WorldWideScience

Sample records for eye cancer therapies

  1. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  2. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form of childhood eye cancer. Hemangioma is a benign tumor of the choroid and retina that starts in the blood vessels. Other, rare cancers of the eye include: Conjunctival melanoma is a tumor of the conjunctiva, which is ...

  3. Chemotherapy in eye cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy in eye cancer. Chemotherapy is one of several treatment strategies used to halt the uncontrolled division, proliferation and unpredictable growth patterns of malignant cells. R Dolland, BSc, MB BCh, FC Ophth (SA). Consultant, St John Eye Hospital, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, ...

  4. Neurotransmitters, more than meets the eye--neurotransmitters and their perspectives in cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2011-09-30

    The neurotransmitter/receptor system has been shown to modulate various aspects of tumor development including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and metastasis. It has been found that tumor tissues can not only synthesize and release a wide range of neurotransmitters but also produce different biological effects via respective receptors. These tissues are also innervated by nerve fibers but the biological significance is unknown. Nevertheless neurotransmitters can produce either stimulatory or inhibitory effect in normal and tumor tissues. These effects are dependent on the types of tissues and the kinds of neurotransmitter as well as the subtypes of corresponding receptors being involved. These findings clearly extend the conventional role of neurotransmitters in nervous system to the actions in oncogenesis. In this regard, intervention or stimulation of these neuronal pathways in different cancer diseases would have significant clinical implications in cancer treatments. Here, we summarize the influences of various well-characterized neurotransmitters and their receptors on tumor growth and further discuss the respective possible strategies and perspectives for cancer therapy in the future. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Eye complications of cetuximab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melichar, B; Nemcová, I

    2007-09-01

    Skin toxicity is the most important side effect of cetuximab administration, but little is known about the eye toxicity, including periorbital skin. We present here four cases of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma treated with the combination of cetuximab, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin who had manifestation of complications in the eye or periorbital skin. These manifestations consisted of erythematous eruptions in the periorbital skin with blepharitis and conjunctivitis in three patients and trichomegaly in one patient. The symptoms were controlled with local therapy including corticosteroids and antibiotics. The skin toxicity in the periorbital region is more important than in other skin areas because of the impact on the social activity of the patient and the vision. The manifestations of eye toxicity of cetuximab may be controlled by local therapy, and the management of these patients requires the collaboration of medical oncologist and ophthalmologist.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

  7. Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167324.html Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters' These spots ... 2017 THURSDAY, July 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A laser treatment can reduce spots in people's vision known ...

  8. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features on ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used to: ...

  9. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  10. Systemic Cancer Therapy:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ostario Palumbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, advances in the systemic therapy of cancer, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been responsible for improvements in cancer related mortality in developed countries even as the population continues to age. Although such advancements have yet to benefit all cancer types, systemic therapies have led to an improvement in overall survival in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting for many cancers. With the pressure to make therapies available as soon as possible, the side-effects of systemic therapies, in particular long-term side-effects are not very well characterized and understood. Increasingly, a number of cancer types are requiring long-term and even lifelong systemic therapy. This is true for both younger and older patients with cancer and has important implications for each subset. Younger patients have an overall greater expected life-span, and as a result may suffer a greater variety of treatment related complications in the long-term, whereas older patients may develop earlier side-effects as a result of their frailty. Because the incidence of cancer in the world will increase over the next several decades and there will be more people living with cancer, it is important to have an understanding of the potential side effects of new systemic therapies. As an introductory article, in this review series, we begin by describing some of the major advances made in systemic cancer therapy along with some of their known side-effects and we also make an attempt to describe the future of systemic cancer therapy.

  11. Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 members who specialize in treating cancer with radiation therapies. ASTRO is dedicated to improving patient care through ... rtanswers.org © ASTRO 2016 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Gynecologic cancers include malignancies of ...

  12. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  13. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  14. Fertility and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-05-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life.

  15. A high-resolution anthropomorphic voxel-based tomographic phantom for proton therapy of the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, A A [Department of Physics, University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ma, A [Department of Physics, University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Marouli, M [Department of Physics, University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Albarakati, Y [Department of Physics, University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kacperek, A [Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology Bebington, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Spyrou, N M [Department of Physics, University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-21

    Proton therapy is increasingly used in medical treatments for cancer patients due to the sharp dose conformity offered by the characteristic Bragg peak. Proton beam interactions with the eye will be simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code and available nuclear cross-section data to calculate the dose distribution in the eye gel and surrounding organs. A high-resolution eye model will be employed using a 3D geometrical voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom obtained from the Visible Human Project (female data). Manual segmentation of the eye, carried out by the Medical Physics group at University of Surrey resulted in 15 identified structures. This work emphasizes the use of a realistic phantom for accurately predicting dose deposition by protons. (note)

  16. A high-resolution anthropomorphic voxel-based tomographic phantom for proton therapy of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, A A; Ma, A; Marouli, M; Albarakati, Y; Kacperek, A; Spyrou, N M

    2007-01-21

    Proton therapy is increasingly used in medical treatments for cancer patients due to the sharp dose conformity offered by the characteristic Bragg peak. Proton beam interactions with the eye will be simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code and available nuclear cross-section data to calculate the dose distribution in the eye gel and surrounding organs. A high-resolution eye model will be employed using a 3D geometrical voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom obtained from the Visible Human Project (female data). Manual segmentation of the eye, carried out by the Medical Physics group at the University of Surrey resulted in 15 identified structures. This work emphasizes the use of a realistic phantom for accurately predicting dose deposition by protons.

  17. Targeted Therapies for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoroenyi Amanam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death and by 2030, it will be second only to lung cancer. We have seen tremendous advances in therapies for lung cancer as well as other solid tumors using a molecular targeted approach but our progress in treating pancreatic cancer has been incremental with median overall survival remaining less than one year. There is an urgent need for improved therapies with better efficacy and less toxicity. Small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and immune modulatory therapies have been used. Here we review the progress that we have made with these targeted therapies.

  18. Nanotechnology in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Burcu; Ozpolat, Bulent; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and advanced techniques for therapy are urgently needed. The development of novel nanomaterials and nanocarriers has allowed a major drive to improve drug delivery in cancer. The major aim of most nanocarrier applications has been to protect the drug from rapid degradation after systemic delivery and allowing it to reach tumor site at therapeutic concentrations, meanwhile avoiding drug delivery to normal sites as much as possible to reduce adverse effects. These nanocarriers are formulated to deliver drugs either by passive targeting, taking advantage of leaky tumor vasculature or by active targeting using ligands that increase tumoral uptake potentially resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy, thus achieving a net improvement in therapeutic index. The rational design of nanoparticles plays a critical role since structural and physical characteristics, such as size, charge, shape, and surface characteristics determine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, internalization and safety of the drugs. In this review, we focus on several novel and improved strategies in nanocarrier design for cancer therapy.

  19. Superficial Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Schenkman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer treatment remains a challenge despite significant improvements in preventing disease progression and improving survival. Intravesical therapy has been used in the management of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder (i.e. Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ with specific objectives which include treating existing or residual tumor, preventing recurrence of tumor, preventing disease progression, and prolonging survival. The initial clinical stage and grade remain the main determinant factors in survival regardless of the treatment. Prostatic urethral mucosal involvement with bladder cancer can be effectively treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG intravesical immunotherapy. Intravesical chemotherapy reduces short-term tumor recurrence by about 20%, and long-term recurrence by about 7%, but has not reduced progression or mortality. Presently, BCG immunotherapy remains the most effective treatment and prophylaxis for TCC (Ta, T1, CIS and reduces tumor recurrence, disease progression, and mortality. Interferons, Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH, bropirimine and Photofrin-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT are under investigation in the management of TCC and early results are encouraging. This review highlights and summarizes the recent advances in therapy for superficial TCC.

  20. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapi

  1. A REVIEW ON COMPREHENSIVE EYE EXAMINATION IN PEDIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even early in Eye disease, children have reduced economy of activity of daily living. Early eye examination, diagnosis and management will reduce the consequences of other system originated by eye problems. The current literature is aimed to provide and explore the knowledge of Pediatric Physical Therapist about pediatric eye examination. This will help in early detection of any eye disorder and in good prognosis of visual health, physical growth, social and mental health as well. Methods: The data and contents of current literature have been explored from different webpages, books and by personnel experience in pediatric physical therapy and optometry. Results: In the beginning disclosure and immediate treatment of ocular diseases in children is necessary to prevent lifelong visual deterioration. Checkup of the eyes should be carrying out early in the neonates period and at all well-child visits. Neonates should be checked for ocular structural abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis, which are known to cause in visual problems. Every child who are bring into being have an ocular anomaly or who fail vision examination should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients. Conclusions: Children account for a large and growing percentage of the population of the India. Studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of eye and vision disorders is substantial in this group. Researches also reveal that early detection and intervention are particularly important in children because of the very quick development of the visual system in early childhood and its sensitivity to interference. When disorders such as amblyopia and squint are undetected, the long-term consequences can be serious in terms of quality of life, comfort, appearance, and career opportunities.

  2. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  3. Autofluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of cancer eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shovan K.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Rathod, Sopan M.; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2007-02-01

    We report an in-vitro autofluorescence spectroscopic study of cow eye tissue to explore the applicability of the approach in discriminating early stage "cancer eye" from normal squamous eye tissues. Significant differences were observed in the autofluorescence signatures between the "cancer eye" and normal eye tissues. The spectral differences were quantified by employing a probability-based diagnostic algorithm developed based on recently formulated theory of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), a Bayesian machine-learning framework of statistical pattern recognition. The algorithm provided sensitivity and specificity values of 97 +/- 2% towards cancer for the training set data based on leave-one-out cross validation and a sensitivity of 97 +/- 2% and a specificity of 99 +/- 1% towards cancer for the independent validation set data. These results suggest that autofluorescence spectroscopy might prove to be a quantitative in-vivo diagnostic modality for early and accurate diagnosis of "cancer eye" in veterinary clinical setting, which would help improve ranch management from both economic and animal care standpoint.

  4. Mutagenesis after cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, K T; Caggana, M; Mauch, P M; Coleman, C N; Clark, J R; Liber, H L

    1993-01-01

    A subset of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and breast cancer patients have been reported to have elevated hprt mutant frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes after cessation of therapy. A subset of these patients are also known to develop second therapy-related malignancies. Therefore, it is clearly important to determine if these elevations in mutant frequency represent true, persistently elevated mutation frequencies. As a follow-up to our study of patients previously treated for HD, we recruited for a prospective study six previously treated HD patients and five patients who had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. These individuals were studied several times over a 6-7 months. The results confirmed that a subset of patients have persistently high mutant frequencies when compared to 71 previously studied controls. The study was designed to determine if the elevated mutant frequencies of treated patients represented independent mutations or resulted from the in vivo expansion of single mutant cells. We used the polymerase chain reaction to examine DNA single strand conformation polymorphisms at the T-cell receptor-gamma locus of individual mutant clones. This analysis showed that 20.1% of the mutants from Hodgkin's disease patients and 17.5% of the mutants from squamous cell carcinoma patients were siblings. The sibling mutants generally did not persist over time. However, one patient had one mutant clone that persisted, but slowly decreased in prevalence over a 7 month sampling period. The data demonstrate that treatments for cancer result in persistently elevated mutation frequencies at the hprt locus in some, but not all, patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143613

  5. Shaping magnetic fields to direct therapy to ears and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B; Kulkarni, S; Nacev, A; Sarwar, A; Preciado, D; Depireux, D A

    2014-07-11

    Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.

  6. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  7. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  8. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. wiley.co.uk/genmed/ clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC. PMID:25309069

  9. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  10. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, William S. M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  12. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  13. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  14. Liposome based radiosensitizer cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourhassan, Houman

    Liposome-encapsulated chemotherapeutics have been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers and are feasible for use as mono-therapeutics as well as for combination therapy in conjunction with other modalities. Despite widespread use of liposomal drugs in cancer patient care, insufficient drug...... in tumor-bearing mice.The safety and efficacy of sPLA2-sensitive liposomal L-OHP was assessed in sPLA2-deficient FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and sPLA2-expressing Colo205 colorectal adenocarcinoma. Also, the feasibility of multimodal cancer therapy employing L-OHP encapsulated in MMP....... And may thereby improve therapeutic outcome. Two types of enzymes commonly overexpressed in solid cancers and exploited for liposomal drug delivery purposes, are secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).Furthermore, as platinum-based chemotherapeutic compounds are renowned...

  15. Proton therapy for uveal melanomas and other eye lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzenrider, J.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Univ. Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Charged particle beams are ideal for treating intra-ocular lesions, since they can be made to deposit their dose in the target, while significantly limiting dose received by non-involved ocular and orbital structures. Proton beam treatment of large numbers of uveal melanoma patients consistently achieves local control rates in excess of 95%, and eye retention rates of approximately 90%. Visual preservation is related to initial visual acuity, tumor size and location, and dose received by the macula, disc, and lens. The probability of distant metastasis is increased by larger tumor diameter, more anterior tumor location, and older patient age. Proton therapy is also effective treatment for patients with ocular angiomas, hemangiomas, metastatic tumors, and retinoblastomas, and may be beneficial for patients with exudative (`wet`) age-related macular degeneration. (orig.)

  16. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exposed to radiation. Whether IMRT leads to improved control of tumor growth and better survival compared ... treatments. Some patients may receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. The timing of radiation ...

  17. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  18. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  19. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Your Health Insurance Plan Federal Government Programs Patient Safety Informed Consent Children's Assent Scientific Review Ending Trials ... induced hypertension and outcomes of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated ... Oncology 2013; 11:306. [PubMed Abstract] Gore L, DeGregori ...

  20. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    Antiprotons are interesting as a modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, they behave as protons. Well before the Bragg-peak, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers exhibit equal radiobiology. But when the antiprotons come...

  1. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  2. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan Akcay, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Can, Gamze Dereli; Aslan, Nabi; Uysal, Betul Seher; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Koseahya, Pinar; Cagil, Nurullah

    2015-01-01

    There is a generalization that "antihypertensive (antiHT) therapy causes Dry Eye Syndrome", which has been claimed for years however most of the publications are epidemiological studies. We performed a clinical study to investigate the effects of antiHT agents on tear function. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effects of different classes of antiHT medications on tear osmolarity, ocular surface problems and dry eye symptoms. Prospective, non-randomized a clinical study. A total of 71 patients who would be initiated antiHT medication due to elevated systemic blood pressure were included in the study. Thirty of these patients were given antiHT drugs containing diuretic (diuretic +), and 41 of them were given diuretic-free drugs (diuretic -). While the number of the patients medicated in the group that received Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACE inh)/Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) (ACE/ARB +) was 29, the number of those medicated in the ACE/ARB-free group (ACE/ARB -) was 42. Ocular surface disease index scores, tear osmolarity, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein (FL) and rose bengal corneal staining patterns of the patients were analyzed. The patients were examined through the repetition of all the tests in the 1st and the 3rd month. The participants (n = 71) comprised 38 males and 33 females with a mean age of 51.8 ± 10.4. When the first (0-1st month) and the third month (0-3rd months) control measurements between diuretics (+) and diuretics (-) groups before and after antiHT therapies were compared, a statistically significant difference was not found in any of the tests applied. When the 0-1st month measurements of ACE/ARB (+) and ACE/ARB (-) groups were compared, it was observed that staining with FL in ACE/ARB (+) group decreased in a statistically significant manner (p = 0.035) and there was a significant increase in TBUT values (p = 0.022). The use of antiHT drugs containing diuretic had no

  3. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  4. Music therapy in supportive cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy i...

  5. Gene Therapy for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Roth, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy was originally conceived to treat monogenic diseases. The replacement of a defective gene with a functional gene can theoretically cure the disease. In cancer, multiple genetic defects are present and the molecular profile changes during the course of the disease, making the replacement of all defective genes impossible. To overcome these difficulties, various gene therapy strategies have been adopted, including immune stimulation, transfer of suicide genes, inhibition of driver oncogenes, replacement of tumor-suppressor genes that could mediate apoptosis or anti-angiogenesis, and transfer of genes that enhance conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some of these strategies have been tested successfully in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the results of laboratory studies and clinical trials are reviewed herein.

  6. Curcumin in combined cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Koraljka Gall; Kujundzic, Renata Novak

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of beneficial preventive and therapeutic effects achieved by traditional and complementary medicine are currently being deciphered in molecular medicine. Curcumin, a yellow-colored polyphenol derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa), influences a wide variety of cellular processes through the reshaping of many molecular targets. One of them, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), represents a strong mediator of inflammation and, in a majority of systems, supports the pro-proliferative features of cancer cells. The application of various anticancer drugs, cytostatics, triggers signals which lead to an increase in cellular NF-κB activity. As a consequence, cancer cells often reshape their survival signaling pathways and, over time, become resistant to applied therapy. Curcumin was shown to be a strong inhibitor of NF-κB activity and its inhibitory effect on NF-κB related pathways often leads to cellular apoptotic response. All these facts, tested and confirmed in many different biological systems, have paved the way for research aimed to elucidate the potential beneficial effects of combining curcumin and various anti-cancer drugs in order to establish more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment modalities. This review addresses certain aspects of NF-κB-related inflammatory response, its role in carcinogenesis and therapy benefits that may be gained through silencing NF-κB by selectively combining curcumin and various anticancer drugs.

  7. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  8. Analysis on therapy efficacy of different drugs for dry eyes after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the therapy efficacy of different drugs for dry eyes after cataract surgery.METHODS: Collected from June 2014 to June 2016 in patients with dry eyes in our departments of cataract surgery, a total of 60 cases with 120 eyes, according to the doctor order divided into pure sodium hyaluronate eye drops group 20 cases(40 eyes, sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group 20 cases(40 eyes, sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill group of 20 cases(40 eyes. All patients were treated for 1mo. Observation of break up time(BUT, Shimmer Ⅰ test(SItand fluorescein corneal staining(FIwere recorded before the treatment and 1, 2wk, 1, 3mo after treatment. RESULTS: Difference of efficient rates of three groups 1mo after treatment were statistically significant(PP>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; but sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill group(12.14±1.97swas superior to pure sodium hyaluronate eye drops group(10.54±1.88sand sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group(12.05±1.63s.SIt: there was no statistically significant difference among three groups before treatment(P>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05.CONCLUSION:Sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill in the treatment of dry eye after cataract surgery is better than that of sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group and simple application of sodium hyaluronate eye drops, which can better improve the visual function, improve tear film stability, get better

  9. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, gene therapy-based immune modulation, correction/compensation of gene defects, genetic manipulation of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, antisense, and RNAi strategies. Cancer types, which have been targeted with gene therapy, include brain, lung, breast, pancreatic, liver, colorectal, prostate, bladder, head and neck, skin, ovarian, and renal cancer. Currently, two cancer gene therapy products have received market approval, both of which are in China. In addition, the stimulation of the host’s immune system, using gene therapeutic approaches, has gained vast interest. The intention of this review is to point out the most commonly viral and non-viral vectors and methods used in cancer gene therapy, as well as highlight some key results achieved in clinical trials.

  10. Cancer nanotechnology: application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita; Acharya, Sarbari; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-10-01

    The application of nanotechnology for cancer therapy has received considerable attention in recent years. Cancer nanotechnology (an interdisciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine) is an upcoming field with extensive applications. It provides a unique approach and comprehensive technology against cancer through early diagnosis, prediction, prevention, personalized therapy and medicine. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas in which nanotechnology would play a vital part. This review focuses on the approaches of cancer nanotechnology in the advancement of cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. p53-based Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David P.; Cheok, Chit Fang; Lain, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 functions is an almost universal feature of human cancer cells. This has spurred a tremendous effort to develop p53 based cancer therapies. Gene therapy using wild-type p53, delivered by adenovirus vectors, is now in widespread use in China. Other biologic approaches include the development of oncolytic viruses designed to replicate and kill only p53 defective cells and also the development of siRNA and antisense RNA's that activate p53 by inhibiting the function of the negative regulators Mdm2, MdmX, and HPV E6. The altered processing of p53 that occurs in tumor cells can elicit T-cell and B-cell responses to p53 that could be effective in eliminating cancer cells and p53 based vaccines are now in clinical trial. A number of small molecules that directly or indirectly activate the p53 response have also reached the clinic, of which the most advanced are the p53 mdm2 interaction inhibitors. Increased understanding of the p53 response is also allowing the development of powerful drug combinations that may increase the selectivity and safety of chemotherapy, by selective protection of normal cells and tissues. PMID:20463003

  12. MR - eyes for cancer: looking within an impenetrable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Artemov, Dmitri; Farahani, Keyvan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2013-07-01

    Probe development is a critical component in cancer imaging, and novel probes are making major inroads in several aspects of cancer detection and image-guided treatments. Intrinsic MR probes such as signals from metabolites and their chemical shifts have been used for more than a decade to understand cancer physiology and metabolism. Through the integration of technology, molecular biology, and chemistry, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of extrinsic probes for molecular and functional imaging of cancer that, together with techniques such as CEST and hyperpolarization, have significantly expanded the repertoire of MR techniques in basic and translational investigations of many different aspects of cancer. Furthermore, incorporation of MR probes into multifunctional nanoparticles and multimodality imaging platforms have opened new opportunities for MR in image-guided diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Here we have provided an overview of recent innovations that have occurred in the development of MRI probes for molecular and functional imaging of cancer. Although most of these novel probes are not clinically available, they offer significant promise for future translational applications. In this review, we have highlighted the areas of future development that are likely to have a profound impact on cancer detection and treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  14. Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkilä, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E

    2007-09-08

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells.

  15. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)

    2004-08-21

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  16. Lymphatic drainage from the eye: A new target for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Yeni; Gupta, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) has been central to glaucoma care for over a century. In order to prevent sight loss from disease, there has been considerable focus on medical and surgical methods to improve fluid drainage from the eye. In spite of this, our understanding of exactly how aqueous humor leaves the eye is not complete. Recently, lymphatic vessels have been discovered in the human uvea, with studies showing lymphatic fluid outflow in several models, in addition to evidence for their pharmacological enhancement. The presence of a lymphatic outflow system points to an exciting, expanded understanding of how fluid and particulate materials such as proteins move out of the eye, and how IOP may be regulated. We coin the term "uveolymphatic pathway"-to reflect a comprehensive and compelling new target for glaucoma and an exciting opportunity for future investigations to better understand the eye in health and disease. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dry Eye Syndrome After Proton Therapy of Ocular Melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thariat, Juliette, E-mail: jthariat@gmail.com [Proton Therapy Unit, Department of Radiation Therapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Maschi, Celia; Lanteri, Sara [Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Eye University Clinic, Nice (France); Peyrichon, Marie Laure [Proton Therapy Unit, Department of Radiation Therapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Baillif, Stephanie [Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Eye University Clinic, Nice (France); Herault, Joel [Proton Therapy Unit, Department of Radiation Therapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Salleron, Julia [Department of Biostatistics, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Caujolle, Jean Pierre [Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Eye University Clinic, Nice (France)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether proton therapy (PT) performs safely in superotemporal melanomas, in terms of risk of dry-eye syndrome (DES). Methods and Materials: Tumor location, DES grade, and dose to ocular structures were analyzed in patients undergoing PT (2005-2015) with 52 Gy (prescribed dose, not accounting for biologic effectiveness correction of 1.1). Prognostic factors of DES and severe DES (sDES, grades 2-3) were determined with Cox proportional hazard models. Visual acuity deterioration and enucleation rates were compared by sDES and tumor locations. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (interquartile range, 18-60 months). Of 853 patients (mean age, 64 years), 30.5% had temporal and 11.4% superotemporal tumors. Five-year incidence of DES and sDES was 23.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0%-27.7%) and 10.9% (95% CI 8.2%-14.4%), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed a higher risk for sDES in superotemporal (hazard ratio [HR] 5.82, 95% CI 2.72-12.45) and temporal tumors (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.28-5.42), age ≥70 years (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.09-3.32), distance to optic disk ≥5 mm (HR 2.71, 95% CI 1.52-4.84), ≥35% of retina receiving 12 Gy (HR 2.98, 95% CI 1.54-5.77), and eyelid rim irradiation (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.49-4.80). The same risk factors were found for DES. Visual acuity deteriorated more in patients with sDES (0.86 ± 1.10 vs 0.64 ± 0.98 logMAR, P=.034) but not between superotemporal/temporal and other locations (P=.890). Enucleation rates were independent of sDES (P=.707) and tumor locations (P=.729). Conclusions: Severe DES was more frequent in superotemporal/temporal melanomas. Incidence of vision deterioration and enucleation was no higher in patients with superotemporal melanoma than in patients with tumors in other locations. Tumor location should not contraindicate PT.

  18. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  19. Nanotechnologies in Pancreatic Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur, Ayesha; Oluwasanmi, Adeolu; Moss, Darren; Curtis, Anthony; Hoskins, Clare

    2017-09-25

    Pancreatic cancer has been classified as a cancer of unmet need. After diagnosis the patient prognosis is dismal with few surviving over 5 years. Treatment regimes are highly patient variable and often the patients are too sick to undergo surgical resection or chemotherapy. These chemotherapies are not effective often because patients are diagnosed at late stages and tumour metastasis has occurred. Nanotechnology can be used in order to formulate potent anticancer agents to improve their physicochemical properties such as poor aqueous solubility or prolong circulation times after administration resulting in improved efficacy. Studies have reported the use of nanotechnologies to improve the efficacy of gemcitabine (the current first line treatment) as well as investigating the potential of using other drug molecules which have previously shown promise but were unable to be utilised due to the inability to administer through appropriate routes-often related to solubility. Of the nanotechnologies reported, many can offer site specific targeting to the site of action as well as a plethora of other multifunctional properties such as image guidance and controlled release. This review focuses on the use of the major nanotechnologies both under pre-clinical development and those which have recently been approved for use in pancreatic cancer therapy.

  20. Application of head-mounted devices with eye-tracking in virtual reality therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Otto Hans-Martin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using eye-tracking to assess visual attention in head-mounted devices (HMD opens up many possibilities for virtual reality (VR-based therapy. Existing therapy concepts where attention plays a major role can be transferred to VR. Furthermore, they can be expanded to a precise real-time attention assessment, which can serve as a foundation for new therapy approaches. Utilizing HMDs and eye-tracking in a clinical environment is challenging because of hygiene issues and requirements of patients with heterogeneous cognitive and motor impairments. In this paper, we provide an overview of those challenges, discuss possible solutions and present preliminary results of a study with patients.

  1. Potential Therapeutic Modalities in Cancer Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of huge concerted efforts, the treatment of cancer, a disease frequently associated with genetic alterations caused due to hereditary or environmental factors, remains a challenge. The last few years have witnessed emergence of several innovative and effective modalities for the treatment of solid tumours and hematological malignancies. Gene therapy has shown enormous potential for cancer treatment, especially for metastatic cancers which unlike localized solid tumours, may not be amenable to surgery or other treatment options. Gene therapy aims to introduce a correct copy of the malfunctioning gene in the tumour environment by using viral or non-viral methods to impede or inhibit its growth. This review provides an overview of three main approaches for cancer gene therapy namely immunotherapy, oncolytic therapy and gene transfer therapy. Immunotherapy augments the host immune system in order to destroy cancer cells while oncolytic therapy uses genetically engineered viruses such as to effectively kill cancer cells. Clinical studies so far have shown that cells can be engineered to express gene products that can specifically target cancer cells and prevents their growth and metastasis. Though gene therapy for cancer is yet to see extensive clinical use, it is likely that in combination with other treatment modalities, it will help in controlling and possibly curing cancer in the near future.

  2. Dose Assessment of Eye and Its Components in Proton Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Proton therapy is used to treat malignant tumors such as melanoma inside the eye. Proton particles are adjusted according to various parameters such as tumor size and position and patient’s distance from the proton source. The purpose of this study was to assess absorbed doses in eyes and various tumors found in the area of sclera and choroid and the adjacent tissues in radiotherapy while changing most important proton therapy parameters such as moderators thickness (1.5-1.9 cm, exposure radius (0.5-0.8 cm, and proton energy beam (53.5-65 MeV. Materials and Methods A proton therapy system of Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFNwas simulated by Monte Carlo method. Moreover, the eye and its components were simulated using concentric spheres. To obtain a more accurate results, real density of eye components such as cornea and lens, were applied for simulation. Then, the absorbed dose of eye and eye tumor, in choroid and sclera areas, were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Results The absorbed dose in tumoral region of eye was calculated to be about 12.5 ±0.006Gy in one day with energy 62 MeV for a therapy session, which is suitable for treatment. However, normal eye cells received at most 11.01 Gy which is high. Conclusion The amount of absorbed dose in tumoral cells is noticeable. Therefore, accurate treatment planning, patient immobility and fine calibration of proton-therapy system and its simulator are very important to reduce the absorbed dose of healthy cells.

  3. Music therapy in a comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael M; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana E; Frenkel, Moshe A

    2008-01-01

    The use of music as a therapeutic tool in health and medicine dates back to ancient times. In modern Western medicine, music therapy has been available since the 1950s and is now often incorporated into conventional medicine care. Music therapy is a common modality that is used in hospital settings as part of complementary and integrative medicine programs. It is also a key therapeutic tool used within most integrative medicine programs at large cancer centers in the United States. When used in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, music therapy has been found to help patients promote a better quality of life; better communicate their fear, sadness, or other feelings; and better manage stress, while alleviating physical pain and discomfort. In this article, we review the literature on the value of integrating music therapy in cancer care and describe the experience of music therapy at a large comprehensive cancer center and the benefits that patients with cancer obtain from this service.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  6. Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Romaniuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are multisubunit enzyme complexes. They contain three enzymatic active sites which are termed chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like. The elementary function of the proteasomes is degradation of damaged proteins. Proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of damaged protein, which leads to caspase activation and cell death. This relationship is used in cancer therapy. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib belongs to the second generation of drugs, which was approved by the US FDA in 2012. Currently in the study phase there are four new inhibitors: ixazomib (MLN9780/MLN2238, delanzomib (CEP-18770, oprozomib (ONX0912/PR-047 and marizomib (NPI-0052.

  7. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  8. Telomerase Structure Paves the way for New Cancer Therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skordalakes, S.

    2009-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of a single enzyme, telomerase, is associated with the uncontrollable proliferation of cells observed in as many as 90% of all of human cancers. Since the mid-1990s, when telomerase activity was detected in human tumors, scientists have eyed the enzyme as an ideal target for developing broadly effective anticancer drugs. One of the missing links in the effort to identify such therapies has been the high-resolution structure of the enzyme, a powerful tool used for the identification and development of clinical drugs. A recent structure of the catalytic subunit of teleomerase from the Skordalakes laboratory, a major advancement in the field of telomeres, has opened the door to the development of new, broadly effective cancer drugs, as well as anti-aging therapies. Here we present a brief description of telomerase biology, current efforts to identify telomerase function modulators and the potential importance of the telomerase structure in future drug development.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    at least equivalent efficacy and tolerability, field directed therapies are therefore often more worthwhile than lesion targeted approaches. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with its selective sensitization and destruction of diseased tissue is one ideal form of therapy for this indication. In the following...... paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use....

  10. Cancer suicide gene therapy: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Saúl Abenhamar; Carrillo, Esmeralda; Griñán-Lisón, Carmen; Martín, Ana; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Boulaiz, Houria

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is considered the second leading cause of death worldwide despite the progress made in early detection and advances in classical therapies. Advancing in the fight against cancer requires the development of novel strategies, and the suicide gene transfer to tumor cells is providing new possibilities for cancer therapy. In this manuscript, authors present an overview of suicide gene systems and the latest innovations done to enhance cancer suicide gene therapy strategies by i) improving vectors for targeted gene delivery using tissue specific promoter and receptors; ii) modification of the tropism; and iii) combining suicide genes and/or classical therapies for cancer. Finally, the authors highlight the main challenges to be addressed in the future. Even if many efforts are needed for suicide gene therapy to be a real alternative for cancer treatment, we believe that the significant progress made in the knowledge of cancer biology and characterization of cancer stem cells accompanied by the development of novel targeted vectors will enhance the effectiveness of this type of therapeutic strategy. Moreover, combined with current treatments, suicide gene therapy will improve the clinical outcome of patients with cancer in the future.

  11. [Influence of antihypertensive therapy on morphofunctional and biomechanical parameters of eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, L L; Arutyunyan, L L

    2015-01-01

    SHORTHEADER: biomechanical parameters of the eye on antihypertensive therapy. to establish correlation of main biomechanical parameters of cornea depends on conducted antihyperthensive therapy and morphofunctional condition of cornea. 58 patients (62 eyes) with POAG were included in the dynamic study in the period from 36 to 42 months. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the values of corneal hysteresis (CH) in the first part of the study. The value of CH in the first group (37 eyes) was in normal ranges 8,3-12,4 mm of mercury, in the second group (25 eyes) CH value has been reduced to 5.6-8.2 mm of mercury. In the second part of the study brimonidine/ timolol fixed combination (Combigan, Allergan) was prescribed as adjunctive therapy for the patients from the group 2 with low CH level. The following scheme of instillations was recommended--1 drop 2 times a day with interval of 12 hours. We evaluated the subjective and objective measures of structural and functional condition of the eye after 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. In the first part of the study of the dynamics of morphological and functional parameters of the optic nerve at different values of the CH, it was found that if CH biomechanical parameters of the eye and stabilization of glaucomatous process.

  12. [Multilateral Strategies Utilizing Exosomes for Cancer Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida-Aoki, Nao; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-05-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells. More, as the cancer-derived exosomes have cancer-promoting effects on multiple stages, inhibiting the function of the cancer-derived exosomes would be helpful to cancer therapies by suppressing cancer progression. DDS and cancer vaccines utilizing exosomes are now undergoing clinical studies, although DDS is suffering from loading efficiency. Treatments by inhibiting the functions of cancer-derived exosomes have still only few reports at experimental levels. Recently, we showed in a mouse model that disruption of cancer-derived exosomes by antibodies could suppress lung metastasis of the human breast cancer cells. Exosomes will provide us the multiple strategies to fight with cancer, which can be applied to cancers from many organs. It is important to confirm safety and overcome technical problems to bring exosomes in practical use.

  13. Silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Cao, Zhaohui; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Binbin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology suggests new and exciting opportunities for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. During the recent years, silicon-based nanomaterials featuring unique properties have received great attention, showing high promise for myriad biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we will particularly summarize latest representative achievements on the development of silicon nanostructures as a powerful platform for cancer early diagnosis and therapy. First, we introduce the silicon nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting cancer markers (e.g., proteins, tumor-suppressor genes and telomerase activity, among others) with high sensitivity and selectivity under molecular level. Then, we summarize in vitro and in vivo applications of silicon nanostructures as efficient nanoagents for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the future perspective of silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Music therapy in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika

    2011-06-08

    The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy is a part of a complementary medicine program in supportive cancer care which accompanies medical treatment. There are many benefits of music therapy for cancer patients-interactive music therapy techniques (instrumental improvisation, singing) as well as receptive music therapy techniques (listening to recorded or live music, music and imaginary) can be used to improve mood, decrease stress, pain, anxiety level and enhance relaxation. Music therapy is an effective form of supporting cancer care for patients during the treatment process. It may be also basic for planning effective programs of rehabilitation to promote wellness, improve physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life.

  15. CERN launches new cancer therapy initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The first meeting of a new European network for research in cancer therapy was held at CERN, in February 2002. ENLIGHT, the European Network for Research in Light Ion Therapy aims to coordinate the development of a variety of projects at European facilities for "light ion therapy" - a form of radiation therapy that uses beams of the nuclei of lightweight atoms" (1/2 page).

  16. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  18. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  19. Dose Assessment of Eye and Its Components in Proton Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Tavakol; Alireza Karimian; Sayyed Mojtaba Mostajab Aldaavati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Proton therapy is used to treat malignant tumors such as melanoma inside the eye. Proton particles are adjusted according to various parameters such as tumor size and position and patient’s distance from the proton source. The purpose of this study was to assess absorbed doses in eyes and various tumors found in the area of sclera and choroid and the adjacent tissues in radiotherapy while changing most important proton therapy parameters such as moderators thickness (1.5-1.9 cm),...

  20. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  1. Dendrimer-based nanoparticles for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that nanoparticles in the form of dendrimers may be a keystone in the future of therapeutics. The field of oncology could soon be revolutionized by novel strategies for diagnosis and therapy employing dendrimer-based nanotherapeutics. Several aspects of cancer therapy would be involved. Diagnosis using imaging techniques such as MRI will be improved by the incorporation of dendrimers as advanced contrast agents. This might involve novel contrast agents targeted specifically to cancer cells. Dendrimers can also be being applied to a variety of cancer therapies to improve their safety and efficacy. A strategy, somewhat akin to the "Trojan horse," involves targeting anti-metabolite drugs via vitamins or hormones that tumors need for growth. Further applications of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy, boron neutron capture therapy, and gene therapy for cancer are being examined. This presentation will cover the fundamentals of research utilizing dendrimers for cancer diagnosis and therapy. An evaluation of this new technologies will detail what advantage dendrimer based therapeutics might have over conventional cancer drugs.

  2. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Targeting the tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sounni, Nor Eddine; Noel, Agnès

    With the emergence of the tumor microenvironment as an essential ingredient of cancer malignancy, therapies targeting the host compartment of tumors have begun to be designed and applied in the clinic...

  4. Missed Radiation Therapy and Cancer Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who miss radiation therapy sessions during cancer treatment have an increased risk of their disease returning, even if they eventually complete their course of radiation treatment, according to a new study.

  5. Focal therapy for prostate cancer. Alternative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, F; Martínez-Breijo, S; Solsona-Narbón, E; Hernández, C; Ciudin, A; Ribal, M J; Dickinson, L; Moore, C; Ahmed, H; Rodríguez Antolín, A; Breda, A; Gaya, J; Portela-Pereira, P; Emberton, M

    2014-09-01

    The great controversy surrounding the treatment of localized prostate cancer is related with its possibilities of radical treatment or active surveillance. The objective of this paper is to analyze the rationale selection among current focal therapy modalities regarding tumor and patient selection. Current articles about advantages and disadvantages on the treatment of localized prostate cancer as well as information about focal therapy regarding tumour selection, characteristics and indications cited in MEDLINE search were reviewed. Focal therapy standardized criteria must be: low risk tumors, PSA15. Focal therapy is an alternative for localized prostate cancer treatment. However, some aspects of their diagnosis and selection criteria should be defined by prospective studies which should provide knowledge about the indication for focal therapy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-VEGF Therapy for Diabetic Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bobak; Hong, Thomas; Gilles, Mark C; Chang, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness in the working-age population. The identification of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a key mediator in the pathogenesis of DR has revolutionized the management of this vision-threatening disease. There is now strong evidence supporting intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy as first line in the management of sight-threatening diabetic macular edema (DME), along with a growing body of evidence to support the use of anti-VEGF drugs for proliferative DR. This review summarizes the role of VEGF in DR, the evidence for anti-VEGF therapy, safety considerations, and the future of anti-VEGF therapy for the management of DR. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  7. Management outcome(s in eyes with retinoblastoma previously inadequately treated with systemic chemotherapy alone without focal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub A Yousef

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy alone cannot eradicate RB cells in effected eyes without combination with consolidation therapy by a multidisciplinary team to salvage the affected eye as well as its vision. Nonetheless, chemotherapy can be initiated (to keep the tumor at a less invasive stage for patients from centers or countries where combination therapy is not available until they gain access to adequate management of RB.

  8. Intrathecal Therapy for Cancer-Related Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Allen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The increasing incidence of cancer survivorship has shifted treatment of cancer-related pain from short-term analgesia to long-term chronic pain management. As a result, alternatives to oral analgesics, such as intrathecal therapy, may be beneficial for patients with cancer-related pain. The authors review the use of intrathecal therapy in the management of cancer-related pain. Methods. The Medline database was searched for English-language articles that included “ziconotide” or “morphine” AND (“cancer” OR “malignant”) AND “intrathecal” in title or abstract. Available abstracts from scientific congresses in the areas of neuromodulation and oncology were also reviewed. Results. Intrathecal therapy provides pain relief with reduced systemic concerns in patients with cancer-related pain. Patients should undergo multidisciplinary evaluation and, in most cases, drug trialing before intrathecal pump implantation. Morphine, an opioid (µ-opioid receptor antagonist), and ziconotide, a nonopioid (selective N-type calcium channel inhibitor), are both approved for intrathecal analgesia; however, tolerance and safety concerns may deter the use of intrathecal morphine. Ziconotide has also shown efficacy for reduction of cancer-related pain; however, proper dosing and titration must be used to prevent adverse events. There is little information available on use of intrathecal therapies specifically in cancer survivors. Conclusions. Treatment of cancer-related pain has shifted toward chronic pain management strategies, especially among cancer survivors. Intrathecal therapy provides an alternate route of administration of chronic pain medications (e.g., morphine and ziconotide) for cancer patients with and without active disease, although additional research is needed to support effectiveness in cancer survivors. PMID:28025375

  9. Play Therapy Utilizing the Sony EyeToy®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    to the potentials of games utilizing mirrored user embodiment in therapy. Results highlight the positive aspects of gameplay and the evaluand potential in the field. Conclusions suggest a continuum where presence state is a significant interim mode toward a higher order aesthetic resonance state that we claim...

  10. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  11. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  12. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  13. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, B D

    2000-08-01

    Although clinical studies with photodynamic therapy have been conducted for over 25 years, only recently has this technique become widely available for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Studies have demonstrated that it is as effective as Nd:YAG therapy for advanced esophageal malignancies while technically being somewhat easier to perform. Preliminary studies in early esophageal cancer also show effectiveness. In many ways, PDT is still in its infancy, and its exact role compared to other endoscopic treatments of esophageal cancer remains to be defined. It is expected that the development of new photosensitizers and light delivery systems will further expand the role of PDT in the diagnosis and management of esophageal neoplasms.

  14. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres.

  15. Imaging Neoadjuvant Therapy Response in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amy M; Mankoff, David A; Joe, Bonnie N

    2017-11-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing beyond the scope of locally advanced disease. Imaging provides important information in assessing response to therapy as a complement to conventional tumor measurements via physical examination. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and limitations of current assessment methods, as well as review functional and molecular imaging approaches being investigated as emerging techniques for evaluating neoadjuvant therapy response for patients with primary breast cancer. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  16. Functionalized nanobodies for cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, R.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer treatment is complicated by the high similarity between cancerous and healthy tissue. New anti-cancer drugs, the monoclonal antibodies, act on one specific molecule/process and thereby minimize side effects. Despite that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific and harbor multiple

  17. A RESCUE THERAPY FOR PERSISTENT OPTIC DISK PIT MACULOPATHY IN PREVIOUSLY VITRECTOMIZED EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Marta S; Nadal, Jeroni; Contreras, Inés

    2018-01-01

    To report the results of vitrectomy with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application and gas tamponade as a rescue therapy in previously vitrectomized eyes with optic disk pit (ODP) maculopathy. Three patients with visual loss due to persistent or recurrent ODP maculopathy who had undergone previous vitrectomy were offered application of PRP. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation of a blood sample from each patient. Surgery consisted of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling if the membrane had not been already removed (in two eyes). After fluid/air exchange, three drops of PRP were applied on the ODP followed by 8% C3F8 tamponade. Immediately after surgery, the patient remained supine for 30 minutes and then kept a face-down position for 2 weeks. Optic disk pit maculopathy improved as soon as two weeks after surgery and resolved in all eyes between six and eight months after PRP application. Patients were followed up for three years, with no recurrences. Visual acuity remained stable in one eye and improved in two eyes. Vitrectomy with PRP application may be useful as a rescue therapy in patients with refractory ODP maculopathy. Platelet-rich plasma may act by promoting the closure of the communication between the vitreous and the intraretinal/subretinal space at the pit. This treatment may avoid potentially harmful maneuvers that have been used to treat ODP maculopathy.

  18. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  19. Will nanotechnology influence targeted cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jan; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-04-01

    The rapid development of techniques that enable synthesis (and manipulation) of matter on the nanometer scale and the development of new nanomaterials will play a large role in disease diagnosis and treatment, specifically in targeted cancer therapy. Targeted nanocarriers are an intriguing means to selectively deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic agents or imaging labels directly to the cancer site. Often, solubility issues and an unfavorable biodistribution can result in a suboptimal response of novel agents even though they are very potent. New nanoparticulate formulations allow simultaneous imaging and therapy ("theranostics"), which can provide a realistic means for the clinical implementation of such otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review, we did not attempt to provide a complete overview of the rapidly enlarging field of nanotechnology in cancer; rather, we presented properties specific to nanoparticles and examples of their uses, which show their importance for targeted cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Soylu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270

  1. DNA origami applications in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Anuttara; Kangsamaksin, Thaned

    2017-08-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, the development of cancer diagnosis and therapy is still progressing, and a complete understanding of cancer biology remains elusive. Recently, cancer nanomedicine has gained much interest as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic strategy, as a wide range of nanomaterials possess unique physical properties that can render drug delivery systems safer and more effective. Also, targeted drug delivery and precision medicine have now become a new paradigm in cancer therapy. With nanocarriers, chemotherapeutic drugs could be directly delivered into target cancer cells, resulting in enhanced efficiency with fewer side-effects. DNA, a biomolecule with molecular self-assembly properties, has emerged as a versatile nanomaterial to construct multifunctional platforms; DNA nanostructures can be modified with functional groups to improve their utilities as biosensors or drug carriers. Such applications have become possible with the advent of the scaffolded DNA origami method. This breakthrough technique in structural DNA nanotechnology provides an easier and faster way to construct DNA nanostructures with various shapes. Several experiments proved that DNA origami nanostructures possess abilities to enhance efficacies of chemotherapy, reduce adverse side-effects, and even circumvent drug resistance. Here, we highlight the principles of the DNA origami technique and its applications in cancer therapeutics and discuss current challenges and opportunities to improve cancer detection and targeted drug delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection....... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  3. An Eye Popping Case of Orbital Necrotizing Fasciitis Treated with Antibiotics, Surgery, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singam, Narayanasarma V; Rusia, Deepam; Prakash, Rajan

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the orbit is a rare and deadly condition that requires prompt surgical and medical management to decrease morbidity and mortality.  CASE REPORT Here we present an interesting case of an individual who developed fulminant NF of the left orbit requiring emergent surgical intervention, antibiotics, and subsequent hyperbaric oxygen therapy in an attempt to save the eye.  CONCLUSIONS With an early and aggressive multifaceted approach using antibiotics, surgery, and hyperbaric oxygen it may be possible to preserve eye structure and function. Without treatment NF is a rapidly progressive condition and can result in significant morbidity.

  4. HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Uršič Vrščaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sex steroids are not known to damage DNA directly. They can stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation, and thus can modulate tumor developmental progression.Results. Sex steroids-related tumors in women are represented by breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and a possible relationship exists between sex steroids and both ovarian and colon cancer. Among current ERT users or those who stopped use 1–4 years previously, the relative risk of having breast cancer diagnosed is low, increases by factor of 1.023 for each year of hormone use. An appropriate combination of estrogen and progestin does not appear to increase, and may even decrease, the risk of endometrial cancer. Studies on HRT and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer have produced conflicting results but most data seem to exclude a strong assotiation. It is important that available data suggest a reduced risk of benign colorectal adenoma and colon cancer for 30–40%.Conclusions. After breast cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma or epithelial ovarian cancer HRT is not absolute contraindication. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma should be considered to be a contraindication to HRT.

  5. HER2 breast cancer therapies: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Conleth G Murphy; Shanu Modi

    2009-01-01

    Conleth G Murphy, Shanu ModiBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Amplification of the HER2 gene and/or overexpression of its protein product have been found in up to 25% to 30% of human breast cancers and have been shown to be associated with poorer outcomes compared to ‘HER2 normal’ breast cancer. Research has focused on developing therapies directed to the HER2 receptor and its pathway....

  6. Bioengineering Strategies for Designing Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    The goals of bioengineering strategies for targeted cancer therapies are (1) to deliver a high dose of an anticancer drug directly to a cancer tumor, (2) to enhance drug uptake by malignant cells, and (3) to minimize drug uptake by nonmalignant cells. Effective cancer-targeting therapies will require both passive- and active targeting strategies and a thorough understanding of physiologic barriers to targeted drug delivery. Designing a targeted therapy includes the selection and optimization of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle for passive accumulation in tumors, a targeting moiety for active receptor-mediated uptake, and stimuli-responsive polymers for control of drug release. The future direction of cancer targeting is a combinatorial approach, in which targeting therapies are designed to use multiple targeting strategies. The combinatorial approach will enable combination therapy for delivery of multiple drugs and dual ligand targeting to improve targeting specificity. Targeted cancer treatments in development and the new combinatorial approaches show promise for improving targeted anticancer drug delivery and improving treatment outcomes. PMID:23768509

  7. The war against cancer: Suicide gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Izmirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society announced that 1.6 million new cancer cases are projected to occur in the USA in 2016. One of the most innovative approaches against cancer is suicide gene therapy, in which suicide-inducing transgenes are introduced into cancer cells. When cancer treatments target the total elimination of tumor cells, there will be no side effects for normal cells. Cancer tissues are targeted through various targeted transport methods, followed by tissue-specific enzymes converting a systemically suitable prodrug into an active drug in the tumor. Suicidal genes are delivered by transporters, such as viral and non-viral vectors, into cancer cells. Suicide gene therapeutic strategies currently pursued are herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene with prodrug ganciclovir, cytosine deaminase gene, carboxyl esterase/irinotecan, varicella zoster virus thymidine kinase/6-methoxypurine arabinonucleoside, nitroreductase Nfsb/5-(aziridin-1-yl-2,4-dinitrobenzamide, carboxypeptidase G2/4-[(2-chloroethyl(2- mesyloxyethylamino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid, cytochrome p450-isofosfamide, and cytochrome p450-cyclophosphamide. The goal of this review is to summarize the different suicide gene systems and gene delivery vectors addressed to cancer cells, with a particular emphasis on recently developed systems. Finally, we briefly describe the advantageous clinical applications and potential side effects of suicide gene therapy.

  8. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  9. The bystander effect of cancer gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumniczky, K.; Safrany, G. (Department of Molecular and Tumour Radiobiology, National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary))

    2008-12-15

    Cancer gene therapy is a new, promising therapeutic agent. In the clinic, it should be used in combination with existing modalities, such as tumour irradiation. First, we summarise the most important fields of cancer gene therapy: gene directed enzyme pro-drug therapy; the activation of an anti-tumour immune attack; restoration of the wild type p53 status; the application of new, replication competent and oncolytic viral vectors; tumour specific, as well as radiation- and hypoxia-induced gene expression. Special emphasizes are put on the combined effect of these modalities with local tumour irradiation. Using the available vector systems, only a small portion of the cancer cells will contain the therapeutic genes under therapeutic situations. Bystander cell killing might contribute to the success of various gene therapy protocols. We summarise the evidences that lethal bystander effects may occur during cancer gene therapy. Bystander effects are especially important in the gene directed enzyme pro-drug therapy. There, bystander cell killing might have different routes: cell communication through gap junction intercellular contacts; release of toxic metabolites into the neighbourhood or to larger distances; phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies; and the activation of the immune system. Bystander cell killing can be enhanced by the introduction of gap junction proteins into the cells, by further activating the immune system with immune-stimulatory molecules, or by introducing genes into the cells that help the transfer of cytotoxic genes and / or metabolites into the bystander cells. In conclusion, there should be additional improvements in cancer gene therapy for the more efficient clinical application. (orig.)

  10. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor I. Barrena Medel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer remains a major women's health problem due to its high lethality. Despite great efforts to develop effective prevention and early detection strategies, most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This pattern of late presentation has resulted in significant challenges in terms of designing effective therapies to achieve long-term cure. One potential promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review examines three of the most provocative targeted therapies with current or future applicability in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Aptamer-mediated cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Qiao, Greg; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Yong; Wei, Ming Q; Qiao, Liang; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Zhu, Yimin; Zheng, Conglong; Pu, Chunwen; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer as a genetic disorder is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional anticancer options such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy have their own drawbacks and could not provide a cure in most cases at present. More effective therapeutic strategies with less side effects are urgently needed. Aptamers, also known as chemical antibodies, are single strand DNA or RNA molecules that can bind to their target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Such site-specific binding ability of aptamers facilitates the delivery and interaction of exogenous nucleic acids with diseased genes. Thus, aptamer-guided gene therapy has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy in addition to the classic treatment regimen. Aptamers can directly deliver anti-cancer nucleic acids, e.g. small interfering RNA, micro RNA, antimicroRNA and small hairpin RNA, to cancer cells or function as a targeting ligand to guide nanoparticles containing therapeutic nucleic acids. This review focuses on recent progress in aptamer-mediated gene therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and other types of cancers, shedding light on the potential of this novel approach of targeted cancer gene therapy.

  12. Adjuvant Therapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Edith A.; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Andorfer, Cathy A

    2010-01-01

    Patients with the triple negative subtype of breast cancer have an overall poor outcome, with earlier relapses, distinct patterns of metastases, and lack of specific targets for treatment selection. Classification of these tumors has begun to be modified by inclusion of immunohistochemistry for various markers, and gene profiling, to further characterize this subtype of breast cancer, may aid in the identification of new targeted therapies. Anthracyclines and taxanes remain the standard of ca...

  13. Suicide Gene Therapy for Cancer - Current Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Sakkas, Antonios; Yarmus, Lonny; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Freitag, Lutz; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Malecki, Marek

    2013-08-09

    Current cancer treatments may create profound iatrogenic outcomes. The adverse effects of these treatments still remain, as the serious problems that practicing physicians have to cope with in clinical practice. Although, non-specific cytotoxic agents constitute an effective treatment modality against cancer cells, they also tend to kill normal, quickly dividing cells. On the other hand, therapies targeting the genome of the tumors are both under investigation, and some others are already streamlined to clinical practice. Several approaches have been investigated in order to find a treatment targeting the cancer cells, while not affecting the normal cells. Suicide gene therapy is a therapeutic strategy, in which cell suicide inducing transgenes are introduced into cancer cells. The two major suicide gene therapeutic strategies currently pursued are: cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine and the herpes simplex virus/ganciclovir. The novel strategies include silencing gene expression, expression of intracellular antibodies blocking cells' vital pathways, and transgenic expression of caspases and DNases. We analyze various elements of cancer cells' suicide inducing strategies including: targets, vectors, and mechanisms. These strategies have been extensively investigated in various types of cancers, while exploring multiple delivery routes including viruses, non-viral vectors, liposomes, nanoparticles, and stem cells. We discuss various stages of streamlining of the suicide gene therapy into clinical oncology as applied to different types of cancer. Moreover, suicide gene therapy is in the center of attention as a strategy preventing cancer from developing in patients participating in the clinical trials of regenerative medicine. In oncology, these clinical trials are aimed at regenerating, with the aid of stem cells, of the patients' organs damaged by pathologic and/or iatrogenic factors. However, the stem cells carry the risk of neoplasmic transformation. We discuss

  14. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthe M.P. Aleman

    2014-06-01

    Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment.

  15. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  16. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling cancer-immune responses to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePillis, L G; Eladdadi, A; Radunskaya, A E

    2014-10-01

    Cancer therapies that harness the actions of the immune response, such as targeted monoclonal antibody treatments and therapeutic vaccines, are relatively new and promising in the landscape of cancer treatment options. Mathematical modeling and simulation of immune-modifying therapies can help to offset the costs of drug discovery and development, and encourage progress toward new immunotherapies. Despite advances in cancer immunology research, questions such as how the immune system interacts with a growing tumor, and which components of the immune system play significant roles in responding to immunotherapy are still not well understood. Mathematical modeling and simulation are powerful tools that provide an analytical framework in which to address such questions. A quantitative understanding of the kinetics of the immune response to treatment is crucial in designing treatment strategies, such as dosing, timing, and predicting the response to a specific treatment. These models can be used both descriptively and predictively. In this chapter, various mathematical models that address different cancer treatments, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and combinations of both treatments, are presented. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance of mathematical modeling and simulation in the design of immunotherapy protocols for cancer treatment. The results demonstrate the power of these approaches in explaining determinants that are fundamental to cancer-immune dynamics, therapeutic success, and the development of efficient therapies.

  18. Melatonin in pathogenesis and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, T; Lakshmi, N K; Ahuja, Y R

    2006-12-01

    Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted by the pineal gland to transduce the body's circadian rhythms. An internal 24 hour time keeping system (biological clock) regulated by melatonin, controls the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin production is a highly conserved evolutionary phenomenon. The indole hormone is synthesized in the pinealocytes derived from photoreceptors. Altered patterns and/or levels of melatonin secretion have been reported to coincide with sleep disorders, jetlag, depression, stress, reproductive activities, some forms of cancer and immunological disorders. Lately, the physiological and pathological role of melatonin has become a priority area of investigation, particularly in breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, lung cancer and leukemia. According to the 'melatonin hypothesis' of cancer, the exposure to light at night (LAN) and anthropogenic electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) is related to the increased incidence of breast cancer and childhood leukaemia via melatonin disruption. Melatonin's hypothermic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, attribute it to an immunomodulator and an oncostatic agent as well. Many clinical studies have envisaged the potential therapeutic role of melatonin in various pathophysiological disorders, particularly cancer. A substantial reduction in risk of death and low adverse effects were reported from various randomized controlled trials of melatonin treatment in cancer patients. This review summarizes the physiological significance of melatonin and its potential role in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the article focuses on melatonin hypothesis to represent the cause-effect relationship of the three aspects: EMF, LAN and cancer.

  19. Occupational therapy use by older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors' ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Gene Tests May Improve Therapy for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe June 2013 Print this issue Gene Tests May Improve Therapy for Endometrial Cancer Send us your comments By analyzing genes in hundreds of endometrial tumors, scientists identified details ... therapies for some patients. Endometrial cancer affects the lining ...

  1. Drug therapy for hereditary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyanitov Evgeny N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumors arising in patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may have distinct drug sensitivity as compared to their sporadic counterparts. Breast and ovarian neoplasms from BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by deficient homologous recombination (HR of DNA, that makes them particularly sensitive to platinum compounds or inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Outstandingly durable complete responses to high dose chemotherapy have been observed in several cases of BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer (BC. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that women with BRCA1-related BC may derive less benefit from taxane-based treatment than other categories of BC patients. There is virtually no reports directly assessing drug response in hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC patients; studies involving non-selected (i.e., both sporadic and hereditary CRC with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H suggest therapeutic advantage of irinotecan. Celecoxib has been approved for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers (MTC have been shown to be highly responsive to a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, which exerts specific activity towards mutated RET receptor. Given the rapidly improving accessibility of DNA analysis, it is foreseen that the potential predictive value of cancer-associated germ-line mutations will be increasingly considered in the future studies.

  2. Cancer stem cells: the theory and perspectives in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Justyna; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Pesz, Karolina A; Sasiadek, Maria M

    2008-01-01

    The cancer stem cell theory elucidates not only the issue of tumour initiation and development, tumour's ability to metastasise and reoccur, but also the ineffectiveness of conventional cancer therapy. This review examines stem cell properties, such as self-renewal, heterogeneity, and resistance to apoptosis. The 'niche' hypothesis is presented, and mechanisms of division, differentiation, self-renewal and signalling pathway regulation are explained. Epigenetic alterations and mutations of genes responsible for signal transmission may promote the formation of cancer stem cells. We also present the history of development of the cancer stem cell theory and discuss the experiments that led to the discovery and confirmation of the existence of cancer stem cells. Potential clinical applications are also considered, including therapeutic models aimed at selective elimination of cancer stem cells or induction of their proper differentiation.

  3. Replicating viruses for gynecologic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J W; Kim, M

    2016-01-01

    Despite advanced therapeutic treatments, gynecologic malignancies such as cervical and ovarian cancers are still the top ten leading cause of cancer death among women in South Korea. Thus a novel and innovative approach is urgently needed. Naturally occurring viruses are live, replication-proficient viruses that specifically infect human cancer cells while sparing normal cell counterparts. Since the serendipitous discovery of the naturally oncotropic virus targeting gynecologic cancer in 1920s, various replicating viruses have shown various degrees of safety and efficacy in preclinical or clinical applications for gynecologic cancer therapy. Cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which are frequently dysregulated in gynecologic malignancies, play an important role in determining viral oncotropism. Published articles describing replicating, oncolytic viruses for gynecologic cancers are thoroughly reviewed. This review outlines the discovery of replication-proficient virus strains for targeting gynecologic malignancies, recent progresses elucidating molecular connections between oncogene/tumor suppressor gene abnormalities and viral oncotropism, and the associated preclinical/clinical implications. The authors would also like to propose future directions in the utility of the replicating viruses for gynecologic cancer therapy.

  4. Targeting tumor suppressor genes for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Han, Cecil; Wang, Liana; Zhang, Xinna; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2015-12-01

    Cancer drugs are broadly classified into two categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies that specifically modulate the activity of one or more proteins involved in cancer. Major advances have been achieved in targeted cancer therapies in the past few decades, which is ascribed to the increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies and small molecules have been developed to interfere with a specific molecular oncogenic target. Targeting gain-of-function mutations, in general, has been productive. However, it has been a major challenge to use standard pharmacologic approaches to target loss-of-function mutations of tumor suppressor genes. Novel approaches, including synthetic lethality and collateral vulnerability screens, are now being developed to target gene defects in p53, PTEN, and BRCA1/2. Here, we review and summarize the recent findings in cancer genomics, drug development, and molecular cancer biology, which show promise in targeting tumor suppressors in cancer therapeutics. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Eui Kyu

    2008-02-01

    Radiotherapy has been offered to patients with pancreatic cancer, either in the adjuvant or definitive setting. However, the role of radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer is increasingly doubted, especially after the introduction of gemcitabine to both domains. Although contradictory data exist, combined chemoradiotherapy improves both quantity and quality of life for patients with locally advanced tumors compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy alone. Recently, induction chemotherapy strategy is being evaluated for better selection of patients for optimal benefit from consolidative chemoradiotherapy. Much controversy has been suggested concerning the role of adjuvant radiotherapy, but quality assurance for radiotherapy was not considered in the previously reported studies. Combined chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant setting is still considered as a viable option. Current phase III randomized on-going studies will provide better answers on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  6. Hormonal replacement therapy after gynaecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Mariani, Luca; Marenco, Davide; Robba, Claudio; Peano, Elisa; Kubatzki, Franziska; Sismondi, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of women are treated each year for gynaecological cancers; many of these are already in menopause, while other younger patients will go into early menopause due to surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The aim of this paper is to review the biological and clinical evidence in favour and against hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use after gynaecological cancers. With the exception of breast and endometrial cancer, there is no biological evidence that HRT may increase the recurrence risk. In women with previous endometrial cancer, HRT use is not supported by univocal and conclusive data to formulate specific recommendations, whereas most authors suggest that oestrogens may be used after adequate information about risks and benefits. The use of HRT in breast cancer patients is, at present, considered contra-indicated, even if results of clinical trials are not concordant. Therapeutic non-hormonal alternatives may be proposed to these patients.

  7. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  8. Diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eGong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis as most patients present with advanced disease and preferred chemotherapy regimens offer only modest effects on survival. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol, and chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has a complex relationship with diabetes, as diabetes can be both a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and a result of pancreatic cancer. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and certain hormones play an important role in promoting neoplasia in diabetics. Metformin appears to reduce risk for pancreatic cancer and improve survival in diabetics with pancreatic cancer primarily by decreasing insulin/IGF signaling, disrupting mitochondrial respiration, and inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Other potential anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin include the ability to downregulate specificity protein transcription factors and associated genes, alter microRNAs, decrease cancer stem cell proliferation, and reduce DNA damage and inflammation. Here, we review the most recent knowledge on risk factors and treatment of pancreatic cancer and the relationship between diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin as a potential therapy.

  9. Diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Robbins, Lori A.; Lugea, Aurelia; Waldron, Richard T.; Jeon, Christie Y.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis as most patients present with advanced disease and preferred chemotherapy regimens offer only modest effects on survival. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol, and chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has a complex relationship with diabetes, as diabetes can be both a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and a result of pancreatic cancer. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and certain hormones play an important role in promoting neoplasia in diabetics. Metformin appears to reduce risk for pancreatic cancer and improve survival in diabetics with pancreatic cancer primarily by decreasing insulin/IGF signaling, disrupting mitochondrial respiration, and inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Other potential anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin include the ability to downregulate specificity protein transcription factors and associated genes, alter microRNAs, decrease cancer stem cell proliferation, and reduce DNA damage and inflammation. Here, we review the most recent knowledge on risk factors and treatment of pancreatic cancer and the relationship between diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin as a potential therapy. PMID:25426078

  10. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of refractory solid cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the activation of a photosensitizer by (laser) light to locally produce highly destructive reactive oxygen species. When employed for cancer treatment, PDT is able to induce tumor cell death, microvascular damage, and an anti-tumor immune response. All these

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy in the management of pancreatic cancer represents an area of some controversy. However, local disease progression remains a significant cause of morbidity and even mortality for patients with this disease. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for pancreatic cancer, primarily for locally advanced (unresectable) disease as it can provide a therapeutic benefit with significant advantages for patients' quality of life over standard conventional chemoradiation. There may also be a role for SBRT as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with borderline resectable disease to allow conversion to resectability. The objective of this review is to present the data supporting SBRT in pancreatic cancer as well as the potential limitations and caveats of current studies.

  12. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  13. Liver-directed therapies in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Janivette; Choti, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Historically, the majority of patients that presented with metastatic disease to the liver were treated with systemic chemotherapy only but advances in imaging, surgical techniques, and non-resectional approaches have expanded the indications for liver-directed interventions. Current approaches used in patients with liver-only or liver-dominant metastatic disease include surgical resection, direct tumor ablation strategies, the use of intra-arterial infusions, and radiation therapies. The use of these liver-directed therapies in selected patients with colorectal liver metastases has led to significant improvements in overall survival. We review the clinical data and progress using liver-directed therapies in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Therapy Use by Older Adults With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors’ ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473

  15. [Radiation therapy of locally advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hegemann, N-S; Li, M; Eze, C; Belka, C; Ganswindt, U

    2017-11-01

    The risk classification for localized prostate cancer is based on the groups "low", "intermediate", and "high-risk" prostate cancer. Following this established risk group definition, locally advanced prostate cancer (cT3/4N0M0) has to be classified as "high-risk" prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy or high-dose radiotherapy, which is combined with androgen deprivation, are the only curative standard treatments for locally advanced prostate cancer. Particularly adequate radiation doses, modern radiotherapy techniques like IMRT/IGRT, as well as long-term androgen suppression are essential for an optimal treatment outcome. In combination with definitive radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be started neoadjuvant/simultaneous to radiotherapy and is recommended to be continued after radiotherapy. Previous data suggest that 2‑year long-term androgen deprivation in this setting may not be inferior to 3‑year long-term androgen deprivation in high-risk patients. An additional radiation therapy of the lymphatic pathways in men with cN0 locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer is still a matter of research. Ongoing trials may define selected subgroups with a suggested benefit at its best.

  16. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we...... of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD....... Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines...

  17. Cancer therapy with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    1999-01-01

    This review paper is devoted to conventional radiotherapy and to hadron therapy. In this therapeutical modality, proposed by R. R. Wilson in 1946, the physical selectivity of proton and light ion beams is used to irradiate tissues very close to organs at risk, which cannot be irradiated (the brain and the spinal cord for instance). Also fast neutrons are employed, but they are not suitable for a truly conformal irradiation. Carbon ions have the added advantage, with respect to protons, of the high density of ionization at the end of the range in matter. This property is very valuable for the control of tumours which are radioresistant to both X-rays and protons. After clarifying the general principles, a review is presented of the world hadron therapy centres which are running or are in the design and construction stage. (33 refs).

  18. RLIP76 Targeted Therapy for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singhal, Jyotsana; Figarola, James; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent improvements in chemotherapeutic approaches to treating kidney cancer, this malignancy remains deadly if not found and removed at an early stage of the disease. Kidney cancer is highly drug-resistant, which may at least partially result from high expression of transporter proteins in the cell membranes of kidney cells. Although these transporter proteins can contribute to drug-resistance, targeting proteins from the ATP-binding cassette transporter family has not been effective in reversing drug-resistance in kidney cancer. Recent studies have identified RLIP76 as a key stress-defense protein that protects normal cells from damage caused by stress conditions, including heat, ultra-violet light, X-irradiation, and oxidant/electrophilic toxic chemicals, and is crucial for protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. RLIP76 is the predominant glutathione-electrophile-conjugate (GS-E) transporter in cells, and inhibiting it with antibodies or through siRNA or antisense causes apoptosis in many cancer cell types. To date, blocking of RLIP76, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, as a therapeutic strategy for kidney cancer has not yet been evaluated in human clinical trials, although there is considerable potential for RLIP76 to be developed as a therapeutic agent for kidney cancer. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying apoptosis caused by RLIP76 depletion, the role of RLIP76 in clathrin-dependent endocytosis deficiency, and the feasibility of RLIP76-targeted therapy for kidney cancer.

  19. Kundalini yoga as a support therapy for cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kröneck, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to describe cancer patient’s experience of kundalini yoga and its effect on their internal coping resources. The intention of this study is to put forward kundalini yoga as a support therapy for cancer patients for improving their wellbeing during active cancer treatment. This is a descriptive study. An academic literature review was conducted for cancer, cancer treatment, internal coping resources and yoga as therapy topics. Four voluntary female cancer patients (...

  20. Evaluation of Ocular Gene Therapy in an Italian Patient Affected by Congenital Leber Amaurosis Type 2 Treated in Both Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Maguire, Albert M; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Auricchio, Alberto; Melillo, Paolo; Bennett, Jean; Simonelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy clinical trials with gene augmentation therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis have shown partial reversal of retinal dysfunction. Most studies described the effect of treatment in a single eye and limited evidence is reported in literature about patients treated in both eyes. In this chapter, we present the findings of a young patient treated in both eyes. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed with Best Corrected Visual Acuity, Goldman Visual Field testing, Esterman computerized binocular visual field and Microperimetric testing. Post-treatment results showed improvement of visual function in both eyes, in particular, a strong amelioration was observed after the first injection, by using conventional monocular tests. Moreover, the treatment in the second eye resulted in a further improvement of binocular visual functionality, as easily detected by computerized binocular visual field. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene therapy can inhibit retinal degeneration and can be safe and effective in restoring visual functionality in young subjects treated in both eyes. Finally, new outcome measurements, in particular binocular computerized visual field parameters, can therefore be useful to quantify overall visual gain in patients undergoing gene therapy in both eyes.

  1. [Conversion therapy of advanced gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangdong; Mao, Zonglei

    2017-10-25

    There are 30% to 40% of advanced gastric cancer patients who lose the opportunity of curative surgery at initial diagnosis, so chemotherapy is recommended as the main treatment modality, however, the overall prognosis is poor. Recently, a number of phase II( studies show an enormously ideal potential of conversion therapy in these patients. Conversion therapy uses rational chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy and so on combined with MDT assessment to translate initial unresectable case to resectable one, which obviously prolongs survival time and improves quality of life. In this review, we address the indications, development and our experiences of conversion therapy in advanced GC, which looks forward to providing the reference to clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Multimodality therapy of local regional esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, David P

    2005-12-01

    Recent trials regarding the use of multimodality therapy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have not conclusively shown benefit. Regimens containing cisplatin and fluorouracil administered preoperatively appear to be tolerable and do not increase operative morbidity or mortality when compared with surgery alone. Yet clinical trials have not clearly shown that such regimens improve outcome as measured by survival. Likewise, trials of postoperative chemoradiation have not reported a significant improvement in median or overall survival. The reasons for the lack of clinical benefit from multimodality therapy are not completely understood, but improvements in systemic therapy will probably be necessary before disease-free or overall survival improves substantially. Some new single agents such as the taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel) and the camptothecan analog irinotecan have shown modest activity for palliative therapy.

  3. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  4. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  5. Death receptors: Targets for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Zafar [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Shukla, Yogeshwer, E-mail: yogeshwer_shukla@hotmail.com [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis is the cell's intrinsic program to death, which plays an important role in physiologic growth control and homeostasis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptors (DRs), without any adverse effects. DRs are the members of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, known to be involved in apoptosis signaling, independent of p53 tumor-supressor gene. Selective triggering of DR-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells is a novel approach in cancer therapy. So far, the best characterized DRs are CD95 (Fas/Apo1), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Among these, TRAILR is emerging as most promising agent for cancer therapy, because it induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor and transformed cells without any toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL treatment in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy enhances TRAIL sensitivity or reverses TRAIL resistance by regulating downstream effectors. This review covers the current knowledge about the DRs, summarizes main signaling in DRs and also summarizes the preclinical approaches of these DRs in cancer therapy.

  6. [Management of ablative therapies in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Galiano, M; Cathala, N; Mombet, A; Prapotnich, D; Rozet, F; Gangi, A; Lang, H; Cathelineau, X

    2017-11-01

    To describe the specific modalities of ablative therapies management in prostate cancer. A review of the scientific literature was performed in Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of keywords. Publications obtained were selected based on methodology, language and relevance. After selection, 61 articles were analysed. Development of innovations such as ablative therapies in prostate cancer induces specific modalities in their management, during pre-, per- and post-procedure. More than for classical and well-known treatments, the decision to propose an ablative therapy requires analysis and consensus of medical staff and patient's agreement. Patient's specificities and economical aspects must also be considered. Procedures and follow-up must be realized by referents actors. Indication, procedure and follow-up of ablative therapies in prostate cancer require specific modalities. They must be respected in order to optimize the results and to obtain a precise and objective evaluation for defining future indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Harnessing Endogenous Systems for Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, Thomas Christopher Bogh

    In the recent decade, two strategies in particular have attracted attention due to the prospect of significantly improving cancer treatment: Gene silencing therapy and immunotherapy. Both strategies work by manipulating endogenous mechanisms and theoretically promise very strong effect on the dis......In the recent decade, two strategies in particular have attracted attention due to the prospect of significantly improving cancer treatment: Gene silencing therapy and immunotherapy. Both strategies work by manipulating endogenous mechanisms and theoretically promise very strong effect...... immunotherapy (Project II). Transfer into the clinic of therapies based on gene silencing by siRNA delivered by synthetic vectors has yet to happen. A major reason is the lack of efficiency in the delivery process, partly due to insufficient understanding of cellular uptake and processing of the si...... to the conventional PEIs. However, lipid conjugation did not sufficiently reduce the inherent toxicity associated with high molecular weight PEI, and lipid conjugation of bPEI did also not change the ability of bPEI to affect lysosomal pH as a function of time. In contrast to gene silencing therapy, cancer...

  8. Experiencing music therapy cancer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, Mary H

    2008-03-01

    I portray health-related research outcomes in an arts-informed representation that disrupts the traditional discursive-scholarly format of journal writing to privilege better the participants' accounts and communicate these experientially. The representation uncovers meaning through alternative ways of communicating and conveys the ineffable quality of music in a manner that may be understood through and beyond words. This expands the convention of health-related research outcomes, including ways of knowing, what can be known and how this can be represented. I elaborate my intentions for this experiential report, discuss theoretical underpinnings of this methodology and describe a music therapy support group model.

  9. Optimal primary therapy of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, M A

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to have the highest case-fatality ratio of all gynecologic cancers, in spite of ongoing advances in risk-assessment, genomics, tumor biology, cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy, and molecular-targeted interventions. Primary treatment options for advanced-stage disease not only should reflect current best standards, but also need to be tailored for individual patients, with consideration of local resources. Formulation of recommendations for optimal primary therapy based on a selective review of data from completed randomized trials, analysis of ongoing trials, and integration with current tumor biology, within the context of individualized clinical care. Recommendations were presented for discussion during an international meeting of experts in ovarian cancer treatment. Key recommendations include full adjuvant therapy for early-stage high-grade serous cancer; tailored utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on patient comorbidities, extent of disease, and likelihood of achieving optimal surgical cytoreduction; preferred utilization of carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel as primary therapy; consideration of intraperitoneal cisplatin-based therapy in appropriate patients; avoidance of maintenance chemotherapy; lack of necessity for bevacizumab during primary chemotherapy and primary maintenance; acknowledgement of research opportunities and priorities. Integrated multidisciplinary care, including cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, remain central to the optimal management of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. However, even with recent technical advances, the impact on disease-related mortality is limited, and more attention will be focused on the early integration of research, particularly with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For

  10. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  11. Terpenoids: natural products for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Lu, Jin-Jian; Huang, Ming-Qing; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural products and are a rich reservoir of candidate compounds for drug discovery. Recent efforts into the research and development of anti-cancer drugs derived from natural products have led to the identification of a variety of terpenoids that inhibit cancer cell proliferation and metastasis via various mechanisms. Despite the increasing number of research reports, there lacks a comprehensive review of anti-cancer activity of terpenoids. The present article provides an overview of the recent progress in the anti-cancer studies on terpenoids. Over a dozen naturally originated terpenoid compounds, in particular those derived from traditional Chinese medicine, were classified into five categories according to the structures, namely monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids. The anti-cancer activities and relevant mechanistic insights of these compounds are discussed in this review. The anti-cancer activity of terpenoids appears promising and will potentially open more opportunities for cancer therapy. However, current studies are restricted to descriptive findings and lack mechanistic insights and systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Future efforts into the systematic identification of the targets of terpenoids are believed to increase chances of gaining breakthrough insights in the field.

  12. Radiation therapy of the early glottic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Kazushige; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Ikeda, Hajime; Tamaki, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Masana; Niibe, Hideo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-10-01

    During the period from 1970 to 1980, 129 patients with laryngeal cancer were treated with radiation therapy alone in the Department of Radiology, Gunma University Hospital. The number of cases with glottic, supraglottic and subglottic cancer were 80 (62%), 38 (29%) and 11 (9%) respectively. The cumulative 5-year survival rate of cases with glottic cancer was 80% (stage I), 70% (stage II), 43% (stage III) and 0% (stage IV). The relative 5-year survival rate was 104%, 87%, 67% and 0%. Twenty-nine patients (36%) were older than 70 years. Of 54 cases with early (T1, T2) glottic cancer, 11 patients developed local relapses. They consist of seven T1a, one T1b and three T2 cases. The lymph nodal relapse was seen in a T1 case. The local relapses were ascribed to the lower tumor dose produced by the technical failures (4 cases) and to the histological factors (4 cases with papilloma like carcinoma). All of the T1 patients with relapses were salvaged with surgery. The larynges of 4 patients salvaged were still in fair preservation. Only one of 3 relapsed T2 cases was salvaged. These treatment results suggest that a regular check-up of general condition of the patients is very important for raising the survival rate, and that the radiation therapy should be first selected for preservation of the larynx in the early glottic cancer.

  13. Cancer therapies in HIV cure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; Anderson, Jenny L; Wightman, Fiona; Lewin, Sharon R

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells. Other interventions that may accelerate the decay of latently infected cells, in the presence or absence of latency-reversing therapy, are now being explored. These include apoptosis-promoting agents, nonhistone deacetylase inhibitor compounds to reverse HIV latency and immunotherapy interventions to enhance antiviral immunity such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and Toll-like receptor agonists. A curative strategy in HIV will likely need to both reduce the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy and improve anti-HIV immune surveillance. Although we continue to explore advances in the field of oncology including cancer immunotherapy, there are major differences in the risk-benefit assessment between HIV-infected individuals and patients with malignancies. Drug development specifically targeting HIV persistence will be the key to developing effective interventions with an appropriate safety profile.

  14. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...... as well as the clinical procedure. A critical review of the literature is also presented, regarding treatment results of the different techniques and indications for treatments. The possibilities for PDT for head and neck cancer in Denmark are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6/5...

  15. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer: Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of photodynamic therapy (PDT, using drugs (photosensitizers that are activated by light to become cytotoxic, provide the basis for understanding the current and potential future clinical applications in gastroenterology, general oncology and other specialities. The properties of photosensitizers are key to their biological efficacy, while lasers and optical fibres allow convenient and flexible light delivery for endoscopic use. PDT has several distinct and unique advantages, both as a stand-alone treatment and in combination with other established modalities. The current limitations are also recognized, as is the need for rigorous randomized trials of this emerging technology. The fluorescence of many photosensitizers may be useful, either for (endoscopic diagnosis or for PDT treatment guidance and monitoring.

  16. Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure Therapy on the Trauma impact symptoms in Veterans Suffering from Chronic PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maredpour

    2013-09-01

    Background and aim: Post-traumatic stress disorder is considered as set of symptoms developed afterward an individual witness, hear or involved. The current research was purposed to compare the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy with prolonged exposure therapy on the trauma impact symptoms in veterans suffering from chronic PTSD. Methods: in this clinical trail research randomly sampled 48 veterans diagnosed with PTSD who had psychiatric records in Salman City Hospital of Yasuj. The subjects devoted in three equal groups: two experimental and one control groups. As intervention procedures the two experimental groups were exposed to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (5 sessions and prolonged exposure therapy (10 sessions respectively. The control group received none. Subsequent to the treatment period the triple groups were post-tested by the prior pre test scales. The data were analyzed by implementing univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Both treatment procedures significantly reduced the trauma impact symptoms (p ≤0/001.The results also indicated that prolonged exposure therapy was more effective concerning the trauma impact symptoms improvement. Conclusion: Intervention treatment procedures such as eye movement desensitization, reprocessing therapy, and prolonged exposure therapy sustain sufficient efficacy in trauma impact symptoms improvement while prolonged exposure therapy exceeded significantly. Key words: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Eye Movement, Desensitization, Reprocessing, Prolonged Exposure Therapy

  17. Recent progress in nanotechnology for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mu-Fei; Lei, Lei; Guo, Sheng-Rong; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2010-09-01

    The application of nanotechnology significantly benefits clinical practice in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management. Especially, nanotechnology offers a promise for the targeted delivery of drugs, genes, and proteins to tumor tissues and therefore alleviating the toxicity of anticancer agents in healthy tissues. This article reviews current nanotechnology platforms for anticancer drug delivery, including polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and nucleic acid-based nanoparticles [DNA, RNA interference (RNAi), and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)] as well as nanotechnologies for combination therapeutic strategies, for example, nanotechnologies combined with multidrug-resistance modulator, ultrasound, hyperthermia, or photodynamic therapy. This review raises awareness of the advantages and challenges for the application of these therapeutic nanotechnologies, in light of some recent advances in nanotechnologic drug delivery and cancer therapy.

  18. Epigenetics advancing personalized nanomedicine in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujun

    2012-10-01

    Personalized medicine aims to deliver the right drug to a right patient at the right time. It offers unique opportunities to integrate new technologies and concepts to disease prognosis, diagnosis and therapeutics. While selective personalized therapies are conceptually impressive, the majority of cancer therapies have dismal outcome. Such therapeutic failure could result from no response, drug resistance, disease relapse or severe side effect from improper drug delivery. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology in medicine, has a potential to advance the identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and the delivery of right drug to disease sites. Epigenetic aberrations dynamically contribute to cancer pathogenesis. Given the individualized traits of epigenetic biomarkers, epigenetic considerations would significantly refine personalized nanomedicine. This review aims to dissect the interface of personalized medicine with nanomedicine and epigenetics. I will outline the progress and highlight challenges and areas that can be further explored perfecting the personalized health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Reitsma, J.B.; de Jongh, A.; Ollf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated

  20. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Systemic Therapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN colorectal cancer systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for systemic therapy for colorectal cancer in Singapore. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. Five international guidelines were evaluated-those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for colon (2014) and rectal (2014) cancer, the European Society of Medical Oncology for advanced (2012) and early (2013) cancer and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2011). Recommendations on systemic therapy in colorectal cancer were produced. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for systemic therapy of colorectal cancer.

  1. BCR ABL Kinase Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dhara Patel; Maulik P. Suthar; Vipul Patel; Rajesh Singh

    2010-01-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors have started era of molecular targeted therapy and marked a greatest milestone in cancer drug discovery. Despite of impressive cytogenetic response rates achieved with several agents in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase, those with advanced stage CML frequently obtain more modest responses that are in many instances of short duration. Several mechanisms of resistance to imatinib are also observed among patients that develop cl...

  2. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing...Oncology Biology Physics. Contributors to this article are: Avinash R. Chaurasia, Kelly J. Sun, Christopher Premo, Timothy Brand , Brent Tinnel...salvage radiation therapy.” Poster was presented at the ASCO/ASTRO 2013 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. • Chaurasia A, Sun K, Premo C, Brand T, Tinnel

  3. Advances in target therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in molecular biology has shown that cancer cells acquire common phenotypes such as self-sufficiency of growth signals, resistance to anti-proliferative and apoptotic signals through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Recently developed anticancer drugs target these molecular mechanisms and good results have been reported for various cancer types. In lung cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitors specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor such as gefitinib and erlotinib have changed clinical practice dramatically. About half of the Japanese patients with lung cancers harbor an activating mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and they are very sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Progression-free survival of such patients is approximately 10 months when treated with gefitinib, whereas the survival for those treated with platinum doublet therapy is approximately 6 months. Target therapies against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion protein or a mutated ERBB2 (v-ERB-B avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homologue 2) present in approximately 5% and approximately 3% of the Japanese patients with adenocarcinomas, respectively, are currently under development. Addition of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody, cetuximab, or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, bevacizumab, to platinum doublet therapy significantly but modestly prolonged the survival in recent clinical trials. However, clinical development of small molecule multi-kinase inhibitors including those targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, such as vandetanib, sunitinib and sorafenib, has not been very successful. Through these collaborations among clinicians, basic researchers and pharmaceutical companies, it should be possible to individualize lung cancer treatment to turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder and, eventually

  4. Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Granja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, are generally expensive, highly toxic and lack efficiency. Cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of early carcinogenic processes. (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the major bioactive constituent in green tea with numerous health benefits including anti-cancer activity, which has been intensively studied. Besides its potential for chemoprevention, EGCG has also been shown to synergize with common anti-cancer agents, which makes it a suitable adjuvant in chemotherapy. However, limitations in terms of stability and bioavailability have hampered its application in clinical settings. Nanotechnology may have an important role in improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of EGCG. Indeed, several studies have already reported the use of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles of EGCG for cancer therapy. The aim of this article is to discuss the EGCG molecule and its associated health benefits, particularly its anti-cancer activity and provide an overview of the studies that have employed nanotechnology strategies to enhance EGCG’s properties and potentiate its anti-tumoral activity.

  5. Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Andreia; Pinheiro, Marina; Reis, Salette

    2016-05-20

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, are generally expensive, highly toxic and lack efficiency. Cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of early carcinogenic processes. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major bioactive constituent in green tea with numerous health benefits including anti-cancer activity, which has been intensively studied. Besides its potential for chemoprevention, EGCG has also been shown to synergize with common anti-cancer agents, which makes it a suitable adjuvant in chemotherapy. However, limitations in terms of stability and bioavailability have hampered its application in clinical settings. Nanotechnology may have an important role in improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of EGCG. Indeed, several studies have already reported the use of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles of EGCG for cancer therapy. The aim of this article is to discuss the EGCG molecule and its associated health benefits, particularly its anti-cancer activity and provide an overview of the studies that have employed nanotechnology strategies to enhance EGCG's properties and potentiate its anti-tumoral activity.

  6. Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Andreia; Pinheiro, Marina; Reis, Salette

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, are generally expensive, highly toxic and lack efficiency. Cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of early carcinogenic processes. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major bioactive constituent in green tea with numerous health benefits including anti-cancer activity, which has been intensively studied. Besides its potential for chemoprevention, EGCG has also been shown to synergize with common anti-cancer agents, which makes it a suitable adjuvant in chemotherapy. However, limitations in terms of stability and bioavailability have hampered its application in clinical settings. Nanotechnology may have an important role in improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of EGCG. Indeed, several studies have already reported the use of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles of EGCG for cancer therapy. The aim of this article is to discuss the EGCG molecule and its associated health benefits, particularly its anti-cancer activity and provide an overview of the studies that have employed nanotechnology strategies to enhance EGCG’s properties and potentiate its anti-tumoral activity. PMID:27213442

  7. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J; Yeung, Vincent W; Madoff, David C

    2014-12-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed.

  8. Cancer through black eyes - The views of UK based black men towards cancer: A constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Betselot; Williamson, Susan; Monks, Rob; Hack, Thomas; Beaver, Kinta

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about black African (BA) and black African-Caribbean (BAC) men's views towards cancer; yet culture and acculturation can contribute to the way in which people understand, explain and develop their attitudes towards cancer. Hence, cancer prevention and early detection strategies may not be sensitive to United Kingdom (UK)-based black men's views, affecting their awareness of risk factors and early detection services. This study explored the views of UK-based BA and BAC men towards cancer. In collaboration with black community organisations based in four major cities in the UK, 25 participants were recruited using convenience and theoretical sampling methods. Data were collected using 33 semi-structured interviews, and analysed using grounded theory analytic procedures. One core category (cancer through black eyes) and seven sub-categories emerged; 'cultural views', 'religious beliefs', 'avoiding Babylon', 'alienation', 'suspicious mind', 'advertisements and information influence very little', and 'gap in service provision (bridging the gap)'. Participants' views towards cancer were linked to socially constructed perspectives, linked with cultural and religious beliefs, and shaped by what being a black male means in society. Risk factors such as smoking and obesity had different meanings and symbolisation through black eyes. There were macro- and micro-level similarities and differences between BA and BAC men. Cancer services and related public-health campaigns aimed at black men need to understand cancer through black eyes. Public health campaigns based solely on the clinical meaning of cancer are incongruent with black men's understandings of cancer, and therefore ineffective at reducing health inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  10. Bladder cancer: molecular determinants of personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Santoni, Matteo; Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Tortora, Giampaolo; Cheng, Liang; Moch, Holger; Scarpelli, Marina; Reymundo, Carlos; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Several molecular and genetic studies have provided new perspectives on the histologic classification of bladder tumors. Recent developments in the field of molecular mutational pathway analyses based on next generation sequencing technology together with classic data derived from the description of mutations in the FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) gene, mutations on TP53 gene, and cDNA technology profiling data gives support to a differentiated taxonomy of bladder cancer. All these changes are behind the use of non-traditional approach to therapy of bladder cancer patients and are ready to change our daily practice of uro-oncology. The observed correlation of some molecular alterations with tumor behavior and the identification of their targets at cellular level might support the use of molecular changes together with morphological data to develop new clinical and biological strategies to manage patients with urothelial cancer. The current review provides comprehensive data to support personalized therapy for bladder cancer based on an integrated approach including pathologic and clinical features and molecular biology.

  11. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  12. Novel nanotechnology approaches to diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer.

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    Kim, Paul S; Djazayeri, Shabdis; Zeineldin, Reema

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies, which is a direct outcome of missing its diagnosis at an early stage. Approximately 75% of ovarian cancer patients are initially diagnosed with disseminated intra-abdominal disease (stages III-IV) when ~30% of patients have a 5-year survival rate. In addition to the challenge of early detection of ovarian cancer, its therapy presents several challenges including the route of therapy, resistance to therapy with recurrence of cancer, and specific targeting of ovarian cancer to reduce cytotoxic side effects. We reviewed recent literature employing nanotechnology approaches to diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer. Recent innovations in nanotechnology with applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy help circumvent many pre-existing problems with conventional chemotherapy and present new ways of diagnosis and therapy. Nanotechnology has promising potential in enhancing early detection of ovarian cancer and treatment of recurrent disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination Therapy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy and Meibomian Gland Expression (IPL/MGX) Can Improve Dry Eye Symptoms and Meibomian Gland Function in Patients With Refractory Dry Eye: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegunta, Sravanthi; Patel, Dharmendra; Shen, Joanne F

    2016-03-01

    To assess the improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with refractory dry eye treated with a combination therapy of intense pulsed light (IPL) and meibomian gland expression (MGX). Medical records of 81 consecutive patients with dry eye treated with serial IPL/MGX were retrospectively examined to determine the outcome. All patients had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up after the first IPL/MGX treatment. Patients typically received 1 to 4 IPL treatments spaced 4 to 6 weeks apart. Each IPL session included MGX. Thirty-five charts had complete data for inclusion in analysis. We reviewed demographics, ocular histories, Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness 2 (SPEED2) symptom survey scores, slit-lamp examinations, and meibomian gland evaluations (MGE) at baseline and at each visit before IPL/MGX treatments. The paired t test showed a significant (P IPL/MGX therapy. Of the 35 patients, 8 (23%) had a ≥50% decrease in SPEED2, 23 (66%) had a 1% to 49% decrease in SPEED2, 1 (3%) had no change in SPEED2, and 3 (9%) had an increase in SPEED2. The Paired t test showed a significant increase in MGE in the left eye but not in the right eye (OD P = 0.163 and OS P = 0.0002). Thirteen patients (37%) had improved MGE bilaterally. Eight patients (23%) had either a decrease in MGE bilaterally or a decrease in 1 eye with no change in the other eye. This retrospective analysis shows that the combination of IPL and MGX can significantly improve dry eye symptoms (in 89% of patients) and meibomian gland function (in 77% of patients in at least 1 eye).

  14. Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy of Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Pinto, Peter A.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Neckers, Len; Bottaro, Donald; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad

    2010-01-01

    Kidney cancer is not a single disease; it is made up of a number of cancers that occur in the kidney, each with a different histology, having a different clinical course, responding differently to therapy and caused by a different gene. Understanding the genetic basis of cancer of the kidney has significant implications for diagnosis and management of this disease. The VHL gene is the gene for clear cell kidney cancer. The VHL protein forms a complex that targets the hypoxia inducible factors for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Knowledge of this pathway has provided the foundation for the development of a number of novel therapeutic approaches that have been approved by the FDA for treatment of this disease. The MET gene is the gene for the hereditary form of type 1 papillary renal carcinoma and has been found to be mutated in a subset of sporadic type 1 papillary kidney cancers. Clinical trials are currently ongoing with agents targeting the tyrosine kinase domain of MET in sporadic and hereditary forms of papillary kidney cancer. The BHD gene is the gene for the hereditary type of chromophobe kidney cancer. The BHD gene is thought to be involved in energy and/or nutrient sensing through the AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways. Hereditary Leiomyomatosis Renal Cell Carcinoma, a hereditary form of type 2 papillary renal carcinoma, is caused by inactivation of the Krebs cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (fumarase, FH). Loss of FH activity has been shown to alter the degradation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in a VHL-independent fashion. Knowledge of these kidney cancer gene pathways has enabled new approaches for the management of this disease and has provided the foundations for the development of targeted therapeutics for this disease. PMID:20059341

  15. [Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials of Eye-acupuncture Therapy for Patients with Post-stroke Insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-Yang; Wang, Peng-Qin

    2017-02-25

    To observe the therapeutic effect of eye-acupuncture therapy for post-stroke insomnia. Sixty patients (45-70 years in age) with post-stroke insomnia were randomized into eye-acupuncture group and routine acupuncture (body acupuncture) group (30 cases in each). Patients of the eye-acupuncture group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of bilateral Shangjiao (Upper-energizer) and Xin (Heart) regions and those of the routine acupuncture group treated by acupuncture stimulation of Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Anmian (EX-HN 16), etc. After Deqi, the filiform needles were retained for 20 min, and the treatment in both groups was conducted once a day, with 15 days being one therapeutic course and 2 courses altogether. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) including the subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction, and total PSQI score was used to evaluate the overall sleep quality. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the "Guiding Principles of Clinical Trials for New Drugs of Traditional Chinese Medicine" formulated by Chinese Ministry of Health. Following the treatment, of the two 30 cases in the eye-and routine acupuncture groups, 21 and 9 experienced a marked improvement in their symptoms, 8 and 17 were effective, and 1 and 4 invalid, with the effective rate being 96.7% and 86.7%, respectively. The PSQI scores of the subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction, and the total PSQI score were all significantly decreased in comparison with pre-treatment in each group (Pacupuncture was markedly superior to those of routine acupuncture in reducing sleep latency, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction (Pefficiency and total PSQI score (P>0.05). Both eye-acupuncture and routine acupunture are effective in the treatment of post-stroke insomnia, and the eye-acupuncture is better than

  16. Herbal therapy for advanced breast cancer. Personal experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal therapy for advanced breast cancer. Personal experience with 100 patients. Gadhvi N.P.. Eldoret Provincial Hospital, PO. Box 2234, Eldoret-KENYA. Key words: Herbs, therapy, breast and cancer. Background: The majority of rural patients have no access to radiotherapy or chemotherapy for advanced cancer due to ...

  17. Radiation effects of boron neutron capture therapy on brain, skin, and eye of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalka, K.Z.; Barth, R.F.; Bailey, M.Q.; Wilkie, D.A.; Koestner, A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Hopewell, J.W. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-30

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the radiation effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on the brain, skin, and eyes of nude rats following systemic administration of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and neutron irradiation to the head. A solution containing 120 mg of [sup 10]B-enriched-L-BPA complexed with fructose was administered IP to nude rats. Boron concentrations were [approximately] 8.4, 9.4, 10.0, and 11.0 [mu]g/g in the brain, blood, skin, and eyes, respectively, at 6 h when the animals were irradiated at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor to cause tumor regression in nude rats carrying intracerebral implants of the human melanoma cell line MRA 27. Mild to moderate increases in loose fibrous tissue were observed in the choroid plexus at estimated physical doses to the brain and blood that ranged from 4.3-7.1 Gy and 4.6-7.7 Gy, respectively, and these appeared to be dose and time dependent. Other changes in the choroid plexus included occasional infiltrates of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes and vacuolation of epithelial cells. Dose-dependent moist desquamation of the skin was observed in all rats, but this had healed by 28 days following irradiation. Cataracts and keratitis developed in the eyes of most animals, and these were dose dependent. The minimal histopathological changes seen in the brain at doses that were sufficient to eradicate intracerebral melanoma indicates that BNCT has the potential to cure a tumor-bearing host without producing the normal brain injury usually associated with conventional external beam radiation therapy. Studies in canines, which currently are in progress, should further define the dose-effect relationships of BNCT on critical neuroanatomic structures within the brain. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuse, Junji, E-mail: jfuruse@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611 (Japan); Okusaka, Takuji [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-05-03

    It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer, because most of these patients are unsuitable candidates for surgery, and even patients undergoing curative surgery often have recurrence. Recently, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine was reported to show survival benefits over gemcitabine alone in randomized clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom and Japan. Thus, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine is now recognized as the standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. One of the next issues that need to be addressed is whether molecular targeted agents might also be effective against biliary tract cancer. Although some targeted agents have been investigated as monotherapy for first-line chemotherapy, none were found to exert satisfactory efficacy. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab and cetuximab have also been investigated in combination with a gemcitabine-based regimen and have been demonstrated to show promising activity. Furthermore, clinical trials using new targeted agents for biliary tract cancer are also proposed. This cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous tumor consisting of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm the efficacy of chemotherapy, and international collaboration is important.

  19. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: pathologic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Madden, John F

    2009-03-01

    To summarize pathologic features of low-volume, low-risk prostate cancer relevant to the development of patient selection criteria and treatment strategies for focal therapy of prostate cancer, as an alternative to whole-gland radical treatments. Prostate cancer characteristically presents as a multifocal lesion within the prostate gland. Diagnosis of prostate cancer at an early stage has led to a recognition of subsets of patients whose disease may be either unifocal or multifocal, yet is unilateral or of small aggregate volume. Parenchyma-preserving partial-gland ablation may become a potentially feasible option in future treatment of early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Even for moderately selective protocols such as hemiablation, however, appropriate patient selection will be challenging because of the imperfect correlation among unifocality, unilaterality, low volume and low grade. Extended multicore biopsy protocols under imaging guidance may be required to map the tumor process with sufficient accuracy for treatment planning. Further research in molecular determinants and more precise imaging techniques should be pursued to optimize selection and treatment.

  20. A case of spontaneous pneumothorax following radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX is a potentially devastating rare complication of the thoracic radiation therapy. Most of the cases in the medical literature, have been described in lymphoma patients receiving radiation therapy. The pathogenesis of this adverse event remains undefined although different mechanisms have been proposed. We present a case of post-radiation therapy SPTX in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, following intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, which to our knowledge is the first such reported case related to this newer mode of radiation therapy. This report highlights the importance of keeping a close eye for this complication as timely treatment with chest tube insertion and drainage of the pneumothorax can be a lifesaving in these patients.

  1. Review of yoga therapy during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C; Addington, Elizabeth L; Sohl, Stephanie J; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    Reviews of yoga research that distinguish results of trials conducted during (versus after) cancer treatment are needed to guide future research and clinical practice. We therefore conducted a review of non-randomized studies and randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions for children and adults undergoing treatment for any cancer type. Studies were identified via research databases and reference lists. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) children or adults undergoing cancer treatment, (2) intervention stated as yoga or component of yoga, and (3) publication in English in peer-reviewed journals through October 2015. Exclusion criteria were the following: (1) samples receiving hormone therapy only, (2) interventions involving meditation only, and (3) yoga delivered within broader cancer recovery or mindfulness-based stress reduction programs. Results of non-randomized (adult n = 8, pediatric n = 4) and randomized controlled trials (adult n = 13, pediatric n = 0) conducted during cancer treatment are summarized separately by age group. Findings most consistently support improvement in psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, distress, anxiety). Several studies also found that yoga enhanced quality of life, though further investigation is needed to clarify domain-specific efficacy (e.g., physical, social, cancer-specific). Regarding physical and biomedical outcomes, evidence increasingly suggests that yoga ameliorates sleep and fatigue; additional research is needed to advance preliminary findings for other treatment sequelae and stress/immunity biomarkers. Among adults undergoing cancer treatment, evidence supports recommending yoga for improving psychological outcomes, with potential for also improving physical symptoms. Evidence is insufficient to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in pediatric oncology. We describe suggestions for strengthening yoga research methodology to inform clinical practice guidelines.

  2. Clinical targeting recombinant immunotoxins for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meng Li,1,* Zeng-Shan Liu,1,* Xi-Lin Liu,1,* Qi Hui,2,* Shi-Ying Lu,1 Lin-Lin Qu,1 Yan-Song Li,1 Yu Zhou,1 Hong-Lin Ren,1 Pan Hu1 1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, 2School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs are proteins that contain a toxin fused to an antibody or small molecules and are constructed by the genetic engineering technique. RITs can bind to and be internalized by cells and kill cancerous or non-cancerous cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. A wide variety of RITs have been tested against different cancers in cell culture, xenograft models, and human patients during the past several decades. RITs have shown activity in therapy of several kinds of cancers, but different levels of side effects, mainly related to vascular leak syndrome, were also observed in the treated patients. High immunogenicity of RITs limited their long-term or repeat applications in clinical cases. Recent advances in the design of immunotoxins, such as humanization of antibody fragment, PEGylation, and modification of human B- and T-cell epitopes, are overcoming the above mentioned problems, which predict the use of these immunotoxins as a potential therapeutic method to treat cancer patients. Keywords: targeted therapy, hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, vascular leak syndrome, immunogenicity 

  3. Unilateral anterior uveitis complicating zoledronic acid therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Saghir Nagi S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is very widely used in patients with metastatic bone disease and osteoporosis. Only one case of bilateral uveitis was recently reported related to its use. Case presentation We report the first case of severe unilateral anterior uveitis in a patient with breast cancer and an intraocular lens. Following zoledronic acid infusion, the patient developed severe and dramatic right eye pain with decreased visual acuity within 24 hours and was found to have a fibrinous anterior uveitis of moderate severity The patient was treated with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops and recovered slowly over several months. Conclusion Internists, oncologists, endocrinologists, and ophtalmologists should be aware of uveitis as a possible complication of zoledronic acid therapy. Patients should be instructed to report immediately to their physicians and treatment with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops should be instituted immediately at the onset of symptoms. This report documents anterior uveitis as a complication of zoledronic acid therapy. This reaction could be an idiosyncratic one but further research may shed more light on the etiology.

  4. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfa Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy.

  5. Study on radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T. (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    In an attempt to clarify the effects of radiation therapy for prostatic cancer, the author studied 71 prostatic cancer patients with megavoltage radiation therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital for the past 17 years between 1964 and 1980. Fifty nine out of 71 cases received combined treatment with hormone. Of 71, 28 patients were examined for remaining foci by transperineal needle biopsy at various times after irradiation. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 100% for stage A, 92% for stage B, 60.2% for stage C and 25.2% for stage D, respectively. Local control rates by digital rectal examination were 92.3% for stage B and 65.5% for stage C, whereas local atrophy rates were 61.5% for stage B and 31% for stage C cases. The positive rate of biopsy was 75%, negative rate was 20.8% and false negative rate was 4.2% within 1 year. The positive rate decreased to 63.6%, while negative rate increased to 31.8% and false positive rate was 4.6% after 1 year. Some cases, in whom the size of the prostate had decreased, showed good prognosis despite the presence of viable cells in biopsy specimens, therefore the waiting policy seemed indicated by frequent local palpation in future follow up to examine any regrowth in size of the lesion.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew A; Chabner, Bruce A

    2009-11-10

    Epigenetic processes are implicated in cancer causation and progression. The acetylation status of histones regulates access of transcription factors to DNA and influences levels of gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity diminishes acetylation of histones, causing compaction of the DNA/histone complex. This compaction blocks gene transcription and inhibits differentiation, providing a rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors. In this review, we explore the biology of the HDAC enzymes, summarize the pharmacologic properties of HDAC inhibitors, and examine results of selected clinical trials. We consider the potential of these inhibitors in combination therapy with targeted drugs and with cytotoxic chemotherapy. HDAC inhibitors promote growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells, with minimal effects on normal tissue. In addition to decompaction of the histone/DNA complex, HDAC inhibition also affects acetylation status and function of nonhistone proteins. HDAC inhibitors have demonstrated antitumor activity in clinical trials, and one drug of this class, vorinostat, is US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Other inhibitors in advanced stages of clinical development, including depsipeptide and MGCD0103, differ from vorinostat in structure and isoenzyme specificity, and have shown activity against lymphoma, leukemia, and solid tumors. Promising preclinical activity in combination with cytotoxics, inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, and inhibitors of proteasome function have led to combination therapy trials. HDAC inhibitors are an important emerging therapy with single-agent activity against multiple cancers, and have significant potential in combination use.

  7. Targeted cancer therapy; nanotechnology approaches for overcoming drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Shen, Jacson K; Milane, Lara; Hornicek, Francis J; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer molecular biology have resulted in parallel and unprecedented progress in the development of targeted cancer therapy. Targeted therapy can provide higher efficacy and lower toxicity than conventional chemotherapy for cancer. However, like traditional chemotherapy, molecularly targeted cancer therapy also faces the challenge of drug resistance. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for chemotherapy resistance in tumors, including over-expression of efflux transporters, somatic alterations of drug targets, deregulation of apoptosis, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. Nanotechnology based approaches are proving to be efficacious in overcoming drug resistance in cancer. Combination of targeted therapies with nanotechnology approaches is a promising strategy to overcome targeted therapy drug resistance in cancer treatment. This review discusses the mechanisms of targeted drug resistance in cancer and discusses nanotechnology approaches to circumvent this resistance.

  8. Cancer in pregnancy: safety and efficacy of systemic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, Ingrid; Lok, Christianne; Vandenbroucke, Tineke; Amant, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Cancer in pregnancy has become increasingly frequent. It has become clear that for specific cancers under well defined circumstances, oncological treatment in pregnancy can be well tolerated and feasible for both mother and fetus. Continued critical assessment of the available literature and registration of cancer in pregnancy cases and outcomes for mother and child are necessary to work toward implementing optimal cancer treatment during pregnancy. Physiologic changes in pregnancy may alter distribution and efficacy of systemic therapy. Data on systemic therapy including, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy during pregnancy are available but incomplete. Outcomes of fetuses exposed to chemotherapy in utero are generally reassuring, but new targeted therapies are mostly discouraged in pregnancy. Cancer treatment during pregnancy is possible, depending on type and timing of systemic therapy and treatment modality. Available data are reassuring with a modest increase in complications such as growth restriction and preterm birth. The effect of new targeted therapies is often still unclear and therefore discouraged.

  9. Cancer classification: Mutual information, target network and strategies of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Chin; Liu, Chan-Cheng; Chang, Fu; Chen, Su-Shing

    2012-10-02

    Cancer therapy is a challenging research area because side effects often occur in chemo and radiation therapy. We intend to study a multi-targets and multi-components design that will provide synergistic results to improve efficiency of cancer therapy. We have developed a general methodology, AMFES (Adaptive Multiple FEature Selection), for ranking and selecting important cancer biomarkers based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) classification. In particular, we exemplify this method by three datasets: a prostate cancer (three stages), a breast cancer (four subtypes), and another prostate cancer (normal vs. cancerous). Moreover, we have computed the target networks of these biomarkers as the signatures of the cancers with additional information (mutual information between biomarkers of the network). Then, we proposed a robust framework for synergistic therapy design approach which includes varies existing mechanisms. These methodologies were applied to three GEO datasets: GSE18655 (three prostate stages), GSE19536 (4 subtypes breast cancers) and GSE21036 (prostate cancer cells and normal cells) shown in. We selected 96 biomarkers for first prostate cancer dataset (three prostate stages), 72 for breast cancer (luminal A vs. luminal B), 68 for breast cancer (basal-like vs. normal-like), and 22 for another prostate cancer (cancerous vs. normal. In addition, we obtained statistically significant results of mutual information, which demonstrate that the dependencies among these biomarkers can be positive or negative. We proposed an efficient feature ranking and selection scheme, AMFES, to select an important subset from a large number of features for any cancer dataset. Thus, we obtained the signatures of these cancers by building their target networks. Finally, we proposed a robust framework of synergistic therapy for cancer patients. Our framework is not only supported by real GEO datasets but also aim to a multi-targets/multi-components drug design tool, which improves

  10. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site:Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    targeted therapy on the efficacy of cabazitaxel in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer R. Van Soest1, A. Nieuweboer2, E. De...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0159 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  11. Ocular surface evaluation in eyes with chronic glaucoma on long term topical antiglaucoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Saini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT, Schirmer’s I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer, central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The mean values in the glaucoma cases and control groups respectively were as follows: OSDI score (35.89±16.07/6.02±3.84; P=0.001, Schirmer’s I test score (7.63±2.64 mm/12.86±1.93 mm; P=0.001, FTBUT (9.44±2.76s/11.8±1.88s; P=0.001, corneal (5.7±2.33/ 1.1±0.58; P=0.001 and conjunctival staining score (5.06±1.94/0.84±0.46; P=0.001, corneal sensitivity (4.68±0.44/5.07±0.37; P=0.076, mean subbasal nerve fiber number (3.58±0.99/5.40±1.70; P=0.001, SBNFL length (1101.44±287.56 μm/1963.70±562.56 μm; P=0.001 and density (6883.94±1798.03 μm/mm2/12 273.15±3516.04 μm/mm2; P=0.001. Dry eye severity of level 2 and 3 was seen in 66% of glaucoma group. Corneal (R²=0.86 and conjunctival staining (R²=0.71 and OSDI score (R²=0.67 showed statistically significant negative correlation with central corneal SBNFLD while FTBUT (R²=0.84, corneal sensitivity (R²=0.52 showed positive correlation to central corneal SBNFLD in the long term topical antiglaucoma medication group. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes and antiglaucoma therapy induced dry eye is found to be associated with decreased SBNFLD in eyes on long term topical antiglaucoma medications.

  12. Nanomaterial-based drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Tao

    2017-01-01

    This brief summarizes different types of organic and inorganic nanomaterials for drug delivery in cancer therapy. It highlights that precisely designed nanomaterials will be the next-generation therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

  13. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  14. Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People With Cancer ... Copy This booklet covers: Questions and Answers About Radiation Therapy. Answers common questions, such as what radiation ...

  15. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura A; Eley, John G; Howell, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were...... to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment...

  16. Targeting EZH2 in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Makoto; Uchimaru, Kaoru

    2017-09-01

    The present review introduces recent outstanding progress pertaining to Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), especially regarding its mode of action as a master regulator of chromatin, and provides molecular-based evidence for targeting EZH2 in cancer therapy. We discuss the active development of small molecules targeting the enzymatic activity of EZH2/polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Genetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional dysregulation of EZH2 is frequently observed in many cancer types. EZH2 promotes tumorigenesis by altering the expression of numerous tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, the executive molecular processes initiated by EZH2, such as NF-κB activation, microRNA silencing, tumor immune evasion, and noncanonical transcription regulation, appear to be the fundamental characteristics of each cancer. Systematic investigations have suggested coordinated regulation of the cancer epigenome wherein antagonistic complexes of both polycomb and SWI/SNF are involved. Frequent loss-of-function mutations in epigenetic factors, such as ARID1A, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, BAP1, and KDM6A, are likely to elicit the EZH2/PRC2-addicted situation. Our comprehensive understanding encourages the development of advanced strategies for the appropriate manipulation of the cancer epigenome. Moreover, a couple of small molecules that can effectively inhibit the enzymatic activity of EZH2/PRC2 have been translated into early-phase clinical trials. The EZH2-mediated epigenome and subsequent transcriptome define cellular identity. Effective and specific strategies for the manipulation of EZH2/PRC2 may lead to the development of more precise cancer medicines.

  17. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CANCER: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis, Patrizia; Berg, Kristian; Cengel, Keith A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Girotti, Albert W.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juzeniene, Asta; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Mroz, Pawel; Nowis, Dominika; Piette, Jacques; Wilson, Brian C.; Golab, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment. PMID:21617154

  18. Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis, Patrizia; Berg, Kristian; Cengel, Keith A; Foster, Thomas H; Girotti, Albert W; Gollnick, Sandra O; Hahn, Stephen M; Hamblin, Michael R; Juzeniene, Asta; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Mroz, Pawel; Nowis, Dominika; Piette, Jacques; Wilson, Brian C; Golab, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative, particularly in early stage tumors. It can prolong survival in patients with inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment.

  19. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress.

  20. Targeted Immune Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Keith L.; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Lamichhane, Purushottam; Preston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as recurrence free survival and overall survival, in ovarian cancer are quite variable, independent of common characteristics such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration and therapeutic targeting into the interaction between the tumor and host. One compelling host characteristic that contributes both to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer is the immune system. Hundreds of studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune regulatory cells present in the tumor microenvironment. Regulatory immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathologic network. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological targets that influence ovarian cancer outcome as well as include an update on newer immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25544369

  1. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  2. Novel therapies in genitourinary cancer: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenhong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, new treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC has been a spotlight in the field of cancer therapeutics. With several emerging agents branded as 'targeted therapy' now available, both medical oncologists and urologists are progressively more hopeful for better outcomes. The new remedies may provide patients with improved survival and at the same time less toxicity when compared to traditional cytotoxic agents. This article will center on current and emerging treatment strategies for advanced RCC and other GU malignancies with updates from 2008 annual ASCO meeting.

  3. Advanced strategies in liposomal cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jensen, Simon Skøde; Jørgensen, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Tumor specific drug delivery has become increasingly interesting in cancer therapy, as the use of chemotherapeutics is often limited due to severe side effects. Conventional drug delivery systems have shown low efficiency and a continuous search for more advanced drug delivery principles......, none of them have yet led to marketed drugs and are still far from achieving this goal. The most advanced and prospective technologies are probably the prodrug strategies where nontoxic drugs are carried and activated specifically in the malignant tissue by overexpressed enzymes. In the second part...... by secretory phospholipase A2. We furthermore give examples of the biological performance of the enzymatically degradable liposomes as advanced drug delivery systems....

  4. Monoclonal antibodies therapies for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bellati, Filippo; Ruscito, Ilary; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Alessandri, Franco; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Ferrero, Simone

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive debulking surgery, intraperitoneal therapies and the use of new drugs for chemotherapy, patients with ovarian cancer (OC) still have poor prognosis and, therefore, new strategies for its management are needed. Molecular-targeted agents can be considered a new option in drug research. Several antigens related to OC have been isolated and they could be potential target of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); therefore, different mAbs have been developed and are emerging as new potential OC treatments. This article aims to review the literature on the use of mAbs in the treatment of OC. The purposes of this manuscript are to offer a brief explanation of the mechanisms of action of mAbs and to help readers in understanding the current role of mAbs in the treatment of OC. A deeper knowledge of the molecular biology of OC has brought new developments in targeted therapies. Among these therapies, bevacizumab demonstrated the higher clinical efficacy. Further larger trials are needed to better define the role of the other mAbs in OC treatment. There is a strong need to identify and validate robust biomarkers for a more focused patient selection and for tailoring therapies, optimizing dose and assessing response.

  5. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Effects of dry eye therapies on environmentally induced ocular surface disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Quianta L.; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of artificial tears and corticosteroids on mitigating the acute ocular surface response to low humidity environments. DESIGN Single-group, crossover clinical trial. METHODS Twenty subjects with aqueous deficient dry eye were enrolled. Subjects meeting inclusion criteria at visit 1 and were exposed to a baseline 90-minute low humidity environment at visit 2. They then used artificial tears for 2 weeks prior to low humidity exposure at visit 3, followed by 0.1% dexamethasone for two weeks prior to the final low humidity exposure at visit 4. Outcome measures included corneal and conjunctival staining, blink rate and irritation symptoms before and after each low humidity exposure. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to measure HLA-DR RNA transcripts in conjunctival cells taken by impression cytology at each visit. RESULTS There was significantly less corneal and conjunctival epitheliopathy after the low humidity exposure at visit 4 compared to after the low humidity exposure at visit 3 (p= 0.003). Subjects reported significantly less eye irritation during the low humidity exposure after using the dexamethasone (visit 4) compared to artificial tears (visit 3) (p=0.01). HLA-DR transcripts significantly decreased after the stress at visit 4 (post dexamethasone) compared to visit 2. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrates corticosteroid eye drops mitigate the acute adverse effects of an experimental low humidity challenge, likely due to suppression of stress-activated inflammatory pathways. While extended use of corticosteroids is not indicated, other anti-inflammatory therapies with activity against stress-activated pathways may prove as effective. PMID:25868759

  8. [Pattern visual evoked potentials in normal-vision eyes of post-therapy amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manyi; Wei, Xin; Li, Yunping; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Shuxian

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) parameters on amblyopic patients with normal-vision after pleoptic therapy. We investigated 60 amblyopic children (8-12 years old) who gained normal-vision after pleoptic therapy. These patients were assigned to a unilateral amblyopia group (40 patients) and a bilateral amblyopia group (20 patients). Another 20 healthy children served as a control group. All patients underwent a full initial ophthalmologic and orthoptic evaluation. P-VEP test was performed in all. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and compared among groups. The latencies of P100 waves in the amblyopic eyes were used to generate a multiple linear regression formula from sex, first treatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction. There was no significant difference in the mean levels of best-corrected visual acuity among groups (P>0.05). A significant prolongation of the latency and a decrease of amplitude of P100 waves were observed in the unilateral amblyopia group and the bilateral amblyopia group compared with the healthy control group (Pamblyopia group were abnormal compared with the healthy control group (Ptreatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction (R(2)= 0.52, Ptreatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction. Traditional amblyopic therapy may be not enough for vision function recovery.

  9. [Genetic basis of head and neck cancers and gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Halil Erdem; Özkırış, Mahmut; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Surgery and combinations of traditional treatments are not successful enough particularly for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The major disadvantages of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the lack of specificity for the target tissue and toxicity to the patient. As a result, gene therapy may offer a more specific approach. The aim of gene therapy is to present therapeutic genes into cancer cells which selectively eliminate malignant cells with no systemic toxicity to the patient. This article reviews the genetic basis of head and neck cancers and important concepts in cancer gene therapy: (i) inhibition of oncogenes; (ii) tumor suppressor gene replacement; (iii) regulation of immune response against malignant cells; (iv) genetic prodrug activation; and (v) antiangiogenic gene therapy. Currently, gene therapy is not sufficient to replace the traditional treatments of head and neck cancers, however there is no doubt that it will have an important role in the near future.

  10. Methods for reducing patient radiation exposure during proton therapy for eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Bakaev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to techniques for reduction of background radiation in the room for conducting proton eye radiotherapy. The necessity of this reduction stems from the health risk of low-dose effect on the personnel and patients. We have touched the aspects of background reduction both at the cost of secondary particles, produced in beam-forming systems, and the dose reduction for the patient's healthy tissue (when carrying out beam therapy owing to correct assessment of the biological effects of protons with energies up to 60MeV. The obtained calculation results prove that an increase in the proton beam diameter provides the possibility of reducing the background radiation by more than a factor of three in the room and of correspondingly decreasing the body's radiation exposure. It is necessary to take correct account of RBE to reduce the radiation exposure of adjacent organs.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ýzci

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR are from the most common treatment methods that have begun to be used in trauma patients in recent years. With the increased applicability of these treatment models in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and on other trauma patients success of treatment rate in trauma patients is increasing steadily. In this article, it is tried to review the application forms and effects of EMDR and CBT methods among patients with PTSD which is a commonly seen trauma disorder. It is aimed in this article to emphasize the importance of CBT and a newly treatment EMDR in post-traumatic acute and chronic disorders with multiple psychiatric symptoms. [JCBPR 2017; 6(1.000: 31-38

  12. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Bender, H.; Palmedo, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  13. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  14. [Fullerenols in therapy and diagnosis of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichota, Anna; Krokosz, Anita

    2016-12-22

    Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of death in Poland. One of the objectives of contemporary biomedical research is to maximize the effects of therapeutic strategies. The actions undertaken to improve therapeutic agents are aimed at reducing the side effects of cancer treatments. Another direction of investigations is the search for protective substances that reduce the toxicity of the drug to normal cells. Carbon-based nanomaterials (fullerenes and their derivatives, graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds) are a broad class of nanoparticles that have potential biomedical applications in both therapy and diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to review biological properties of fullerenols in the context of their use in various strategies of cancer treatments. The authors also discuss the possibility of simultaneous use of nanoparticles in therapy and diagnosis, that is, in theranostics. Current knowledge indicates that fullerenes and their hydrophilic derivatives, especially fullerenols, show low or no toxicity. They may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth and protection of normal cells through their antioxidant properties, as well as to the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis, and stimulation of the immune response. Gadoliniumcontaining endohedral fullerenes are less toxic as a contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and they may also inhibit tumor growth, which is a promising result for theranostics. Med Pr 2016;67(6):817-831. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H Nelke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Fullerenols in therapy and diagnosis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lichota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of death in Poland. One of the objectives of contemporary biomedical research is to maximize the effects of therapeutic strategies. The actions undertaken to improve therapeutic agents are aimed at reducing the side effects of cancer treatments. Another direction of investigations is the search for protective substances that reduce the toxicity of the drug to normal cells. Carbon-based nanomaterials (fullerenes and their derivatives, graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds are a broad class of nanoparticles that have potential biomedical applications in both therapy and diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to review biological properties of fullerenols in the context of their use in various strategies of cancer treatments. The authors also discuss the possibility of simultaneous use of nanoparticles in therapy and diagnosis, that is, in theranostics. Current knowledge indicates that fullerenes and their hydrophilic derivatives, especially fullerenols, show low or no toxicity. They may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth and protection of normal cells through their antioxidant properties, as well as to the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis, and stimulation of the immune response. Gadoliniumcontaining endohedral fullerenes are less toxic as a contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and they may also inhibit tumor growth, which is a promising result for theranostics. Med Pr 2016;67(6:817–831

  17. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  18. Virotherapy: cancer gene therapy at last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsland, Alan E; Spiliopoulou, Pavlina; Evans, T R Jeffry

    2016-01-01

    For decades, effective cancer gene therapy has been a tantalising prospect; for a therapeutic modality potentially able to elicit highly effective and selective responses, definitive efficacy outcomes have often seemed out of reach. However, steady progress in vector development and accumulated experience from previous clinical studies has finally led the field to its first licensed therapy. Following a pivotal phase III trial, Imlygic (talimogene laherparepvec/T-Vec) received US approval as a treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma in October 2015, followed several weeks later by its European authorisation. These represent the first approvals for an oncolytic virotherapy. Imlygic is an advanced-generation herpesvirus-based vector optimised for oncolytic and immunomodulatory activities. Many other oncolytic agents currently remain in development, providing hope that current success will be followed by other diverse vectors that may ultimately come to constitute a new class of clinical anti-cancer agents. In this review, we discuss some of the key oncolytic viral agents developed in the adenovirus and herpesvirus classes, and the prospects for further enhancing their efficacy by combining them with novel immunotherapeutic approaches.

  19. Targeting angiogenesis with integrative cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yance, Donald R; Sagar, Stephen M

    2006-03-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiological pathways that support tumor development while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The authors will focus on natural health products (NHPs) that have a high degree of antiangiogenic activity but also describe some of their many other interactions that can inhibit tumor progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. NHPs target various molecular pathways besides angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the HER-2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the NF-kB transcription factor, the protein kinases, Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are confirming the knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The following herbs are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and are antiangiogenic through multiple interdependent processes that include effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities: Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinale (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens (rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking on clinical trials. More data are required on dose response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations

  20. DNA Repair Mechanisms in Cancer Development and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eTorgovnick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage has been long recognized as causal factor for cancer development. When erroneous DNA repair leads to mutations or chromosomal aberrations affecting oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, cells undergo malignant transformation resulting in cancerous growth. Genetic defects can predispose to cancer: Mutations in distinct DNA repair systems elevate the susceptibility to various cancer types. However, DNA damage not only comprises a root cause for cancer development but also continues to provide an important avenue for chemo- and radiotherapy. Since the beginning of cancer therapy, genotoxic agents have been applied that trigger DNA damage checkpoints that halt the growth and trigger the apoptotic demise of cancer cells. We provide an overview about the involvement of DNA repair systems in cancer prevention and the classes of genotoxins that are commonly used for the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of the roles and interactions of the highly complex DNA repair machineries will lead to important improvements in cancer therapy.

  1. Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsos, H A; Hicks, D J; Greenhough, A; Williams, A C; Paraskeva, C

    2005-08-01

    Despite extensive research into the biology of CRC (colorectal cancer), and recent advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy, CRC continues to be a major cause of death throughout the world. Therefore it is important to develop novel chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents for CRC. Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that are currently used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and in the stimulation of appetite. However, there is accumulating evidence that they could also be useful for the inhibition of tumour cell growth by modulating key survival signalling pathways. The chemotherapeutic potential for plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids in CRC therapy is reviewed.

  2. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  3. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet V.; Moore, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is evolving as a new field that has a potentially high research and clinical impact. Medicine, in particular, could benefit from nanotechnology, due to emerging applications for noninvasive imaging and therapy. One important nanotechnological platform that has shown promise includes the so-called iron oxide nanoparticles. With specific relevance to cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticle-based therapy represents an important alternative to conventional chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Iron oxide nanoparticles are usually composed of three main components: an iron core, a polymer coating, and functional moieties. The biodegradable iron core can be designed to be superparamagnetic. This is particularly important, if the nanoparticles are to be used as a contrast agent for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surrounding the iron core is generally a polymer coating, which not only serves as a protective layer but also is a very important component for transforming nanoparticles into biomedical nanotools for in vivo applications. Finally, different moieties attached to the coating serve as targeting macromolecules, therapeutics payloads, or additional imaging tags. Despite the development of several nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we believe that iron oxide nanoparticles are still the most promising platform that can transform nanotechnology into a conventional medical discipline. PMID:22274558

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet V; Moore, Anna; Medarova, Zdravka

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology is evolving as a new field that has a potentially high research and clinical impact. Medicine, in particular, could benefit from nanotechnology, due to emerging applications for noninvasive imaging and therapy. One important nanotechnological platform that has shown promise includes the so-called iron oxide nanoparticles. With specific relevance to cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticle-based therapy represents an important alternative to conventional chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Iron oxide nanoparticles are usually composed of three main components: an iron core, a polymer coating, and functional moieties. The biodegradable iron core can be designed to be superparamagnetic. This is particularly important, if the nanoparticles are to be used as a contrast agent for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surrounding the iron core is generally a polymer coating, which not only serves as a protective layer but also is a very important component for transforming nanoparticles into biomedical nanotools for in vivo applications. Finally, different moieties attached to the coating serve as targeting macromolecules, therapeutics payloads, or additional imaging tags. Despite the development of several nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we believe that iron oxide nanoparticles are still the most promising platform that can transform nanotechnology into a conventional medical discipline.

  5. Sympathetic Nerves in Breast Cancer: Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    cancer pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:388. 35. Powe DG, Entschladen F. Targeted therapies: Using beta - blockers to inhibit breast cancer ...of Rochester Cancer Center Symposium. Rochester, NY (November 11, 2010.) SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM INNERVATION AND FUNCTION IN A BETA -ADRENERGIC...production by divergent pathways in high beta -AR-expressing breast cancer cell lines. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:747-58. 2. Lorton D, Hewitt D

  6. The tear substitutive therapy for prophylaxis and treatment of dry eye after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficiency of tear substitutes based on hyaluronic acid at the patients after phacoemulsification for prophylaxis and postoperative therapy of dry eye syndrome.Methods: 168 patients (168 eyes were examined before cataract surgery. The average age was 69.2±5.7 years old. Patients were divided into four groups according to the presence of eye dry syndrome and following tear substitutive therapy. 55 patients with a mild case of DES (the first group were treated with Vismed® eye drops 1 drop given 3 times a day for 1 week before surgery and postoperatively. 10 patients with a moderate case of DES (second group were treated with Vismed gel® to use with the same periodicity. Patients without DES were divided into two groups: 50 of them (third group were treated to use Vismed® 1 drop 3 times a day postoperatively, the rest 53 didn’t undergo the course of treatment — «checkout group». The observation period was 45 days after operation. The study of tear secretion and osmolarity of tear fluid was performed before and after operative period.Results: 65 patients were first diagnosed a mild or moderate case of DES. On the third day after operation every group showed the increase of tear osmolarity, it was especially noticable among the patients of «checkout group» from 294 to 314 mOsm / l at the average. On the seventh day after operation all groups showed further negative dynamics, and in the «checkout» group comparing to initial indices was registered noticable worsening of the studied parameters (р≤0.05. By the 14th day after phacoemulsification patients from the 1st and the 3rd groups displayed the tendency to restoration of indices to the preoperative values. Indices of osmolarity and tear secretion restored among the patients from the 1st and the 2nd groups by the 21st day and even improved in comparison to the preoperative values of group 3. Meanwhile, «checkout» group’s indices fell to a level

  7. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy for Kids With Rare Eye Disease (Video) Ocular Implant (Video) Glaucoma Additional Content Medical News Eyes, ... has other eye symptoms, such as dryness, increased tear formation, double vision, loss of vision, irritation, or ...

  8. Oral complications and management strategies for patients undergoing cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hai Ming

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given.

  9. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  10. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. P52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0437 TITLE: p52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Allen C Gao, MD, PhD...Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0437 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...advances that provide temporary respite, almost all patients will go on to die from progressive and resistant prostate cancer . Therefore, there is

  12. Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0527 TITLE: Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Aik...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0527 5c...combination with irinotecan or cetuximab. Results: Colon cancer cell lines demonstrated varying sensitivity to MLN8237 with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to

  13. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy In Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0141 TITLE: Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hans-Joerg Hammers...Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 15-1-0141 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...to develop strategies to enhance immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer . The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or

  14. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome-Pita, FX; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E.; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C.; Cathelineau, X

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a ...

  15. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Kuo Ann; Yeo, Richard; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed. PMID:22408567

  16. Combination therapy with diquafosol tetrasodium and sodium hyaluronate in patients with dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Ikuko; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Ichihashi, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the possible advantages of combination therapy with diquafosol tetrasodium and sodium hyaluronate for dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Prospective randomized comparative trial. A total of 206 eyes of 105 patients who underwent LASIK were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups according to the postoperative treatment: artificial tears, sodium hyaluronate, diquafosol tetrasodium, and a combination of hyaluronate and diquafosol. Questionnaire responses reflecting subjective dry eye symptoms, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, functional visual acuity, manifest refraction, tear break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer test, and corneal sensitivity were examined before and 1 week and 1 month after LASIK. Distance uncorrected visual acuity was significantly better in the combination group than in the hyaluronate group 1 week and 1 month after LASIK. Near uncorrected visual acuity was significantly better in the combination group than in the artificial tear and diquafosol groups 1 week and 1 month after LASIK. Distance functional visual acuity improved significantly only in the combination group 1 month after LASIK. The Schirmer value in the combination group was significantly higher than that in the hyaluronate group at 1 month after LASIK. Subjective dry eye symptoms in the combination group improved significantly compared with those in the other groups 1 week after surgery. Our results suggest that hyaluronate and diquafosol combination therapy is beneficial for early stabilization of visual performance and improvement of subjective dry eye symptoms in patients after LASIK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of novel radiosensitizers for cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, K

    2002-01-01

    The novel radiosensitizers for cancer therapy, which have some atoms with large X-ray absorption cross sections, were synthesized. The chemical and radiation (X-rays, W target, 100kVp) toxicities and the radiosensitivities to LS-180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were also evaluated. 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylalcohol (PBBA) derivatives were not radiosensitive even around the maximum concentration. On the other hand, the hydrophilic sodium 2,4,6-triiodobenzoate (STIB) indicated meaningful radiosensitivity to the cells. Moreover, the membrane-specific radiosensitizers, cetyl fluorescein isthiocyanate (cetyl FITC), cetyl eosin isothiocyanate (cetyl br-FITC), cetyl erythrosin isothiocyanate (cetyl I-FITC), which aim for the membrane damage by X-ray photoabsorption on the target atoms, were localized in the plasma membrane. As the results of the colony formation assay, it was found that both cetyl FITC are similarly radiosensitive. In this report, we demonstrate the synthetic methods of the radiosensitizers, the...

  18. Nanomedicine-mediated cancer stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Song; Xia, Jin-Xing; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that most tumours are heterogeneous and contain a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that exhibit distinctive self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities, which are believed to play a crucial role in tumour progression, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis in multiple malignancies. Given that the existence of CSCs is a primary obstacle to cancer therapy, a tremendous amount of effort has been put into the development of anti-CSC strategies, and several potential approaches to kill therapeutically-resistant CSCs have been explored, including inhibiting ATP-binding cassette transporters, blocking essential signalling pathways involved in self-renewal and survival of CSCs, targeting CSCs surface markers and destroying the tumour microenvironment. Meanwhile, an increasing number of therapeutic agents (e.g. small molecule drugs, nucleic acids and antibodies) to selectively target CSCs have been screened or proposed in recent years. Drug delivery technology-based approaches hold great potential for tackling the limitations impeding clinical applications of CSC-specific agents, such as poor water solubility, short circulation time and inconsistent stability. Properly designed nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (or nanomedicines) offer new possibilities of penetrating CSC niches and significantly increasing therapeutic drug accumulation in CSCs, which are difficult for free drug counterparts. In addition, intelligent nanomedicine holds great promise to overcome pump-mediated multidrug resistance which is driven by ATP and to decrease detrimental effects on normal somatic stem cells. In this review, we summarise the distinctive biological processes related to CSCs to highlight strategies against inherently drug-resistant CSCs. We then focus on some representative examples that give a glimpse into state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed for CSCs elimination. A perspective on innovative therapeutic

  19. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and

  20. A mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the choroid of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Misty; Shah, Sarah; Natasha, Tajneen; Rittling, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    Transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells, r3T, injected into the arterial circulation form bone metastases with high frequency. Here we report that metastases to the choroid of the eye also occur in these mice with a penetrance of at least 50%. The tumors can occupy as much as half the volume of the eye, and pigmented cells become incorporated into and distributed throughout the tumors. Pigmentation is also observed in the brains and optic nerves of mice with choroidal tumors, suggesting that the tumor cells stimulate migration of pigmented cells along the optic nerve into the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first mouse model of breast cancer choroidal metastasis, and should be useful in the study of this disease.

  1. Senescence induction; a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondoh Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cellular immortalization is a crucial step during the development of human cancer. Primary mammalian cells reach replicative exhaustion after several passages in vitro, a process called replicative senescence. During such a state of permanent growth arrest, senescent cells are refractory to physiological proliferation stimuli: they have altered cell morphology and gene expression patterns, although they remain viable with preserved metabolic activity. Interestingly, senescent cells have also been detected in vivo in human tumors, particularly in benign lesions. Senescence is a mechanism that limits cellular lifespan and constitutes a barrier against cellular immortalization. During immortalization, cells acquire genetic alterations that override senescence. Tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are closely involved in senescence, as their knockdown and ectopic expression confer immortality and senescence induction, respectively. By using high throughput genetic screening to search for genes involved in senescence, several candidate oncogenes and putative tumor suppressor genes have been recently isolated, including subtypes of micro-RNAs. These findings offer new perspectives in the modulation of senescence and open new approaches for cancer therapy.

  2. Postoperative radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ono, Koji; Imamura, Masayuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaji; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Ohishi, Ken; Yanagibashi, Ken; Tobe, Takayoshi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The value of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) was investigated in 77 patients with esophageal cancer resected between 1977 and 1986. Surgical resection was palliative in 13 of these patients. Although seven of them underwent postoperative irradiation to the residual tumor, all of the patients died within one year. Following potentially curative resection performed in 64 patients, 31 patients received 50 Gy of postoperative RT to the lower neck and the mediastinum (group Ia), seven were unable to receive full-dose postoperative RT (group Ib), and 26 were not treated with postoperative RT (group II). The 5-year survival rate estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 54% for group Ia, 29% for group Ib, and 33% for group II, with the difference between groups Ia and II being significant (p<0.025). The local recurrence rate in the mediastinum was lower in group Ia than in group II. Prophylactic postoperative RT for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective regimen for patients with resected disease. (author).

  3. Drugs - Do we need them? Applications of non-pharmaceutical therapy in anterior eye disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Priyanka; Khan, Mohammad A; Shah, Sunil

    2017-12-01

    Natural products have been in use long before the introduction of modern drug therapies and are still used in various communities worldwide for the treatment of anterior eye disease. The aim of this review is to look at the current non-pharmaceutical modalities that have been tried and assess the body of existing evidence behind them. This includes alternative medicine, existing non-pharmaceutical therapy and more recent low and high tech solutions. A detailed search of all available databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed and Google was made to look for English-language studies for complementary and alternative treatment modalities (CAM), natural therapies and new modalities for anterior eye disease such as blepharitis, dry eye and microbial keratitis. We have included a broad discussion ranging from traditional treatments like honey and aloe vera which have been used for centuries, to the more recent technological advances like Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), LipiFlow and photoactivated chromophore for corneal cross linking in infectious keratitis (PACK-CXL). Alternative management strategies may have a role in anterior eye diseases and have a potential in changing the way we currently approach them. Some of the available CAM could play a role if incorporated in to current management practices of not only chronic diseases like blepharitis and dry eye, but also acute conditions with significant morbidity like microbial keratitis. Further large-scale randomized control trials stratified by disease severity are required to improve our understanding and to evaluate the use of non-pharmaceutical therapy against current practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Emphasis on neoadjuvant therapy for “resectable” pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The treatment concept for pancreatic cancer is being transferred from “surgery first” to MDT model. The postoperative adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer can significantly improve the prognosis of patients and has become the standardized diagnostic and treatment practice; the value and significance of neoadjuvant therapy remains unclear. Limited clinical studies of “borderline resectable” pancreatic cancer have shown that neoadjuvant therapy can improve the R0 resection rate and improve the prognosis of patients, and it is recommended for clinical application. But the significance of neoadjuvant therapy in “resectable” pancreatic cancer is still controversial. There is a lack of consensus on indications, cycles, and regimens. It is necessary to carry out a series of prospective control studies to objectively evaluate the value of neoadjuvant therapy in improving the prognosis of “resectable” pancreatic cancer.

  5. Nanoscale insights into ion-beam cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art understanding of the molecular and nano-scale processes that play significant roles in ion-beam cancer therapy. It covers experimental design and methodology, and reviews the theoretical understanding of the processes involved. It offers the reader an opportunity to learn from a coherent approach about the physics, chemistry and biology relevant to ion-beam cancer therapy, a growing field of important medical application worldwide. The book describes phenomena occurring on different time and energy scales relevant to the radiation damage of biological targets and ion-beam cancer therapy from the molecular (nano) scale up to the macroscopic level. It illustrates how ion-beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue whilst maximizing cell-killing within the tumour, offering a significant development in cancer therapy. The full potential ...

  6. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  7. The impact of cancer therapy on cognition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eMandilaras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer and cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment (formerly known as chemobrain or chemo-fog are often described in the literature. In the past, studies have failed to prove the existence of cancer therapy-related cognitive dysfunction. However, more recently, prospective trials have shown that patients undergoing chemotherapy do display impairment in specific cognitive domains.Aging confers an increased risk of developing cancer, as well as cognitive impairment. The Geriatric Oncology clinic of the Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital in Montreal was founded in 2006 to address the unique needs of older cancer patients. We will describe two cases of cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment from our Geriatric Oncology clinic. The first case is that of a 75 year old male diagnosed with stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma who complained of forgetfulness since starting carboplatin-paclitaxel. The second case is that of a 65 year old female diagnosed with stage I, ER positive breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy followed by adjuvant CMF chemotherapy, radiation therapy and was on exemestane when she was evaluated.We will also briefly review the literature of cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment.

  8. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for cutaneous metastases of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Goranskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in w omen. Cutaneous metastases are observed in 20 % pa- tients with breast cancer. 36 breast cancer patients with cutaneous metastases were treated with photodynamic therapy in the de partment of laser and photodynamic therapy MRRC. Complete regression was obtained in 33.9 %, partial — in 39 % of cases, the stabilization achieved in 25.4 %, progression noted in 1.7 %. The objective response was obtained in 72.9 % of cases, treatment effect — in 97.4 %. Photodynamic therapy has good treatment results of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer with a small number of side effects.

  10. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels

    2016-01-01

    analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68–0.86 and 0.88, 0.80–0.96) and rectal cancer (0......Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50–79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were...... followed 1995–2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression...

  11. Nitric Oxide Donor-Based Cancer Therapy: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhangjian; Fu, Junjie; Zhang, Yihua

    2017-09-28

    The increasing understanding of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cancer biology has generated significant progress in the use of NO donor-based therapy to fight cancer. These advances strongly suggest the potential adoption of NO donor-based therapy in clinical practice, and this has been supported by several clinical studies in the past decade. In this review, we first highlight several types of important NO donors, including recently developed NO donors bearing a dinitroazetidine skeleton, represented by RRx-001, with potential utility in cancer therapy. Special emphasis is then given to the combination of NO donor(s) with other therapies to achieve synergy and to the hybridization of NO donor(s) with an anticancer drug/agent/fragment to enhance the activity or specificity or to reduce toxicity. In addition, we briefly describe inducible NO synthase gene therapy and nanotechnology, which have recently entered the field of NO donor therapy.

  12. Occupational Therapy for Adults With Cancer: Why It Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Williams, Grant R; Campbell, Claudine; Munoz, Lauro A; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-03-01

    Adults with cancer may be at risk for limitations in functional status and quality of life (QOL). Occupational therapy is a supportive service with the specific mission to help people functionally engage in life as safely and independently as possible with the primary goal of improving QOL. Unfortunately, for people with cancer, occupational therapy remains underused. The overall purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of what occupational therapy is and its relevance to patients with cancer, highlight the reasons to refer, and, last, provide general advice on how to access services. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  14. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; van de Schoot, Rens; de Jongh, Ad; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-10-01

    Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a first-line treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some clinicians argue that with refugees, directly targeting traumatic memories through EMDR may be harmful or ineffective. To determine the safety and efficacy of EMDR in adult refugees with PTSD (trial registration: ISRCTN20310201). In total, 72 refugees referred for specialised treatment were randomly assigned to 12 h of EMDR (3×60 min planning/preparation followed by 6×90 min desensitisation/reprocessing) or 12 h (12×60 min) of stabilisation. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were primary outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analyses found no differences in safety (one severe adverse event in the stabilisation condition only) or efficacy (effect sizes: CAPS -0.04 and HTQ 0.20) between the two conditions. Directly targeting traumatic memories through 12 h of EMDR in refugee patients needing specialised treatment is safe, but is only of limited efficacy. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  15. Mechanism and evidence of nonsense suppression therapy for genetic eye disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rose; Smart, Matthew; Tracey-White, Dhani; Webster, Andrew R; Moosajee, Mariya

    2017-02-01

    Between 5 and 70% of genetic disease is caused by in-frame nonsense mutations, which introduce a premature termination codon (PTC) within the disease-causing gene. Consequently, during translation, non-functional or gain-of-function truncated proteins of pathological significance, are formed. Approximately 50% of all inherited retinal disorders have been associated with PTCs, highlighting the importance of novel pharmacological or gene correction therapies in ocular disease. Pharmacological nonsense suppression of PTCs could delineate a therapeutic strategy that treats the mutation in a gene- and disease-independent manner. This approach aims to suppress the fidelity of the ribosome during protein synthesis so that a near-cognate aminoacyl-tRNA, which shares two of the three nucleotides of the PTC, can be inserted into the peptide chain, allowing translation to continue, and a full-length functional protein to be produced. Here we discuss the mechanisms and evidence of nonsense suppression agents, including the small molecule drug ataluren (or PTC124) and next generation 'designer' aminoglycosides, for the treatment of genetic eye disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Fluid Mechanics of Cancer and Its Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; Pivkin, Igor; Milde, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is involved in the growth, progression, metastasis, and therapy of cancer. Blood vessels transport oxygen and nutrients to cancerous tissues, provide a route for metastasizing cancer cells to distant organs, and deliver drugs to tumors. The irregular and leaky tumor vasculature is responsible for increased interstitial pressure in the tumor microenvironment, whereas multiscale flow-structure interaction processes control tumor growth, metastasis, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery. We outline these flow-mediated processes, along with related experimental and computational methods for the diagnosis, predictive modeling, and therapy of cancer.

  17. Vitamin E Transporters in Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Besides their potent antioxidant activity, vitamin E isoforms demonstrated multiple therapeutic activities among which is their activity against different cancer types, including breast, prostate, and colon cancers...

  18. Research advances in molecular targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer remains one of the malignant tumors with the worst prognosis, and its incidence is associated with Western diet, smoking, drinking, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and a family history of pancreatic cancer. Currently, the treatment of pancreatic cancer focuses on surgery and chemotherapy, but no ideal therapeutic effect has been achieved. An understanding of the specific molecular mechanism of the development of pancreatic cancer helps to better prevent and treat pancreatic cancer. This article introduces the latest advances in the specific molecular mechanism of the development of pancreatic cancer and its targeted therapy and points out that molecular-targeted therapy in addition to traditional treatment helps to improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  19. Stem cells’ guided gene therapy of cancer: New frontier in personalized and targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavroudi M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and therapy of cancer remain to be the greatest challenges for all physicians working in clinical oncology and molecular medicine. The grim statistics speak for themselves with reports of 1,638,910 men and women diagnosed with cancer and nearly 577,190 patients passed away due to cancer in the USA in 2012. For practicing clinicians, who treat patients suffering from advanced cancers with contemporary systemic therapies, the main challenge is to attain therapeutic efficacy, while minimizing side effects. Unfortunately, all contemporary systemic therapies cause side effects. In treated patients, these side effects may range from nausea to damaged tissues. In cancer survivors, the iatrogenic outcomes of systemic therapies may include genomic mutations and their consequences. Therefore, there is an urgent need for personalized and targeted therapies. Recently, we reviewed the current status of suicide gene therapy for cancer. Herein, we discuss the novel strategy: genetically engineered stem guided gene therapy. Stem cells have the unique potential for self-renewal and differentiation. This potential is the primary reason for introducing them into medicine to regenerate injured or degenerated organs, as well as to rejuvenate aging tissues. Recent advances in genetic engineering and stem cell research have created the foundations for genetic engineering of stem cells as the vectors for delivery of therapeutic transgenes. Specifically in oncology, the stem cells are genetically engineered to deliver the cell suicide inducing genes selectively to the cancer cells. Expression of the transgenes kills the cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unaffected. Herein, we present various strategies to bioengineer suicide inducing genes and stem cell vectors. Moreover, we review results of the main preclinical studies and clinical trials. However, the main risk for therapeutic use of stem cells is their cancerous transformation. Therefore, we

  20. A systems biology analysis of autophagy in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Li, Chun-yang; Zhao, Si; Yu, Yang; An, Na; Liu, Yong-xi; Wu, Chuan-fang; Yue, Bi-song; Bao, Jin-ku

    2013-09-01

    Autophagy, which degrades redundant or damaged cellular constituents, is intricately relevant to a variety of human diseases, most notably cancer. Autophagy exerts distinct effects on cancer initiation and progression, due to the intrinsic overlapping of autophagic and cancer signalling pathways. However, due to the complexity of cancer as a systemic disease, the fate of cancer cells is not decided by any one signalling pathway. Numerous autophagic inter-connectivity and cross-talk pathways need to be further clarified at a systems level. In this review, we propose a systems biology perspective for the comprehensive analysis of the autophagy-cancer network, focusing on systems biology analysis in autophagy and cancer therapy. Together, these analyses may not only improve our understanding on autophagy-cancer relationships, but also facilitate cancer drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting a Novel Vector for Breast Cancer Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bzik, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The primary purpose and scope of this IDEA award project is to experimentally examine approaches to safely target the Toxoplasma gondii parasite gene therapy vector to breast cancer tissue using...

  2. Stroma Breaking Theranostic Nanoparticles for Targeted Pancreatic Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project develops a dual-targeted and stroma breaking theranostic nanoparticle platform to address an unmet, clinical challenge of poor drug delivery efficiency in the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy.

  3. Automatic Organ Localization for Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi, Sarang

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this study is adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for prostate cancer, in which the treatment is to be adjusted over time, based on CT images acquired on the treatment table before each daily treatment...

  4. Nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy: Recent advances, challenges, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Zhang, Miqin

    2016-12-01

    Compared to conventional treatments, gene therapy offers a variety of advantages for cancer treatment including high potency and specificity, low off-target toxicity, and delivery of multiple genes that concurrently target cancer tumorigenesis, recurrence, and drug resistance. In the past decades, gene therapy has undergone remarkable progress, and is now poised to become a first line therapy for cancer. Among various gene delivery systems, nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their desirable characteristics including low toxicity profiles, well-controlled and high gene delivery efficiency, and multi-functionalities. This review provides an overview on gene therapeutics and gene delivery technologies, and highlight recent advances, challenges and insights into the design and the utility of nanoparticles in gene therapy for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Functionalized upconversion nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light administrated fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have shown great promising in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Especially with the recent development of the rare earth ions doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), much attentions have been attracted in

  6. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  7. Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Iwasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. [1] As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. [2] The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. [3] Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. In males, following the lung, stomach, liver, colon and pancreas are other leading sites while in the females, stomach, colon, pancreas and breast are the other leading sites.[1] In 2006, the cancer incidence was 694,000 and the male cancer incidence was 1.4 times as large as that of females. The peak age for cancer deaths in males is their fifties while in the females it is the sixties among Japanese. In addition to the conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some of other therapies in practice in Japan are the Hyperthermia [4] that uses high temperatures to kill or damage the cancer cells, the Ion Beam therapy using proton beams [5] to damage the DNA of the cells as cancer cells have high rate of cell divisions and lesser ability to repair DNA damage, the molecular targeted therapies that interfere with a specific molecular target involved in tumour growth and progression [6] and most importantly the autologous cell based Immunotherapies. Modern Cancer Immunotherapy started in the 1970s in Japan. The immunopotentiators using compounds from Bacteria, Beta Glucans from fungi were the first forms of modern Immunotherapy. Then was the era of direct injection of cytokines such as Interleukins, Interferons etc. The adverse effects associated with the injection of cytokines led to development of cell based Immunotherapies in the 1980s. [7] Immuno-cell therapies involve isolation of immune cells which are then processed and re

  8. Focal therapy for prostate cancer. Rationale, indications and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, F; Portela-Pereira, P; Cozar-Olmo, J M; Ahmed, H; Moore, C; Dickinson, L; Algaba, F; Izquierdo, L; Alcaraz Asensio, A; Martinez-Breijo, S; Emberton, M

    2014-01-01

    The great controversy surrounding the treatment of localized prostate cancer is related with its possibilities of radical treatment or active surveillance. The objective of this paper is to analyze the rationale selection among current focal therapy modalities regarding tumor and patient selection. Current articles about advantages and disadvantages on the treatment of localized prostate cancer as well as information about focal therapy regarding tumour selection, characteristics and indications cited in MEDLINE search were reviewed. Focal therapy standardized criteria must be: low risk tumors, PSA15. Focal therapy is an alternative for localized prostate cancer treatment. However, some aspects of their diagnosis and selection criteria should be defined by prospective studies which should provide knowledge about the indication for focal therapy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Babu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy.

  10. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Mary Bowen Project Role: Research Assistance on animal work Researcher Identifier: Nearest person month worked: 2 Contributions to Project: Ms...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0552 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0552 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on the Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition of Addicted Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Meysami-Bonab

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy on the emotion regulation and emotion recognition of addicts with traumatic experience. Materials and Methods: This research is an experimental study with pre and post-test design and a control group. The subjects of this study were selected using random sampling method on drug addicts of Ardebil Addiction Treatment Camp who have successfully completed the detoxification period and they were evaluated in two different experimental (15 individuals and control (15 individuals groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 8 sessions (each one for 60 minutes and the control group received no special treatment. All participants filled a questionnaire of Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition at the onset of the research and 2 months after termination of treatment. For the data analysis, SPSS-17 software and covariance analysis were used.Results: The results of covariance analysis test indicated that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy intervention increased the average of positive emotion regulation and emotion recognition scores in the post-test phase and significantly reduced the average of negative emotion regulation scores.Conclusion: These results suggest that the treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective in improving regulation and recognition of emotions in addicts with traumatic experience.

  12. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results: Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion: Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno­medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1 to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s; 2 to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3 to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4 to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno­medicine development and clinical applications.

  13. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Thundimadathil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy is evolving as an alternate strategy to conventional chemotherapy. Peptide can be utilized directly as a cytotoxic agent through various mechanisms or can act as a carrier of cytotoxic agents and radioisotopes by specifically targeting cancer cells. Peptide-based hormonal therapy has been extensively studied and utilized for the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. Tremendous amount of clinical data is currently available attesting to the efficiency of peptide-based cancer vaccines. Combination therapy is emerging as an important strategy to achieve synergistic effects in fighting cancer as a single method alone may not be efficient enough to yield positive results. Combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy or combining an anticancer peptide with a nonpeptidic cytotoxic drug is an example of this emerging field.

  14. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundimadathil, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to conventional chemotherapy. Peptide can be utilized directly as a cytotoxic agent through various mechanisms or can act as a carrier of cytotoxic agents and radioisotopes by specifically targeting cancer cells. Peptide-based hormonal therapy has been extensively studied and utilized for the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. Tremendous amount of clinical data is currently available attesting to the efficiency of peptide-based cancer vaccines. Combination therapy is emerging as an important strategy to achieve synergistic effects in fighting cancer as a single method alone may not be efficient enough to yield positive results. Combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy or combining an anticancer peptide with a nonpeptidic cytotoxic drug is an example of this emerging field. PMID:23316341

  15. A systematic review of trismus induced by cancer therapies in head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Lockhart, Peter B.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Mike T.

    This systematic review represents a thorough evaluation of the literature to clarify the impact of cancer therapies on the prevalence, quality of life and economic impact, and management strategies for cancer-therapy-induced trismus. A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella D’Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major disease worldwide. Despite progress in cancer therapy, conventional cytotoxic therapies lead to unsatisfactory long-term survival, mainly related to development of drug resistance by tumor cells and toxicity towards normal cells. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, can exert anti-neoplastic activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. Indeed, n-3 PUFAs potentially increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to conventional therapies, possibly improving their efficacy especially against cancers resistant to treatment. Moreover, in contrast to traditional therapies, n-3 PUFAs appear to cause selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with little or no toxicity on normal cells. This review focuses on studies investigating the cytotoxic activity of n-3 PUFAs against cancer cells via apoptosis, analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying this effective and selective activity. Here, we highlight the multiple molecules potentially targeted by n-3 PUFAs to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. This analysis can allow a better comprehension of the potential cytotoxic therapeutic role of n-3 PUFAs against cancer, providing specific information and support to design future pre-clinical and clinical studies for a better use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer therapy, mainly combinational therapy.

  17. Gene Profiling Technique to Accelerate Stem Cell Therapies for Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stadtman Investigator in the Unit on Ocular and Stem Cell Translational Research at the National Eye Institute (NEI), a part ... Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Stem Cells ... the federal government’s research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI ...

  18. Exercise therapy for trismus in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Sterken, M.W.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.; Pater, R.

    The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively effects of exercise therapy on trismus related to head and neck cancer or as a consequence of its treatment, and to compare these effects with trismus not related to head and neck cancer. Medical records of patients referred to the department of

  19. Predicting the Toxicity of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Drug Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Combination With Trastuzumab in Patients With HER2-Positive, Metastatic Breast Cancer Recruiting No Results Available NO Drug: Lapatinib|Drug: Herceptin ...Trastuzumab ( Herceptin ) -Refractory, Metastatic Breast Cancer Active, not recruiting No Results Available NO Drug: Capecitabine|Drug: Lapatinib Lapatinib...Lapatinib Plus Herceptin With or Without Endocrine Therapy Recruiting No Results Available NO Drug: Herceptin |Drug: Lapatinib|Drug: Letrozole

  20. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  1. Preliminary report of improved sleep quality in patients with dry eye disease after initiation of topical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaki M

    2016-02-01

    included blue-light-shield eyewear and wearable blue-light therapy lamps according to their problem.Conclusion: Sleep quality improved in patients with DED after topical treatment with or without the sleep service. Psychiatric treatment focusing on sleep disorders could be beneficial for patients with DED.Keywords: sleep, dry eye, liaison psychiatry, depression, anxiety

  2. Recent progress and clinical importance on pharmacogenetics in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Thomas I Peng; Yong, Wei Peng; Innocenti, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances have provided unprecedented opportunities to identify prognostic and predictive markers of efficacy of cancer therapy. Genetic markers can be used to exclude patients who will not benefit from therapy, exclude patients at high risk of severe toxicity, and adjust dosing.

  3. Specifically targeted gene therapy for small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.L.; Zandi, R.; Gjetting, T.

    2009-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis. Hence, there is great demand for new therapies that can replace or supplement the current available treatment regimes. Gene therapy constitutes a promising strategy and relies on the principle of introducing exogenous...

  4. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzhausen, T. (Medical Univ. of Southern Africa, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Community Dentistry)

    1982-07-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed.

  5. Guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luster, M.; Clarke, S.E.; Dietlein, M.; Lassmann, M.; Lind, P.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Tennvall, J.; Bombardieri, E.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present guidelines on the radioiodine therapy (RAIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) formulated by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Therapy Committee is to provide advice to nuclear medicine clinicians and other members of the DTC-treating

  6. ORAL-THERAPY FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMUS, PE; SMIT, EF

    After a remarkable improvement of the very poor prognosis of small cell lung cancer with very simple therapy such as iv and oral cyclophosphamide the role of oral therapy has become minimal. However, since more than a decade results of combination chemotherapy are at a plateau and it is necessary to

  7. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  8. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ming Wong

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one’s overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The ...

  9. Complementary Therapies for Symptom Management in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Aanchal; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2017-01-01

    Cancer patients are often poly-symptomatic which distressingly affects their quality of lives (QOLs). Alhough, conventional management provides adequate symptom control, yet is coupled with some limitations. Complementary therapies (CTs) have shown beneficial effects in cancer patients for symptomatic relief. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based review of commonly used CTs for symptom management in cancer care. Hypnosis has promising evidence to be used for managing symptoms such as pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, distress, fatigue, and hot flashes. Guided imagery increases comfort and can be used as a psycho-supportive therapy. Meditation substantially improves psychological function, mental health, and QOL. Cognitive behavioral therapies effectively reduce pain, distress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression; and improve subjective sleep outcomes along with mood and QOL. Yoga has short term beneficial effects for anxiety, depression, fatigue, perceived stress, QOL, and well-being. T'ai Chi and qigong are beneficial adjunctive therapies for supportive cancer care, but their role in reducing cancer pain is not well proven. Acupuncture is effective for reducing treatment related side-effects, pain and fatigue. Other therapies such as massage techniques, energy therapies, and spiritual interventions have also demonstrated positive role in managing cancer-related symptoms and improve overall well-being. However, the clinical effectiveness of these therapies for symptom management in cancer patients cannot be concluded due to poor strength of evidence. Nonetheless, these are relatively free from risks and hence can be given along with conventional treatments. Only by tailoring these therapies as per patient's beliefs and preferences, optimal patient-centered holistic care can be provided.

  10. Complementary therapies for symptom management in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients are often poly-symptomatic which distressingly affects their quality of lives (QOLs. Alhough, conventional management provides adequate symptom control, yet is coupled with some limitations. Complementary therapies (CTs have shown beneficial effects in cancer patients for symptomatic relief. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based review of commonly used CTs for symptom management in cancer care. Hypnosis has promising evidence to be used for managing symptoms such as pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, distress, fatigue, and hot flashes. Guided imagery increases comfort and can be used as a psycho-supportive therapy. Meditation substantially improves psychological function, mental health, and QOL. Cognitive behavioral therapies effectively reduce pain, distress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression; and improve subjective sleep outcomes along with mood and QOL. Yoga has short term beneficial effects for anxiety, depression, fatigue, perceived stress, QOL, and well-being. T'ai Chi and qigong are beneficial adjunctive therapies for supportive cancer care, but their role in reducing cancer pain is not well proven. Acupuncture is effective for reducing treatment related side-effects, pain and fatigue. Other therapies such as massage techniques, energy therapies, and spiritual interventions have also demonstrated positive role in managing cancer-related symptoms and improve overall well-being. However, the clinical effectiveness of these therapies for symptom management in cancer patients cannot be concluded due to poor strength of evidence. Nonetheless, these are relatively free from risks and hence can be given along with conventional treatments. Only by tailoring these therapies as per patient's beliefs and preferences, optimal patient-centered holistic care can be provided.

  11. Targeted cancer gene therapy : the flexibility of adenoviral gene therapy vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, MG; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors are promising reagents for therapeutic interventions in humans, including gene therapy for biologically complex diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, the major advantage of adenoviral vectors is their superior in vivo gene transfer

  12. Diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Jun; Robbins, Lori A.; Lugea, Aurelia; Waldron, Richard T.; Jeon, Christie Y.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis as most patients present with advanced disease and preferred chemotherapy regimens offer only modest effects on survival. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol, and chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has a complex relationship with diabetes, as diabetes can be both a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and a result of pancreatic cancer. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and certain hormones play an important role in pro...

  13. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d...goal of this project was to develop a novel means to inhibit prostate cancer development and progression. The development of Siah1/2 inhibitors to the

  14. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0551 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ze’ev Ronai...CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0551 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... cancer development and progression. The development of Siah1/2 inhibitors to the ubiquitin ligase Siah1/2 was advanced by the ability to develop a Siah1/2

  15. Genetic tumor profiling and genetically targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Cathleen M

    2011-02-01

    To discuss how understanding and manipulation of tumor genetics information and technology shapes cancer care today and what changes might be expected in the near future. Published articles, web resources, clinical practice. Advances in our understanding of genes and their regulation provide a promise of more personalized cancer care, allowing selection of the most safe and effective therapy in an individual situation. Rapid progress in the technology of tumor profiling and targeted cancer therapies challenges nurses to keep up-to-date to provide quality patient education and care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting therapy-resistant cancer stem cells by hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oei, A L; Vriend, L E M; Krawczyk, P M

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumour that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells...... are limited. Here, we argue that hyperthermia - a therapeutic approach based on local heating of a tumour - is potentially beneficial for targeting CSCs in solid tumours. First, hyperthermia has been described to target cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived tumour areas where CSCs reside and ionising...

  17. Nanomedicines for image-guided cancer therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinzi

    2016-09-01

    Imaging technologies are being increasingly employed to guide the delivery of cancer therapies with the intent to increase their performance and efficacy. To date, many patients have benefited from image-guided treatments through prolonged survival and improvements in quality of life. Advances in nanomedicine have enabled the development of multifunctional imaging agents that can further increase the performance of image-guided cancer therapy. Specifically, this talk will focus on examples that demonstrate the benefits and application of nanomedicine in the context of image-guide surgery, personalized drug delivery, tracking of cell therapies and high precision radiotherapy delivery.

  18. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  19. PET Imaging to Monitor Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Improved knowledge and understanding of key aspects of cancer has led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics acting through complex pathways and mode of actions. The success of these novel cancer therapeutics is often difficult to predict using standard response criteria based on anatomic

  20. Biomedical nanomaterials for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuran; He, Sha; Cao, Weipeng; Cai, Kaiyong; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-10-21

    To date, even though various kinds of nanomaterials have been evaluated over the years in order to develop effective cancer therapy, there is still significant challenges in the improvement of the capabilities of nano-carriers. Developing a new theranostic nanomedicine platform for imaging-guided, visualized cancer therapy is currently a promising way to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. Firstly, conventional imaging technologies are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Then, advanced biomedical materials for multimodal imaging are illustrated in detail, including representative examples for various dual-modalities and triple-modalities. Besides conventional cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), current biomaterials are also summarized for novel cancer therapy based on hyperthermia, photothermal, photodynamic effects, and clinical imaging-guided surgery. In conclusion, biomedical materials for imaging-guided therapy are becoming one of the mainstream treatments for cancer in the future. It is hoped that this review might provide new impetus to understand nanotechnology and nanomaterials employed for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  1. Stem Cell Based Gene Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current prostate cancer treatment, especially hormone refractory cancer, may create profound iatrogenic outcomes because of the adverse effects of cytotoxic agents. Suicide gene therapy has been investigated for the substitute modality for current chemotherapy because it enables the treatment targeting the cancer cells. However the classic suicide gene therapy has several profound side effects, including immune-compromised due to viral vector. Recently, stem cells have been regarded as a new upgraded cellular vehicle or vector because of its homing effects. Suicide gene therapy using genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells or neural stem cells has the advantage of being safe, because prodrug administration not only eliminates tumor cells but consequently kills the more resistant therapeutic stem cells as well. The attractiveness of prodrug cancer gene therapy by stem cells targeted to tumors lies in activating the prodrug directly within the tumor mass, thus avoiding systemic toxicity. Therapeutic achievements using stem cells in prostate cancer include the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine prodrug system, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir, carboxyl esterase/CPT11, and interferon-beta. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy in prostate cancer including its proven mechanisms and also limitations.

  2. Genetic basis and gene therapy trials for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Humadi, Hussam; Zarros, Apostolos; Al-Saigh, Rafal; Liapi, Charis

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy is regarded as one of the most promising novel therapeutic approaches for hopeless cases of thyroid cancer and those not responding to traditional treatment. In the last two decades, many studies have focused on the genetic factors behind the origin and the development of thyroid cancer, in order to investigate and shed more light on the molecular pathways implicated in different differentiated or undifferentiated types of thyroid tumors. We, herein, review the current data on the main genes that have been proven to (or thought to) be implicated in thyroid cancer etiology, and which are involved in several well-known signaling pathways (such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathways). Moreover, we review the results of the efforts made through multiple gene therapy trials, via several gene therapy approaches/strategies, on different thyroid carcinomas. Our review leads to the conclusion that future research efforts should seriously consider gene therapy for the treatment of thyroid cancer, and, thus, should: (a) shed more light on the molecular basis of thyroid cancer tumorigenesis, (b) focus on the development of novel gene therapy approaches that can achieve the required antitumoral efficacy with minimum normal tissue toxicity, as well as (c) perform more gene therapy clinical trials, in order to acquire more data on the efficacy of the examined approaches and to record the provoked adverse effects.

  3. Suicide gene therapy in cancer: where do we stand now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sónia; Carle, Georges; Faneca, Henrique; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie

    2012-11-28

    Suicide gene therapy is based on the introduction into tumor cells of a viral or a bacterial gene, which allows the conversion of a non-toxic compound into a lethal drug. Although suicide gene therapy has been successfully used in a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies, its application to cancer patients has not reached the desirable clinical significance. However, recent reports on pre-clinical cancer models demonstrate the huge potential of this strategy when used in combination with new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we summarize the different suicide gene systems and gene delivery vectors addressed to cancer, with particular emphasis on recently developed systems and associated bystander effects. In addition, we review the different strategies that have been used in combination with suicide gene therapy and provide some insights into the future directions of this approach, particularly towards cancer stem cell eradication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Manipulation of Innate Immunity for Cancer Therapy in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Regan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last one to two decades, the field of cancer immunotherapy has rapidly progressed from early preclinical studies to a successful clinical reality and fourth major pillar of human cancer therapy. While current excitement in the field of immunotherapy is being driven by several major breakthroughs including immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapies, these advances stem from a foundation of pivotal studies demonstrating the immune systems role in tumor control and eradication. The following will be a succinct review on veterinary cancer immunotherapy as it pertains to manipulation of the innate immune system to control tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, we will provide an update on recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune system in veterinary tumor immunology, and how these gains may lead to novel therapies for the treatment of cancer in companion animals.

  5. Manipulation of Innate Immunity for Cancer Therapy in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Daniel; Dow, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Over the last one to two decades, the field of cancer immunotherapy has rapidly progressed from early preclinical studies to a successful clinical reality and fourth major pillar of human cancer therapy. While current excitement in the field of immunotherapy is being driven by several major breakthroughs including immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapies, these advances stem from a foundation of pivotal studies demonstrating the immune systems role in tumor control and eradication. The following will be a succinct review on veterinary cancer immunotherapy as it pertains to manipulation of the innate immune system to control tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, we will provide an update on recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune system in veterinary tumor immunology, and how these gains may lead to novel therapies for the treatment of cancer in companion animals.

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Intratumoural Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Yan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the second most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy and carries a dismal prognosis. The current standard of care includes resection, if possible, as well as systemic chemoradiation therapy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS is an established technique for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Interventional EUS via fine needle injection (FNI for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is a rapidly expanding field. The present article reviews the up-to-date developments in EUS FNI for intratumoural pancreatic cancer therapy, including antitumoural agents, immunotherapy, ablative techniques and new delivery systems. The therapeutic modalities discussed are currently under development and will hopefully reach clinical practice if benefit is demonstrated through clinical trials. EUS FNI may be an exciting new technique for the delivery of desperately needed novel therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  7. Bacteria as vectors for gene therapy of cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baban, Chwanrow K

    2012-01-31

    Anti-cancer therapy faces major challenges, particularly in terms of specificity of treatment. The ideal therapy would eradicate tumor cells selectively with minimum side effects on normal tissue. Gene or cell therapies have emerged as realistic prospects for the treatment of cancer, and involve the delivery of genetic information to a tumor to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. However, there is still much to be done before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved, primarily developing the means of targeting genes to tumors safely and efficiently. An emerging family of vectors involves bacteria of various genera. It has been shown that bacteria are naturally capable of homing to tumors when systemically administered resulting in high levels of replication locally. Furthermore, invasive species can deliver heterologous genes intra-cellularly for tumor cell expression. Here, we review the use of bacteria as vehicles for gene therapy of cancer, detailing the mechanisms of action and successes at preclinical and clinical levels.

  8. Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio P. Pinto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the “hallmarks of cancer”. Consequently, during the last decades the development and testing of commercial angiogenic inhibitors has been a central focus for both basic and clinical cancer research. While antiangiogenic drugs are now incorporated into standard clinical practice, as with all cancer therapies, tumors can eventually become resistant by employing a variety of strategies to receive nutrients and oxygen in the event of therapeutic assault. Herein, we concentrate and review in detail three of the principal mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy escape: (1 upregulation of compensatory/alternative pathways for angiogenesis; (2 vasculogenic mimicry; and (3 vessel co-option. We suggest that an understanding of how a cancer cell adapts to antiangiogenic therapy may also parallel the mechanisms employed in the bourgeoning tumor and isolated metastatic cells delivering responsible for residual disease. Finally, we speculate on strategies to adapt antiangiogenic therapy for future clinical uses.

  9. Glycol Chitosan-Based Fluorescent Theranostic Nanoagents for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyu Rhee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theranostics is an integrated nanosystem that combines therapeutics with diagnostics in attempt to develop new personalized treatments with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and safety. As a promising therapeutic paradigm with cutting-edge technologies, theranostic agents are able to simultaneously deliver therapeutic drugs and diagnostic imaging agents and also monitor the response to therapy. Polymeric nanosystems have been intensively explored for biomedical applications to diagnose and treat various cancers. In recent years, glycol chitosan-based nanoagents have been developed as dual-purpose materials for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy. They have shown great potential in cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutics and nucleic acid and photodynamic therapies. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and potential applications of glycol chitosan-based fluorescent theranostic nanoagents for cancer treatments and discuss their possible underlying mechanisms.

  10. Epigenetics in lung cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Aditi; Dobersch, Stephanie; Romero-Olmedo, Addi J; Barreto, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The initiation and progression of lung cancer is the result of the interaction between permanent genetic and dynamic epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is the best studied epigenetic mark in human cancers. Altered DNA methylation in cancer was identified in 1983. Within 30 years of this discovery, DNA methylation inhibitors are used clinically to treat a variety of cancers, highlighting the importance of the epigenetic basis of cancer. In addition, histone modifications, nucleosome remodeling, and micro RNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation are also fundamental to tumor genesis. Distinct chromatin alterations occur in all stages of lung cancer, including initiation, growth, and metastasis. Therefore, stage-specific epigenetic changes can be used as powerful and reliable tools for early diagnosis of lung cancer and to monitor patient prognosis. Moreover, since epigenetic changes are dynamic and reversible, chromatin modifiers are promising targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against cancer. This review summarizes the chromatin alterations in lung cancer, focusing on the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting epigenetic modifications that could help to reduce the high case-fatality rate of this dreadful disease.

  11. Precision medicine and personalized breast cancer: combination pertuzumab therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Reynolds, Sasmit Sarangi, Aditya Bardia, Don S Dizon Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Trastuzumab (Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2, is the poster child for antibody-based targeted therapy in breast cancer. Pertuzumab, another humanized monoclonal antibody, binds to a different domain of HER2 and prevents the formation of HER2:HER3 dimers, which is the most potent heterodimer in the HER family. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab has synergistic activity, and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy originally as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in 2012, and more recently as neoadjuvant therapy for localized disease in 2013. Pertuzumab is the first neoadjuvant drug to receive accelerated approval by the FDA based on pathological complete response as the primary end point. In this article, we review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and current role of pertuzumab in the management of breast cancer, as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions regarding the utility of pertuzumab as a personalized therapeutic option for HER2-positive breast cancer. In the coming years, we anticipate increased utilization of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, biomarker discovery, and validation, and envision conduct of personalized breast cancer clinics in which therapies will be routinely selected based on genetic alterations in the tumor. Regardless of the targeted therapy combinations employed based on tumor genomic profile, trastuzumab and pertuzumab will likely continue to form the backbone of the personalized regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer. Keywords: pertuzumab, HER2 breast cancer, personalized therapy

  12. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Ken, E-mail: keharada@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tobinai, Kensei [Department of Hematologic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  13. Body composition and bone density during and after childhood cancer therapy : The flip side of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there are approximately 8000 childhood cancer survivors, and this population of survivors is expanding due to improved therapy. However, therapy has a consequent flip side, namely their inherent side effects. Approximately 75% of the CCS will develop one or more severe chronic

  14. Navigating cancer network attractors for tumor-specific therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin; Erler, Janine Terra

    2012-01-01

    Cells employ highly dynamic signaling networks to drive biological decision processes. Perturbations to these signaling networks may attract cells to new malignant signaling and phenotypic states, termed cancer network attractors, that result in cancer development. As different cancer cells reach...... these malignant states by accumulating different molecular alterations, uncovering these mechanisms represents a grand challenge in cancer biology. Addressing this challenge will require new systems-based strategies that capture the intrinsic properties of cancer signaling networks and provide deeper...... understanding of the processes by which genetic lesions perturb these networks and lead to disease phenotypes. Network biology will help circumvent fundamental obstacles in cancer treatment, such as drug resistance and metastasis, empowering personalized and tumor-specific cancer therapies....

  15. Smart Multifunctional Theranostics: Simultaneous Diagnosis and Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical applications of advanced nanomedicines such as PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel-albumin bioconjugates have significantly improved the cancer treatment strategies. However, these pharmaceuticals lack early detection and single cell tracking capabilities. Thus, engineering of smart multifunctional theranostics appear to be our next stepfor simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Clinical translation of multifunctional theranostics appears to be dependent upon specificity of cancer biomarkers, biocompatibility of components used for formulation, and advancement of bioconjugation techniques. While many cancer biomarker candidates often fail to be used for clinical diagnosis/therapy because of their nonspecific functional expression in normal tissues, biocompatibility of materials used for bioconjugationalso needs to be approved. All these issues need to be fully addressed prior to the translation of smart multifunctional cancer theranostics.

  16. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  17. Nanomedicine for cancer therapy from chemotherapeutic to hyperthermia-based therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    This Brief focuses on the cancer therapy available till date, from conventional drug delivery to nanomedicine in clinical trial. In addition, it reports on future generation based nanotherapeutics and cancer theranostic agent for effective therapeutic diagnosis and treatment. Breast cancer was chosen as the model system in this review. The authors give emphasis to multiple drug resistance (MDR) and its mechanism and how to overcome it using the nanoparticle approach. .

  18. Music therapy as part of the alternative-complementary therapy in cancer patients in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Efstratios Athanassakis; Savvato Karavassiliadou

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is one of the modern health problems of people living in developed countries. Furthermore, therapeutic approaches to cancer patients is constantly updated with new data. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the international literature referred to the application of music therapy in the treatment for pediatric and adult patients with cancer. Method and materials: The method of this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature on MEDLI...

  19. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. KLK-targeted Therapies for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu, Koistinen; Johanna, Mattsson; Ulf-H?kan, Stenman

    2014-01-01

    Alternative treatments are urgently needed for prostate cancer, especially to address the aggressive metastatic castration-resistant disease. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in cancer growth and progression. The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being two members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and KLK2. Despite the wide use of PSA as a clinical marker, the function(s) of PSA and other KLKs in prostate cancer are poo...

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JY

    2016-05-01

    an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. Keywords: dry eye, tear, reactive oxygen species, blood pressure, herbal extracts

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species and Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generally increased in pancreatic cancer cells compared with normal cells. ROS plays a vital role in various cellular biological activities including proliferation, growth, apoptosis, and invasion. Besides, ROS participates in tumor microenvironment orchestration. The role of ROS is a doubled-edged sword in pancreatic cancer. The dual roles of ROS depend on the concentration. ROS facilitates carcinogenesis and cancer progression with mild-to-moderate elevated levels, while excessive ROS damages cancer cells dramatically and leads to cell death. Based on the recent knowledge, either promoting ROS generation to increase the concentration of ROS with extremely high levels or enhancing ROS scavenging ability to decrease ROS levels may benefit the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, when faced with oxidative stress, the antioxidant programs of cancer cells have been activated to help cancer cells to survive in the adverse condition. Furthermore, ROS signaling and antioxidant programs play the vital roles in the progression of pancreatic cancer and in the response to cancer treatment. Eventually, it may be the novel target for various strategies and drugs to modulate ROS levels in pancreatic cancer therapy.

  3. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome-Pita, Fx; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Cathelineau, X

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential. THIS LITERATURE REVIEW HAS THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups. We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results. A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer. Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies.

  4. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  5. Photocatalyzing CO2 to CO for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Di-Wei; Li, Bin; Li, Chu-Xin; Xu, Lu; Fan, Jin-Xuan; Lei, Qi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Continuous exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) can sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy while protect normal cells from apoptosis. The Janus face of CO thus provides an ideal strategy for cancer therapy. Here, a photocatalytic nanomaterial (HisAgCCN) is introduced to transform endogenous CO2 to CO for improving cancer therapy in vivo. The CO production rate of HisAgCCN reaches to 65 µmol h-1 gmat-1 , which can significantly increase the cytotoxicity of anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) by 70%. Interestingly, this study finds that HisAgCCN can enhance mitochondria biogenesis and aggravate oxidative stress in cancer cells, whereas protect normal cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis as well. Proteomics and metabolomics studies reveal that HisAgCCN can enhance mitochondria biogenesis and aggravate oxidative stress in cancer cells specifically. In vivo studies indicate that HisAgCCN/DOX combination therapy presents a synergetic tumor inhibition, which might provide a new direction for clinical cancer therapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Vectors and strategies for nonviral cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Jessica; Walther, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review presents recent developments in the use of nonviral vectors and transfer technologies in cancer gene therapy. Tremendous progress has been made in developing cancer gene therapy in ways that could be applicable to treatments. Numerous efforts are focused on methods of attacking known and novel targets more efficiently and specifically. In parallel to progress in nonviral vector design and delivery technologies, important achievements have been accomplished for suicide, gene replacement, gene suppression and immunostimulatory therapies. New nonviral cancer gene therapies have been developed based on emerging RNAi (si/shRNA-, miRNA) or ODN. This review provides an overview of recent gene therapeutic strategies in which nonviral vectors have been used experimentally and in clinical trials. Furthermore, we present current developments in nonviral vector systems in association with important chemical and physical gene delivery technologies and their potential for the future. Nonviral gene therapy has maintained its position as an approach for treating cancer. This is reflected by the fact that more than 17% of all gene therapy trials employ nonviral approaches. Thus, nonviral vectors have emerged as a clinical alternative to viral vectors for the appropriate expression and delivery of therapeutic genes.

  7. Aptamers: active targeting ligands for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Chen, Jiao; Wu, Min; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, including DNA, RNA and peptide aptamers, are a group of promising recognition units that can specifically bind to target molecules and cells. Due to their excellent specificity and high affinity to targets, aptamers have attracted great attention in various fields in which selective recognition units are required. They have been used in biosensing, drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy (especially for cancer treatment). In this review, we summarized recent applications of DNA and RNA aptamers in cancer theranostics. The specific binding ability of aptamers to cancer-related markers and cancer cells ensured their high performance for early diagnosis of cancer. Meanwhile, the efficient targeting ability of aptamers to cancer cells and tissues provided a promising way to deliver imaging agents and drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the conjugation of aptamers with functional nanomaterials paved an exciting way for the fabrication of theranostic agents for different types of cancers, which might be a powerful tool for cancer treatment.

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease among all gynecologic malignancies and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Although the standard combination of surgery and chemotherapy was initially effective in patients with ovarian cancer, disease relapse commonly occurred due to the generation of chemoresistance. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs are involved in drug resistance and cancer recurrence. Over the past decades, increasing studies have been done to identify CSCs from human ovarian cancer cells. The present paper will summarize different investigations on ovarian CSCs, including isolation, mechanisms of chemoresistance, and therapeutic approaches. Although there are still numerous challenges to translate basic research to clinical applications, understanding the molecular details of CSCs is essential for developing effective strategies to prevent ovarian cancer and its recurrence.

  9. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the skin surface to track breathing motion during a breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer treatment. Analysis would reveal the...Seattle VA which focuses on brachytherapy as treatment for prostate cancer. It seemed unlikely that patient accrual would substantially contribute to

  10. Towards targeted cancer therapy: Aptamer or oncolytic virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kei X; Danquah, Michael K; Sidhu, Amandeep; Ongkudon, Clarence M; Lau, Sie Yon

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of global mortality. Whilst anticancer awareness programs have increased significantly over the years, scientific research into the development of efficient and specific drugs to target cancerous cells for enhanced therapeutic effects has not received much clinical success. Chemotherapeutic agents are incapable of acting specifically on cancerous cells, thus causing low therapeutic effects accompanied by toxicity to surrounding normal tissues. The search for smart, highly specific and efficient cancer treatments and delivery systems continues to be a significant research endeavor. Targeted cancer therapy is an evolving treatment approach with great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer therapies via the delivery of therapeutic agents specifically to and into desired tumor cells using viral or non-viral targeting elements. Viral oncotherapy is an advanced cancer therapy based on the use of oncolytic viruses (OV) as elements to specifically target, replicate and kill malignant cancer cells selectively without affecting surrounding healthy cells. Aptamers, on the other hand, are non-viral targeting elements that are single-stranded nucleic acids with high specificity, selectivity and binding affinity towards their cognate targets. Aptamers have emerged as a new class of bioaffinity targeting elements can be generated and molecularly engineered to selectively bind to diverse targets including proteins, cells and tissues. This article discusses, comparatively, the potentials and impacts of both viral and aptamer-mediated targeted cancer therapies in advancing conventional drug delivery systems through enhanced target specificity, therapeutic payload, bioavailability of the therapeutic agents at the target sites whilst minimizing systemic cytotoxicity. This article emphasizes on effective site-directed targeting mechanisms and efficacy issues that impact on clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Head–Eye Vestibular Motion Therapy Affects the Mental and Physical Health of Severe Chronic Postconcussion Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ContextApproximately 1.8–3.6 million annual traumatic brain injuries occur in the United States. An evidence-based treatment for concussions that is reliable and effective has not been available.ObjectiveThe objective of this study is to test whether head–eye vestibular motion (HEVM therapy is associated with decreased symptoms and increased function in postconcussive syndrome (PCS patients that have been severely impaired for greater than 6 months after a mild traumatic brain injury.DesignRetrospective clinical chart review.Setting and participantsTertiary Specialist Brain Rehabilitation Center.InterventionsAll subjects underwent comprehensive neurological examinations including measurement of eye and head movement. The seven modules of the C3 Logix Comprehensive Concussion Management System were used for pre- and postmeasurements of outcome of HEVM therapy.Materials and methodsWe utilized an objective validated measurement of physical and mental health characteristics of our patients before and after a 1-week HEVM rehabilitation program. We included only PCS patients that were disabled from work or school for a period of time exceeding 6 months after suffering a sports concussion. These subjects all were enrolled in a 5-day HEVM rehabilitation program at our Institutional Brain Center with pre- and post-C3 Logix testing outcomes.ResultsThere were statistical and substantive significant decreases in PCS symptom severity after treatment and statistical and substantive significant increases in standardized assessment of concussion scores. The outcomes were associated with positive changes in mental and physical health issues. This is a retrospective review and no control group has been included in this study. These are major limitations with retrospective reviews and further investigations with prospective designs including a randomized controlled study are necessary to further our understanding.ConclusionHead–eye vestibular motion

  12. KLK-targeted Therapies for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Koistinen; Johanna, Mattsson; Ulf-Håkan, Stenman

    2014-09-01

    Alternative treatments are urgently needed for prostate cancer, especially to address the aggressive metastatic castration-resistant disease. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in cancer growth and progression. The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being two members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and KLK2. Despite the wide use of PSA as a clinical marker, the function(s) of PSA and other KLKs in prostate cancer are poorly known. Hypothetic roles of KLKs in prostate cancer include activities that may both promote and inhibit cancer growth and metastasis, including the antiangiogenic activity of PSA. Thus it may be possible to control prostate cancer growth by modulating the proteolytic activities of KLKs. PSA and KLK2 are especially attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment because of their proposed roles in tumor development and inhibition of angiogenesis in combination with their prostate selective expression. So far the number of molecules affecting selectively the activity of KLKs is limited and none of these are used to treat prostate cancer. Prodrugs that, after cleavage of the peptide part by PSA or KLK2, release active drug molecules, and PSA-targeted therapeutic vaccines have already been tested clinically in humans and the first results have been encouraging. Although KLKs are attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment, much remains to be done before their potential can be fully elucidated. The objective of this review is to address the current state of the KLKs as novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer treatment.

  13. Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanie Mayer Hope

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Joanie Mayer Hope, Stephanie V BlankNew York University School of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York NY, USAAbstract: Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently under investigation in maintenance regimens. While phase III data suggest that taxane maintenance prolongs progression-free survival, no overall survival benefit has been established. This article reviews the current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer, including phase III evidence and new and upcoming trials.Keywords: maintenance therapy, consolidation therapy, advanced ovarian cancer

  14. Novel biotechnology approaches in colorectal cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousipour, Soudabeh; Khademi, Fathemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Vakili, Bahareh; Mokarram, Pooneh

    2017-06-01

    With ever-increasing molecular information about colorectal cancer (CRC), there is an expectation to detect more sensitive and specific molecular markers for new advanced diagnostic methods that can surpass the limitations of current screening tests. Moreover, enhanced molecular pathology knowledge about cancer has led to the development of targeted therapies, designed to interfere with specific aberrant biological pathways in cancer. Furthermore, biotechnology has opened a new window in CRC diagnosis and treatment by introducing different application of antibodies, antibody fragments, non-Ig scaffold proteins, and aptamers in targeted therapy and drug delivery. This review summarizes the molecular diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in CRC with a focus on genetic and epigenetic alterations, protein and metabolite markers as well as targeted therapy and drug delivery by Ig-scaffold proteins, non-Ig scaffold proteins, nanobodies, and aptamers.

  15. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT, two-photon photoluminescence (TPL and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  16. Third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, M.G.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    , panitumumab. As a result, third-line treatment is now a necessary step in the optimal treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of English language publications on third-line therapy for MCRC from January 2000 to April 2007. Data......BACKGROUND: The past years' therapy for colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly with the introduction of novel cytotoxic agents such as irinotecan, capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Further advances have been achieved with the integration of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab and recently......OS of 16 months. With irinotecan and 5-FU, mOS around 8 months were reported and with cetuximab combined with irinotecan, the highest mOS was 9.8 months. CONCLUSION: Third-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer may improve mOS for patients with MCRC. Therefore, randomized studies should be conducted...

  17. HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer: new possibilities for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Artamonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to modern approaches in HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer therapy. Recently treatment algorithm for this type of cancer included trastuzumab plus cytostatic in first line, continuation of trastuzumab with another chemotherapy regimen in second line, further switch to lapatinib and eventual return to trastuzumab after progression. Nowadays our options are broader owing to new anti-HER-2 agents which are pertruzumab and T-DM1. Now the most effective therapy regimen in first line is double HER-2 blockade (trastuzumab + pertuzumab in combination with docetaxel. Benefit of new agent T-DM1 versus combination of lapatinib and capecitabin is proved in patients progressed on trastuzumab and taxanes. T-DM1 also showed high efficacy as salvage therapy in intensively pretreated patients with meta- static HER-2-positive breast cancer who progressed on taxanes, trastuzumab and lapatinib.

  18. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  19. Should docetaxel be administered earlier in prostate cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Julie N; Beer, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    Three randomized studies examining docetaxel early in metastatic prostate cancer were recently reported. The CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies showed a survival benefit for docetaxel when started with androgen suppression therapy in men with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. The STAMPEDE study also included men with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. The benefit was a median of 13.6 months in the CHAARTED study and 10 months in STAMPEDE. The survival benefit in CHAARTED was stronger in those with high volume disease. The benefit in STAMPEDE was greater in metastatic, rather than biochemically relapsed, prostate cancer. The third study, GETUG-AFU 15, was a smaller study without a survival benefit. These data have changed how we treat metastatic prostate cancer at our centers, as we now offer all men with metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer docetaxel chemotherapy upfront.

  20. Individualized therapies in colorectal cancer: KRAS as a marker for response to EGFR-targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kuiyuan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Individualized therapies that are tailored to a patient's genetic composition will be of tremendous value for treatment of cancer. Recently, Kirsten ras (KRAS status has emerged as a predictor of response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR targeted therapies. In this article, we will discuss targeted therapies for colorectal cancers (CRC based on EGFR signaling pathway and review published data about the potential usefulness of KRAS as a biological marker for response to these therapies. Results from relevant studies published since 2005 and unpublished results presented at national meetings were retrieved and summarized. These studies reflected response (or lack of response to EGFR-targeted therapies in patients with metastatic CRC as a function of KRAS status. It has become clear that patients with colorectal cancer whose tumor has an activating mutation in KRAS do not respond to monoclonal antibody therapies targeting EGFR. It should now become a standard practice that any patients being considered for EGFR targeted therapies have their tumors tested for KRAS status and only those with wild-type KRAS being offered such therapies.

  1. National Eye Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing new therapies. Learn more Learn about the Eye and Vision Our web pages for kids make ... illusions, and more. View the site Video: New Eye Imaging Tools The NEI Audacious Goals Initiative is ...

  2. Cancer epigenetics: from mechanism to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Mark A; Kouzarides, Tony

    2012-07-06

    The epigenetic regulation of DNA-templated processes has been intensely studied over the last 15 years. DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome remodeling, and RNA-mediated targeting regulate many biological processes that are fundamental to the genesis of cancer. Here, we present the basic principles behind these epigenetic pathways and highlight the evidence suggesting that their misregulation can culminate in cancer. This information, along with the promising clinical and preclinical results seen with epigenetic drugs against chromatin regulators, signifies that it is time to embrace the central role of epigenetics in cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Baculoviruses as Vectors for Gene Therapy against Human Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Stanbridge

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current curative strategies for prostate cancer are restricted to the primary tumour, and the effect of treatments to control metastatic disease is not sustained. Therefore, the application of gene therapy to prostate cancer is an attractive alternative. Baculoviruses are highly restricted insect viruses, which can enter, but not replicate in mammalian cells. Baculoviruses can incorporate large amounts of extra genetic material, and will express transgenes in mammalian cells when under the control of a mammalian or strong viral promoter. Successful gene delivery has been achieved both in vitro and in vivo and into both dividing and nondividing cells, which is important since prostate cancers divide relatively slowly. In addition, the envelope protein gp64 is sufficiently mutable to allow targeted transduction of particular cell types. In this review, the advantages of using baculoviruses for prostate cancer gene therapy are explored, and the mechanisms of viral entry and transgene expression are described.

  4. Conditioning neoadjuvant therapies for improved immunotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Zachary; Manjili, Saeed H; Habibi, Mehran; Guruli, Georgi; Toor, Amir A; Payne, Kyle K; Manjili, Masoud H

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by combining conventional therapies with anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies, have renewed interests in immunotherapy of cancer. The emerging concept of conventional cancer therapies combined with immunotherapy differs from the classical concept in that it is not simply taking advantage of their additive anti-tumor effects, but it is to use certain therapeutic regimens to condition the tumor microenvironment for optimal response to immunotherapy. To this end, low dose immunogenic chemotherapies, epigenetic modulators and inhibitors of cell cycle progression are potential candidates for rendering tumors highly responsive to immunotherapy. Next generation immunotherapeutics are therefore predicted to be highly effective against cancer, when they are used following appropriate immune modulatory compounds or targeted delivery of tumor cell cycle inhibitors using nanotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Targeted therapy in thyroid cancer: Towards a treatment card].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhoyaali, S; Benhmida, S; Ait Elhaj, M; Layachi, M; Bensouda, Y; Errihani, H

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid cancer is an uncommon cancer. Molecular biology plays a vital role in its development. Chemotherapy showed unsatisfactory results in advanced stages where surgery and iodine therapy are not appropriate. These last ten years have been marked by a major advance in understanding the molecular features of this cancer and therapeutic correlations, moreover, clinical trials have focused on the treatment of this disease on metastatic stages and led to a significant therapeutic panel targeting angiogenesis, mutations frequently found in cervical cancer: RET, BRAF, RAS... these are the motesanib, axitinib, sunitinib, pazopanib, vandetanib, cabozotinib and sorafenib. The last three molecules have already the autorisation of FDA and EMA. In this review, we will put the item on oncogenetic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma as well as new targeted therapies in patients refractory to conventional treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Targeted nanosystems: Advances in targeted dendrimers for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hu

    2016-02-01

    Dendrimers possess discrete highly compact nanostructures constituted of successive branched layers. Soon after the inception of dendrimers, recognition of their tunable structures and biologically favorable properties provoked a great enthusiasm in delving deeply into the utility of dendrimers for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One of the most important nanotechnology applications is the development of nanomedicines for targeted cancer therapies. Tremendous success in targeted therapies has been achieved with the use of dendrimer-based nanomedicines. This article provides a concise review on latest advances in the utility of dendrimers in immunotherapies and hormone therapies. Much basic and clinical research has been done since the invention of dendrimers, which are highly branched nano-sized molecules with the ability to act as carriers in nanomedicine. In this concise review article, the authors highlighted the current use of dendrimers in immunotherapies and hormone therapies in the fight against cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer patients' interest and preferences for music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Debra S; Sledge, Renata B; Fuller, Leigh Ann; Daggy, Joanne K; Monahan, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    The reason for lack of routine integration of music therapy into healthcare may be that patients are not comfortable being involved in a music therapy intervention. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine cancer patients' interest in and preferences for using 2 types of music therapy interventions, music-making and music listening. Sixty-five patients completed the Music Interest Survey in addition to standardized measures of coping, affect, anxiety, and fatigue. Results suggest adult cancer patients are interested in music therapy, especially music listening. Patient interest and preference were associated with negative affect, anxiety, age, perceived intervention-specific benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy. Findings highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of patient needs and preferences prior to intervention.

  8. Inflammatory eye disease: Pre-treatment assessment of patients prior to commencing immunosuppressive and biologic therapy: Recommendations from an expert committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Wildner, Gerhild; Thurau, Stephan; Carr, Gregory; Chee, Soon-Phaik; Forrester, John; Dick, Andrew; Hudson, Bernard; Lightman, Susan; Smith, Justine; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2017-03-01

    To outline recommendations from an expert committee on the assessment and investigation of patients with severe inflammatory eye disease commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy. The approach to assessment is based on the clinical experience of an expert committee and a review of the literature with regard to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drug and biologic therapy and other adjunct therapy in the management of patients with severe sight-threatening inflammatory eye disease. We recommend a careful assessment and consultative approach by ophthalmologists or physicians experienced in the use of immunosuppressive agents for all patients commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy for sight threatening inflammatory eye disease with the aim of preventing infection, cardiovascular, metabolic and bone disease and reducing iatrogenic side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibody-Based Cancer Therapy: Successful Agents and Novel Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D; Choi, G; de Bruyn, M; Wiersma, V R; Bremer, E

    2017-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibodies have been viewed as ideal candidates or "magic bullets" for use in targeted therapy in the fields of cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. A wave of antibody-dedicated research followed, which resulted in the clinical approval of a first generation of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy such as rituximab (1997) and cetuximab (2004), and infliximab (2002) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. More recently, the development of antibodies that prevent checkpoint-mediated inhibition of T cell responses invigorated the field of cancer immunotherapy. Such antibodies induced unprecedented long-term remissions in patients with advanced stage malignancies, most notably melanoma and lung cancer, that do not respond to conventional therapies. In this review, we will recapitulate the development of antibody-based therapy, and detail recent advances and new functions, particularly in the field of cancer immunotherapy. With the advent of recombinant DNA engineering, a number of rationally designed molecular formats of antibodies and antibody-derived agents have become available, and we will discuss various molecular formats including antibodies with improved effector functions, bispecific antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, and T cells genetically modified with chimeric antigen receptors. With these exciting advances, new antibody-based treatment options will likely enter clinical practice and pave the way toward more successful control of malignant diseases. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Risk Predictions of Second Cancers After Carbon-Ion Therapy Versus Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, John G., E-mail: jeley@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Friedrich, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Homann, Kenneth L.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Scholz, Michael; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: This work proposes a theoretical framework that enables comparative risk predictions for second cancer incidence after particle beam therapy for different ion species for individual patients, accounting for differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the competing processes of tumor initiation and cell inactivation. Our working hypothesis was that use of carbon-ion therapy instead of proton therapy would show a difference in the predicted risk of second cancer incidence in the breast for a sample of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: We generated biologic treatment plans and calculated relative predicted risks of second cancer in the breast by using two proposed methods: a full model derived from the linear quadratic model and a simpler linear-no-threshold model. Results: For our reference calculation, we found the predicted risk of breast cancer incidence for carbon-ion plans-to-proton plan ratio, , to be 0.75 ± 0.07 but not significantly smaller than 1 (P=.180). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that second cancer risks are, on average, comparable between proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy.

  11. Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy: Roles and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong [Dept. of Experimental TherapeuticsBeckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (United States); Min, Jung Joon [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineChonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT.{sub 2}.

  12. Suicide Gene Therapy for Cancer – Current Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Sakkas, Antonios; Yarmus, Lonny; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Freitag, Lutz; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Malecki, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Current cancer treatments may create profound iatrogenic outcomes. The adverse effects of these treatments still remain, as the serious problems that practicing physicians have to cope with in clinical practice. Although, non-specific cytotoxic agents constitute an effective treatment modality against cancer cells, they also tend to kill normal, quickly dividing cells. On the other hand, therapies targeting the genome of the tumors are both under investigation, and some others are already streamlined to clinical practice. Several approaches have been investigated in order to find a treatment targeting the cancer cells, while not affecting the normal cells. Suicide gene therapy is a therapeutic strategy, in which cell suicide inducing transgenes are introduced into cancer cells. The two major suicide gene therapeutic strategies currently pursued are: cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine and the herpes simplex virus/ganciclovir. The novel strategies include silencing gene expression, expression of intracellular antibodies blocking cells’ vital pathways, and transgenic expression of caspases and DNases. We analyze various elements of cancer cells’ suicide inducing strategies including: targets, vectors, and mechanisms. These strategies have been extensively investigated in various types of cancers, while exploring multiple delivery routes including viruses, non-viral vectors, liposomes, nanoparticles, and stem cells. We discuss various stages of streamlining of the suicide gene therapy into clinical oncology as applied to different types of cancer. Moreover, suicide gene therapy is in the center of attention as a strategy preventing cancer from developing in patients participating in the clinical trials of regenerative medicine. In oncology, these clinical trials are aimed at regenerating, with the aid of stem cells, of the patients’ organs damaged by pathologic and/or iatrogenic factors. However, the stem cells carry the risk of neoplasmic transformation. We

  13. Baculoviruses as Vectors for Gene Therapy against Human Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay J. Stanbridge; Vincent Dussupt; Norman J Maitland

    2003-01-01

    Current curative strategies for prostate cancer are restricted to the primary tumour, and the effect of treatments to control metastatic disease is not sustained. Therefore, the application of gene therapy to prostate cancer is an attractive alternative. Baculoviruses are highly restricted insect viruses, which can enter, but not replicate in mammalian cells. Baculoviruses can incorporate large amounts of extra genetic material, and will express transgenes in mammalian cells when under the co...

  14. Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Overlap: None 20 90061946 (Drake) Title: Epigenetic Drugs and Immuno Therapy for Prostate Cancer (EDIT-PC) Effort: 1.2 calendar months (10% effort...certified environment (CLIA or international equivalent). 2: To expand existing prospective clinical correlation studies to enable assay qualification...overlap R01CA190430 (Wheelan S/Yegnasubramanian S) Title: Epigenetic Control of Retrotransposons in Human Cancers Effort: 0.12 calendar months

  15. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  16. Proton therapy versus intensity modulated x-ray therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer: Estimating secondary cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Jonas David

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat nearly half of the more than 200,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in the United States each year. During a radiation therapy treatment, healthy tissues in the path of the therapeutic beam are exposed to high doses. In addition, the whole body is exposed to a low-dose bath of unwanted scatter radiation from the pelvis and leakage radiation from the treatment unit. As a result, survivors of radiation therapy for prostate cancer face an elevated risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. Recently, proton therapy has been shown to reduce the dose delivered by the therapeutic beam to normal tissues during treatment compared to intensity modulated x-ray therapy (IMXT, the current standard of care). However, the magnitude of stray radiation doses from proton therapy, and their impact on this incidence of radiogenic second cancers, was not known. The risk of a radiogenic second cancer following proton therapy for prostate cancer relative to IMXT was determined for 3 patients of large, median, and small anatomical stature. Doses delivered to healthy tissues from the therapeutic beam were obtained from treatment planning system calculations. Stray doses from IMXT were taken from the literature, while stray doses from proton therapy were simulated using a Monte Carlo model of a passive scattering treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. Baseline risk models were taken from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to characterize the uncertainty of risk calculations to uncertainties in the risk model, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons for carcinogenesis, and inter-patient anatomical variations. The risk projections revealed that proton therapy carries a lower risk for radiogenic second cancer incidence following prostate irradiation compared to IMXT. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the results of the risk analysis depended only

  17. Lymphedema following cancer therapy in Slovenia: a frequently overlooked condition?:

    OpenAIRE

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek; Leskovec, Nada Kecelj; Zunter*, Vesna Tlaker

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Secondary lymphedema following cancer therapy is a frequent, often painful, quality of life disturbing condition, reducing the patients’ mobility and predisposing them to complications, e.g. infections and malignancies. The critical aspect of lymphedema therapy is to start as soon as possible to prevent the irreversible tissue damage. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with lymphedema, treated at the Department of Dermatovenereology, University Me...

  18. Nuclear medicine in cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V.; Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.

    2017-09-01

    Early cancer diagnosis remains one of the most actual problems of medicine, since it allows using the most effective methods of cancer treating. Unlike most diagnostic methods used in oncology, the methods of nuclear medicine allow assessing not so much the anatomic changes in the organ as the disturbance of metabolic processes in tumors and surrounding tissues. The authors describe the main radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnose and radiotherapy of malignant tumors.

  19. Glucose Addiction in Cancer Therapy: Advances and Drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Sara; Pinheiro, Céline; Reis, Rui Manuel; Martinho, Olga; Baltazar, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    While normal differentiated cells primarily use mitochondrial respiration to generate the required energy for cellular processes, most cancer cells rely on glycolysis, even in sufficient oxygen conditions. This phenomenon is known as the "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis and the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells towards this altered energy metabolism is currently recognized as one of the "hallmarks of cancer". Aerobic glycolysis underlies the rapid growth of tumor cells, with high rates of glucose consumption and lactic acid production, leading to cellular acidosis. Metabolic reprogramming renders cancer cells dependent on specific metabolic enzymes or pathways that could be exploited in cancer therapy. The development of treatments that target tumor glucose metabolism is receiving renewed attention, with several drugs targeting metabolic pathways currently in clinical trials. The search for suitable targets, however, is limited by the high plasticity of the metabolic network that can induce compensatory routes. Deregulated glucose metabolism is a prominent feature associated with resistance to classical chemotherapy or oncogene-targeted therapies, strengthening the clinical potential of combining these therapies with glycolysis inhibitors. The aim of this review is to compare the advances of different therapeutic strategies targeting the glucose "addiction" of tumor cells, highlighting their potential as effective weapons against cancer. We further discuss recent evidence for the involvement of glucose metabolism as a compensatory response to the use of drugs that target different signaling pathways, where the combination with glycolysis inhibitors could prove extraordinarily useful.

  20. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  1. Liver-directed therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ciara M; Kemeny, Nancy E

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant global health issue with over 1 million cases diagnosed annually throughout the world. 15% of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer will have liver metastases and 60% will develop liver metastases if they have metastatic disease. Oligometastatic colorectal cancer confined to the liver represents an intermediate state in the evolution of metastatic capacity that opens the opportunity for local interventions. Areas covered: The literature supports long-term survival if patients undergo liver resection of colorectal metastases. This article reviews the liver-directed therapeutic strategies available for the management of metastatic liver disease including hepatic arterial infusion therapy, radiofrequency ablation, radiation therapy and transarterial chemoembolization. Expert commentary: Great advances have been made with the use of liver directed therapies. In the USA using hepatic arterial infusions with FUDR and Decadron along with systemic therapy, 5 year survivals after liver resection have improved. In Europe with the use of HAI of Oxaliplatin, more patients have been able to get to resection and have obtained higher survival rates, even in second line therapy. New advances in ablative therapy have improved results to get all disease treated at resection for the treatment of reccurrence.

  2. Bacterial Toxins for Oncoleaking Suicidal Cancer Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Jessica; Walther, Wolfgang

    For suicide gene therapy, initially prodrug-converting enzymes (gene-directed enzyme-producing therapy, GDEPT) were employed to intracellularly metabolize non-toxic prodrugs into toxic compounds, leading to the effective suicidal killing of the transfected tumor cells. In this regard, the suicide gene therapy has demonstrated its potential for efficient tumor eradication. Numerous suicide genes of viral or bacterial origin were isolated, characterized, and extensively tested in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating their therapeutic potential even in clinical trials to treat cancers of different entities. Apart from this, growing efforts are made to generate more targeted and more effective suicide gene systems for cancer gene therapy. In this regard, bacterial toxins are an alternative to the classical GDEPT strategy, which add to the broad spectrum of different suicide approaches. In this context, lytic bacterial toxins, such as streptolysin O (SLO) or the claudin-targeted Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) represent attractive new types of suicide oncoleaking genes. They permit as pore-forming proteins rapid and also selective toxicity toward a broad range of cancers. In this chapter, we describe the generation and use of SLO as well as of CPE-based gene therapies for the effective tumor cell eradication as promising, novel suicide gene approach particularly for treatment of therapy refractory tumors.

  3. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Perspectives in Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between cancer cells and stromal cells is increasingly recognized as a main driver of tumor progression and metastasis. This Forum article highlights the role of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts (CAFs) in tumorigenesis and discusses the potential for developing specific stromal

  4. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy following photodynamic therapy in Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Minal; Maitray, Aditya; Bhende, Muna; Gopal, Lingam; Sharma, Tarun; Ratra, Dhanashree; Sen, Parveen; Bhende, Pramod; Rao, Chetan; Susvar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) following photodynamic therapy (PDT). Medical records of 94 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with PCV who underwent PDT between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of PCV was based on clinical features and indocyanine green angiography. Eyes were treated with PDT monotherapy or a combination of PDT plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. PDT was performed at (standard [SFPDT] or reduced fluence RFPDT). Ninety-four eyes had 119 PDT treatment sessions (mean: 1.3 sessions). Mean presenting vision was 0.46 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). Following PDT, ten eyes (11%) of nine patients had hemorrhagic complications such as subretinal hemorrhage (SRH; n = 5), subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hemorrhage (n = 1), breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage (BVH; n = 3), and SRH with sub-RPE hemorrhage and BVH (n = 1). Median interval to hemorrhage following PDT was 2 months. Age (P = 0.842), duration of symptoms (P = 0.352), number of laser spots (P = 0.219), and laser spot size (LSS) (P = 0.096) were not significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Female gender was associated with reduced risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.045). SFPDT was significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.026). The probability of developing hemorrhagic complications in SFPDT group was 0.24 compared to 0.07 in RFPDT group (P = 0.039). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SFPDT as the only significant risk factor for hemorrhage following PDT (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-24.8, P = 0.03). Mean final vision was 0.61 ± 0.53 logMAR at mean follow-up of 33 months (median = 22 months; range = 2-157 months). Age, LSS, number of laser spots, preexisting hemorrhages, or use of anticoagulants were not associated with increased risk of

  5. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy following photodynamic therapy in Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV following photodynamic therapy (PDT. Methods: Medical records of 94 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with PCV who underwent PDT between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of PCV was based on clinical features and indocyanine green angiography. Eyes were treated with PDT monotherapy or a combination of PDT plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. PDT was performed at (standard [SFPDT] or reduced fluence RFPDT. Results: Ninety-four eyes had 119 PDT treatment sessions (mean: 1.3 sessions. Mean presenting vision was 0.46 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR. Following PDT, ten eyes (11% of nine patients had hemorrhagic complications such as subretinal hemorrhage (SRH; n = 5, subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE hemorrhage (n = 1, breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage (BVH; n = 3, and SRH with sub-RPE hemorrhage and BVH (n = 1. Median interval to hemorrhage following PDT was 2 months. Age (P = 0.842, duration of symptoms (P = 0.352, number of laser spots (P = 0.219, and laser spot size (LSS (P = 0.096 were not significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Female gender was associated with reduced risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.045. SFPDT was significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.026. The probability of developing hemorrhagic complications in SFPDT group was 0.24 compared to 0.07 in RFPDT group (P = 0.039. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SFPDT as the only significant risk factor for hemorrhage following PDT (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1–24.8, P = 0.03. Mean final vision was 0.61 ± 0.53 logMAR at mean follow-up of 33 months (median = 22 months; range = 2–157 months. Conclusion: Age, LSS, number of laser spots, preexisting hemorrhages, or use of anticoagulants

  6. Colorectal cancer heterogeneity and targeted therapy: a case for molecular disease subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, Janneke F.; Wang, Xin; Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine is becoming increasingly important in colorectal cancer treatment. Especially for targeted therapies, large variations between individual treatment responses exist. Predicting therapy response is of utmost significance, as it prevents overtreatment and adverse effects in

  7. Lymphedema Therapy Reduces the Volume of Edema and Pain in Patients with Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamner, John B; Fleming, Martin D

    2007-01-01

    .... This study examines the results of a protocol of therapy for lymphedema in breast cancer patients.A total of 135 patients with lymphedema after breast cancer treatment were provided a protocol of complete decongestive therapy (CDT...

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Treating Panic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Horst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD. From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1 panic attacks can be experienced as life threatening; (2 panic memories specific to PD resemble traumatic memories as seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; and (3 PD often develops following a distressing life event. The primary objective of this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT, was to compare EMDR therapy with CBT for PD and determine whether EMDR is not worse than CBT in reducing panic symptoms and improving Quality Of Life (QOL.Methods: Two-arm (CBT and EMDR parallel RCT in patients with PD (N = 84. Patients were measured at baseline (T1, directly after the last therapy session (T2, and 3 months after ending therapy (T3. Non-inferiority testing (linear mixed model with intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Patients were randomly assigned to 13 weekly 60-min sessions of CBT (N = 42 or EMDR therapy (N = 42. Standard protocols were used. The primary outcome measure was severity of PD at T3, as measured with the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ, the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ, and the Mobility Inventory (MI. The secondary outcome measure was QOL, as measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-Bref, at T3.Results: The severity of PD variables ACQ and BSQ showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while MI was inconclusive (adjusted analyses. Overall QOL and general health, Psychological health, Social relationships, and Environment showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while Physical health was inconclusive.Conclusion: EMDR therapy proved to be as effective as CBT for treating PD patients.Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register, Nr. 3134 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3134

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Treating Panic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ferdinand; Den Oudsten, Brenda; Zijlstra, Wobbe; de Jongh, Ad; Lobbestael, Jill; De Vries, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD). From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1) panic attacks can be experienced as life threatening; (2) panic memories specific to PD resemble traumatic memories as seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (3) PD often develops following a distressing life event. The primary objective of this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), was to compare EMDR therapy with CBT for PD and determine whether EMDR is not worse than CBT in reducing panic symptoms and improving Quality Of Life (QOL). Methods: Two-arm (CBT and EMDR) parallel RCT in patients with PD (N = 84). Patients were measured at baseline (T1), directly after the last therapy session (T2), and 3 months after ending therapy (T3). Non-inferiority testing (linear mixed model with intention-to-treat analysis) was applied. Patients were randomly assigned to 13 weekly 60-min sessions of CBT (N = 42) or EMDR therapy (N = 42). Standard protocols were used. The primary outcome measure was severity of PD at T3, as measured with the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), and the Mobility Inventory (MI). The secondary outcome measure was QOL, as measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-Bref), at T3. Results: The severity of PD variables ACQ and BSQ showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while MI was inconclusive (adjusted analyses). Overall QOL and general health, Psychological health, Social relationships, and Environment showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while Physical health was inconclusive. Conclusion: EMDR therapy proved to be as effective as CBT for treating PD patients. Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register, Nr. 3134 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3134.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Gadducci, Angelo; Ponzone, Riccardo; Roagna, Riccardo; Sismondi, Piero

    2004-08-20

    Thousands of women are treated each year for cancer; many of these are already in menopause, while other younger patients will go into early menopause due to surgery, or chemotherapy, or the need for radiotherapy to the pelvic region. In most cases the oncologist and the gynaecologist would advise these women against the use of HRT. The purpose of this paper is to review biological and clinical evidences in favour and against HRT use in the different tumours and to propose an algorithm that can help choosing the treatment for the single woman. We performed a systematic literature review through April 2002 concerning: (1) biological basis of hormonal modulation of tumour growth; (2) epidemiological data on the impact of HRT on different cancers risk in healthy women; (3) safety of HRT use in cancer survivors; (4) alternatives to HRT. With the exception of meningioma, breast and endometrial cancer, there is no biological evidence that HRT may increase recurrence risk. In women with previous breast and endometrial cancer HRT is potentially hazardous on a biological basis, even if published data do not show any worsening of prognosis. Even if a cautious approach to hormonal-dependent neoplasias is fully comprehensible and the available alternative treatment should be taken into greater consideration, the reticence to prescribe HRT in women previously treated for other non hormone-related tumours has neither a biological nor a clinical basis. An algorithm based on present knowledge is proposed.

  11. [Pain therapy in cancer and palliative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, R; Radbruch, L

    2015-10-01

    In Germany, approximately half a million people suffer from cancer pain, which is one of the most common first symptoms of tumor disease in 20-40% of the patients. The prevalence increases during the course of the disease to approximately 90% among patients in a palliative care unit. Treatment in the field of cancer pain is often provided by interdisciplinary teams of different pain or palliative care services. Due to the high availability of opioids and also, in European comparison, of a high number of specialized services in hospice and palliative care provision, Germany plays a special role next to Great Britain. There is a great need for the further development of the coordination and networking of these services within Germany, which is regulated by the Hospice and Palliative Act. The cross-sectional curricula QB 13 (palliative medicine) and QB 14 (pain medicine) were implemented in German medical faculties in order to improve integration of cancer pain management into the teaching of medical students. Research in the area of cancer pain addresses clinical topics such as the availability of opioids, but also basic research including genetic variability as a predictor for the efficacy of opioids and the neurobiology of cancer pain.

  12. Management of the oral sequelae of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel L; Rankin, K Vendrell

    2012-05-01

    Oral cancer and the oral sequelae of treatment for oral and other malignancies can significantly affect a patient's oral and systemic health, as well as have a profound impact on quality of life. Compromised oral health prior to, during, and following cancer therapy can affect treatment outcomes. Increasingly, dental professionals in the community are being called upon to provide care for these individuals. Radiation therapy is routinely used for tumors of the head and neck, delivering a concentrated radiation dose to the tumor, but also to the immediately surrounding tissue. Oral complications are related to the site radiated and the total radiation dose. Cancer chemotherapy is provided as a primary treatment for some cancers and as an adjunctive modality for other cancers. The goal is to eradicate the rapidly growing cells of the tumor, but chemotherapy is often toxic to other cells that rapidly divide normally including the oral mucosa. The use of combined chemotherapy and radiation is now considered standard for most locally advanced tumors of the head and neck. The toxicities of this combined therapy are essentially the same as with radiation alone, but develop more rapidly and are typically more severe when they reach maximum level. The most common oral sequelae of cancer treatment are: xerostomia, the sensation of a dry mouth as a result of damage to the salivary glands and/or medication; mucositis, the inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa; and infection as a result of the loss of mucosal integrity. Management of oral health during cancer therapy includes identifying at-risk patients, patient education, appropriate pretreatment interventions, and timely management of complications. Appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures will help minimize the risk of oral and associated systemic complications, improve treatment outcomes, and improve the patient's quality of life.

  13. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: systemic therapy in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Maluf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous neoplasm in the male population worldwide. It is typically diagnosed in its early stages, and the disease exhibits a relatively indolent course in most patients. Despite the curability of localized disease with prostatectomy and radiation therapy, some patients develop metastatic disease and die. Although androgen deprivation is present in the majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer, a state of androgen resistance eventually develops. Castration-resistant prostate cancer, defined when there is progression of disease despite low levels of testosterone, requires specialized care, and improved communication between medical and urologic oncologists has been identified as a key component in delivering effective therapy. Despite being considered a chemoresistant tumor in the past, the use of a prostate-specific antigen has paved the way for a new generation of trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel is a life-prolonging chemotherapy that has been established as the standard first-line agent in two phase III clinical trials. Cabazitaxel, a novel taxane with activity in cancer models resistant to paclitaxel and docetaxel, is the only agent that has been compared to a chemotherapy control in a phase III clinical trial as a second-line therapy; it was found to prolong the overall survival of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel when compared to mitoxantrone. Other agents used in this setting include abiraterone and sipuleucel-T, and novel therapies are continually being investigated in an attempt to improve the outcome for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  14. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: systemic therapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Fernando C.; Smaletz, Oren; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous neoplasm in the male population worldwide. It is typically diagnosed in its early stages, and the disease exhibits a relatively indolent course in most patients. Despite the curability of localized disease with prostatectomy and radiation therapy, some patients develop metastatic disease and die. Although androgen deprivation is present in the majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer, a state of androgen resistance eventually develops. Castration-resistant prostate cancer, defined when there is progression of disease despite low levels of testosterone, requires specialized care, and improved communication between medical and urologic oncologists has been identified as a key component in delivering effective therapy. Despite being considered a chemoresistant tumor in the past, the use of a prostate-specific antigen has paved the way for a new generation of trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel is a life-prolonging chemotherapy that has been established as the standard first-line agent in two phase III clinical trials. Cabazitaxel, a novel taxane with activity in cancer models resistant to paclitaxel and docetaxel, is the only agent that has been compared to a chemotherapy control in a phase III clinical trial as a second-line therapy; it was found to prolong the overall survival of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel when compared to mitoxantrone. Other agents used in this setting include abiraterone and sipuleucel-T, and novel therapies are continually being investigated in an attempt to improve the outcome for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22522765

  15. Mitochondrial ROS and cancer drug resistance: Implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Imoh S; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Under physiological conditions, a well-coordinated and balanced redox system exists to ensure that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are appropriately utilized to accomplish specific functions, such as signaling and protein regulation. The influence of ROS within malignant cells, whether for good or bad may depend on several factors, such as tumor and tissue type, disease stage, treatment strategy, as well as duration, specificity and levels of ROS. What then are the known roles of ROS in cancer? Firstly, ROS significantly impacts cancer phenotypes. Secondly, the oxidative ROS property responsible for killing cancer cells, also impact secondary signaling networks. Thirdly, a strong correlation exist between ROS and genetic instability which may promote mutations. Finally, emerging observations suggest a role for mitochondrial ROS in cancer drug resistance, with implications for therapy. The mitochondria is a key regulator of metabolic-redox (meta-redox) alterations within cancer cells. Like a double-edged sword, mitochondrial ROS perturbations in cancer therapy may be beneficial or detrimental. However, harnessing ROS-specific cancer-targeting benefits remain a major challenge. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hypnosis: Adjunct Therapy for Cancer Pain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravits, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a symptom associated with prolonged recovery from illness and procedures, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care costs. While there have been advances in the management of cancer pain, there is a need for therapeutic strategies that complement pharmaceutical management without significantly contributing to the side-effect profile of these agents. Hypnosis provides a safe and efficacious supplement to pharmaceutical management of cancer pain. One barrier to the regular use of hypnosis is health-care providers’ lack of current knowledge of the efficacy and safety of hypnosis. Advanced practitioners who are well-informed about hypnosis have an opportunity to increase the treatment options for patients who are suffering with cancer pain by suggesting to the health-care team that hypnosis be incorporated into the plan of care. Integration of hypnosis into the standard of care will benefit patients, caregivers, and survivors by reducing pain and the suffering associated with it. PMID:25031986

  17. Antihistamines as promising drugs in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Ferreira, Rita; Gama, Adelina; Oliveira, Paula A; Ginja, Mário

    2017-03-01

    Histamine is a biogenic amine, synthetized and released by mast cells, which acts as a vasodilator in several pathologic processes, namely in allergies and conjunctivitis. Its role on cancer is not fully understood. High levels of histamine have been associated with a bivalent behavior in regulation of several tumors (i.e. cervical, ovarian, vaginal, uterine, vulvar, colorectal cancer, and melanoma), promoting or inhibiting their growth. Histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) are present in a vast group of cells, including tumor cells, making them sensitive to histamine variations. In this work, we review the role of mast cells and histamine on cancer development and the possibility of use antihistamines in the clinical management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epigenetics and cervical cancer: from pathogenesis to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Hai; Jin, Sufang

    2014-06-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found in most of the cervical cancer cases, additional genetic and epigenetic changes are required for disease progression. Previously, it was thought that only genetic mutation plays a key role in cervical cancer development. But recent advances in the biology of cervical cancer revealed that epigenetic alteration is common in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. Epigenetic alteration due to aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification has been extensively studied in cervical cancer. Recent research strategies keep insight into noncoding RNAs, especially miRNA and lncRNA. At the same time, interest has been grown to study the utility of these changes as biomarkers to determine disease progression as well as use them as the therapeutic targets. This study has been aimed to review the recent progress of epigenetic study for cervical cancer research including role of these epigenetic changes in disease progression, their prognostic values, and their use in targeted therapy.

  19. Assessment of the Evolution of Cancer Treatment Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Valladares

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapy has been characterized throughout history by ups and downs, not only due to the ineffectiveness of treatments and side effects, but also by hope and the reality of complete remission and cure in many cases. Within the therapeutic arsenal, alongside surgery in the case of solid tumors, are the antitumor drugs and radiation that have been the treatment of choice in some instances. In recent years, immunotherapy has become an important therapeutic alternative, and is now the first choice in many cases. Nanotechnology has recently arrived on the scene, offering nanostructures as new therapeutic alternatives for controlled drug delivery, for combining imaging and treatment, applying hyperthermia, and providing directed target therapy, among others. These therapies can be applied either alone or in combination with other components (antibodies, peptides, folic acid, etc.. In addition, gene therapy is also offering promising new methods for treatment. Here, we present a review of the evolution of cancer treatments, starting with chemotherapy, surgery, radiation and immunotherapy, and moving on to the most promising cutting-edge therapies (gene therapy and nanomedicine. We offer an historical point of view that covers the arrival of these therapies to clinical practice and the market, and the promises and challenges they present.

  20. Assessment of the Evolution of Cancer Treatment Therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruebo, Manuel [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Mariano Esquillor, Edif. I+D, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, Madrid 28046 (Spain); Sáez-Gutierrez, Berta; Lambea, Julio; Tres, Alejandro [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Mariano Esquillor, Edif. I+D, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Avda. San Juan Bosco 50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Avda. Gómez Laguna, 25, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Valladares, Mónica [Lonza Biologics Porriño, A relva s/n, Porriño (Pontevedra) 36410 (Spain); González-Fernández, África, E-mail: africa@uvigo.es [Immunology Department, Biomedical Research Center (CINBIO), University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Pontevedra) 36310 (Spain)

    2011-08-12

    Cancer therapy has been characterized throughout history by ups and downs, not only due to the ineffectiveness of treatments and side effects, but also by hope and the reality of complete remission and cure in many cases. Within the therapeutic arsenal, alongside surgery in the case of solid tumors, are the antitumor drugs and radiation that have been the treatment of choice in some instances. In recent years, immunotherapy has become an important therapeutic alternative, and is now the first choice in many cases. Nanotechnology has recently arrived on the scene, offering nanostructures as new therapeutic alternatives for controlled drug delivery, for combining imaging and treatment, applying hyperthermia, and providing directed target therapy, among others. These therapies can be applied either alone or in combination with other components (antibodies, peptides, folic acid, etc.). In addition, gene therapy is also offering promising new methods for treatment. Here, we present a review of the evolution of cancer treatments, starting with chemotherapy, surgery, radiation and immunotherapy, and moving on to the most promising cutting-edge therapies (gene therapy and nanomedicine). We offer an historical point of view that covers the arrival of these therapies to clinical practice and the market, and the promises and challenges they present.

  1. A review of immune therapy in cancer and a question: can thermal therapy increase tumor response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joan M C

    2017-11-03

    Immune therapy is a successful cancer treatment coming into its own. This is because checkpoint molecules, adoptive specific lymphocyte transfer and chimeric antigen T-cell (CAR-T) therapy are able to induce more durable responses in an increasing number of malignancies compared to chemotherapy. In addition, immune therapies are able to treat bulky disease, whereas standard cytotoxic therapies cannot treat large tumour burdens. Checkpoint inhibitor monoclonal antibodies are becoming widely used in the clinic and although more complex, adoptive lymphocyte transfer and CAR-T therapies show promise. We are learning that there are nuances to predicting the successful use of the checkpoint inhibitors as well as to specific-antigen adoptive and CAR-T therapies. We are also newly aware of a here-to-fore unrealised natural force, the status of the microbiome. However, despite better understanding of mechanisms of action of the new immune therapies, the best responses to the new immune therapies remain 20-30%. Likely the best way to improve this somewhat low response rate for patients is to increase the patient's own immune response. Thermal therapy is a way to do this. All forms of thermal therapy, from fever-range systemic thermal therapy, to high-temperature HIFU and even cryotherapy improve the immune response pre-clinically. It is time to test the immune therapies with thermal therapy in vivo to test for optimal timing of the combinations that will best enhance tumour response and then to begin to test the immune therapies with thermal therapy in the clinic as soon as possible.

  2. [Introduction of information technology in the field of cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisu, Ken-ichi

    2004-04-01

    The introduction of information technology in the field of cancer therapy will realize not only better mutual communication among staff and patients, but also standardize the care process. Secondary utilization of medical information, such as cost-income analyses, will also be possible, though there will still be some limitations due to immaturity of the present systems.

  3. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into reproductive health networks: Notes for the field. ... Data were collected through routine management information systems, which include information on client demographics, service use, first time screening status, HIV status, and screening results. Results: ...

  4. The role of radiation therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer | Dreyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of radiation therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer. G Dreyer. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. Coronary artery calcium in breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Pilz, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Morris, Pamela B; Henzler, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ae

  6. DNA Topoisomerase I-Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    2-4). However, further development was discontinued because of unpredictable and severe myelosuppression, gastrointestinal toxicity and hemorrhagic ... cystitis . Further development of topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors for cancer therapy was stimulated by the characterization of CPT as a specific topo

  7. Apoptosis and cancer stem cells : Implications for apoptosis targeted therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating showing that cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells are key drivers of tumor formation and progression. Successful therapy must therefore eliminate these cells, which is hampered by their high resistance to commonly used treatment modalities. Thus far, only a limited

  8. HIFU therapy for patients with high risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.

  9. Tumor biology and cancer therapy – an evolving relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lother Ulrike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of palliative chemotherapy is to increase survival whilst maintaining maximum quality of life for the individual concerned. Although we are still continuing to explore the optimum use of traditional chemotherapy agents, the introduction of targeted therapies has significantly broadened the therapeutic options. Interestingly, the results from current trials put the underlying biological concept often into a new, less favorable perspective. Recent data suggested that altered pathways underlie cancer, and not just altered genes. Thus, an effective therapeutic agent will sometimes have to target downstream parts of a signaling pathway or physiological effects rather than individual genes. In addition, over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested that solid tumors represent a very heterogeneous group of cells with different susceptibility to cancer therapy. Thus, since therapeutic concepts and pathophysiological understanding are continuously evolving a combination of current concepts in tumor therapy and tumor biology is needed. This review aims to present current problems of cancer therapy by highlighting exemplary results from recent clinical trials with colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients and to discuss the current understanding of the underlying reasons.

  10. Music Therapy in the Interdisciplinary Care of Children with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Valerie Kalsbeck

    Music therapy, the systematic application of music and musical activities to elicit specific changes in emotional, physical, or social behavior, can help pediatric cancer patients to decrease their anxiety and cope with hospitalization. Because music is a nonverbal means of expression, it is an especially effective medium for young children who…

  11. Biomaterial-Based Implantable Devices for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Sue Anne; Danti, Serena

    2017-01-01

    This review article focuses on the current local therapies mediated by implanted macroscaled biomaterials available or proposed for fighting cancer and also highlights the upcoming research in this field. Several authoritative review articles have collected and discussed the state-of-the-art as well as the advancements in using biomaterial-based micro- and nano-particle systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy. On the other hand, implantable biomaterial devices are emerging as highly versatile therapeutic platforms, which deserve an increased attention by the healthcare scientific community, as they are able to offer innovative, more effective and creative strategies against tumors. This review summarizes the current approaches which exploit biomaterial-based devices as implantable tools for locally administrating drugs and describes their specific medical applications, which mainly target resected brain tumors or brain metastases for the inaccessibility of conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, a special focus in this review is given to innovative approaches, such as combined delivery therapies, as well as to alternative approaches, such as scaffolds for gene therapy, cancer immunotherapy and metastatic cell capture, the later as promising future trends in implantable biomaterials for cancer applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    graft versus host disease, inflammatory bowel disease and myocardial infarction in clinical trials. These clinical studies have documented that... myocardial infarction in clinical trials. Conclusions These results document two things. First, the therapeutic agent loaded into hbMSCs must...Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Isaacs; Jeffrey Karp

  13. Antibody-Based Cancer Therapy : Successful Agents and Novel Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, D; Choi, G; de Bruyn, M; Wiersma, V R; Bremer, E; Galluzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio

    2017-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibodies have been viewed as ideal candidates or "magic bullets" for use in targeted therapy in the fields of cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. A wave of antibody-dedicated research followed, which resulted in the clinical approval of a first

  14. Metastatic gastric cancer – focus on targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza-Junco J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B SawyerDepartment of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gastric cancer (GC is currently the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide; unfortunately, most patients will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Despite recent progress in diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, prognosis remains poor. A better understanding of GC biology and signaling pathways is expected to improve GC therapy, and the integration of targeted therapies has recently become possible and appears to be promising. This article focuses on anti-Her-2 therapy, specifically trastuzumab, as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists such as cetuximab, panitumub, matuzumab, nimotzumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib. Additionally, drugs that target angiogenesis pathways are also under investigation, particulary bevacizumab, ramucirumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib. Other targeted agents in preclinical or early clinical development include mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, anti-insulin-like growth factor, anti-heat shock proteins, and small molecules targeting Hedgehog signaling.Keywords: gastric cancer, targeted therapy, antiangiogenesis drugs, anti-EGFR drugs

  15. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in the treatment of depression: a matched pairs study in an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Michael; Balmaceda, Ute Mirian; Hase, Adrian; Lehnung, Maria; Tumani, Visal; Huchzermeier, Christian; Hofmann, Arne

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a severe mental disorder that challenges mental health systems worldwide as the success rates of all established treatments are limited. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a scientifically acknowledged psychotherapeutic treatment for PTSD. Given the recent research indicating that trauma and other adverse life experiences can be the basis of depression, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EMDR therapy with this disorder. In this study, we recruited a group of 16 patients with depressive episodes in an inpatient setting. These 16 patients were treated with EMDR therapy by reprocessing of memories related to stressful life events in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). They were compared to a group of 16 controls matched regarding diagnosis, degree of depression, sex, age and time of admission to hospital, which were receiving TAU only. Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the EMDR group showed full remission at end of treatment. The EMDR group showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms as measured by the SCL-90-R depression subscale. This difference was significant even when adjusted for duration of treatment. In a follow-up period of more than 1 year the EMDR group reported less problems related to depression and less relapses than the control group. EMDR therapy shows promise as an effective treatment for depressive disorders. Larger controlled studies are necessary to replicate our findings.

  16. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy to Treat Symptoms Following Trauma in Timor Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; de Araujo, Guilhermina; Butler, Susan R; Taylor, Graham; Drummond, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating trauma symptoms was examined in a postwar/conflict, developing nation, Timor Leste. Participants were 21 Timorese adults with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed as those who scored ≥2 on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Participants were treated with EMDR therapy. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Symptom changes post-EMDR treatment were compared to a stabilization control intervention period in which participants served as their own waitlist control. Sessions were 60-90 mins. The average number of sessions was 4.15 (SD = 2.06). Despite difficulties providing treatment cross-culturally (i.e., language barriers), EMDR therapy was followed by significant and large reductions in trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.48), depression (d = 2.09), and anxiety (d = 1.77). At posttreatment, 20 (95.2%) participants scored below the HTQ PTSD cutoff of 2. Reliable reductions in trauma symptoms were reported by 18 participants (85.7%) posttreatment and 16 (76.2%) at 3-month follow-up. Symptoms did not improve during the control period. Findings support the use of EMDR therapy for treatment of adults with PTSD in a cross-cultural, postwar/conflict setting, and suggest that structured trauma treatments can be applied in Timor Leste. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Cancer stem cells, the ultimate targets in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir A; Esfandyari T; Farassati F

    2018-01-01

    Ahmed Shabbir,1 Tuba Esfandyari,2 Faris Farassati1,3,4 1Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Kansas, 3Saint Luke’s Cancer Institute, 4Saint Luke’s Marion Bloch Neuroscience Institute, Saint Luke’s Health System, Kansas City, MO, USAThe concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently of significant interest due to its important implications in our under...

  18. Cancer stem cells, the ultimate targets in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir A; Esfandyari T; Farassati F

    2018-01-01

    Ahmed Shabbir,1 Tuba Esfandyari,2 Faris Farassati1,3,4 1Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Kansas, 3Saint Luke’s Cancer Institute, 4Saint Luke’s Marion Bloch Neuroscience Institute, Saint Luke’s Health System, Kansas City, MO, USAThe concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently of significant interest due to its important implications in our understanding of ...

  19. [New perspectives for metformin in cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, Camille; Dirat, Béatrice; Tanti, Jean-François; Bost, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    Cancer and type II diabetes are two diseases that appear to be associated. In fact, diabetes increases the incidence of several cancers (colon, endometrium, rectum and breast). Retrospective epidemiological studies show that metformin, a drug commonly used in type II diabetes, has antitumor properties. Therefore, many experimental studies (in vivo and in vitro) have been initiated in recent years to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may explain the protective effects of metformin against cancer. Two main mode of action have been proposed. The first, indirect, involves the decrease of insulinemia. The second, via a direct action on cells, results in the regulation of the activated AMPK kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a central role in many cellular processes such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, autophagy and apoptosis. Here, we review recent results concerning the antitumor action of metformin: epidemiological, metabolic, cellular and molecular levels. Ongoing experimental and clinical trials should help us better understand the mechanisms of action of metformin and allow us to determine whether the drug can be used in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of lysosomes in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halaby R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reginald Halaby Department of Biology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA Abstract: Lysosomes are acidic organelles that are involved in cellular digestion by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. They contain more than 50 hydrolases that are capable of degrading all macromolecules. There is accumulating evidence that lysosomal enzymes can provoke apoptotic cell death. This has important implications for cancer, where proapoptotic genes are mutated and antiapoptotic genes are often overexpressed leading to chemoresistance. Lysosomes play a dual role in cancer development depending on their subcellular localization. When they are located extracellularly they can promote invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, when they are located intracellularly they can trigger apoptosis by leaking into the cytosol. In this review, we examine the pathways by which lysosomes can evoke both apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Although cancer cells have defects in their apoptotic machinery, they can still undergo lysosomal cell death. We offer several strategies to explain how targeting lysosomes can serve as a putative model for the development of novel anticancer agents. Furthermore, we propose that lysosomal cell death is an effective treatment against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells and thus holds great potential as a therapeutic strategy for circumventing apoptosis deficiency in tumors. Keywords: cathepsins, lysosomal membrane permeability, apoptosis, chemoresistance 

  1. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  2. Rational design of non-resistant targeted cancer therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Overington, John P.; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major problems in targeted cancer therapy. A major cause of resistance is changes in the amino acids that form the drug-target binding site. Despite of the numerous efforts made to individually understand and overcome these mutations, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape that can prospectively estimate drug-resistance mutations. Here we describe and computationally validate a framework that combines the cancer-specific likelihood with the resistance impact to enable the detection of single point mutations with the highest chance to be responsible of resistance to a particular targeted cancer therapy. Moreover, for these treatment-threatening mutations, the model proposes alternative therapies overcoming the resistance. We exemplified the applicability of the model using EGFR-gefitinib treatment for Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and Lung Squamous Cell Cancer (LSCC) and the ERK2-VTX11e treatment for melanoma and colorectal cancer. Our model correctly identified the phenotype known resistance mutations, including the classic EGFR-T790M and the ERK2-P58L/S/T mutations. Moreover, the model predicted new previously undescribed mutations as potentially responsible of drug resistance. Finally, we provided a map of the predicted sensitivity of alternative ERK2 and EGFR inhibitors, with a particular highlight of two molecules with a low predicted resistance impact. PMID:28436422

  3. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  4. Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel, María M; Andradas, Clara; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Breast cancer is a very common disease that affects approximately 1 in 10 women at some point in their lives. Importantly, breast cancer cannot be considered a single disease as it is characterized by distinct pathological and molecular subtypes that are treated with different therapies and have diverse clinical outcomes. Although some highly successful treatments have been developed, certain breast tumors are resistant to conventional therapies and a considerable number of them relapse. Therefore, new strategies are urgently needed, and the challenge for the future will most likely be the development of individualized therapies that specifically target each patient's tumor. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade supports that cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives, possess anticancer activity. Thus, these compounds exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions in a wide spectrum of cancer cells in culture. Moreover, tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis are hampered by cannabinoids in xenograft-based and genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the anti-tumor potential of cannabinoids in breast cancer, which suggests that cannabinoid-based medicines may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  6. Metabolic therapy: a new paradigm for managing malignant brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Flores, Roberto; Poff, Angela M; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Mukherjee, Purna

    2015-01-28

    Little progress has been made in the long-term management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), considered among the most lethal of brain cancers. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids, and high-dose radiation are generally used as the standard of care for GBM. These procedures can create a tumor microenvironment rich in glucose and glutamine. Glucose and glutamine are suggested to facilitate tumor progression. Recent evidence suggests that many GBMs are infected with cytomegalovirus, which could further enhance glucose and glutamine metabolism in the tumor cells. Emerging evidence also suggests that neoplastic macrophages/microglia, arising through possible fusion hybridization, can comprise an invasive cell subpopulation within GBM. Glucose and glutamine are major fuels for myeloid cells, as well as for the more rapidly proliferating cancer stem cells. Therapies that increase inflammation and energy metabolites in the GBM microenvironment can enhance tumor progression. In contrast to current GBM therapies, metabolic therapy is designed to target the metabolic malady common to all tumor cells (aerobic fermentation), while enhancing the health and vitality of normal brain cells and the entire body. The calorie restricted ketogenic diet (KD-R) is an anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic metabolic therapy that also reduces fermentable fuels in the tumor microenvironment. Metabolic therapy, as an alternative to the standard of care, has the potential to improve outcome for patients with GBM and other malignant brain cancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Jaehne, J., Altorki, N., Blundell, M., Urmacher, C., Lauwers, G., Niedzwiecki, D., and Kelsen , D. P. Amplification of HER-2/neu gene in human gastric...and integration into Moloney murine leukemia virus particles, Gene Therapy. 3: 334-342, 1996. 21 Park 14. Han , X., Kasahara, N., and Kan, Y. W. Ligand

  8. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    and 10–15 % in stage III. Targeted therapy is not recommended in the adjuvant setting. Treatment options in patients with non- resectable CRC are based on the extent of disease (resectable/potential resectable/non-resectable) and symptoms. Surgery fi rst or chemotherapy fi rst in patients...

  9. POSSIBILITIES OF THERAPY OF HER-2-POSITIVE REGIONAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Belokhvostova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer heads the list of malignant neoplasms in women. In this connection the regional forms of cancer are diagnosed in one fourth of the patients. The treatment of regional cancer begins with systemic therapy and aimed at gaining of state fit for operation. The choice of modern treatment strategy is based on determination of molecular subtype of the tumor. One of them is referred to HER-2-positive cancer, requiring the administration of additional targeted therapy. This form of cancer is referred to prognostically pejorative tumors, as it’s more aggressive, leads to fast metastasis and early death of the patients. The “golden standard” of systemic chemotherapy is defined as administration of docetaxel and trastuzumab,  and antracyclic drugs, which also prove to be efficient. However concomitant administration of trastuzumab and antracyclines is limited due to their cardiotoxicity. Chemotherapy is not always efficient and, upon recommendations both of Russian and international oncologists, radiotherapy is the next stage of treatment. The question about radiosensibility of HER-2-positive tumors is still open and worth studying. Addition of radiotherapy to regional cancer treatment regimen in combination with the targeted therapy and chemotherapy may contribute to obtaining better survival rate and disease control. There are still no clearly defined standard for the sequence of chemo-radiation therapy. Simultaneous  chemo-radiatiojn  therapy results in  reliably better loco-regional control of tumor and  enables to gain a  higher degree of pathomorphological response on the one hand, and it may result in development of serious adverse effects on the other hand. Striving for improvement of immediate results of antineoplastic therapy, including that of regional cancer, by combining various methods, one should keep in mind the increasing action toxicity, which may have a considerable impact on the patients’ quality of living

  10. Novel targeted therapies for cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Josep M; López-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Stemmler, Britta; Busquets, Sílvia

    2017-07-27

    Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides. However, a multi-targeted approach seems absolutely essential to treat patients affected by cancer cachexia. This approach should not only involve combinations of drugs but also nutrition and an adequate program of physical exercise, factors that may lead to a synergy, essential to overcome the syndrome. This may efficiently reverse the metabolic changes described above and, at the same time, ameliorate the anorexia. Defining this therapeutic combination of drugs/nutrients/exercise is an exciting project that will stimulate many scientific efforts. Other aspects that will, no doubt, be very important for successful treatment of cancer wasting will be an optimized design of future clinical trials, together with a protocol for staging cancer patients in relation to their degree of cachexia. This will permit that nutritional/metabolic/pharmacological support can be started early in the course of the disease, before severe weight loss occurs. Indeed, timing is crucial and has to be taken very seriously when applying the therapeutic approach. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Cancer nanomedicine: from targeted delivery to combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Ho, William; Zhang, Xueqing; Bertrand, Nicolas; Farokhzad, Omid

    2015-04-01

    The advent of nanomedicine marks an unparalleled opportunity to advance the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as large surface-to-volume ratio, small size, the ability to encapsulate various drugs, and tunable surface chemistry, give them many advantages over their bulk counterparts. This includes multivalent surface modification with targeting ligands, efficient navigation of the complex in vivo environment, increased intracellular trafficking, and sustained release of drug payload. These advantages make NPs a mode of treatment potentially superior to conventional cancer therapies. This review highlights the most recent developments in cancer treatment using NPs as drug delivery vehicles, including promising opportunities in targeted and combination therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oligonucleotide-based theranostic nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Reza; Ozpolat, Bulent; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2016-05-01

    Theranostic approaches, combining the functionality of both therapy and imaging, have shown potential in cancer nanomedicine. Oligonucleotides such as small interfering RNA and microRNA, which are powerful therapeutic agents, have been effectively employed in theranostic systems against various cancers. Nanoparticles are used to deliver oligonucleotides into tumors by passive or active targeting while protecting the oligonucleotides from nucleases in the extracellular environment. The use of quantum dots, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles and tagging with contrast agents, like fluorescent dyes, optical or magnetic agents and various radioisotopes, has facilitated early detection of tumors and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we review the advantages of theranostic applications in cancer therapy and imaging, with special attention to oligonucleotide-based therapeutics.

  13. Organometallic compounds in cancer therapy: past lessons and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Pedro; Marques, Mara; Coito, Lidia; Pombeiro, Armando J L; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, modern medicinal chemistry has evolved towards providing us new and alternative chemotherapeutic compounds with high cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, alongside with reduced side effects in cancer patients. Organometallic compounds and their unique physic-chemical properties typically used in homogenous catalysis are now being translated as potential candidates for medical purposes. Their structural diversity, ligand exchange, redox and catalytic properties make them promising drug candidates for cancer therapy. Over the last decade this area has witnessed a steady growth and a few organometallic compounds have in fact already entered clinical trials, emphasizing its increasing importance and clinical relevance. Here we intend to stress out the different applications of organometallic compounds in medicine with emphasis on cancer therapy, as well as address setbacks regarding formulation issues, systemic toxicity and off-target effects. Advantages over classical coordination metal complexes, their nanovectorisation and specific molecular targets are also discussed.

  14. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Lea L; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    , estrogen plus progestin or tibolone for a minimum of one year. Risk of endometrial cancer was compared to placebo or never users and measured as relative risk, hazard or odds ratio. RESULTS: 28 studies were included. The observational literature found an increased risk among users of estrogen alone......BACKGROUND: In 1975, estrogen only was found to be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In November 2015, NICE guidelines on hormone therapy were published that did not take this risk into account. AIM: This systematic literature review assesses the safety of estrogen plus...... progestin therapy according to the risk of endometrial cancer, while considering both regimen and type of progestin. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, resulting in the identification of 527 published articles on menopausal women with intact uteri treated with estrogen only...

  15. Linking ER Stress to Autophagy: Potential Implications for Cancer Therapy

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    Tom Verfaillie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different physiological and pathological conditions can perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a condition known as ER stress. ER stress activates a complex intracellular signal transduction pathway, called unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR is tailored essentially to reestablish ER homeostasis also through adaptive mechanisms involving the stimulation of autophagy. However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR and autophagy into cell death promoting mechanisms. Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies have been linked to the induction of ER stress in cancer cells, suggesting that strategies devised to stimulate its prodeath function or block its prosurvival function, could be envisaged to improve their tumoricidial action. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the final outcome of UPR and autophagy activation by chemotherapeutic agents, will offer new opportunities to improve existing cancer therapies as well as unravel novel targets for cancer treatment.

  16. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

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    Shaorong Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufficient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to find a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  18. Breast Cancer Biology: Clinical Implications for Breast Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Janet K; Jagsi, Reshma; Woodward, Wendy A; Ho, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Historically, prognosis and treatment decision making for breast cancer patients have been dictated by the anatomic extent of tumor spread. However, in recent years, "breast cancer" has proven to be a collection of unique phenotypes with distinct prognoses, patterns of failure, and treatment responses. Recent advances in biologically based assays and targeted therapies designed to exploit these unique phenotypes have profoundly altered systemic therapy practice patterns and treatment outcomes. Data associating locoregional outcomes with tumor biology are emerging. However, the likelihood of obtaining level I evidence for fundamental radiation therapy questions within each of the specific subtypes in the immediate future is low. As such, this review aims to summarize the existing data and provide practical context for the incorporation of breast tumor biology into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Development of ultrasonic cancer therapy using ultrasound sensitive liposome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been utilized as a useful tool for diagnosis and therapy. US mediated drug and gene delivery is paid to attention as a non-invasive system. The combination of US and microbubbles generated microjet stream by inducing disruption of bubbles and resulted in enhancing permeability of cell membrane. This phenomenon has been utilized as driving force for drug and gene delivery. Recently, we developed ultrasound sensitive liposome [Bubble liposome (BL)] containing perfluoropropane gas. US combined with BL could effectively transfer gene in vivo compared to conventional cationic liposomes. Using this method, we succeeded to obtain a therapeutic effect in cancer gene therapy with Interleukin-12 corded plasmid DNA. Therefore, it is expected that US combined with BL might be a useful non-viral vector system. From this result, the fusion of liposomal and ultrasound technologies would be important for establishment of advanced cancer therapy.

  20. Focal Therapy in the Management of Prostate Cancer: An Emerging Approach for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nomura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA has led increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer along with a reduction in the proportion of advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. Over the past decade, interest in focal therapy as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer has recently been renewed due to downward stage migration. Focal therapy stands midway between active surveillance and radical treatments, combining minimal morbidity with cancer control. Several techniques of focal therapy have potential for isolated ablation of a tumor focus with sparing of uninvolved surround tissue demonstrating excellent short-term cancer control and a favorable patient’s quality of life. However, to date, tissue ablation has mostly used for near-whole prostate gland ablation without taking advantage of accompanying the technological capabilities. The available ablative technologies include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP. Despite the interest in focal therapy, this technology has not yet been a well-established procedure nor provided sufficient data, because of the lack of randomized trial comparing the efficacy and morbidity of the standard treatment options. In this paper we briefly summarize the recent data regarding focal therapy for prostate cancer and these new therapeutic modalities.

  1. Response of eyes with age-related macular degeneration to anti-VEGF drugs and implications for therapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Noriko Miyamoto,1,2 Michiko Mandai,1,3 Hiroshi Kojima,1,2 Takanori Kameda,1,2 Masataka Shimozono,1,2 Akihiro Nishida,1,2 Yasuo Kurimoto1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 3Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the response to and dependence on aflibercept or ranibizumab in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed AMD patients who received induction therapy with aflibercept or ranibizumab for the following parameters: whether complete resolution of the retinal fluid (“good response” was achieved and whether recurrence was observed within 3 months (“dependent” after the induction treatment. With aflibercept treatment, treatment-naïve eyes with a good response/non-dependence were recommended a pro re nata regimen, and other eyes were recommended a proactive bimonthly regimen, followed by monitoring of visual acuity (VA for 12 months. The measured values of the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to evaluate the difference between baseline and postinjection VA.Results: Among the treatment-naïve eyes, 76% had a good response to aflibercept and 37% of these were aflibercept-dependent, while 58% had a good response to ranibizumab but 51% of these were ranibizumab-dependent. Among the eyes that converted from ranibizumab treatment, 92% of the good responders to ranibizumab with dependence and 76% of the poor responders on ranibizumab had a good response to aflibercept. With aflibercept treatment, the mean VA of treatment-naïve patients was significantly better than the baseline VA over 12 months (P<0.001, and the VA of the converted group improved significantly with proactive treatment and the improvement was continuously maintained from 6 to 12 months

  2. The Changing Landscape of Breast Cancer: How Biology Drives Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Friend

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most prevalent life-threatening cancer in women. Optimizing therapy to increase cure rates in early stage disease, and improving life expectancy and palliation for advanced stages, are goals driving major areas of research. The armamentarium of targeted treatments for breast cancer is ever expanding as understanding of breast cancer biology deepens. A revolution in our treatment was heralded a decade ago by the introduction of trastuzumab for human epidermal receptor-2 positive (HER2+ disease resulting in remarkable reductions in recurrence and improvements in overall survival (OS. Advances continue to be made in other breast cancer subtypes targeting key activating pathways for therapeutic development. However, for these other targeted agents, improvement in OS has been elusive. This article focuses on the development of targeted therapy in breast cancer focusing primarily on the last 5 years, to illustrate that as we understand the complex pathways allowing the dysregulated cell to become malignant, it also propels us closer towards the promise of precision and personalized medicine.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Pelin; Tempero, Margaret A

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to be a challenging disease to treat because of its aggressive nature, advanced stage at the time of diagnosis, and limited treatment options that are available. Traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy provides modest benefit to patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recently, a FOLFIRINOX regimen revealed improved response in overall and progression-free survival over single-agent gemcitabine in metastatic pancreatic cancer, but there is still much needed advancement in the systemic treatment of pancreatic cancer. There is a growing interest in the development of novel agents, while our understanding of molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma continues to expand. With identification of various molecular pathways in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis, potential targets for drug development have been pursued with the use of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Although preclinical studies with multiple targeted therapies demonstrated encouraging results in pancreatic cancer, only erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, showed a marginal survival benefit in a phase III clinical trial, when combined with gemcitabine. As further signaling pathways and their importance in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis are better understood, further clinical trials will need to be designed to study these targeted agents as single agents, in combination with other novel agents or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this review, we present the current knowledge on targeted therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its application in clinical practice.

  4. Polo-like kinase 1 as target for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiß Lily

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1 is an interesting molecule both as a biomarker and as a target for highly specific cancer therapy for several reasons. Firstly, it is over-expressed in many cancers and can serve as a biomarker to monitor treatment efficacy of Plk1 inhibitors. Furthermore, the Plk1 enzyme is expressed only in dividing cells and is a major regulator of the cell cycle. It controls entry into mitosis and regulates the spindle checkpoint. The expression of Plk1 in normal cells is not nearly as strong as that in cancer cells, which makes Plk1 a discriminating tartget for the development of cancer-specific small molecule drugs. RNA interference experiments in vitro and in vivo have indicated that downregulation of Plk1 expression represents an attractive concept for cancer therapy. Over the years, a number of Plk1 inhibitors have been discovered. Many of these inhibitors are substances that compete with ATP for the substrate binding site. The ATP-competitive inhibitor BI 6727 is currently being clinically tested in cancer patients. Another drug in development, poloxin, is the first Polo-box domain inhibitor of Plk1. This compound is a derivative of the natural product, thymoquinone, derived from Nigella sativa. A novel and promising strategy is to synthesize bifunctional inhibitors that combine the high binding affinity of ATP inhibitors with the specificity of competitive inhibitors.

  5. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations.

  7. Drug loaded magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgons, R.; Seliger, C.; Hilpert, A.; Trahms, L.; Odenbach, S.; Alexiou, C.

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated for biomedical applications for more than 30 years. In medicine they are used for several approaches such as magnetic cell separation or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The development of biocompatible nanosized drug delivery systems for specific targeting of therapeutics is the focus of medical research, especially for the treatment of cancer and diseases of the vascular system. In an experimental cancer model, we performed targeted drug delivery and used magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, bound to a chemotherapeutic agent, which were attracted to an experimental tumour in rabbits by an external magnetic field (magnetic drug targeting). Complete tumour remission could be achieved. An important advantage of these carriers is the possibility for detecting these nanoparticles after treatment with common imaging techniques (i.e. x-ray-tomography, magnetorelaxometry, magnetic resonance imaging), which can be correlated to histology.

  8. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas that is typically generated in high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Areas of potential application of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) include dentistry, drug delivery, dermatology, cosmetics, wound healing, cellular modifications, and cancer treatment. Various diagnostic tools have been developed for characterization of CAP including intensified charge-coupled device cameras, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements of the discharge propertied. Recently a new method for temporally resolved measurements of absolute values of plasma density in the plasma column of small-size atmospheric plasma jet utilizing Rayleigh microwave scattering was proposed [1,2]. In this talk we overview state of the art of CAP diagnostics and understanding of the mechanism of plasma action of biological objects. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (long, bladder, and skin) was recently demonstrated [3]. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. For instance a strong selective effect was observed; the resulting 60--70% of lung cancer cells were detached from the plate in the zone treated with plasma, whereas no detachment was observed in the treated zone for the normal lung cells under the same treatment conditions. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration

  9. Ellagitannins in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that diets rich in fruit and vegetables lead to reduction in the risk of common forms of cancer and are useful in cancer prevention. Indeed edible vegetables and fruits contain a wide variety of phytochemicals with proven antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and chemopreventive activity; moreover, some of these phytochemicals also display direct antiproliferative activity towards tumor cells, with the additional advantage of high tolerability and low toxicity. The most important dietary phytochemicals are isothiocyanates, ellagitannins (ET, polyphenols, indoles, flavonoids, retinoids, tocopherols. Among this very wide panel of compounds, ET represent an important class of phytochemicals which are being increasingly investigated for their chemopreventive and anticancer activities. This article reviews the chemistry, the dietary sources, the pharmacokinetics, the evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and the anticancer activity of ET with regard to the most sensitive tumors, as well as the mechanisms underlying their clinically-valuable properties.

  10. Oxygen therapy as an additional component of cytostatic treatment for recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Savkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data obtained by the authors suggest that the efficiency of standard cytostatic therapy for recurrent cervical cancer in combination with chemotherapy and oxygen therapy has increased and the tolerance of cytostatic treatment during oxygen therapy improved.

  11. Oxygen therapy as an additional component of cytostatic treatment for recurrent cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    R. F. Savkova; L. E. Rotobelskaya; L. F. Yudina; M. A. Gerashchenko; A. S. Dzasokhov

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors suggest that the efficiency of standard cytostatic therapy for recurrent cervical cancer in combination with chemotherapy and oxygen therapy has increased and the tolerance of cytostatic treatment during oxygen therapy improved.

  12. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  13. Targeted Nanoparticles for Kidney Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    generation of graduate students in nanomaterials and kidney cancer. In July of 2012 we moved the laboratory from Wake Forest School of Medicine in...Cabello , B. P. Barnett , P. A. Bottomley , J. W. M. Bulte , NMR Biomed . 2011 , 24 , 114 – 129 . [36] R. Díaz-López , N. Tsapis , E...Fattal , Pharm. Res. 2009 , 27 , 1 – 16 . [37] A. Strunecka , J. Patočka , P. Connett , J. Appl. Biomed . 2004 , 2 , 141 – 150 . [38

  14. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  15. MAIN MOLECULAR TARGETS FOR PROSTATE CANCER THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Krasnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of benign and malignant prostate tumors. Most of the prostate neoplasms are hormone-dependent at the time of diagnosis. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing the level of testosterone in the blood allow to stop progression of the disease. But over time, the tumor almost inevitably starts to progress, moving in the castration-resistant state (CRPC, representing a serious problem of oncourology. In recent years, the possibility of CRRPC therapy increased significantly – there was developed a number of new drugs that effectively inhibit the development of castration-resistant tumors and significantly push back the start of chemotherapy. This review describes the major drug targets and mechanisms of action of abiraterone, enzalutamide, galeterone, VT-464 and other approved and promising CRPC therapies.

  16. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squier, C.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections.

  17. Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

  18. Biliverdin Reductase: a Target for Cancer Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eGibbs

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biliverdin reductase (BVR is a multifunctional protein that is the primary source of the potent antioxidant, bilirubin. BVR regulates activities/functions in the insulin/IGF-1/IRK/PI3K/MAPK pathways. Activation of certain kinases in these pathways is/are hallmark(s of cancerous cells. The protein is a scaffold/bridge and intracellular transporter of kinases that regulate growth and proliferation of cells, including PKCs, ERK and Akt, and their targets including NF-κB, Elk1, HO-1 and iNOS. The scaffold and transport functions enable activated BVR to relocate from the cytosol to the nucleus or to the plasma membrane, depending on the activating stimulus. This enables the reductase to function in diverse signaling pathways. And, its expression at the transcript and protein levels are increased in human tumors and the infiltrating T-cells, monocytes and circulating lymphocytes, as well as the circulating and infiltrating macrophages. These functions suggest that the cytoprotective role of BVR may be permissive for cancer/tumor growth. In this review, we summarize the recent developments that define the pro-growth activities of BVR, particularly with respect to its input into the MAPK signaling pathway and present evidence that BVR-based peptides inhibit activation of protein kinases, including MEK, PKCδ and ERK as well as downstream targets including Elk1 and iNOS, and thus offers a credible novel approach to reduce cancer cell proliferation.

  19. Practice comparisons between accelerated resolution therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and cognitive processing therapy with case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Diego F; Waits, Wendi; Calvio, Lisseth; Byrne, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Recent outcomes for Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy indicate that as many as 60-72% of patients retain their PTSD diagnosis after treatment with CPT or PE. One emerging therapy with the potential to augment existing trauma focused therapies is Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART). ART is currently being used along with evidence based approaches at Fort Belvoir Community Hospital and by report has been both positive for clients as well as less taxing on professionals trained in ART. The following is an in-practice theoretical comparison of CPT, EMDR and ART with case examples from Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. While all three approaches share common elements and interventions, ART distinguishes itself through emphasis on the rescripting of traumatic events and the brevity of the intervention. While these case reports are not part of a formal study, they suggest that ART has the potential to augment and enhance the current delivery methods of mental health care in military environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Schaffer, David V

    2016-10-28

    Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been utilized in a large number of gene therapy clinical trials, which have demonstrated their strong safety profile and increasingly their therapeutic efficacy for treating monogenic diseases. For cancer applications, AAV vectors have been harnessed for delivery of an extensive repertoire of transgenes to preclinical models and, more recently, clinical trials involving certain cancers. This review describes the applications of AAV vectors to cancer models and presents developments in vector engineering and payload design aimed at tailoring AAV vectors for transduction and treatment of cancer cells. We also discuss the current status of AAV clinical development in oncology and future directions for AAV in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How Can Gastric Cancer Molecular Profiling Guide Future Therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Simona; Giordano, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is the third greatest global cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite its high prevalence, only recently have comprehensive genomic surveys shed light on its molecular alterations. As surgery is the only curative treatment strategy and chemotherapy has shown limited efficacy, new treatments are urgently needed. Many molecular therapies for gastric cancer have entered clinical trials but-apart from Trastuzumab and Ramucirumab-all have failed. We analyze the current knowledge of the genetic 'landscape' of gastric cancers, elaborating on novel, preclinical approaches. We posit that this knowledge lays the basis for identifying bona fide molecular targets and developing solid therapeutic approaches, requiring accurate patient selection and taking advantage of preclinical models to assist clinical development of novel combination strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization: an international consensus. International Society for Photodynamic Therapy in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N; Bissonnette, R; Gerritsen, M J P; Gilaberte, Y; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Sidoroff, A; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M

    2012-09-01

    Field cancerization is a term that describes the presence of genetic abnormalities in a tissue chronically exposed to a carcinogen. These abnormalities are responsible for the presence of multilocular clinical and sub-clinical cancerous lesions that explains the increased risks of multiple cancers in this area. With respect to the skin, this term is used to define the presence of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer, its precursors, actinic keratoses and dysplastic keratinocytes in sun exposed areas. The multiplicity of the lesions and the extent of the area influence the treatment decision. Providing at least equivalent efficacy and tolerability, field directed therapies are therefore often more worthwhile than lesion targeted approaches. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with its selective sensitization and destruction of diseased tissue is one ideal form of therapy for this indication. In the following paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Photodynamic therapy for lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of non-ionizing radiation therapy that uses a drug, called a photosensitizer, combined with light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2) that can exert anti-cancer activity through apoptotic, necrotic, or autophagic tumor cell death. PDT is increasingly being used to treat thoracic malignancies. For early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PDT is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitively treat endobronchial or roentgenographically occult tumors. Similarly, patients with multiple primary lung cancers may be definitively treated with PDT. For advanced or metastatic NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), PDT is primarily employed to palliate symptoms from obstructing endobronchial lesions causing airway compromise or hemoptysis. PDT can be used in advanced NSCLC to attempt to increase operability or to reduce the extent of operation intervention required, and selectively to treat pleural dissemination intraoperatively following macroscopically complete surgical resection. Intraoperative PDT can be safely combined with macroscopically complete surgical resection and other treatment modalities for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) to improve local control and prolong survival. This report reviews the mechanism of and rationale for using PDT to treat thoracic malignancies, details prospective and major retrospectives studies of PDT to treat NSCLC, SCLC, and MPM, and describes improvements in and future roles and directions of PDT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellulose-based nanocarriers as platforms for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Yan; Wang, Bin; Ma, Ming-Guo; Zhu, Jie-Fang

    2017-10-31

    Cellulose is an important environmentally-friendly renewable polymer on the earth. Cellulose has been widely used as feedstocks for the synthesis of biomaterials, biofuels and biochemicals. Recently, cellulose and cellulose derivatives have received intense attention in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, scaffold, artificial blood vessel, skin grafts, artificial skin, drug carrier, and chronic skin diseases, many of which are somehow related to cancer therapy. In this mini-review, we focus on the up-to-date development of cellulose-based nanocarriers used for cancer therapy. Various cellulose-based nanocarriers such as bacterial cellulose (BC), cellulose acetate, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrills, etc, are reviewed in terms of being used in drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. Different strategies for the synthesis of cellulose-based nanocarriers are summarized. Special attention is paid on the structure and properties of cellulose-based drug carriers for cancer therapy via some representative examples. Finally, the problems and future developments of these promising polymeric nanocarriers are raised and proposed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Music Therapy Through Irish Eyes: A Student Therapist’s Experience of Irish Traditional Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines my personal experience of Irish traditional music and considers how it can inform music therapy practice. The use of Irish music may be particularly meaningful for some clients and help them connect with their culture and identity. Music therapy can also draw on specific features; including the melodic, rhythmic and social aspects of the music. The melody is prominent in Irish traditional music, and its expression is very important. The word draíoght (meaning "spell" or ...

  7. Mechanisms of hormonal therapy resistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Mariko

    2015-04-01

    Whilst estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers are preferentially treated with hormone therapy, approximately one-third of them relapse. The mechanisms of refractoriness have been investigated by numerous studies but have not been fully clarified. Hormonal therapy resistance, particularly aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance, may be related to the acquisition of alternative intracellular ER signaling. We have been investing the mechanisms using cancer specimens and cell lines by monitoring the transcription activity of ERs. AI refractory specimens showed diverse ER activity in the adenovirus estrogen receptor element-green fluorescent protein (ERE-GFP) assay and varied sensitivity to anti-estrogens, indicating the existence of multiple resistant mechanisms. We established six different types of cell lines mimicking AI resistance from ERE-GFP-introduced ER-positive cell lines. They revealed that multiple and alternative ER activating pathways were involved in the resistance, such as phosphorylation-dependent or androgen metabolite-dependent mechanisms. The response to fulvestrant and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor also varied among individual resistant cell lines. These results indicate that further subclassification of ER-positive breast cancer is extremely important to decide the therapeutic management of not only hormonal therapy but also new molecular target therapy.

  8. Palliative nephrectomy until targeted therapy of disseminated kidney cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Klimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the role of palliative nephrectomy in disseminated kidney cancer patients planned to undergo targeted antiangiogenic treatment.Subjects and methods. The investigation included data on 83 patients with T1-4N0 / +M1 disseminated renal cell carcinoma (RCC who had received at least 2 targeted therapy cycles in 2009 to 2011. In 48 (57.8 % patients, the treatment was preceded by palliative nephrectomy that was not carried out in 35 (42.2 %. Before starting targeted therapy, all the cases were confirmed to be diagnosed with clear cell RCC, with a sarcomatoid component being in 7 (8.4 % patients. The median follow-up of all the patients was 21 (12–36 months.Results. The unremoved affected kidney in disseminated kidney cancer patients receiving targeted antiangiogenic therapy is an independent factor for the poor prognosis of progression-free (odds ratio (OR, 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI, 1.2–4.7 and overall (OR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.3–6.3 survival. Palliative nephrectomy does not improve the prognosis in patients with a low somatic status, the N+ category, and metastases into the bones and nonregional lymph nodes.Conclusion. Palliative nephrectomy in the selected patients with disseminated kidney cancer on targeted antiangiogenic therapy increases progression-free and overall survival.

  9. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergey G. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  10. Metacognitive therapy vs. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder: study protocol for a randomized superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Hans M; Halvorsen, Joar Øveraas; Hjemdal, Odin; Ternava, Mimoza Rrusta; Wells, Adrian

    2018-01-08

    The psychological treatment of choice for patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is cognitive behavioural exposure therapy or Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR). Whilst these are the most effective treatments, approximately 30-45% of the patients show no significant improvements and follow-up data are sparse. Furthermore, a proportion of patients with severe trauma does not benefit or avoid exposure therapy due to the potential to overwhelm them. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective methods that do not require exposure. Metacognitive therapy (MCT), a recent treatment approach to PTSD that does not require exposure, has potential strong treatment effects but so far a comparison with EMDR has not been made. This study is a two-arm, parallel, randomized, superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of MCT with EMDR. One hundred patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD will be included and will receive 12 sessions of one of the treatments. The primary outcome is severity of PTSD symptoms assessed with the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) measured post-treatment (3 months). Secondary outcomes include symptom severity (PDS) and measures of anxiety, depression, metacognitive beliefs at 3-month and 12-month follow up. This randomized study is the first to compare MCT with EMDR with 12-month follow-up. The study will indicate the comparative effectiveness of MCT against EMDR and the stability of effects when delivered in an outpatient clinical setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01955590 . Registered on 24 September 2013.

  11. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  12. Cutaneous complication after electron beam therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalilian

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second cause of death among them. There are several treatment methods for breast cancer, one of which is radiation therapy. There are two important methods of radiation therapy: tangential field and single oppositional field. Main goal of this study is evaluation of factors that have a role in producing acute side effects such as skin burning in breast cancer patients treated by electron beam,in order to decrease these side effects. Methods: From 1/2003 through 7/2004, 200 consecutive patients were evaluated during 18 months in seid-al-shohad hospital, whose mean age was 49 years old. In this study a questionnaire was used including some questions about personal profile such as patient's name, address, registration number, age and some other factors. All patients who were candidated to enter in this investigation filled out the questionnaire at the end of radiation therapy. The patients were examined and their skin burning grades were evaluated by RTOG scale. Data were analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 11 software. Results: None of patients showed grades O or 4 of burning. 31.5 % of Patients showed grade 1, 64.5 % showed grade 2, 4 % showed grade 3 of burning. There was statistically significant correlation between posterior axillary field and skin burning and there wasnot any meaning between the other factors. Conclusion: It is necessary to pay more attention to posterior axillary field planning including field size, location, photon energy, depth and dose of treatment. Keywords: breast cancer, electron beam radiation therapy, skin burning

  13. Calmodulin antagonists promote TRA-8 therapy of resistant pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kaiyu; Yong, Sun; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Tong; McDonald, Jay M; Chen, Yabing

    2015-09-22

    Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with limited therapy and a poor prognosis. TRAIL-activating therapy has been promising, however, clinical trials have shown resistance and limited responses of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the effects of calmodulin(CaM) antagonists, trifluoperazine(TFP) and tamoxifen(TMX), on TRA-8-induced apoptosis and tumorigenesis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, and underlying mechanisms. TFP or TMX alone did not induce apoptosis of resistant PANC-1 cells, while they dose-dependently enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis. TMX treatment enhanced efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of TRA-8-induced death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC) identified recruitment of survival signals, CaM/Src, into DR5-associated DISC, which was inhibited by TMX/TFP. In contrast, TMX/TFP increased TRA-8-induced DISC recruitment/activation of caspase-8. Consistently, caspase-8 inhibition blocked the effects of TFP/TMX on TRA-8-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TFP/TMX induced DR5 expression. With a series of deletion/point mutants, we identified CaM antagonist-responsive region in the putative Sp1-binding domain between -295 to -300 base pairs of DR5 gene. Altogether, we have demonstrated that CaM antagonists enhance TRA-8-induced apoptosis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by increasing DR5 expression and enhancing recruitment of apoptotic signal while decreasing survival signals in DR5-associated DISC. Our studies support the use of these readily available CaM antagonists combined with TRAIL-activating agents for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  14. Salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David M; Canter, Daniel J; Jani, Ashesh B; Dobbs, Ryan W; Schuster, David M; Carthon, Bradley C; Rossi, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is widely utilized as primary therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. For patients who develop locally recurrent disease after EBRT, local salvage therapy may be indicated. The primary modalities for local salvage treatment in this setting include radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy. To date, there is little data describing outcomes and toxicity associated with each of these salvage modalities. A review of the literature was performed to identify studies of local salvage therapy for patients who had failed primary EBRT for localized prostate cancer. We focused on prospective trials and multi-institutional retrospective series in order to identify the highest level of evidence describing these therapies. The majority of reports describing the use of local salvage treatment for recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT are single-institution, retrospective reports, although small prospective studies are available for salvage cryotherapy and salvage brachytherapy. Clinical outcomes and toxicity for each modality vary widely across studies, which is likely due to the heterogeneity of patient populations, treatment techniques, and definitions of failure. In general, most studies demonstrate that local salvage therapy after EBRT may provide long-term local control in appropriately selected patients, although toxicity is often significant. As there are no randomized trials comparing salvage treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer recurrence after EBRT, the selection of a local treatment modality should be made on a patient-by-patient basis, with careful consideration of each patient's disease characteristics and tolerance for the risks of treatment. Additional data, ideally from prospective randomized trials, is needed to guide decision making for patients with local recurrence after EBRT failure.

  15. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  16. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  17. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire TM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tracy M McGuire, Christopher W Lee, Peter D Drummond School of Psychology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, are underlying comorbid disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment of PTSD has undergone further reviews with the introduction of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR. EMDR has been empirically demonstrated to be as efficacious as other specific PTSD treatments, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. There is emerging evidence that there are different processes underlying these two types of trauma treatment and some evidence that EMDR might have an efficiency advantage. Current research and understanding regarding the processes of EMDR and the future direction of EMDR is presented. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, eye movement desensitization, neurobiological, symptoms, treatment, comorbid

  18. Ion therapy for uveal melanoma in new human eye phantom based on GEANT4 toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdipour, Seyed Ali [Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mowlavi, Ali Asghar, E-mail: amowlavi@hsu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ICTP, Associate Federation Scheme, Medical Physics Field, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy with ion beams like proton and carbon has been used for treatment of eye uveal melanoma for many years. In this research, we have developed a new phantom of human eye for Monte Carlo simulation of tumors treatment to use in GEANT4 toolkit. Total depth−dose profiles for the proton, alpha, and carbon incident beams with the same ranges have been calculated in the phantom. Moreover, the deposited energy of the secondary particles for each of the primary beams is calculated. The dose curves are compared for 47.8 MeV proton, 190.1 MeV alpha, and 1060 MeV carbon ions that have the same range in the target region reaching to the center of tumor. The passively scattered spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) for each incident beam as well as the flux curves of the secondary particles including neutron, gamma, and positron has been calculated and compared for the primary beams. The high sharpness of carbon beam's Bragg peak with low lateral broadening is the benefit of this beam in hadrontherapy but it has disadvantages of dose leakage in the tail after its Bragg peak and high intensity of neutron production. However, proton beam, which has a good conformation with tumor shape owing to the beam broadening caused by scattering, can be a good choice for the large-size tumors.

  19. New Antibody Conjugates in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengulam V. Govindan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of radiation, drugs, and protein toxins to cancers selectively with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs has been a topic of considerable interest and an area of continued development. Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT of lymphoma using directly labeled MAbs is of current interest after approval of two radiolabeled anti-CD20 MAbs, as illustrated with the near 100% overall response rate obtained in a recent clinical trial using an investigational radiolabeled anti-CD22 MAb, 90Y-epratuzumab. The advantage of pretargeted RAIT over directly labeled MAbs is continuing to be validated in preclinical models of lymphoma and solid tumors. Importantly, the advantages of combining RAIT with radiation sensitizers, with immunotherapy, or a drug conjugate targeting a different antigen are being studied clinically and preclinically. The area of drug-conjugated antibodies is progressing with encouraging data published for the trastuzumab-DM1 conjugate in a phase I clinical trial in HER2-positive breast cancer. The Dock-and-Lock platform technology has contributed to the design and the evaluation of complex antibody-cytokine and antibody-toxin conjugates. This review describes the advances made in these areas, with illustrations taken from advances made in the authors' institutions.

  20. Replicating poxviruses for human cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manbok

    2015-04-01

    Naturally occurring oncolytic viruses are live, replication-proficient viruses that specifically infect human cancer cells while sparing normal cell counterparts. Since the eradication of smallpox in the 1970s with the aid of vaccinia viruses, the vaccinia viruses and other genera of poxviruses have shown various degrees of safety and efficacy in pre-clinical or clinical application for human anti-cancer therapeutics. Furthermore, we have recently discovered that cellular tumor suppressor genes are important in determining poxviral oncolytic tropism. Since carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving accumulation of both oncogene and tumor suppressor gene abnormalities, it is interesting that poxvirus can exploit abnormal cellular tumor suppressor signaling for its oncolytic specificity and efficacy. Many tumor suppressor genes such as p53, ATM, and RB are known to play important roles in genomic fidelity/maintenance. Thus, tumor suppressor gene abnormality could affect host genomic integrity and likely disrupt intact antiviral networks due to accumulation of genetic defects, which would in turn result in oncolytic virus susceptibility. This review outlines the characteristics of oncolytic poxvirus strains, including vaccinia, myxoma, and squirrelpox virus, recent progress in elucidating the molecular connection between oncogene/tumor suppressor gene abnormalities and poxviral oncolytic tropism, and the associated preclinical/clinical implications. I would also like to propose future directions in the utility of poxviruses for oncolytic virotherapy.

  1. Trial Watch:: Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Erbs, Philippe; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Preville, Xavier; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are natural or genetically modified viral species that selectively infect and kill neoplastic cells. Such an innate or exogenously conferred specificity has generated considerable interest around the possibility to employ oncolytic viruses as highly targeted agents that would mediate cancer cell-autonomous anticancer effects. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy is not a simple consequence of the cytopathic effect, but strongly relies on the induction of an endogenous immune response against transformed cells. In line with this notion, superior anticancer effects are being observed when oncolytic viruses are engineered to express (or co-administered with) immunostimulatory molecules. Although multiple studies have shown that oncolytic viruses are well tolerated by cancer patients, the full-blown therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, especially when implemented in the absence of immunostimulatory interventions, remains unclear. Here, we cover the latest advances in this active area of translational investigation, summarizing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and discussing clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy in oncological indications.

  2. Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydra, Robert John

    Despite recent advances, cancer remains the second leading cause of deaths in the United States. Magnetic nanoparticles have found various applications in cancer research as drug delivery platforms, enhanced contrast agents for improved diagnostic imaging, and the delivery of thermal energy as standalone therapy. Iron oxide nanoparticles absorb the energy from an alternating magnetic field and convert it into heat through Brownian and Neel relaxations. To better utilize magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, surface functionalization is essential for such factors as decreasing cytotoxicity of healthy tissue, extending circulation time, specific targeting of cancer cells, and manage the controlled delivery of therapeutics. In the first study, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The PEG coating was selected to prevent protein adsorption and thus improve circulation time and minimize host response to the nanoparticles. Thermal therapy application feasibility was demonstrated in vitro with a thermoablation study on lung carcinoma cells. Building on the thermal therapy demonstration with iron oxide nanoparticles, the second area of work focused on intracellular delivery. Nanoparticles can be appropriately tailored to enter the cell and deliver energy on the nanoscale eliminating individual cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of action is still under study, and we were interested in determining the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytically generated from the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in this measured cytotoxicity. When exposed to an AMF, the nanoscale heating effects are capable of enhancing the Fenton-like generation of ROS determined through a methylene blue degradation assay. To deliver this enhanced ROS effect to cells, monosaccharide coated nanoparticles were developed and successfully internalized by colon cancer cell lines. Upon AMF exposure, there was a measured increase in

  3. Targeted Alpha Therapy Approach to the Management of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross C. Smith

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the efficacy of targeted alpha therapy for the control of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models is reviewed. Results are given for in vitro pancreatic cancer cells and clusters and micro-metastatic cancer lesions in vivo. Two complementary targeting vectors are examined. These are the C595 monoclonal antibody that targets the MUC1 antigen and the PAI2 ligand that targets the uPA receptor. The expression of the tumor-associated antigen MUC-1 and the uPA receptor on three pancreatic cancer cell lines is reported for cell clusters, human mouse xenografts and lymph node metastases, as well as for human pancreatic cancer tissues, using immuno-histochemistry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The targeting vectors C595 and PAI2 were labeled with the alpha emitting radioisotope 213Bi using the chelators cDTPA and CHX-A″ to form the alpha-conjugates (AC. Cell clusters were incubated with the AC and examined at 48 hours. Apoptosis was documented using the TUNEL assay. In vivo, the anti-proliferative effect for tumors was tested at two days post-subcutaneous cell inoculation. Mice were injected with different concentrations of AC by local or systemic administration. Changes in tumor progression were assessed by tumor size. MUC-1 and uPA are strongly expressed on CFPAC-1, PANC-1 and moderate expression was found CAPAN-1 cell clusters and tumor xenografts. The ACs can target pancreatic cells and regress cell clusters (~100 µm diameter, causing apoptosis in some 70–90 % of cells. At two days post-cell inoculation in mice, a single local injection of 74 MBq/kg of AC causes complete inhibition of tumor growth. Systemic injections of 111, 222 and 333 MBq/kg of alpha-conjugate caused significant tumor growth delay in a dose dependent manner after 16 weeks, compared with the non-specific control at 333 MBq/kg. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTS and TUNEL assays. The C595 and PAI2-alpha conjugates are indicated for the treatment of

  4. Targeted Alpha Therapy Approach to the Management of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J., E-mail: barry.allen@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M.; Qu, Chang F. [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah, 2217 (Australia); Smith, Ross C. [Cancer Surgery Laboratory, Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2011-04-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of targeted alpha therapy for the control of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models is reviewed. Results are given for in vitro pancreatic cancer cells and clusters and micro-metastatic cancer lesions in vivo. Two complementary targeting vectors are examined. These are the C595 monoclonal antibody that targets the MUC1 antigen and the PAI2 ligand that targets the uPA receptor. The expression of the tumor-associated antigen MUC-1 and the uPA receptor on three pancreatic cancer cell lines is reported for cell clusters, human mouse xenografts and lymph node metastases, as well as for human pancreatic cancer tissues, using immuno-histochemistry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The targeting vectors C595 and PAI2 were labeled with the alpha emitting radioisotope {sup 213}Bi using the chelators cDTPA and CHX-A″ to form the alpha-conjugates (AC). Cell clusters were incubated with the AC and examined at 48 hours. Apoptosis was documented using the TUNEL assay. In vivo, the anti-proliferative effect for tumors was tested at two days post-subcutaneous cell inoculation. Mice were injected with different concentrations of AC by local or systemic administration. Changes in tumor progression were assessed by tumor size. MUC-1 and uPA are strongly expressed on CFPAC-1, PANC-1 and moderate expression was found CAPAN-1 cell clusters and tumor xenografts. The ACs can target pancreatic cells and regress cell clusters (∼100 μm diameter), causing apoptosis in some 70–90 % of cells. At two days post-cell inoculation in mice, a single local injection of 74 MBq/kg of AC causes complete inhibition of tumor growth. Systemic injections of 111, 222 and 333 MBq/kg of alpha-conjugate caused significant tumor growth delay in a dose dependent manner after 16 weeks, compared with the non-specific control at 333 MBq/kg. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTS and TUNEL assays. The C595 and PAI2-alpha conjugates are indicated for the treatment of micro

  5. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Tracy M; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, are underlying comorbid disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment of PTSD has undergone further reviews with the introduction of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been empirically demonstrated to be as efficacious as other specific PTSD treatments, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. There is emerging evidence that there are different processes underlying these two types of trauma treatment and some evidence that EMDR might have an efficiency advantage. Current research and understanding regarding the processes of EMDR and the future direction of EMDR is presented.

  6. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  7. Exosomes: Some approaches to cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtam, T.; Samsonov, R.; Kamyshinsky, R.; Pantina, R.; Verlov, N.; Vasiliev, A.; Konevega, A. L.; Malek, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are membrane-bound, intercellular communication shuttle vesicles that are defined by their endocytic origin and size range of 30-120 nm. Secreted by nearly all mammalian cell types and present in bodily fluids, exosomes confer messages between cells, by transporting functionally relevant proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The capability of tumor exosomes to house tumorigenic information and induce cellular responses that promote disease pathogenesis make tumor exosomes an attractive tool in identifying cancer biomarkers and exploiting exosomes for therapy. In this paper, we sum up our previous findings to utilize exosomes as biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis and therapy selection of prostate and thyroid cancer and present our results on exosomes in colon cancer. Some of plasma exosomal miRNAs showed their potential as diagnostic markers for colon cancer. All together, the data suggested the potentials of circulating exosomal miRNAs as liquid biopsy markers for cancer. Here we also present the possibilities of delivering therapeutic molecules by exosomes. Previously, we had demonstrated the potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery. Here, we present the possibility of carrying the exogenous p53 protein by exosomes in vitro.

  8. Therapy processes, progress, and outcomes for 2 therapies for gynecological cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Kashy, Deborah A; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Morgan, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Although a number of effective psychotherapies have been identified for cancer patients, little is known about therapy processes, as they unfold the course of treatment and the role of therapy processes in treatment outcome. We used growth curve modeling to evaluate the associations between therapy processes and outcomes among gynecological cancer patients participating in 2 types of therapy. Two hundred twenty five women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer were randomly assigned to receive 8 sessions of a coping and communication intervention or a client-centered supportive therapy. Participants completed measures of preintervention and postintervention depression, working alliance after Session 2, and postsession progress and depressive symptoms after each session. Therapists completed measures of perceived patient progress. Both patients and therapists reported a steady increase in session progress and patients reported a steady decrease in depressive symptoms over the course of both the coping and communication intervention and client-centered supportive sessions. Perceived progress in one session predicted progress in the subsequent session. Early working alliance predicted improved session progress and reductions in postsession depressive symptoms over sessions. Working alliance did not predict prepost treatment changes in depression. Patient-rated session progress predicted greater reductions in pretreatment to posttreatment depression, but therapist-rated progress did not. For 2 types of treatment delivered to women diagnosed with gynecological cancer, patient-rated session progress and depressive symptoms rated over therapy sessions may serve as a yardstick that can be useful to therapists to gauge patient's response to treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Gene Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Specificity, Issues and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Rouanet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent death projection has placed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as the second cause of death by cancer in 2030. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is very poor and there is a great need for new treatments that can change this poor outcome. Developments of therapeutic innovations in combination with conventional chemotherapy are needed urgently. Among innovative treatments the gene therapy offers a promising avenue. The present review gives an overview of the general strategy of gene therapy as well as the limitations and stakes of the different experimental in vivo models, expression vectors (synthetic and viral, molecular tools (interference RNA, genome editing and therapeutic genes (tumor suppressor genes, antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic genes, suicide genes. The latest developments in pancreatic carcinoma gene therapy are described including gene-based tumor cell sensitization to chemotherapy, vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy (chimeric antigen receptor T-cells strategy. Nowadays, there is a specific development of oncolytic virus therapies including oncolytic adenoviruses, herpes virus, parvovirus or reovirus. A summary of all published and on-going phase-1 trials is given. Most of them associate gene therapy and chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy. The first results are encouraging for most of the trials but remain to be confirmed in phase 2 trials.

  10. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  11. HIFU as a Neoadjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P.; Xing, F.; Huang, X.; Zhu, H.; Lo, H. W.; Zhong, X.; Pruitt, S.; Robertson, C.

    2011-09-01

    To broaden the application spectrum of HIFU in cancer therapy, we performed a pilot experiment to evaluate the potential of using HIFU as a neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Mice bearing wild-type B16F10 melanoma inoculated subcutaneously were either untreated (control) or treated by HIFU, CPA-7 or HIFU+CPA-7 before surgical resection of the primary tumor two days after HIFU treatment. The animals were then followed for four weeks or up to the humane endpoint to determine local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival rate. The results demonstrate that animals treated by HIFU+CPA-7 (which is a small molecule that suppresses STAT3 activity) had a significantly lower recurrence rate, and slower growth of the recurrent tumor, with concomitantly higher survival rate, followed by those treated with CPA-7 and HIFU, respectively. Immunological assays revealed that CPA-7 treatment could significantly lower STAT3, and subsequently, Treg activities. In particular, the combination of HIFU and CPA-7 can induce a much stronger anti-tumor immune response than HIFU or surgery alone, as assessed by CTL and IFN-γ secretion. Overall, our results suggest that HIFU in combination with immunotherapy strategies has the potential to be used as a neoadjuvant therapy to prime the host with a strong anti-tumor immune response before surgical resection of the primary tumor. This multimodality, combinational therapy has the potential to greatly broaden the range of HIFU applications in cancer therapy with lower tumor recurrence and improved survival rate.

  12. [Multidisciplinary tailoring of therapy of metastatic colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Pia; Isoniemi, Helena; Scheinin, Tom; Ristimäki, Ari; Lantto, Eila

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of colon cancer requires multidisciplinary team work. The multitude of therapies in metastatic colon cancer have led to longer overall survival with fewer symptoms. Median survival has increased from 5 months with the best supportive care to 30-40 months in randomized studies, even with curative treatment in some patients. Tailoring of the treatment is best done by a multidisciplinary team considering radiotherapy and operation of the primary tumor, resection of liver, lung and peritoneal metastases, medical treatment alternatives, palliative care, ablative methods etc. Without skillful surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, geneticists, radiologists etc. the best treatment opportunities may be missed.

  13. Targeting p53-MDM2-MDMX Loop for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zeng, Shelya X.; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in anti-tumorigenesis and cancer therapy. It has been described as “the guardian of the genome”, because it is essential for conserving genomic stability by preventing mutation, and its mutation and inactivation are highly related to all human cancers. Two important p53 regulators, MDM2 and MDMX, inactivate p53 by directly inhibiting its transcriptional activity and mediating its ubiquitination in a feedback fashion, as their genes are also the tr...

  14. Headway in resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Sun, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is the major problem for ERα(+) breast cancer patients. Research in endocrine resistance, mainly based on breast cancer cell lines and transplantation animal models, has indicated that phosphorylation of estrogen receptors, high expression of SRC and high activation of ErbB/MAPK pathway are the 3 main mechanisms for occurrence of endocrine resistance. Restoration of ER expression and exploration of inhibitors to various biological targets are the 2 promising ways to solve this problem. Further research is needed to deeply explore relevant mechanisms and resolvents so as to guide clinical practice.

  15. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy in laryngeal part of pharynx cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Trojan, Vasily; Loukatch, Vjacheslav

    1996-12-01

    In clinic intraoperative photodynamic therapy (IPT) was done in patients with primal squamous cells cancer of the laryngeal part of the pharynx. The He-Ne laser and methylene blue as a photosensibilizator were used. Cobalt therapy in the postoperative period was done in dose 45 Gr. Patients of control groups (1-th group) with only laser and (2-th group) only methylene blue were controlled during three years with the main group. The statistics show certain differences of recidives in the main group compared to the control groups. These facts are allowing us to recommend the use of IPT as an additional method in ENT-oncology diseases treatment.

  16. The ratio of cancer cells to stroma after induction therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masaki; Naito, Masahito; Saruwatari, Koichi; Hisakane, Kakeru; Kojima, Motohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Nomura, Shogo; Aokage, Keiju; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Yokoi, Kohei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ishii, Genichiro

    2017-02-01

    Induction therapy induces degenerative changes of various degrees in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of induction therapy on histological characteristics, in particular the ratio of residual cancer cells to non-cancerous components, is unknown. Seventy-four NSCLC patients treated with induction therapy followed by surgery were enrolled. Residual cancer cells were identified using anti-pan-cytokeratin antibody (AE1/AE3). We analyzed and quantified the following three factors via digital image analysis; (1) the tumor area containing cancer cells and non-cancerous components (TA), (2) the total area of AE1/AE3 positive cancer cells (TACC), (3) the percentage of TACC to TA (%TACC). These factors were also analyzed in a matched control group (surgery alone, n = 80). The median TACC of the induction therapy group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p induction therapy group (5.9 %) was significantly lower than that of the control group (58.6 %) (p induction therapy group. Conversely, TACC had a strong positive correlation with %TACC in the induction therapy group (r = 0.95), but not in the control group. Unlike the control group, the smaller the total area of residual cancer cells, the higher residual tumor contained non-cancerous components in the induction group, which may be the characteristic histological feature of NSCLC after induction therapy.

  17. Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dahir, DNP, IF

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers‐Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15.

  18. Trial watch: Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term "oncolytic viruses" is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called "oncotropic viruses" in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy.

  19. [Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcollet, Anne; Doridot, Virginie; Nos, Claude

    2004-04-30

    The combination of lumpectomy, axillary node treatment and radiotherapy of the breast is the base of breast-conserving therapy. This combination of surgery and radiotherapy is now accepted as a standard treatment option for unifocal, non inflammatory lesion less than 3 cm. The widespread use of mammography to detect infraclinic breast carcinoma leads to a significant increase in the proportion of breast conserving treatment. Neoadjuvant therapeutics (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy) can extend the standard indication to breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm. The standard definition is also modified by sentinel node biopsy, oncoplastic techniques and stereotactic surgery with satisfactory cosmetic results. The risk of local recurrence, particularly the margins, must be evaluated whatever the surgical treatment optimizing oncologic management.

  20. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  1. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  2. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for personality disorders in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielkens, E M J; Sobczak, S; Van Alphen, S P J

    2016-10-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a kind of psychotherapy, which is growing in popularity, particularly for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When Shapiro first introduced EMDR in 1989, it was approached as a controversial treatment because of lack of evidence. However, nowadays there is growing evidence for EMDR efficacy in PTSD (Mc Guire et al., 2014) and EMDR is recommended by international and national treatment guidelines for PTSD. Moreover, EMDR is also used for the treatment of other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorders (De Jongh et al., 2002). Furthermore, research continues on effects of EMDR in addiction, somatoform disorders and psychosis. So far, there is no empirical research on the efficacy of EMDR treatment in older adults.

  4. PSMA PET and radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most common malignancy in men and a major cause of cancer death. Accurate imaging plays an important role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, detection of biochemical recurrence, and for therapy of PCa patients. Since no effective treatment is available for advanced PCa, there is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies. In order to optimize treatment outcome, especially in high risk PCa patients, therapy of PCa is moving rapidly towards personalization. Medical imaging, including positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), plays an important role in personalized medicine in oncology. In the recent years, much focus has been on prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a promising target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides, since it is upregulated in most PCa. In the prostate, one potential role for PSMA PET imaging is to help guiding focal therapy. Several studies have shown great potential of PSMA PET/CT for initial staging, lymph node staging, and detection of recurrence of PCa, even at very low PSA values after primary therapy. Furthermore, studies have shown that PSMA PET/CT has a higher detection rate than choline PET/CT. Radiolabeled PSMA ligands for therapy show promise in several studies with metastatic PCa, and is an area of active investigation. The “Image and treat” strategy, with radiolabeled PSMA ligands, has the potential to improve the treatment outcome of PCa patients, and is paving the way for precision medicine in PCa. The aim of this review is to give an overview of recent advancement in PSMA PET and radionuclide therapy of PCa. PMID:27825432

  5. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  6. Improving Outcomes for Esophageal Cancer using Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuong, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yu, Jen; Badiyan, Shahed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Merrell, Kenneth W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with proton beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT.

  7. Potential of Epigenetic Therapies in Non-cancerous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eYung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of knowledge in the epigenetics field in the past 20 years. The first epigenetic therapies have arrived in the clinic for cancer treatments. In contrast, much of the promise of epigenetic therapies for non-cancerous conditions remains in the laboratories. The current review will focus on the recent progress that has been made in understanding the pathogenic role of epigenetics in immune and inflammatory conditions, and how the knowledge may provide much needed new therapeutic targets for many autoimmune diseases. Dietary factors are increasingly recognized as potential modifiers of epigenetic marks that can influence health and diseases across generations. The current epigenomics revolution will almost certainly complement the explosion of personal genetics medicine to help guide treatment decisions and disease risk stratification.

  8. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: Current and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies. PMID:25320509

  9. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-10-14

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies.

  10. [Field cancerization and field therapy - the therapy of actinic keratosis by imiquimod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idezuki, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    Field cancerization is a phenomenon in which multiple cancers easily occur on a specific area by carcinogens such as alcohol or ultraviolet rays. Deficiency of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 increases the level of formaldehyde when drinking, and is considered an important factor for causing middle or lower pharyngeal cancer and esophageal cancer. Multiple actinic keratoses frequently occur both in synchronism or asynchronism on elderly people as a consequence of cumulative ultraviolet exposure. Field therapy, the regional overall treatment of actinic keratosis which takes place on the same field, is made possible by external use of imiquimod cream. Imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier which is effective through toll-like receptor 7, and it has fewer recurrences of actinic keratoses than the existing treatment.

  11. Targeted Therapies in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marmé, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease comprised of several biologically distinct subtypes. However, treatment is currently mainly relying on chemotherapy as there are no targeted therapies specifically approved for TNBC. Despite initial responses to chemotherapy, resistance frequently and rapidly develops and metastatic TNBC has a poor prognosis. New targeted approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Currently, bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial gr...

  12. Intrahepatic therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    De Groote, Kerlijne; Prenen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, the liver is the most common site of metastatic disease. In patients with liver-dominant disease, consideration needs to be given to locoregional treatments such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolisation and selective internal radiation therapy because hepatic metastases are a major cause of liver failure especially in chemorefractory disease. In this review we provide insights on the published literature for loco...

  13. Genetically Engineered Autologous Cells for Antiangiogenic Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Thus, diseases such as cancer, hemophilia , growth or other hormone deficiency. and all diseases 7 amenable to therapeutic plasma protein delivery...were washed and acquired using a FACS Calibur flow cytometer (BD Immunocytometry systems) and analyzed with Cellquest software. Marrow Stroma...Pharm. 221: 1-22. 17. Lu, D.R., et al. (1993). Stage I clinical trial of gene therapy for hemophilia B. Science in China - Series B, Chemistry, Life

  14. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mads Hald Andersen; Niels Junker; Eva Ellebaek; Inge Marie Svane; Per thor Straten

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination with chemotherapy may lead to improved clinical efficacy by clearing suppressor cells, reboot of the immune system, by rendering tumor cells more susceptible to immune mediated killing, or by activation o...

  15. Progress in emerging therapies for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudard, Stéphane

    2013-05-01

    The landscape of prostate cancer treatment is rapidly changing as extensive research into potential therapies yields new options. In this article, the literature is reviewed to identify emerging therapies for advanced prostate cancer. Emphasis is placed on agents that have been approved in the United States of America (USA) and the European Union, or that have reached phase III clinical studies. Several new therapies have been approved in recent years across different stages of the natural history of the disease. Degarelix, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist, has been approved for reducing testosterone to castrate levels in hormone-sensitive disease. No new agents have been approved for use in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy, the current standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. One immunotherapy, sipuleucel-T, has been approved (USA only) in the pre-docetaxel setting. Cabazitaxel, a next-generation taxane, and abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, have both been approved as second-line agents following chemotherapy. Enzalutamide (MDV3100), an androgen receptor antagonist, has been shown to increase overall survival in the post-chemotherapy setting in metastatic disease. Denosumab, an antibody-based bone-targeted agent, has been approved for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases. Radium-223 chloride, an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical, is likely to gain approval soon following promising results in a phase III trial. Clinical studies involving other promising agents are ongoing. The emergence of these therapies adds to the growing armamentarium against prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Race and ethnicity in cancer therapy: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, C; Phelps, M A; Villalona-Calero, M A

    2014-04-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the pathogenesis of common malignancies and outcomes from treatment remain a major health concern. Factors attributed to these disparities include differences in lifestyle, environment, genetics, and tumor biology. As we strive to personalize cancer therapy, it will be imperative that we understand the relative contributions of each factor so that we may apply this knowledge in choosing the best treatment for each individual, regardless of his or her racial or ethnic heritage.

  17. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A multiple baseline across subjects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, E.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Jongh, A. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. METHODS: One child and one

  18. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Child and an Adolescent with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Baseline across Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria…

  19. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  20. Modern Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Outcomes in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Hwang, Lindsay; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Einck, John P.; Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Parikh, Sahil A. [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy, which has proven benefit against breast cancer, has historically been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Modern techniques have reduced this risk, but a detailed evaluation has not recently been conducted. The present study evaluated the effect of current radiation practices on ischemia-related cardiac events and procedures in a population-based study of older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,102 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Medicare claims were used to identify the radiation therapy and cardiac outcomes. Competing risk models were used to assess the effect of radiation on these outcomes. Results: Patients with left-sided breast cancer had a small increase in their risk of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after radiation therapy—the 10-year cumulative incidence for these patients was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9%-6.2%) and 4.5% (95% CI 4.0%-5.0%) for right-sided patients. This risk was limited to women with previous cardiac disease. For patients who underwent PCI, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 2.02 (95% CI 1.23-3.34). No other outcome, including cardiac mortality for the entire cohort, showed a significant relationship with tumor laterality. Conclusions: For women with a history of cardiac disease, those with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiation therapy had increased rates of PCI and a survival decrement if treated with PCI. The results of the present study could help cardiologists and radiation oncologists better stratify patients who need more aggressive cardioprotective techniques.