therefore some specific components of smooth pursuit anomalies could serve as biomarkers of the disease. Due to their sedative effect, antipsychotics have a deleterious effect on smooth pursuit eye movements, thus these movements cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of the currently available treatments. Standardized evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements on schizophrenia will allow to use specific aspects of that pursuit as biomarkers for the study of its genetics, psychopathology, or neuropsychology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the follo...

  18. ROENTGEN-OPTHALMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOME EYE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stanković-Babić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the roentgen-ophtalmological image, the diagnostic procedures and the differential diagnostics of the eye diseases that can be recognized by the proper roentgen examination of the cranium, the orbit, the saddle pit, the craniostenosis, the M. Sturge-Weber-Krabbe, the congenital hydrocephalus, the eye melanoma malign, the chiasmal syndrome, the retrobulbar tumors, tie primary meningeom n. opticus, the face tumors.

  19. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-26

    three 24-hour recall interviews to compare with the data collected using EaT. Data mining techniques such as clustering, decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines will be used to build predictive models and identify important patterns. Recruitment is underway, and results will be available in 2018. The contribution of foods prepared away from home, in terms of energy, nutrients, deleterious nutrients, and food groups to young people's diets will be determined, as will the impact on meeting national recommendations. Foods and consumption behaviors that should be targeted in future health promotion efforts for young adults will be identified. ©Lyndal Wellard-Cole, Jisu Jung, Judy Kay, Anna Rangan, Kathy Chapman, Wendy L Watson, Clare Hughes, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Adrian Bauman, Luke Gemming, Kalina Yacef, Irena Koprinska, Margaret Allman-Farinelli. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.01.2018.

  20. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral......The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...

  1. [Preventing occupational eye trauma (Geneva, Switzerland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondi, C Emole; Chastonay, P; Dosso, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational eye trauma causes injuries with often serious socioprofessional, medical-legal, and economic consequences, not only for workers themselves, but also for employers. In spite of today's legislation and the efforts to encourage prevention, the frequency of occupational ocular accidents remains relatively high despite how easy it is to protect the eyes. In this study, the reasons that these accidents persist despite the progress made in preventive measures was investigated. From January to July 2005, we analyzed the parameters related to 175 occupational eye injuries. All patients agreed to take part in this study, which was carried out in the emergency unit of the Ophthalmology Clinic at Geneva University Hospital. Additional data was collected in companies. Construction workers were the most exposed (41.1%). The activity with the greatest risk was grinding (19.4%). The most affected structure of the eye was the cornea (84%), 72.6% patients were not equipped with ocular protection at the time of the accident, and 17.4% wore poorly adapted eye protection. This can be explained by negligence, lack of awareness, etc. Overall, workers, employers, and the legislation in force are all responsible. Our results are comparable with those found in the literature, with certain particularities because heavy industry was underrepresented in our sample. Analysis of the law on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases shows that the worker is not sufficiently aware of his responsibilities. To our knowledge, the legal aspects treated herein have not been studied. As done in certain studies, we emphasize the importance of preventive ophthalmologic examinations as well as improvement of both working conditions and worker awareness in the workplace. Primary prevention must be reinforced. Information campaigns within the workplace aimed at workers and revision of the laws on occupational safety are some of the recommendations that are proposed to control

  2. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Mao

    Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  3. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...

  4. Eye movement training is most effective when it involves a task-relevant sensorimotor decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken, Jolande; Lalonde, Kathryn M; Mann, Gurkiran K; Spering, Miriam

    2018-04-01

    Eye and hand movements are closely linked when performing everyday actions. We conducted a perceptual-motor training study to investigate mutually beneficial effects of eye and hand movements, asking whether training in one modality benefits performance in the other. Observers had to predict the future trajectory of a briefly presented moving object, and intercept it at its assumed location as accurately as possible with their finger. Eye and hand movements were recorded simultaneously. Different training protocols either included eye movements or a combination of eye and hand movements with or without external performance feedback. Eye movement training did not transfer across modalities: Irrespective of feedback, finger interception accuracy and precision improved after training that involved the hand, but not after isolated eye movement training. Conversely, eye movements benefited from hand movement training or when external performance feedback was given, thus improving only when an active interceptive task component was involved. These findings indicate only limited transfer across modalities. However, they reveal the importance of creating a training task with an active sensorimotor decision to improve the accuracy and precision of eye and hand movements.

  5. Examination of musculoskeletal chest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunse, Mads Hostrup; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Vach, Werner

    2010-01-01

    using a standardized examination protocol, (2) to determine inter-observer reliability of single components of the protocol, and (3) to determine the effect of observer experience. Eighty patients were recruited from an emergency cardiology department. Patients were eligible if an obvious cardiac or non......-cardiac diagnosis could not be established at the cardiology department. Four observers (two chiropractors and two chiropractic students) performed general health and manual examination of the spine and chest wall. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappa and ICC were calculated for observer pairs (chiropractors.......01 to 0.59. Provided adequate training of observers, the examination protocol can be used in carefully selected patients in clinical settings and should be included in pre- and post-graduate clinical training....

  6. Association between vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, balance, gait, and fall risk in ageing and neurodegenerative disease: protocol of a one-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srulijes, Karin; Mack, David J; Klenk, Jochen; Schwickert, Lars; Ihlen, Espen A F; Schwenk, Michael; Lindemann, Ulrich; Meyer, Miriam; Srijana, K C; Hobert, Markus A; Brockmann, Kathrin; Wurster, Isabel; Pomper, Jörn K; Synofzik, Matthis; Schneider, Erich; Ilg, Uwe; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter; Becker, Clemens

    2015-10-09

    Falls frequency increases with age and particularly in neurogeriatric cohorts. The interplay between eye movements and locomotion may contribute substantially to the occurrence of falls, but is hardly investigated. This paper provides an overview of current approaches to simultaneously measure eye and body movements, particularly for analyzing the association of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) suppression, postural deficits and falls in neurogeriatric risk cohorts. Moreover, VOR suppression is measured during head-fixed target presentation and during gaze shifting while postural control is challenged. Using these approaches, we aim at identifying quantitative parameters of eye-head-coordination during postural balance and gait, as indicators of fall risk. Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) or Parkinson's disease (PD), age- and sex-matched healthy older adults, and a cohort of young healthy adults will be recruited. Baseline assessment will include a detailed clinical assessment, covering medical history, neurological examination, disease specific clinical rating scales, falls-related self-efficacy, activities of daily living, neuro-psychological screening, assessment of mobility function and a questionnaire for retrospective falls. Moreover, participants will simultaneously perform eye and head movements (fixating a head-fixed target vs. shifting gaze to light emitting diodes in order to quantify vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression ability) under different conditions (sitting, standing, or walking). An eye/head tracker synchronized with a 3-D motion analysis system will be used to quantify parameters related to eye-head-coordination, postural balance, and gait. Established outcome parameters related to VOR suppression ability (e.g., gain, saccadic reaction time, frequency of saccades) and motor related fall risk (e.g., step-time variability, postural sway) will be calculated. Falls will be assessed prospectively over 12 months via protocols and

  7. Eye tracking for visual marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.

    2008-01-01

    We provide the theory of visual attention and eye-movements that serves as a basis for evaluating eye-tracking research and for discussing salient and emerging issues in visual marketing. Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, we

  8. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  9. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  10. Telemedicine and Diabetic Eye Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults is eye disease related to poorly managed diabetes. In a prevention research study, telemedicine was shown to increase the number of people getting screened for diabetic eye disease.

  11. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your Eyes FEB 20, 2018 By Ari Soglin Researchers at Google say a new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high ...

  12. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  13. Chronic dry eye in PRK and LASIK: manifestations, incidence and predictive factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Mines, Michael J.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate dry eye manifestations following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and determine the incidence and predictive factors of chronic dry eye using a set of dry eye criteria. Setting Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Methods This is a prospective non-randomized clinical study of 143 active duty U.S. Army personnel aged 29.9±5.2 years with myopia or myopic astigmatism (manifest spherical equivalent −3.83±1.96 diopters) undergoing either PRK or LASIK. Dry eye evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively. Main outcome measures included dry eye manifestations, incidence, and predictive factors of chronic dry eye. Results Schirmer scores, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, surface regularity index (SRI), and responses to dry eye questionnaire significantly changed over time after PRK. After LASIK, significant changes were observed in tear breakup time, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, and responses to questionnaire. At twelve months postoperatively, 5.0% of PRK and 0.8% of LASIK participants developed chronic dry eye. Regression analysis showed preoperatively lower Schirmer score will significantly influence development of chronic dry eye after PRK whereas preoperatively lower Schirmer score or higher ocular surface staining score will significantly influence the occurrence of chronic dry eye after LASIK. Conclusions Chronic dry eye is uncommon after PRK and LASIK. Ocular surface and tear film characteristics during preoperative examination may help predict chronic dry eye development in PRK and LASIK. PMID:26796443

  14. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  15. The eye in acute leukaemia. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnett, A.N.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solitary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was diagnosed in the anterior chamber of the eye in five children. In all these cases, pathological confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained and there was no other evidence of relapse including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow examinations. Each child had one adverse prognostic sign at the initial presentation. Relapse always occurred soon after completion of maintenance chemotherapy (between 1 and 4 months), supporting the hypothesis that the eye is a pharmacological sanctuary to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. Radiotherapy to the involved orbit was given with an immediate response in all patients. The details of this treatment are discussed. Four of the five patients later relapsed, one locally and three in bone marrow; the prognosis of solitary ocular relapse therefore appears grave. 19 refs.; 1 table

  16. Examining the Influence of a New Light Rail Line on the Health of a Demographically Diverse and Understudied Population within the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area: A Protocol for a Natural Experiment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvig, Brit Irene; Brachman, Micah L.; Durand, Casey P.

    2018-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of adults and youth in Prince George’s County, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. are overweight or obese and less than half are achieving daily physical activity recommendations. Active transportation (AT), such as walking, biking or using public transportation (PT), is a strategic pathway to improving physical activity levels and thus reducing excess weight. Utilizing an expansion of the Washington, D.C. area transportation system with a new light rail line, the Purple Line Outcomes on Transportation (PLOT) Study will exam pre- and post-Purple Line PT use, AT behaviors and attitudes and physical activity among Prince George’s County adults and youth. The PLOT Study will take advantage of this natural experiment in an area enduring significant racial/ethnic and gender-based overweight or obesity and physical inactivity disparities. While similar natural experiments on AT have been conducted in other U.S. cities, those studies lacked diverse and representative samples. To effectively evaluate these physical activity outcomes among this population, efforts will be used to recruit African American and Latino populations, the first and second most common racial/ethnic groups in Prince George’s County. Finally, the PLOT Study will also examine how contextual effects (e.g., neighborhood built environment) impact PT, AT and physical activity.

  17. Examining the Influence of a New Light Rail Line on the Health of a Demographically Diverse and Understudied Population within the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area: A Protocol for a Natural Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately two-thirds of adults and youth in Prince George’s County, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. are overweight or obese and less than half are achieving daily physical activity recommendations. Active transportation (AT, such as walking, biking or using public transportation (PT, is a strategic pathway to improving physical activity levels and thus reducing excess weight. Utilizing an expansion of the Washington, D.C. area transportation system with a new light rail line, the Purple Line Outcomes on Transportation (PLOT Study will exam pre- and post-Purple Line PT use, AT behaviors and attitudes and physical activity among Prince George’s County adults and youth. The PLOT Study will take advantage of this natural experiment in an area enduring significant racial/ethnic and gender-based overweight or obesity and physical inactivity disparities. While similar natural experiments on AT have been conducted in other U.S. cities, those studies lacked diverse and representative samples. To effectively evaluate these physical activity outcomes among this population, efforts will be used to recruit African American and Latino populations, the first and second most common racial/ethnic groups in Prince George’s County. Finally, the PLOT Study will also examine how contextual effects (e.g., neighborhood built environment impact PT, AT and physical activity.

  18. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  19. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-12-01

    In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery. To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity and frequency among EA patients. We attempted to identify patients with increased risk of developing pain after EA and investigated if preoperative pain is a risk factor for a later development of phantom pain (paper III); In addition we wanted to investigate the health related quality of life, perceived stress, self rated health, job separation due to illness or disability and socio-economic position of the EA in comparison with the general Danish population (paper IV). Records on 431 EA patients, clinical ophthalmological examination and an interview study of 173 EA patients and a questionnaire answered by 120 EA patients. The most frequent indications for EA in Denmark were painful blind eye (37%) and neoplasm (34%). During the study period 1996-2003, the annual number of eye amputations was stable, but an increase in bulbar eviscerations was noticed. Orbital implants were used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a

  20. An examination of practice during radiography of the clavicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Kinsella, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Variation in techniques is a well reported phenomenon in Radiography that can lead to dose discrepancies. Radiography of the clavicle is an examination which can result in a scattered extra-focal radiation dose to the radiosensitive organs of the thyroid, breast and eyes. Techniques for imaging the clavicle are examined and causal factors of repeats examined. Given the recent increase of the tissue weighting factor of breast tissue, an increased importance is placed upon dose reduction techniques to this area. Aims: This study aims to investigate the variation in techniques used in imaging of the clavicle and to investigate whether AP or PA position resulted in a higher level of repeat imaging. Method: To investigate current practice amongst hospitals a sample of large teaching hospitals was chosen (n = 5). An interview with radiographers was carried out along with an examination of the stated protocols in each of these hospital plus retrospective analysis of the images produced in each of these hospitals. Results: Variations in practice were established, significant differences in collimation and vertical centring were found. AP coned view of the clavicle was performed by 80% of radiographers interviewed with 20% of radiographers performing an AP shoulder. This variation being 100% correlated with country of training. 60% of radiographers were found to perform AP15 o cranial angulation clavicle as a second projection with 28%, 8% and 4% of those interview performing AP25 o , AP20 o , and AP30 o cranial angulation, respectively. The comparison of error and repeat rates study demonstrated a lack of confidence, reduced employment of collimation and reduced accuracy while centring in the PA position and it was deemed necessary to repeat in 30% of cases compared to 40% repeats were necessary. Conclusion: Wide variation exists in technique and PA imaging is not being implemented. The author recommends training and information on PA technique be disseminated

  1. Eye development in the four-eyed fish Anableps anableps: cranial and retinal adaptations to simultaneous aerial and aquatic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Louise N; Lorena, Jamily; Costa, Carinne M; Araujo, Maysa S; Frota-Lima, Gabriela N; Matos-Rodrigues, Gabriel E; Martins, Rodrigo A P; Mattox, George M T; Schneider, Patricia N

    2017-04-12

    The unique eyes of the four-eyed fish Anableps anableps have long intrigued biologists. Key features associated with the bulging eye of Anableps include the expanded frontal bone and the duplicated pupils and cornea. Furthermore, the Anableps retina expresses different photoreceptor genes in dorsal and ventral regions, potentially associated with distinct aerial and aquatic stimuli. To gain insight into the developmental basis of the Anableps unique eye, we examined neurocranium and eye ontogeny, as well as photoreceptor gene expression during larval stages. First, we described six larval stages during which duplication of eye structures occurs. Our osteological analysis of neurocranium ontogeny revealed another distinctive Anablepid feature: an ossified interorbital septum partially separating the orbital cavities. Furthermore, we identified the onset of differences in cell proliferation and cell layer density between dorsal and ventral regions of the retina. Finally, we show that differential photoreceptor gene expression in the retina initiates during development, suggesting that it is inherited and not environmentally determined. In sum, our results shed light on the ontogenetic steps leading to the highly derived Anableps eye. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  3. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  4. Nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mletzko, U.

    1980-01-01

    Visual examination is treated as a method for the control of size and shape of components, surface quality and weld performance. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and eddy current examinations are treated as methods for the evaluation of surface defects and material properties. The limitations to certain materials, defect sizes and types are shown. (orig./RW)

  5. Keep an Eye on Your Eyes: Technologies for Protecting Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease,” Miller says. “With current technology, thousands of cells must die before it’s detected.” His team’s new method would allow eye doctors to see the damage earlier. In glaucoma, ...

  6. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  7. Eyes of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Deniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency, a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV, i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  8. Eyes of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Oscar; Vallez, Noelia; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose L; Rico-Saavedra, Jose M; Parra-Patino, Javier; Bueno, Gloria; Moloney, David; Dehghani, Alireza; Dunne, Aubrey; Pagani, Alain; Krauss, Stephan; Reiser, Ruben; Waeny, Martin; Sorci, Matteo; Llewellynn, Tim; Fedorczak, Christian; Larmoire, Thierry; Herbst, Marco; Seirafi, Andre; Seirafi, Kasra

    2017-05-21

    Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence". Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  9. Assessment of tear osmolarity and other dry eye parameters in post-LASIK eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo; Nemeth, Gabor

    2013-07-01

    To assess the tear osmolarity using the TearLab device after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and to compare the values with those obtained by traditional tear film tests before and after the procedure. Thirty eyes of 15 refractive surgery candidates (5 men and 10 women of mean age: 30.55 ± 11.79 years) were examined. Using a special questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index), subjective dry eye complaints were evaluated, and then, the tear osmolarity was measured with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) and conventional dry eye tests were carried out. Examinations were performed preoperatively and at 1, 30, and 60 days after the surgery. The mean value of tear osmolarity was 303.62 ± 12.29 mOsm/L before the surgery and 303.58 ± 20.14 mOsm/L at 60 days after the treatment (P = 0.69). Mean lid parallel conjunctival folds value was 0.68 ± 0.68 before the procedure and 0.58 ± 0.65 subsequent to surgery (P = 0.25). Meibomian gland dysfunction was not detected. No significant deviation was observed in the values of Schirmer test, corneal staining, tear break-up time, and lid parallel conjunctival folds when compared with postoperatively obtained values during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). During LASIK flap creation, intact corneal innervation is damaged, and the ocular surface lacrimal functional unit can be impaired. In our study, no abnormal dry eye test results were observed before or after the procedure. Based on our results, LASIK treatment is safe for dry eye involving the administration of adequate artificial tears for a minimum of 3 months.

  10. Adipogenesis in thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, M; Starkey, K J; Lane, C; Ham, J; Ludgate, M

    2000-10-01

    Adipogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED). Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) transcripts are present in orbital fat. This study was conducted to determine whether they are expressed as functional protein, and if so, whether this is restricted to TED orbits or to a particular stage in adipocyte differentiation. Samples of fat were obtained from 18 TED-affected orbits and 4 normal orbits, and 9 were obtained from nonorbital locations. Frozen sections were examined by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific for the human TSHR. Samples were disaggregated and the preadipocytes separated from the mature by differential centrifugation and cultured in serum-free or DM and examined for morphologic changes, oil red O and TSHR staining, and TSH-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. Marked immunoreactivity was observed in frozen sections from all three TED samples and faint staining in both normal orbital fat samples. In vitro, 1% to 5% of preadipocytes displayed TSHR immunoreactivity in five of six TED and two of three normal orbital samples and in three of five nonorbital samples. Differentiation, was induced in all 14 orbital samples. Three of four nonorbital samples contained occasional differentiated cells. Fifty percent to 70% of differentiating cells demonstrated receptor immunoreactivity. Two of three TED and four of four nonorbital preadipocytes in DM and/or mature adipocytes displayed a TSH-mediated increase in cAMP. The results indicate that orbital fat TSHR transcripts are expressed as protein, which can be functional. This is not aberrant in TED orbits, although expression may be upregulated. The majority of preadipocytes undergoing differentiation express the receptor, indicating a key role for this population in one mechanism for increasing orbital volume.

  11. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabin Sahu,1 Lila Raj Puri,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal Background: The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective: We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. Keywords: intraocular eyelashes, iris cyst, penetrating eye injury

  12. Validation of mobile eye tracking as novel and efficient means for differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMarx

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decreased ability to carry out vertical saccades is a key symptom of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP. Objective measurement devices can help to reliably detect subtle eye-movement disturbances to improve sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis. The present study aims at transferring findings from restricted stationary video-oculography to a wearable head-mounted device, which can be readily applied in clinical practice.Methods: We investigated the eye movements in 10 possible or probable PSP patients, 11 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HC using a mobile, gaze-driven video camera setup (EyeSeeCam. Ocular movements were analyzed during a standardized fixation protocol and in an unrestricted real-life scenario while walking along a corridor.Results: The EyeSeeCam detected prominent impairment of both saccade velocity and amplitude in PSP patients, differentiating them from PD and HCs. Differences were particularly evident for saccades in the vertical plane, and stronger for saccades than for other eye movements. Differences were more pronounced during the standardized protocol than in the real-life scenario. Conclusions: Combined analysis of saccade velocity and saccade amplitude during the fixation protocol with the EyeSeeCam provides a simple, rapid (< 20s and reliable tool to differentiate clinically established PSP patients from PD and HCs. As such, our findings prepare the ground for using wearable eye-tracking in patients with uncertain diagnoses.

  13. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

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    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  14. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

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    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  15. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  16. Vision and eye health in children 36 to <72 months: proposed data definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Russ, Shirley A; Repka, Michael X

    2015-01-01

    To recommend a standardized approach for measuring progress toward national goals to improve preschool children's eye health. A multidisciplinary panel of experts reviewed existing measures and national vision-related goals during a series of face-to-face meetings and conference calls. The panel used a consensus process, informed by existing data related to delivery of eye and non-eye services to preschool children. Currently, providers of vision screening and eye examinations lack a system to provide national- or state-level estimates of the proportion of children who receive either a vision screening or an eye examination. The panel developed numerator and denominator definitions to measure rates of children "who completed a vision screening in a medical or community setting using a recommended method, or received an eye examination by an optometrist or ophthalmologist at least once between the ages of 36 to <72 months." A separate measure for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and measures for eye examination and follow-up were also developed. The panel recommended that these measures be implemented at national, state, and local levels. Standardized performance measures that include all eye services received by a child are needed at state and national levels to measure progress toward improving preschool children's eye health.

  17. Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2017-02-27

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Cantú-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel; Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (-NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.

  19. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  20. There's More to the Multimedia Effect than Meets the Eye: Is Seeing Pictures Believing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks in applied mathematics often use graphs to explain the meaning of formulae, even though their benefit is still not fully explored. To test processes underlying this assumed multimedia effect we collected performance scores, eye movements, and think-aloud protocols from students solving problems in vector calculus with and without graphs.…