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Sample records for exudates cotton wool

  1. Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-02-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

  2. Automated Detection and Differentiation of Drusen, Exudates, and Cotton-Wool Spots in Digital Color Fundus Photographs for Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Russel, S.R.; Suttorp-Schulten, M.S.A.; Abràmoff, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    purpose. To describe and evaluate a machine learning-based, automated system to detect exudates and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs and differentiate them from drusen, for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. methods. Three hundred retinal images from one eye of 300

  3. Automated Detection and Differentiation of Drusen, Exudates, and Cotton-wool Spots in Digital Color Fundus Photographs for Early Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy IOVS-06-0996 accepted version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Russell, Stephen R.; Suttorp-Schulten, Maria S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe and evaluate a machine learning based, automated system to detect exudates and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs, and differentiate them from drusen, for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Three hundred retinal images from one eye of three hundred patients with diabetes were selected from a diabetic retinopathy telediagnosis database (non-mydriatic camera two field photography); 100 with previously diagnosed ‘bright’ lesions, and 200 without. A machine learning computer program was developed that can identify and differentiate among drusen, (hard) exudates, and cotton-wool spots. A human expert standard for the 300 images was obtained by consensus annotation by two retinal specialists. Sensitivities and specificities of the annotations on the 300 images by the automated system and a third retinal specialist were determined. Results The system achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.95 and sensitivity/specificity pairs of 0.95/0.88 for the detection of ‘bright’ lesions of any type, and 0.95/0.86, 0.70/0.93 and 0.77/0.88 for the detection of exudates, cotton-wool spots and drusen, respectively. The third retinal specialist achieved pairs of 0.95/0.74 for ‘bright’ lesions, and 0.90/0.98, 0.87/0.98 and 0.92/0.79 per lesion type. Conclusions An machine learning based, automated system capable of detecting exudates and cotton-wool spots and differentiating them from drusen in color images obtained in community based diabetic patients has been developed and approaches the performance level of that of retinal experts. If the machine learning can be improved with additional training datasets, it may be useful to detect clinically important ‘bright’ lesions, enhance early diagnosis and reduce suffering from visual loss in patients with diabetes. PMID:17460289

  4. Recovery of protein from urine specimens collected in cotton wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Taylor, C M

    1992-01-01

    Cotton wool balls have been used to aid the collection of urine from infants. Concentrations of two urinary proteins, albumin and retinol binding protein, decreased by 40 and 80% respectively within 15 minutes of contact with the cotton wool. Cotton wool balls should not be used when investigating proteinuria. PMID:1489230

  5. A review of the processing of wool and wool blends on the short staple (Cotton) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erdursun, HH

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available PUBLICATION A REVIEW OF THE PROCESSING OF WOOL AND WOOL BLENDS ON THE SHORT STAPLE (COTTON) SYSTEM by H. H. ERDURSUN and L. HUNTER INTRODUCfION The past decade witnessed a growing interest in the processing of wool on the short staple (cotton) system...% and woollen for 5% of the total. It bas also been stated' that the explosive growth of textile production in Asian (and African) countries favours short staple type machinery and that the Americanb trend towards new spinning plants has become predominantly...

  6. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kopsachilis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication.

  7. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Brar, Manpreet; Marinescu, Anca I. C.; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2013-01-01

    Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication. PMID:23772127

  8. New finishing possibilities for producing durable multifunctional cotton/wool and viscose/wool blended fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; El-Zairy, M R; Eid, B M; El-Zairy, E M R; Emam, E M

    2015-03-30

    This research work focuses on the development of a one-bath functional finishing procedure for imparting durable multifunctional properties such as easy care, soft-hand, antibacterial and/or ultra violet (UV) protection to cotton/wool and viscose/wool blends using diverse finishing combinations and formulations. In this study finishing agents such as reactant resin, silicon softeners, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, triclosan, and pigment colorant were selected using magnesium chloride/citric acid as a mixed catalyst and the pad-dry microwave fixation technique. The results reveal that enhancement in the imparted functional properties are governed by type of the finished substrate as well as nature and concentration of finishing formulation components. The finished fabrics still retained high level of functionalities even after 15 consecutive laundering. Surface morphology and composition of selected samples were investigated using scan electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The mode of interactions was also investigated. Practical applications for multifunctionlization of cellulose/wool blended fabrics are possible using these sorts of proper finishing formulations and unique finishing application method.

  9. Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2μm and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material.

  10. Washing off intensification of cotton and wool fabrics by ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, R; Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Rehman, S; Sicardi, S; Rovero, G

    2015-03-01

    Wet textile washing processes were set up for wool and cotton fabrics to evaluate the potential of ultrasound transducers (US) in improving dirt removal. The samples were contaminated with an emulsion of carbon soot in vegetable oil and aged for three hours in fan oven. Before washing, the fabrics were soaked for 3 min in a standard detergent solution and subsequently washed in a water bath. The dirt removal was evaluated through colorimetric measurements. The total color differences ΔE of the samples were measured with respect to an uncontaminated fabric, before and after each washing cycle. The percentage of ΔE variation obtained was calculated and correlated to the dirt removal. The results showed that the US transducers enhanced the dirt removal and temperature was the parameter most influencing the US efficiency on the cleaning process. Better results were obtained at a lower process temperature.

  11. Root exudates of transgenic cotton and their effects on Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-gang; Wei, Qin; Liu, Biao; Alam, Mohammad-Saiful; Wang, Xing-xiang; Shen, Wenjing; Han, Zheng-min

    2013-01-01

    The components of the root exudates from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton lines and their parental cotton lines, and their effects on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. The results demonstrated that the resistance of transgenic insect-resistant cotton to F. oxysporum was significantly reduced compared with their parental lines. Likewise, the root exudates from transgenic insect-resistant cotton significantly promoted the spore germination and mycelial growth of cotton F. oxysporum. The types of compounds found in the root exudates of transgenic insect-resistant cotton were similar to those of the parental cotton, but the composition and relative content of the compounds were different. The type and content of the fatty acids and esters were significantly reduced in the root exudates of the transgenic insect-resistant cotton, as were certain specific materials, whereas several alkanes were increased. The inhibition of the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum caused by the root exudates from the transgenic insect-resistant cotton was decreased compared with the parental cotton. This result provides a scientific basis for the decline in disease resistance in transgenic insect-resistant cotton.

  12. The mechanisms of vision loss associated with a cotton wool spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Toco YP; Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur; Burns, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized the perceptual, functional, and structural abnormalities associated with retinal ischemia during a cotton wool spot episode and its sequelae. The border of the visually salient field anomaly mirrored the quantitatively measured relative scotoma. Results of resolution perimetry and high resolution imaging indicated that there was a substantial loss of retinal ganglion cells within the affected region. A disruption in retinal nerve fiber arrangement was found at the cotton wool spot and within the arcuate relative scotoma. The presence of the arcuate relative scotoma is consistent with the hypothesis of failed signal transmission along the axons that pass through the cotton wool spot. The different levels of loss associated with the arcuate and focal scotomas indicate different underlying pathologies. PMID:19703485

  13. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  14. Cotton-wool spots and retinal light sensitivity in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, T; Lund-Andersen, H

    1991-01-01

    In 14 eyes of 14 patients with diabetic retinopathy the light sensitivity of retinal cotton-wool spots was studied by computerised perimetry, and the visual field data were accurately correlated with the corresponding morphology as seen on fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms. In 12 of the eyes the examinations were repeated within one year in order to follow changes in retinal light sensitivity during the evolution of the lesions. Retinal cotton-wool spots were in all eyes associated with localised non-arcuate scotomata in the visual field. In four eyes the cotton-wool spots disappeared within three months of the first examination, and in two of these cases the corresponding scotomata disappeared together with the morphological lesions. In eight eyes the cotton-wool spots (and the corresponding scotomata) had not resolved one year after the first examination. The mean blood pressure showed no significant difference between the patients in whom the lesions resolved within three months and the patients in whom the lesions persisted longer. Images PMID:1991079

  15. Respiratory disorders and atopy in cotton, wool, and other textile mill workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O F; Juul, S; Gravesen, S

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of respiratory disorders and atopy in Danish textile industry workers was conducted to survey respiratory symptoms throughout the textile industry, to estimate the association of these disorders with atopy, and to study dose-response relationships within the cotton industry. Workers at cotton mills, a wool mill, and a man-made fiber (MMF) mill were examined. Four hundred nine (90%) of the 445 workers participated in this survey, i.e., 253, 62, and 94 workers at the cotton mills, the wool mill, and the MMF mill, respectively. An interview designed to assess the prevalence of common respiratory and allergic symptoms was given to all workers willing to participate, and blood samples were drawn. Lung function measurements determined a baseline FEV1, FVC and the change in FEV1 and FVC during work hours on a Monday. The working environment was examined for dust, bacteria, endotoxins, and molds, and the exposure was estimated for each participant. The mean personal samples of airborne respirable dust and respirable endotoxin were highest in the cotton industry, i.e., 0.17-0.50 mg/m3 and 9.0-126 ng/m3 respectively, whereas mold spores were found in the highest concentrations in the wool mill: 280-791 colony-forming units (cfu)/m3. Only small concentrations of microorganisms were found in the MMF mill. The mean change in FEV1% and FVC% was greatest among atopic individuals in both cotton and wool industry and other textile industries although the differences were not significant. FEV1% and FVC% in the cotton workers were significantly associated with the cumulative exposure to respirable endotoxin. Byssinosis was diagnosed only in the cotton industry. We found a dose-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and byssinosis, and a significant association between A-1-A serum concentrations less than or equal to 35 mumol/liter and byssinosis, a finding we are further evaluating in subsequent studies.

  16. Imaging of long-term retinal damage after resolved cotton wool spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Maria Laura; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients develop non-infectious retinopathy characterized by retinal cotton wool spots (CWS) and micro vascular abnormalities. Ophthalmoscopically CWS fade with time. We hypothesized that structural changes should be permanent and possibly visible well after ophthalmoscopic resolution. We used simultaneous spectral domain optical coherence tomography/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SD-OCT/SLO) to allow co-localization of the lesions and determine the extent and location of residual damage after ophthalmoscopic resolution of the lesions. Design Retrospective, non-interventional case series. Participants Eight eyes of seven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with nineteen resolved retinal cotton wool spots. Methods Nineteen retinal cotton wool spots were imaged between 2 and 16 (median 7.84) years after the acute lesions using simultaneous SD-OCT and scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) examinations. The areas of the previous CWS were scanned by overlaying the color retinal image over the SLO image and scanning at high resolution in the horizontal plane thru the resolved lesion. Each CWS lesion had a control area taken from the same eye within 2 disc diameters of the lesion. The thickness of each of the retinal layers was compared between lesions and control areas using a paired t-test using multi-test correction. Main Outcome Measures Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer nuclear (ONL) layers. Results The largest loss of thickness was seen in the retinal GCL with a 43% reduction in thickness. There was a statistically significant thinning of the retinal NFL, GCL, IPL, INL and OPL. The median thickness differences ranged from 5 to 7 microns. This difference was highly statistically significant. Another striking finding was the displacement of the ONL towards the retinal surface

  17. Why cotton wool spots should not be regarded as retinal nerve fibre layer infarcts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, D

    2005-01-01

    Cotton wool spots (CWSs) comprise localised accumulations of axoplasmic debris within adjacent bundles of unmyelinated ganglion cell axons. Their formation is widely held to reflect focal ischaemia from terminal arteriolar occlusion, but credible evidence supporting this view is lacking. CWSs are here purported to be nothing more than sentinels of retinal nerve fibre layer pathology, hence their recommended redesignation “cotton wool sentinels.” After branch arteriolar occlusion, CWSs evolve as boundary sentinels of infarction, their uniform width suggesting a glial constraint to axonal expansion. In pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, CWSs form a C-shaped chain nasal to the disc and around the macula where they constitute sentinels of ischaemia affecting the entire retinal mid-periphery. The polymorphous CWSs evolving during acute panretinal hypoperfusion represent sentinels of an ischaemic penumbra. Those surrounding the disc in Purtscher’s traumatic angiopathy are sentinels of neuronal damage from transient venous hyperdistension that overwhelms the protection afforded by peripapillary axonal decompartmentalisation. PMID:15665358

  18. Modelling the effect of temperature on specific death rate of the micro-flora of raw cotton wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Opara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton wool for use in medicine must be sterilized and heat treatment is the most common sterilization technique for bulk processing of agricultural materials. Modelling the effect of temperature variations on specific death rate of the micro-flora of raw cotton wool was carried out in this project. The raw cotton wool was collected from a farmer in Kano State, the most important cotton wool producing state of Nigeria. The micro-flora was determined by inoculating and incubating with 0.85% NaCl diluents and the number of bacteria determined by plate count method. As the sterilization temperatures were varied with increased time, the thermal death rates and thermal death time of the micro-flora were determined for each temperature and these was used in the modelling. The model lnK = 83.9 – 34190(1/T shows that the sterilization temperature has a linear relationship with the death rate constant and it is in line with Arrhenius model.

  19. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  20. Bilateral cystoid macular oedema and cotton wool spots associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Mathews, Divya

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a male patient having bilateral cystoid macular oedema and cotton wool spots associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. He presented with decreased vision bilaterally measuring 0.2 (6/9.5) on the right and 0.5 (6/19) on the left. He has chronic hypertension with blood pressure averaging 150/90. His blood pressure was raised at 180/110 and with treatment reduced to 164/99. There were no other signs of malignant hypertensive retinopathy. He was treated with oral prednisolone and noticed a significant improvement the following day. An objective measurement performed 2 days later was −0.10 (6/4.8) bilaterally with resolution of macular oedema. PMID:23933864

  1. Preparation of Cotton-Wool-Like Poly(lactic acid-Based Composites Consisting of Core-Shell-Type Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, we reported the fabrication of cotton-wool-like composites consisting of siloxane-doped vaterite and poly(l-lactic acid (SiVPCs. Various irregularly shaped bone voids can be filled with the composite, which effectively supplies calcium and silicate ions, enhancing the bone formation by stimulating the cells. The composites, however, were brittle and showed an initial burst release of ions. In the present work, to improve the mechanical flexibility and ion release, the composite fiber was coated with a soft, thin layer consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to prepare a cotton-wool-like material comprising “core-shell”-type fibers with a diameter of ~12 µm. The fibers, which consisted of SiVPC coated with a ~2-µm-thick PLGA layer, were mechanically flexible; even under a uniaxial compressive load of 1.5 kPa, the cotton-wool-like material did not exhibit fracture of the fibers and, after removing the load, showed a ~60% recovery. In Tris buffer solution, the initial burst release of calcium and silicate ions from the “core-shell”-type fibers was effectively controlled, and the ions were slowly released after one day. Thus, the mechanical flexibility and ion-release behavior of the composites were drastically improved by the thin PLGA coating.

  2. A Used Ball of Cotton Wool as a Source of Nosocomially-Acquired Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement lbi Mboto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: An error involving the reuse of the same ball of cotton wool in stopping blood flow after venous blood collection from five antenatal women prompted further investigation and follow-up studies to rule out nosocomially- acquired blood borne viruses.Methods: The five women were screened for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA /kits Murex HIV-1,2,0 (Murex Biotech, UK; ORTHO HCV 3.0 ELISA Test kit (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA; and QUADRATECH CHECK 4-HBs one-step generation test kit (VEDALAB, France respectively. The tests were repeated in 2005 on the five women, their husbands and twenty children, aged nine months to seven years borne by all the women within the period.Anti-HCV was detected in one out of the five women at the initial stage of the error (1997. No anti-HIV or HBsAg was found in any of the women. A repeat screening for anti-HIV, anti-HCV and HBsAg carried out seven years later (2005 on the five women, their husbands and twenty children aged nine months to seven years borne by all the women within the seven years revealed an HCV sero-conversion in two additional women. No anti-HCV or anti-HIV nor HBsAg was detected in any of the women, their spouses or their 20 offspring.Results: Anti-HCV was detected in one out of the five women at the initial stage of the error (1997. No anti-HIV or HBsAg was detected in any of the women. A repeat re-evaluation revealed an HCV sero-conversion in two additional women. No anti-HCV or anti-HIV nor HBsAg was detected in any of the women, their spouses or any of their 20 screened offspring. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the nosocomial transmission of HCV through the use of a contaminated ball of cotton wool. It also confirms the poor efficiency of sexual and vertical transmission of HCV and calls for improved hospital facilities and the use

  3. Quantitative prediction of cotton and wool mixture materials by BP neural network and NIR spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Li

    2010-07-01

    An approach of using near infrared spectroscopy combined with BP neural network method was investigated for the prediction of fibre contents of textile mixture materials. The near infrared spectra of 56 textile mixture samples with different cotton and wool contents were obtained, in which 41 samples were used for the calibration set, 10 samples were used for the validation set, while 5 for the prediction set. The wavelet transform (WT) was utilized for the spectra data compression, which combined with BP neural network (BP) was specially introduced. According to the standards of absolute error (AE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE), a calibration model of WT-ca3-BP (41-17-2) was achieved for prediction of fibre contents of textile mixture materials. The calibration set was in combination with validation set as a new calibration set, an upgraded WT-ca3-BP (51-17-2) model appeared, its mean absolute error (MAE) was less than 0.41%, root mean square error (RMSE) was less than 0.54% and a satisfying prediction precision was achieved for unknown samples. The results indicated that near infrared spectroscopy could be successfully applied for prediction of fibre contents of textile mixture materials and upgraded WT-ca3-BP model could achieve a best prediction results.

  4. Single Cotton Wool Spot as a Late Manifestation of Head Trauma

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    Mohsen Gohari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient with a single cotton wool spot (CWS following head trauma. Case Report: A 37-year-old male electrician presented with painless paracentral blurred vision in his left eye of one month duration together with three transient episodes of obscuration of vision in the same eye lasting for 10 minutes. He reported blunt head trauma due to a fall 40 days before referral. Fundus examination at presentation was normal but after 4 months, revealed the appearance of a white spot along the superotemporal arcade in the absence of other fundus lesions. A comprehensive systemic workup was performed revealing no specific findings. Ophthalmoscopic examination after 6 weeks disclosed resolution of the CWS with no intervention. The patient′s complaint of paracentral visual field defect improved and subsequent optical coherence tomography showed retinal thinning in that area. Conclusion: Herein, we report a patient with a single CWS near the optic disc four months after head trauma along with normal systemic and paraclinical evaluations. Head trauma may thus be considered as a cause of CWS.

  5. Glycopeptide Enrichment Using a Combination of ZIC-HILIC and Cotton Wool for Exploring the Glycoproteome of Wheat Flour Albumins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) is used extensively as a sample preparation step for glycopeptide enrichment in proteome research. Here, we have applied cotton wool and a zwitterionic HILIC (ZIC-HILIC) resin in solid-phase extraction microcolumns to provide a higher loading capacity...... and broader specificity for glycopeptide enrichment. This strategy was applied to tryptic digests of wheat flour albumin extracts followed by simulataneous site-specific 18O labeling and deglycosylation using peptide-N-glycosidase A (PNGase A) in H218O. Subsequent LC–MS/MS analysis allowed for assignment...... of 78 N-glycosylation sites in 67 albumin proteins. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that several of the identified glycoproteins show sequence similarity to known food allergens. In addition, the potential impact of some of the identified glycoproteins on wheat beer quality is discussed....

  6. Isolated cotton-wool spots of unknown etiology: management and sequential spectral domain optical coherence tomography documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Antonis; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos D; Elaroud, Ibrahim; Andreou, Petros

    2011-01-01

    Cotton-wool spots (CWSs) are common retinal manifestations of many diseases including diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinically they appear as whitish, fluffy patches on the retina and eventually fade with time. In this study, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with mapping was used to demonstrate in vivo the characteristics of an isolated CWS in a 59-year-old patient as well as its appearance immediately after ophthalmoscopic resolution. Presented here is the work-up and management of this clinical problem for the ophthalmologist. The authors propose that SD-OCT could be a valuable research tool in characterizing and following the dynamic CWS changes at individual retinal layer level, with potential clinical applications as a screening or diagnostic tool in CWS-related diseases. PMID:22034565

  7. Biocompatibility and Bone Formation of Flexible, Cotton Wool-like PLGA/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposites in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Oliver D; Mohn, Dirk; Fuhrer, Roland; Klein, Karina; Kämpf, Käthi; Nuss, Katja M.R; Sidler, Michèle; Zlinszky, Katalin; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Stark, Wendelin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the in vivo performance of synthetic, cotton wool-like nanocomposites consisting of a biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) fibrous matrix and containing either calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/CaP 60:40) or silver doped CaP nanoparticles (PLGA/Ag-CaP 60:40). Besides its extraordinary in vitro bioactivity the latter biomaterial (0.4 wt% total silver concentration) provides additional antimicrobial properties for treating bone defects exposed to microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Both flexible artificial bone substitutes were implanted into totally 16 epiphyseal and metaphyseal drill hole defects of long bone in sheep and followed for 8 weeks. Histological and histomorphological analyses were conducted to evaluate the biocompatibility and bone formation applying a score system. The influence of silver on the in vivo performance was further investigated. Results: Semi-quantitative evaluation of histology sections showed for both implant materials an excellent biocompatibility and bone healing with no resorption in the adjacent bone. No signs of inflammation were detectable, either macroscopically or microscopically, as was evident in 5 µm plastic sections by the minimal amount of inflammatory cells. The fibrous biomaterials enabled bone formation directly in the centre of the former defect. The area fraction of new bone formation as determined histomorphometrically after 8 weeks implantation was very similar with 20.5 ± 11.2 % and 22.5 ± 9.2 % for PLGA/CaP and PLGA/Ag-CaP, respectively. Conclusions: The cotton wool-like bone substitute material is easily applicable, biocompatible and might be beneficial in minimal invasive surgery for treating bone defects. PMID:21566736

  8. Preparation of high-temperature filter by partial densification of carbonized cotton wool with SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohzawa, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Nakane, K.; Sugiyama, K. [Aichi Inst. of Technol., Toyota (Japan). Dept. of Appl. Chem.

    1998-02-01

    Carbonized cotton wool preforms were partially infiltrated with SiC by pressure-pulsed chemical vapor infiltration from SiCl{sub 4}(4%)-CH{sub 4}(4%)-H{sub 2} at 1100 C. Fibrous carbon/SiC shape of 10 mm {phi} and 5-15 mm long having the porosity of 87 and 82% were obtained after 10000 and 20000 pulses, respectively. Pores of the sample after 10000 pulses distributed below 32 {mu}m (average pore size, 10 {mu}m). An increased in the number of pulses resulted in shifting the pore size distribution toward lower values. After 20000 pulses, average pore size decreased to 7 {mu}m. On the samples of 10 mm {phi} and 5 mm long after 10000 and 20000 pulses, pressure drops along the axial air flow were 8 and 16 kPa at a face velocity of 1.1 ms{sup -1}. Flexural strength increases linearly with the number of pulses, reflecting the decrease of the porosity, and after 20000 pulses, the strength reached 20-33 MPa. Preform carbon in the sample up to 15000 pulses was lost during the air-oxidation at 1000 C for 10 h, however, the free-standing shape retained the dimension and the pore size distribution after oxidation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  9. Isolated cotton-wool spots of unknown etiology: management and sequential spectral domain optical coherence tomography documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Ioannides1, Nikolaos D Georgakarakos2, Ibrahim Elaroud3, Petros Andreou1 1Ophthalmology Department, Mid-Essex Hospitals NHS Trust, Chelmsford, 2Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, 3Ophthalmology Department, Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Yorkshire, UK Abstract: Cotton-wool spots (CWSs are common retinal manifestations of many diseases including diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinically they appear as whitish, fluffy patches on the retina and eventually fade with time. In this study, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT with mapping was used to demonstrate in vivo the characteristics of an isolated CWS in a 59-year-old patient as well as its appearance immediately after ophthalmoscopic resolution. Presented here is the work-up and management of this clinical problem for the ophthalmologist. The authors propose that SD-OCT could be a valuable research tool in characterizing and following the dynamic CWS changes at individual retinal layer level, with potential clinical applications as a screening or diagnostic tool in CWS-related diseases. Keywords: SD-OCT, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, retinal lesion

  10. Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I; García, María; Mayo, Agustín; López, María I; Hornero, Roberto

    2009-08-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries. Hard exudates have been found to be one of the most prevalent earliest clinical signs of retinopathy. Thus, automatic detection of hard exudates from retinal images is clinically significant. In this study, an automatic method to detect hard exudates is proposed. The algorithm is based on mixture models to dynamically threshold the images in order to separate exudates from background. A postprocessing technique, based on edge detection, is applied to distinguish hard exudates from cotton wool spots and other artefacts. We prospectively assessed the algorithm performance using a database of 80 retinal images with variable colour, brightness, and quality. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a positive predictive value of 96.8% using a lesion-based criterion. The image-based classification accuracy is also evaluated obtaining a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90%.

  11. Study of lithium insertion in hard carbon made from cotton wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peled, E.; Eshkenazi, V. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Chemistry; Rosenberg, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Wolfson Applied Materials Research Center

    1998-12-01

    Hard-carbon materials were made either by one-step or multi-step pyrolysis of cotton cloth between 700 and 1100 C. All carbons have been characterized by gas sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Two types of carbons have been obtained. One, made by multi-step pyrolysis, has the highest lithium reversible capacity [about (600 mA h)/g] and two distinct voltage regions: a sloping one between 1.5 and about 0.1 V, called the high-voltage region (HVR), and a horizontal one between 0.1 and 0 V, called the low-voltage plateau (LVP). The other carbons made by the one-step process have only the HVR and less capacity [up to 470 (mA h)/g]. The influence of the current density and temperature on the capacity and degradation rate in both LVP and HVR was checked. We suggest that there are two different modes of lithium insertion: intercalation-like (on both sides of single graphene sheets) at lower potentials and chemical binding to edge carbon atoms at higher potentials vs. lithium reference electrode. A schematic model for lithiated carbon is proposed. (orig.)

  12. Colorimetric Assay and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton, Silk, and Wool Fabrics Dyed with Peony, Pomegranate, Clove, Coptis chinenis and Gallnut Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant material/water, weight ratio of 1:10. The colorimetric assay and antibacterial activity of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with these natural colorant extracts were examined. It was found that these properties were significantly dependent on the structure of colorant and the kind of fabrics. The hues (H of all fabrics dyed with these natural colorants were in the range of 6.05YR -1.95Y. The order of value (V was wool, silk and cotton. The chroma (C of all samples was found to be at very low levels indicating the natural tone. All the fabrics dyed with the five natural colorants (peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut extracts displayed excellent antibacterial activity (reduction rate: 96.8 - 99.9% against Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the antibacterial activity was found to depend on the kind of natural colorant extract used.

  13. The analysis of colored acrylic, cotton, and wool textile fibers using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Part 2: comparison with the traditional methods of fiber examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    In the second part of this survey, the ability of micro-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate 180 fiber samples of blue, black, and red cottons, wools, and acrylics was compared to that gathered with the traditional methods for the examination of textile fibers in a forensic context (including light microscopy methods, UV-vis microspectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography). This study shows that the Raman technique plays a complementary and useful role to obtain further discriminations after the application of light microscopy methods and UV-vis microspectrophotometry and assure the nondestructive nature of the analytical sequence. These additional discriminations were observed despite the lower discriminating powers of Raman data considered individually, compared to those of light microscopy and UV-vis MSP. This study also confirms that an instrument equipped with several laser lines is necessary for an efficient use as applied to the examination of textile fibers in a forensic setting.

  14. Cotton Wool Derived Carbon Fiber Aerogel Supported Few-Layered MoSe2 Nanosheets As Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youfang; Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Huang, Yunpeng; Lu, Hengyi; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-03-23

    Recent studies have proven that newly emerging two-dimensional molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is a promising noble-metal-free electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Increasing the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanostructures is a key issue to fully realize the excellent electrochemical properties of MoSe2. In this work, a few-layered MoSe2/carbon fiber aerogel (CFA) hybrids have been facilely obtained through the combination of high-temperature carbonization and one-pot solvothermal reaction. CFA derived from cotton wool is used as a three-dimensional conductive network for construction of hierarchical MoSe2/CFA hybrids, where few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets are uniformly and perpendicularly decorated on the surfaces of CFA. In the designed and prepared hybrids, CFA effectively increases the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanosheets as well as provides reduced lengths for both electron transportation and ion diffusion. Therefore, the obtained optimal MoSe2/CFA hybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical activity as HER electrocatalyst with a small onset potential of -0.104 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode and a small Tafel slope of 62 mV per decade, showing its great potential as a next-generation Pt-free electrocatalyst for HER.

  15. A Presenilin-1 Mutation Identified in Familial Alzheimer Disease with Cotton Wool Plaques Causes a Nearly Complete Loss of γ-Secretase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Elizabeth A.; Xia, Weiming; Shen, Jie; Kelleher, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 (PS1 and PS2) are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer disease. PS1 and PS2 are the presumptive catalytic components of the multisubunit γ-secretase complex, which proteolyzes a number of type I transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch. APP processing by γ-secretase produces β-amyloid peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42) that accumulate in the Alzheimer disease brain. Here we identify a pathogenic L435F mutation in PS1 in two affected siblings with early-onset familial Alzheimer disease characterized by deposition of cerebral cotton wool plaques. The L435F mutation resides in a conserved C-terminal PAL sequence implicated in active site conformation and catalytic activity. The impact of PS1 mutations in and around the PAL motif on γ-secretase activity was assessed by expression of mutant PS1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking endogenous PS1 and PS2. Surprisingly, the L435F mutation caused a nearly complete loss of γ-secretase activity, including >90% reductions in the generation of Aβ40, Aβ42, and the APP and Notch intracellular domains. Two nonpathogenic PS1 mutations, P433L and L435R, caused essentially complete loss of γ-secretase activity, whereas two previously identified pathogenic PS1 mutations, P436Q and P436S, caused partial loss of function with substantial reductions in production of Aβ40, Aβ42, and the APP and Notch intracellular domains. These results argue against overproduction of Aβ42 as an essential property of presenilin proteins bearing pathogenic mutations. Rather, our findings provide support for the hypothesis that pathogenic mutations cause a general loss of presenilin function. PMID:20460383

  16. Wool insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shea, Angus

    1995-05-01

    Wool insulation usually comes in two forms, as loose fill or batts. The reliability of loose fill as an insulator, the thickness of batts and the wool`s vulnerability to insect and moth attack are considered to be problems. The purpose of this research was to create a commercial wool insulation product to overcome these limitations, at the same time withstanding the Australian and international standards for fire resistance. The project also considered the market potential of such a product with a view to commercialization. The loft or thickness problem was resolved by covering the wool with an oven baked adhesive. A fire retardant and anti-insect treatment was incorporated into the spray process to produce a viable product.

  17. Cotton and Wool: Textile Economy in the Serakhs Oasis during the Late Sasanian Period, the Case of Spindle Whorls from Gurukly Depe (Turkmenistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Maja Kossowska-Janik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gurukly Depe is an archaeological site located in the Serakhs oasis in southeast Turkmenistan, excavated since 2010 by the Polish-Turkmen archaeological mission directed by Professor Barbara Kaim from the University of Warsaw. Most investigated structures date to the Late Sasanian Period. At the site 102 spindle whorls were found. Based on their dimensions and weight I propose that most them were likely to have been used to spin cotton. This evidence provides another indication of cotton agriculture in Central Asia before the Muslim conquest.

  18. WoolPlot: A Visual Wool Profiler

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Task-based programming involves creating tasks, which can be run independently of each other, and letting the run-time system schedule the tasks on the underlying architecture. Wool is a new library for task-based programming created at SICS in Sweden. To assist a developer who is using Wool to parallelize a program, as well as the scientists who are actually developing Wool, a profiler which shows what happened in a computation can be very helpful.In this project we modify the Wool library t...

  19. Enzymatic Treatment of Wool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊增禄; 朱泉; 戴瑾瑾

    2001-01-01

    Three proteases were applied to treatments of wool. The shrinkage, dyeing behavior, some physical and mechanical properties of treated wool were studied. Peroxymonosulfate(PMS)and lipase were used to pretreat wool before the treatment of it by protease. The results show that the shrink resistance of wool fabric is not obtained when it is treated only by the protease, but it is remarkably improved when the wool fabric is treated first by PMS or a lipase afterwards by protease The rate of dyeing is increased when the wool is treated by protease or combination of oxidant/lipase and protease. Whiteness, luster and softness of treated wool are improved, while the strength and elasticity are reduced.

  20. Characterizing Wool Keratin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material. As the biological structural component of skin (soft keratins) and of nails, claws, hair, horn, feathers, and scales (hard keratins) pure keratin comprises up to 90% by weight of wool. Wool was treated in alkaline solutions to extract from 68% to 82% keratin within 2 to 5 hours of exposure at 6 5 ∘ C . The keratin products were water-soluble and were confirmed to contain intermediate filament and microfibrillar compon...

  1. Characterizing Wool Keratin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Cardamone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material. As the biological structural component of skin (soft keratins and of nails, claws, hair, horn, feathers, and scales (hard keratins pure keratin comprises up to 90% by weight of wool. Wool was treated in alkaline solutions to extract from 68% to 82% keratin within 2 to 5 hours of exposure at 65∘C. The keratin products were water-soluble and were confirmed to contain intermediate filament and microfibrillar component-proteins of fractured, residual cuticle, and cortical cells. Oxidation of wool by peroxycarboximidic acid in alkaline hydrogen peroxide produced keratin products with distinct microcrystalline structures: descaled fibers, fibrous matrices, and lyophilized powders. Morphology and confirmation of peptide functionality were documented by SEM, Amino Acid Analysis, SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF/TOF, and FTIR analyses. The reactivity of keratin from wool models the reactivity of keratin from low-value sources such as cattle hair.

  2. A 25-Year-Old Man with Exudative Retinal Detachments and Infiltrates without Hematological or Neurological Findings Found to Have Relapsed Precursor T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-T-ALL may cause ocular pathologies such as cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhage, and less commonly, retinal detachment or leukemic infiltration of the retina itself. However, these findings are typically accompanied by the pathognomonic hematological signs of acute leukemia. CasePresentation: In this case report and review of the literature, we describe a particularly unusual case of a 25-year-old man who presented to our hospital with bilateral exudative retinal detachments associated with posterior pole thickening without any hematological or neurological findings. The patient, who had a history of previously treated pre-T-ALL in complete remission, was found to have leukemia cell infiltration on retinal biopsy. Conclusion: Our case underscores the fact that the ophthalmologist may be the first provider to detect the relapse of previously treated leukemia, and that ophthalmic evaluation is critical for detecting malignant ocular infiltrates.

  3. Sorption properties of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  4. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.).

  5. [Sheep wool granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D; Terrussot, M C; Dalac, S; Boulitrop-Morvan, C

    1995-01-01

    We report the unusual case of cutaneous foreign body granulomas provoked by sheep wool. A 45-years old woman presented within one year two episodes of a papular eruption on her neck and limbs. She was working as a farmer's wife and each episode occurred after preparing the ewes for coupling. She had to keep a tight hold on the ewes while the farmer introduced warm and moist compresses in the genitals of the animals. Each diseased skin area was closely related to the tight contact with the sheep's wool and on histological slides each granuloma was centered by a tiny ply of wool. This foreign body reaction may be compared to the trichogranulomas of hairdressers. In sheep breeders this occupational practice is very usual and one may wonder why this type of reaction seems so rare.

  6. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Main Wool Traits in Keerqin Fine Wool Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; Hua; Gao; Fengming

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the population genetic structure of Keerqin fine wool sheep. [Method]The genetic parameters of wool traits in Keerqin fine wool sheep were calculated by employing paternal half sib correlation method. [Results]The traits with high heritability( h≥0. 3) included wool length( 1-year old),wool yield( 1-year old) and wool yield( 2-year old); that with medium heritability( 0. 1≤h≤0. 3) included wool fineness( 1-year old),wool fineness( 2-year old),wool length( 3-year old) and wool yield( 3-year old). There were extremely significant positive correlations between wool fineness( 1-year old) and wool fineness( 2-year old),between wool fineness( 1-year old) and wool fineness( 3-year old),between wool length( 1-year old) and wool length( 2-year old),between wool length( 1-year old) and wool length( 3-year old),and between wool fineness( 2-year old) and wool fineness( 3-year old),with the correlation coefficients of 0. 653 0,0. 625 8,0. 489 6,0. 578 8,0. 578 4 and 0. 554 6 respectively. The results showed that the phenotypic correlation was poorer than genetic correlation among the wool traits. [Conclusion]The wool fineness,wool yield and body weight of Keerqin fine wool sheep all fail to meet the excellent level and need to be improved further.

  7. Dyeing of wool fibres with natural dyes: effect of proteolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Mehmet; Baysal, Zübeyde; Aytekin, Cetin

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the widespread use of proteins (casein, peptone, etc.) and protein fragments as a substrate for the proteolytic enzymes, a substrate prepared from dyes that adsorb onto appropriate materials, such as wool and cotton, are also used for enzyme activity determination. In the point of view of this thought, it was our aim to develop the substrates which are easily and economically obtainable and also environmentally safer for the frequently used proteolytic enzymes, such as subtilisin carlsberg, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and protease type XVI and, if possible, to prepare the specific substrate at least for one of these enzymes. For this aim, wool was dyed with natural dyes such as juglone, lawsone, berberine, and quercetin. The optimum pH, incubation time, and agitation rate were determinated. The results indicate that, of all the tested enzymes on wool-dye complex as an insoluble substrate, the most appropriate complex was found to be wool-lawsone complex.

  8. Thermal conductivity of wool and wool-hemp insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Wells, C.M.; Carrington, C.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics; Hewitt, N.J. [University of Ulster, Jordanstown (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies

    2006-01-15

    Measurements have been obtained for the thermal resistance of sheep-wool insulation and wool-hemp mixtures, both in the form of bonded insulation batts, using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The density was 9.6-25.9 kg m{sup -3} for the wool and 9.9-18.1 kg m{sup -3} for the wool-hemp mixtures. The measurements were made at a mean sample temperature of 13.3{sup o}C using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The estimated uncertainly in the resistance measurements was of the order of {+-}7%. The thermal conductivity of the samples, derived from the thermal resistance measurements on the basis of the measured thickness, was well correlated with the density, although the variation with density was larger than that obtained in previous studies. The conductivity of the wool-hemp samples was not significantly different from that of the wool samples at the same density. Moisture uptake produced an increase of less than 5% in the conductivity of the bonded wool insulation for an increase in absorbed moisture content of 20%. The thermal resistance was 1.6% lower on average for samples oriented in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane, but this difference is not significant. (author)

  9. A summary of SAWTRI's research on wool and wool blends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1987-11-01

    Full Text Available sensitive param- eters to indicate mild modification of wool. The UBS test was the easiest and therefore the fust choice to indicate mild modification. Weideman and Grabhen'" found that the UBS of wool samples treated with chlorine at pH 6 decreased... at low chlorine levels and increased again at higher chlorine levels, for both sodium hypochlorite and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCCA) aeaunents. At pH 5, only DCCA treated wool showed a small decrease in UBS at low concentrations but an increase...

  10. The Biocompatibility of Wool Keratin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mei; YU Wei-dong; WANG Xue-lei

    2007-01-01

    Keratin is the major structural fibrous protein providing outer covering such as hair, wool, feathers, etc. When being used as a kind of biomaterials, the biocompatibility of wool keratin is one of the most critical questions. By now, there has not been systemic study on the biocompatibiiity of keratin. Therefore, in this article we used the procedures of skin irritation, haemolysis and subcutaneous implantation according to ISO 10993 to study it. Moreover, the Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to analyse the impurity and structure modification of wool keratin film. The part of the animal tests showed that the wool keratin films prepared by authors were biocompatible. But the residual of sodium dodecyi sulfate (SDS) affected the results of other tests. Consequently, the wool keratin membrane is one kind of favourable and promising biomaterial for biomedical and histological utilization. The residual SDS used as an agent should be eliminated from the keratin solution or membrane completely if for biological usage. In conclusion, wool keratin, as a kind of natural protein, prospectively could be applied in biomedical materials and scaffolds of tissue engineering.

  11. SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES FOR WOOL VALORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIŞCANU Ingrid - Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Use and valorization of renewable resources is a key factor within the sustainable development concept. In this context, natural fibers have known a well-deserved revival, both for clothing and non-clothing applications. During the last decades, wool production and prices has fall, due to the rise and diversification of synthetic fibers. Great amounts of wool are treated as waste and are burnt or landfilled. At present, in search for sustainable resources,wool is regarded as a biodegradable renewable resource and due to its complex chemical composition and physical structure, can find various value- added application. Two main directions to add value to wool fibers have been developed: applications that use native or slightly chemically modified fibers and applications that use the keratin biopolymer, previously extracted from the solubilized fibers. Lately, intensive research has been done on wool and its potential non-conventional applications as renewable resource. Innovative application and valorization solutions are reported in the specialty literature and different kinds of products are patented and marketed. The aim of this paper is to present the actual and potential possibilities for the valorization of native wool fibers in novel, non-clothing applications, and their contribution to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development.

  12. Production of Silk & Wool Blended Worsted Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亚峰; 许琳

    2004-01-01

    Wool & silk blended fancy suiting is desinged. Through trial-production with silk sliver and Australian wool top, the spinning technology is investigated, and the relationship of spinning technology, blending ratio and yam construction is discussed.

  13. Differential inactivation of seed exudate stimulation of Pythium ultimum sporangium germination by Enterobacter cloacae influences biological control efficacy on different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-02-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and pea from damping-off. Seeds from plants such as corn and pea had high rates of exudation, whereas cotton and cucumber seeds had much lower rates of exudation. Patterns of seed exudation and the release of P. ultimum sporangium germination stimulants varied among the plants tested. Seed exudates of plants such as carrot, corn, lettuce, pea, radish, and wheat were generally more stimulatory to P. ultimum than were the exudates of cotton, cucumber, sunflower, and tomato. However, this was not directly related to the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of the exudate and reduce P. ultimum sporangium germination. In the spermosphere, E. cloacae readily reduced the stimulatory activity of seed exudates from all plant species except corn and pea. Our data have shown that the inability of E. cloacae to protect corn and pea seeds from Pythium damping-off is directly related to its ability to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates. On all other plants tested, E. cloacae was effective in suppressing damping-off and inactivating the stimulatory activity of seed exudates.

  14. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial exudative vitreoretinopathy familial exudative vitreoretinopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy is a hereditary disorder that can cause progressive ...

  16. A biological treatment technique for wool textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao-Wei

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

  17. Modelling the World Wool Market: A Hybrid Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of the world wool market that merges two modelling traditions: the partialequilibrium commodity-specific approach and the computable general-equilibrium approach. The model captures the multistage nature of the wool production system, and the heterogeneous nature of raw wool, processed wool and wool garments. It also captures the important wool producing and consuming regions of the world. We illustrate the utility of the model by estimating the effects of tariff barriers o...

  18. Antimicrobial wool, polyester and a wool/polyester blend created by silver particles embedded in a silica matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenčič, Danijela; Tomšič, Brigita; Kovač, Franci; Žerjav, Metka; Simončič, Andrej; Simončič, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    A two-step antimicrobial finishing procedure was applied to wool (WO) and polyester (PES) fabrics and a WO/PES fabric blend, in which the pad-dry-cure method was performed to create a functional silica matrix through the application of an inorganic-organic hybrid sol-gel precursor (RB) followed by the in situ synthesis of AgCl particles on the RB-treated fibres using 0.10 and 0.50mM AgNO3 and NaCl. The bulk concentration of Ag on the cotton fibres was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity was determined for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the highest concentration of the adsorbed Ag compound particles was on the WO samples followed by the WO/PES and PES samples. The antimicrobial activity of the finished fabric samples strongly depended not only on the amount of adsorbed Ag but also on the properties of the fabric samples. Whereas Ag biocidal activity was generated for the finished PES samples at Ag particle concentrations of less than 10mg/kg, the 34-times higher Ag particle concentration on the WO samples was insufficient to impart satisfactory antimicrobial activity because Ag chemically binds to the thiol groups on wool. The presence of wool fibres in WO/PES samples decreased the antimicrobial protection of the fabric blend compared with that of the PES fabric. A lethal concentration of adsorbed Ag compound particles for bacteria and fungi was produced only through the treatment of the WO and WO/PES samples with 0.5mM AgNO3.

  19. Technology sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tyulenev M.; Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panel — self–supporting structure consisting of metal cladding and thermal insulation core. As a heat–insulating core used mineral wool, foamed plastics. Production of sandwich panels with insulation mineral wool performed on modular lines for the production of aggregate or conveyer scheme. Sandwich panels are used as load–bearing elements of the facades, as well as a roof covering.

  20. Slag wool manufacturing from blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Руських

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slag wool is the most expensive and valuable product of blast furnace slag processing. Slag wool is in great demand nowadays. The article highlights the factors influencing the mineral wool quality: chemical composition that determines the acidity of the module, the temperature of the molten slag and the required slag jet thickness consistency. Mineral wool is produced by blowing air or steam into a jet of molten slag. As a result of it the slag crushes into droplets stretching. The resulting wool contains 5% slag and 95% air. The quality of the obtained slag wool depends on the module acidity of the slag. The blast furnace slags of «Ilyich iron and steel works of Mariupol» and «Azovstal iron & steel works» are the main (short slags – they give short fibers. To obtain high-quality long fiber wool it is necessary to add admixtures into basic blast furnace slag to reduce its basicity. As a result of the fuel and energy rising prices and the necessity to reduce the slag wool cost it is necessary to develop a new technology with fiery-liquid slag, with the removal of iron compounds and sulphur from the melts and the introduction of corrective additives to improve the quality of slag wool. Good thermal conductivity (about 0,03 kcal/m∙h∙°C and other indicators (resistance, volume weight make it possible to use the materials from slag wool (pads, rigid and semi-rigid plates as heat and sound insulating materials

  1. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  2. Studying the possibility of dehairing coarse sheep wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Otynshiyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the development of complex technology of advanced processing of coarse and medium sheep wool that enables the production of new types of woolen products such as downy fiber and from downy fiber various semi-finished and finished products. Investigations of technological processes of primary and advanced processing of untrue coarse and medium wool are carried out and wool sorting, wool washing, and obtaining downy fiber from wool on the basis of coarse wool fiber pulling on carding machines are the stages of processing the wool.

  3. Anisotropy and sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Sound propagation in glass wool is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical computation of attenuation and phase velocity for plane, harmonic waves will be presented. Glass wool is a highly anisotropic material, and sound waves propagating in different directions in the material...... by regarding it as a continuous medium described by its elastic moduli and mass density. The computed attenuation of sound waves, for frequencies 50–5000 Hz, will be compared with experimental results for glass wool with fiber diameters of 6.8 micrometers, mass density of 15 and 30 kg/m3, and elastic moduli...... of 2000 and 16 000 Pa (sound wave vector perpendicular to fibers)....

  4. Chino Tokes G Modern Twi sl- ots Wool The Campaign for Wool launches in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Campaign for Wool, initiated by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales was launched in China on March 28, 2012, in Beijing. The ongoing rise of the Chinese fashion industry and the country's growing economy makes it an important step for The Campaign for Wool, which was begun with the goal of educating the world about the natural benefits of wool from fashion through to interiors and the built environment surrounding everyday life.

  5. China Plans to Benefit Wool Growers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the Chinese domestic consumer and the country's most recent five-year economic development plan bodes well for wool growers, according to AWI's market intelligence and trade reporting manager Paul Swan.

  6. Discriminating between transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, John E

    2006-06-01

    The dichotomous classification of pleural fluid as a transudate or an exudate simplifies diagnostic efforts in determining the cause of pleural effusions. Multiple pleural fluid tests are available to discriminate between these two classes of effusions. Tests commonly used in clinical practice depend on the detection in pleural fluid of large-molecular-weight chemicals that enter the pleural space to greater degrees in conditions associated with exudative compared with transudative effusions. Considerable misclassifications can occur with all available testing strategies, so clinicians benefit from adopting a nondichotomous, bayesian approach for interpreting test results.

  7. Wood-mineral wool hybrid particleboards

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiński, M. Ł.; Król, M. E.; Jaskółowski, W.; Borysiuk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to compound mineral wool with wood particles in the production of particleboards of reduced flammability. Three series of boards with various contents of mineral wool (10, 20, 30 wt%) were successfully manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as binder. Thickness swelling, mechanical and thermal properties as well as ignitability of the boards were assessed. It occurred that reduced ignitability is accompanied by a decrease in mechanical pe...

  8. Measurement of sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1995-01-01

    A new acoustic method for directly measuring the flow resistance, and the compressibility of fibrous materials such as glass wool, is given. Measured results for monochromatic sound in glass wool are presented and compared with theoretically calculated results. The agreement between experimental...... results and theory is good. Results of measurements of characteristic impedance, attenuation, and phase shift for plane monochromatic traveling waves are presented and compared with theoretically calculated ones. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found....

  9. Characterization and modelling of the mechanical properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    the comparison of individual characteristics of different mineral wool materials and provide simple descriptors of the 3D structure. All the methods described here are applied to glass wool and stone wool. By developing a FEM model including the real characteristic of the mineral wool fibre structure, the effect......Mineral wool designates a highly porous network of fibres drawn by spinning molten minerals. Traditionally, mineral wool products have found application as thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings. Recent concepts where mineral wool products are subjected to higher structural loads have emerged...... properties of mineral wool relate closely to the arrangement and characteristics of the fibres inside the material. Because of the complex architecture of mineral wool, the characterization and the understanding of the mechanism of deformations require a new methodology. In this PhD thesis, a methodology...

  10. Assessing the Impacts of Wool Promotion An Equilibrium Displacement Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of the International Wool Secretariat (IWS) is to increase the world demand for wool through promotion activities. Australia is a leading wool producer and the world's largest apparel wool exporter. Each year Australian wool producers contribute millions of dollars to the IWS for wool promotion. The principal aims of this paper are to demonstrate the potential for equilibrium displacement modelling to assess the impact of incremental wool promotion on wool producer incomes and p...

  11. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. 31.400 Section 31.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  12. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrucco, A., E-mail: a.patrucco@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Cristofaro, F., E-mail: francesco.cristofaro01@universitadipavia.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Simionati, M., E-mail: m.simionati@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Zoccola, M., E-mail: m.zoccola@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Bruni, G., E-mail: giovanna.bruni@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry, — Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Fassina, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fassina@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Visai, L., E-mail: livia.visai@unipv.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Magenes, G., E-mail: giovanni.magenes@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  13. 19 CFR 151.76 - Grading of wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grading of wool. 151.76 Section 151.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.76 Grading of wool. (a) Examination for grade. The port...

  14. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  15. A review of raw wool carbonising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mozes, TE

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available and Bielen" found that it was important to dry the wool at relatively low temperatures (50 to 60°C) in order to avoid hydrolysis of the keratin, which would result in the deterioration of mechanical properties and a change in chemical characteristics... that acid hydrolysis of the wool protein might have been one of the factors resulting in fibre loss and subsequent - nitrogen analyses supported this theory. The massloss offibre during carbo&ig as a whole hasbeen the topic of concerted studies during...

  16. Nylon wool purification alters the activation of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Jillian E; Barnum, Scott R

    2009-02-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method.

  17. A Study on Insulation Characteristics of Glass Wool and Mineral Wool Coated with a Polysiloxane Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ki Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulation in buildings is very important. Insulation used in the building is largely divided into organic and inorganic insulation by its insulation material. Organic insulation materials which are made of Styrofoam or polyurethane are extremely vulnerable to fire. On the other hand, inorganic insulation such as mineral wool and glass wool is very weak with moisture, while it is nonflammable, so that its usage is very limited. Therefore, this study developed moisture resistance applicable to mineral wool and glass wool and measured the thermal conductivity of the samples which are exposed to moisture by exposing the product coated with moisture resistance and without moisture resistance to moisture and evaluated how the moisture affects thermal conductivity by applying this to inorganic insulation.

  18. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  19. 7 CFR 1280.129 - Wool products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool products. 1280.129 Section 1280.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion,...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.128 - Wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool. 1280.128 Section 1280.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research,...

  1. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrucco, A; Cristofaro, F; Simionati, M; Zoccola, M; Bruni, G; Fassina, L; Visai, L; Magenes, G; Mossotti, R; Montarsolo, A; Tonin, C

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications.

  2. Environmental Friendly Route and Wool Shrink Proofing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泉; 吴婵娟

    2003-01-01

    The shrink proofing on wool with treatment of protease named Argaenzyme STL was studied. The various pretreating auxiliaries, different parameters for protease treating process and the effect of stabilizer were discussed in detail. The varieties of some properties before and after protease treatment were also investigated.

  3. Cool Wool Iaunched at Premiere Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Visitors to Premiere Vision were greeted by the inspired The Woolmark Company image, rapidly becoming iconic, of a welcoming flock of stylish Merino sheep in sunglasses. It raised many a smile and set the scene for a feel- good exhibition, putting Cool Wool firmly at the doorway to the new summer season 2013.

  4. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro;

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well...

  5. 78 FR 72057 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... CFR Part 300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act AGENCY: Federal Trade... proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules... Commission issued the Wool Rules to implement the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, 15 U.S.C. 68-68j....

  6. Effect of Stretching--Setting Treatment on Dyeing Behavior of Wool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2003-01-01

    Changes of dyeing behavior of wool after stretching - setting treatment are studied.Effects of stretching - setting on wool structure are analyzed.It is concluded that stretching - setting treatment not only reduces wool diameter and increases wool length,but also brings about low-temperature dyeing of wool.

  7. Rhizosphere interactions: root exudates, microbes and microbial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    .... In this review, we summarize recent progress made in unraveling the interactions between plants and rhizosphere microbes through plant root exudates, focusing on how root exudate compounds mediate...

  8. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy influences offspring wool production and wool follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolski, J D; Luther, J S; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2011-11-01

    The effects of maternal nutrition on offspring wool production (quality and quantity) were evaluated. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Selenium treatment [adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 μg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe, 81.8 μg/kg of BW)] was initiated at breeding, and maternal nutritional intake [control (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted (60% of CON) vs. overfed (140% of CON)] was initiated at d 50 of gestation. Lamb birth weight was recorded at delivery, and all lambs were placed on the same diet immediately after birth to determine the effects of prenatal nutrition on postnatal wool production and follicle development. At 180 ± 2.2 d of age, lambs were necropsied and pelt weights were recorded. Wool samples were collected from the side and britch areas, whereas skin samples were collected from the side of each lamb only. Although Se status did not influence side staple length in males, female lambs born from ewes on the ASe treatment had a shorter staple length (P nutritional intake and Se status did not influence (P ≥ 0.23) wool characteristics on the britch. However, at the britch, wool from female lambs had a reduced comfort factor (P = 0.01) and a greater (P = 0.02) fiber diameter compared with wool from male lambs. Maternal Se supplementation, maternal nutritional plane, sex of the offspring, or their interactions had no effect (P > 0.13) on primary (29.10 ± 1.40/100 µm(2)) and secondary (529.84 ± 21.57/100 µm(2)) wool follicle numbers. Lambs from ASe ewes had a greater (P = 0.03) secondary:primary wool follicle ratio compared with lambs from HSe ewes (20.93 vs. 18.01 ± 1.00). Despite similar postnatal diets, wool quality was affected by maternal Se status and the maternal nutritional plane.

  9. Devitrification and high temperature properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Ravn; Augustesen, Maria; Ståhl, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    Mineral wool products can be used for thermal and acoustic insulation as well as for fire protection. The high temperature properties and the crystallization behaviour (devitrification) of the amorphous fibres during heating have been examined. Commercial stone wool and commercial hybrid wool......+/Fetotal ratios resulted in increasing migration and improved thermal stability. The cations formed a surface layer mainly consisting of MgO. When heated to above 800 ºC, bulk crystallization of the fibres took place with diopside and nepheline as the main crystalline phases. Commercial stone wool...... and the specially made fibres were considerably more temperature stable than the commercial hybrid wool. Commercial hybrid wool has a high Fe3+/Fetotal ratio of 65% resulting in less migration of cations during heat treatment....

  10. Development of fiber product recycling technology in fiscal 1998. Achievement report on 'technological development in relation with regeneration and utilization of wool fibers'; 1998 nendo sen'i seihin recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Wool sen'i no saisei oyobi riyo ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop products of regenerated wool made by utilizing used clothes, and enhance the added value thereon, research and development has been made. In using the recovered suits as the regenerated resources, discussions were given on performing primary mechanical classification before carrying out rag opening and crushing. As a result, it was discovered that the classification is possible if such facilities as electrostatic devices and air-blowing separators are used. However, the secondary classification was difficult either by manual or mechanical means because the opened and crushed materials must be divided according to the original materials. In the research of the re-commercialization technology, discussions were given on developing the applications of felt products (non-woven fabrics) occupying the majority of consumption of wool materials recovered from suits, and of spun yarns utilized in cotton fabrics. As a result, it was discovered that the recovered wool materials can be made into products having features not available in conventional mops, if their feature of oil absorbing performance is made of the best use. Furthermore, researches were made on wool as a synthetic leather material that utilizes the protein constituent being the wool constituting substance. (NEDO)

  11. Strength and Fractography of Glass Wool Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    between fracture strength (sf) and mirror radius (r), i.e., sf = A*r, is confirmed for all the GWFs studied. The materials constant, A, (mirror constant) is found to be 2.4 ~ 2.7 MPam½ for basaltic wool and 2.0 MPam½ for E-glass wool, which is similar to the value reported in the literature for different...... on the mechanical performance of GWFs. The observed fracture surfaces are classified in three categories: 1) surfaces including fracture mirror, mist and hackle; 2) bend fracture surfaces; and 3) surfaces including pores. The first is by far the most common. The second illustrates that some times the failure does...

  12. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  13. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    OpenAIRE

    Pernar, E.; Dosen-Sver, D.; Bujevic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline,...

  14. 7th China[Dalang] International Wool Textiles Fair Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Co-hosted by News Center of China National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC for short).China Textile Economy Research Center,China Wool Textiles Association(CWTA for short)and undertaken by Dongguan Wool Textiles Association and People's Government of Dalang.the High-Level Forum of 7th China(Dalang) International Wool Textiles Fair(the Forum for short)was held in Dongguan,Guangdong Province on November 3,2008.

  15. A novel initiating system for wool grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Kandil Zahran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method for the grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA and other acrylic monomers onto wool fabric in aqueous medium. The novelty principally concerns the chemical approach of the redox grafting reaction that was carried out in the presence of sodium perborate (SPB initiator. Before the grafting reaction was started, the wool fabric was treated first with a freshly prepared ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS solution. The so-treated fabric formed, with SPB, an efficacious redox system capable of initiating grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA and other acrylic monomers onto the wool fabric. The effect of the polymerization conditions on the polymer criteria, namely, graft yield (%GY, homopolymer (%HP, total conversion (%TC, and grafting efficiency (%GE, was studied. These polymer criteria were found to depend spaciously upon concentrations of the Fe2+ ion (activator, SPB (initiator, and MAA, pH of the polymerization medium, duration and temperature of polymerization. The graft copolymerization reaction has also been carried out in the presence of polymerization activators (e.g. reductant transition metal ions and an inhibitor (e.g. hydroquinone. A suitable mechanism for the grafting processes has been suggested, in accordance with the experimental results.

  16. Plasma treatments of wool fiber surface for microfluidic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, So-Hyoun; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Jin Su [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Jin-Hyo, E-mail: jhboo@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sang H., E-mail: shy@kth.se [Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We used atmospheric plasma for tuning the wettability of wool fibers. • The wicking rates of the wool fibers increased with increasing treatment time. • The increasing of wettability results in removement of fatty acid on the wool surface. - Abstract: Recent progress in health diagnostics has led to the development of simple and inexpensive systems. Thread-based microfluidic devices allow for portable and inexpensive field-based technologies enabling medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. However, controlling the flow rate of wool thread, which is a very important part of thread-based microfluidic devices, is quite difficult. For this reason, we focused on thread-based microfluidics in the study. We developed a method of changing the wettability of hydrophobic thread, including wool thread. Thus, using natural wool thread as a channel, we demonstrate herein that the manipulation of the liquid flow, such as micro selecting and micro mixing, can be achieved by applying plasma treatment to wool thread. In addition to enabling the flow control of the treated wool channels consisting of all natural substances, this procedure will also be beneficial for biological sensing devices. We found that wools treated with various gases have different flow rates. We used an atmospheric plasma with O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar gases.

  17. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  18. Perivascular exudates in frosted branch angiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingmin; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Wong, Ira G

    2014-01-01

    Three cases of young, minimally symptomatic patients found to have vitritis and extensive perivenous vitreous exudates resembling frosted branch angiitis are presented. Optical coherence tomography showed that these exudates appear to be extravascated from the vasculature. The material persisted over 1 year on immunosuppressive therapy, suggesting that its resolution should not be a treatment end point. These cases add to our understanding of the spectrum of clinical findings in frosted branch angiitis.

  19. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-3224] [FR Doc No: 2012-1222] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1042; FRL... rule (76 FR 78872). The comment period for the mineral wool production proposed rule was not extended..., Assistant Administrator. [FR Doc. 2012-1222 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  20. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  1. Dynamic measurements of the elastic constants of glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    The sound wave in the air between the fibers of glass wool exerts an oscillatory viscous drag on the fibers and excites a mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton. Accurate calculations of sound attenuation in glass wool must take the mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton into account...

  2. Market Environment of Wool Textile Industry and Ways to Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文红; 周启澄

    2003-01-01

    Wool textile industry is now facing serious market environment. Ways to breakthrough may be: exerting special virtues of wool, e.g. degradable, ecological,comfortable etc.; inoculating of biological engineering, seeking for clean production, producing green commodities; creating new market through innovations.

  3. Characterising the potential of sheep wool for ancient DNA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Tranekjer, Lena D.; Mannering, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    can be PCR-amplified from wool derived from a variety of breeds, regardless of the body location or natural pigmentation. Furthermore, although DNA can be PCR-amplified from wool dyed with one of four common plant dyes (tansy, woad, madder, weld), the use of mordants such as alum or iron leads...

  4. Investigation of the washing conditions of domestic types of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The wool fibers that are obtained in the Republic of Serbs have not been systematically analyzed. Also, they are only used in domestic crafts production, not for industrial means. This study is the beginning of a project with the aim of determining how to replace a quantity of imported wool by domestic wool in the process of industrial manufacturing.The washing of two types of domestic wool was investigated, namely pramen-ka and polumerino. The parameters used to wash this wool were varied, such as materials for washing (from clean water to surfactants and additives, as well as the temperature and length of the washing process.The effects of washing the wool were tested with respect to the content of clean wool, the content of organic materials soluble in ethanol, the content of herbal components insoluble in sodium-hydroxide solutions and mineral substances represented as ash quantities. The optimal conditions for washing wool were defined, as well as recommendations for the more economic usage of materials used in washing.

  5. Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is demonstrated to determine the percentage of oxygen in air using a pretreated piece of steel wool, which is an alternative to spectroscopic kinetic analysis. Students are able to determine the order of reaction for oxygen in its reaction with the iron in steel wool, and are able to use the existing technology to collect and analyze…

  6. Developing quality standards for physical properties of mineral wool plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Berg, van den C.C.; Winkel, van A.

    2014-01-01

    The KIWA certification guidelines for mineral wool products contain standards for slabs and blocks. Propagators would like to introduce quality standards for mineral wool plugs as well. Main concerns were effects of too dense plugs on plant growth, and handling problems with too fluffy or broken

  7. Measurements of anisotropic sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    The attenuation coefficient and phase velocity of plane sound waves propagating in three perpendicular directions in glass wool were measured in the frequency range 50–10 000 Hz. For glass wool of mass density 14 kg/m3 at the frequency 1000 Hz, the attenuation constant for propagation perpendicular...

  8. Regenerated cellulose/wool blend enhanced biomimetic hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The current article investigates the effect of bioactive cellulose/wool blend on calcium phosphate biomimetic mineralization. Regenerated cellulose/wool blend was prepared by dissolution-regeneration of neat cellulose and natural wool in 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride [Bmim][Cl], as a solvent for the two polymers. Crystalline hydroxyapatite nanofibers with a uniform size, shape and dimension were formed after immersing the bioactive blend in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of cellulose/wool/hydroxyapatite was studied using animal fibroblast baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) and the result displayed good cytocompatability. This research work presents a green processing method for the development of novel cellulose/wool/hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for tissue engineering applications.

  9. Nylon Wool Purification Alters the Activation of T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method. PMID:18952296

  10. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching method; whereas the alkali solubility values of the SBH bleaching was superior to the H2O2 bleaching.

  11. Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  13. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  14. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  15. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  16. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  17. Angora Wool Asthma in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Sartorelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the exposures to hair and skin derivatives of animals have not yet been the subject of systematic studies. The observation of a clinical case has provided the opportunity for a review of the literature. The inpatient was a 49-year-old man, a carder in a textile factory, exposed to angora wool. He noticed the appearance of dyspnea during working hours. There was no eosinophilia in blood, and the results of pulmonary function tests were normal. The nonspecific bronchial provocation test with methacholine demonstrated an abnormal bronchial reactivity. The challenge test with angora wool was positive (decrease in FEV1 of more than 40% as well as total IGE and specific IgE to rabbit epithelium (433 KU/l and 12.1 KUA/l, resp.. Several sources of allergens were found in the rabbit, and the main allergen was represented by proteins from epithelia, urine, and saliva. Most of these proteins belong to the family of lipocalin, they function as carriers for small hydrophobic molecules (vitamins and pheromones. If the diagnosis of occupational asthma caused by animal hair and skin derivatives may be relatively easy by means of the challenge test, defining etiology is complicated because of the lack of in vitro tests.

  18. Angora Wool Asthma in Textile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorelli, Pietro; Romeo, Riccardo; Coppola, Giuseppina; Nuti, Roberta; Paolucci, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Up to now the exposures to hair and skin derivatives of animals have not yet been the subject of systematic studies. The observation of a clinical case has provided the opportunity for a review of the literature. The inpatient was a 49-year-old man, a carder in a textile factory, exposed to angora wool. He noticed the appearance of dyspnea during working hours. There was no eosinophilia in blood, and the results of pulmonary function tests were normal. The nonspecific bronchial provocation test with methacholine demonstrated an abnormal bronchial reactivity. The challenge test with angora wool was positive (decrease in FEV1 of more than 40%) as well as total IGE and specific IgE to rabbit epithelium (433 KU/l and 12.1 KUA/l, resp.). Several sources of allergens were found in the rabbit, and the main allergen was represented by proteins from epithelia, urine, and saliva. Most of these proteins belong to the family of lipocalin, they function as carriers for small hydrophobic molecules (vitamins and pheromones). If the diagnosis of occupational asthma caused by animal hair and skin derivatives may be relatively easy by means of the challenge test, defining etiology is complicated because of the lack of in vitro tests. PMID:25379305

  19. OPERATING STABILITY OF MINERAL WOOL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber are the most widely used type of insulating materials in the domestic construction. Therefore, the operational stability valuation methods must be primarily created for this group of products. The methodology for assessing the thermal insulation properties includes two main components: testing equipment and methodology for assessing the operational stability. The authors tested the methodology of the accelerated testing and prediction of durability for mineral wool products of laminated, corrugated and volume-oriented structures. The test results give good convergence with the methods recommended by the building regulations. Application of thermal insulation materials are an effective way to form the thermal envelope of the building, reducing energy costs and increasing the durability of building structures. The material properties are determined by their structure, which is formed during the technological impacts.

  20. Analysis on mineral wool acoustic board of purecotton system%纯棉体系矿棉吸声板浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同坤; 郑阳

    2015-01-01

    矿棉吸声板由于具备良好的降噪性能和防火性能,广泛用于各种建筑吊顶、贴壁的室内装修.本文简述了纯棉体系矿棉吸声板的装饰性、吸声性和防火性三方面性能,通过简单的对比,论述了两种体系产品性能的差异.%Mineral wool acoustic board is good performance at noise reduction and fire resistance, so it is widely used in building's interior decoration as walling board and ceiling board. This paper describes three aspects of performance of mineral wool acoustic board of pure cotton system which is the decorative, the acoustic absorption and the fire resistance. Discusses the differences between the two systems of product performance.

  1. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH) has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.In this paper,we used citric acid(CA) as a crosslinking agent,mixed with CGH to perform a pad-drycure treatment on wool fabric to study reaction mechanism during crosslinking with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Dyeing characteristics of CGH treated wool fabric was assessed.The effects of CGH concentration,curing temperature,dipping time,pH value on color yield of reactive dyes on wool fibres were investigated.Fastness properties of the modified wool fabric to laundering and crocking have also been discussed.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) showed that CA produce esterification with the-OH group of the wool and transamidation with the-NH2 group of the CGH to form a crosslink.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analysis showed the CGH firmly attached to the surface of wool fibre.It was found that the CGH pretreated wool fabrics had significantly improved dyeability characteristics.It is worthwhile to mention that the CGH treated samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules and guanidinium salts.

  2. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  3. Investigation into Airborne Dust ina Wool Textile Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Haghi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dust samples were gathered from the vicinity of various commonly performed processes in the wool-preparation industry. Samples of airborne wool dust were collected on membrane filters during the processing of wool lots. The chemical composition of the inorganic particles present in the total inspirable and respirable dust fractions was determined with the use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The widely differing morphologies of the particles collected raise questions about the validity of trying to correlate minor respiratory symptoms with dust concentrations, as some particle types will penetrate the respiratory system more easily than others. The results are discussed with respect to the sampling methodology used.

  4. Enzymatic Treatment for Shrink-proofing of Wool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮建东; 戴瑾瑾

    2004-01-01

    An alkaline protease was applied on wool knitted fabric in an attempt to improve its shrink resistance. The influence of process parameters was evaluated and the tensile properties, surface characteristics and whiteness of wool were also studied. The results showed that the action of the protease on wool was significantly enhanced by hydrogen peroxide pretreatment. Based on the preliminary test and subsequent factor analysis, an appropriate combined process was obtained. The SEM investigation of the surface characteristics demonstrated that the enzymatic action was not uniform. In addition to the antifelting effects, the enzymatic treatment could lead to an improved degree of whiteness.

  5. POTENTIAL USE OF WOOL WASTE AS ADSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF ACID DYES FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIŞCANU Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, great amounts of raw wool are treated as waste and raise disposal problems. In the sustainable development context , wool is regarded as a biodegradable renewable resource and due to its complex chemical composition and fiber morphology, can find different useful applications. It is the aim of this paper to investigate the potential use of raw wool waste as a non-conventional adsorbent for Acid Red 337(AcR ,currently used for leather and wool dyeing. Two wool-based adsorbents were prepared, namely scoured coarse wool (Wool-S and wool activated with alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide (Wool-A. Adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, pH and treatment time were factors taken in consideration for the assessment of the sorbate-adsorbent interaction. The removal efficiency (R % is mainly dependent on the solution pH and on the activation treatment applied to wool: at pH 3, the removal efficiency reaches the highest values of 42% on Wool-S and 99% on Wool-A. The adsorption rate is slow and needs almost 6 h to reach equilibrium. The experimental data best fitted the Langmuir equilibrium adsorption model, which proves that the adsorbent possess surface active sites to which the dye sorbate binds in monomolecular layer. Raw wool waste is a potential cheap, biodegradable and effective adsorbent for colored wastewater treatment.

  6. The distinction between transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonlugur, Ugur; Gonlugur, Tanseli Efeoglu

    2005-12-01

    The first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusions is the distinction between exudates and transudates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of various parameters for the differentiation of pleural exudates and transudates. We recorded clinical characteristics, final diagnoses, and measured pleural fluid and serum levels of albumin, protein, LDH, cholesterol, and bilirubin of 381 consecutive patients with pleural effusion. Seventy-one (23%) pleural effusions were transudates and 236 were exudates. As a single criterion, the pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio >0.5 was the most accurate parameter (88.4%). An albumin gradient of 12 g/l had an accuracy of 75% in the whole population but it detected 96% of transudative effusions in patients treated with diuretics. Light's criteria and abbreviated Light's criteria had similar accuracies, 87.8% vs. 88.2%, respectively. In conclusions, different alternatives can be used instead of Light's criteria.

  7. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  8. The proteomics of wool fibre morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Jeffrey E; Harland, Duane P; Ganeshan, Sivasangary; Woods, Joy L; van Shaijik, Bede; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Thomas, Ancy; Clerens, Stefan; Scobie, David R

    2015-09-01

    Gel and gel-free proteomic techniques have been used for the first time to directly study the proteins present in whole wool follicles and dissected portions of follicles that correlated with morphological changes in the developing fibre as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Individual wool follicles were dissected into four portions designated as the bulb, elongation, keratogenous and keratinisation portions. Gel-free proteomic analysis of dissected portions from 30 follicles showed that the first keratins to appear were K31, K35 and K85, in the bulb portion. The first epithelial KAP, trichohyalin, was detected in the bulb portion and the first cortical KAP, KAP11.1 was found in the elongation portion. Other major trichocyte keratins and cortical KAPs began to appear further up the follicle in the keratogenous and keratinisation zones. These results were consistent with what has been observed from gene expression studies and correlated well with the morphological changes observed in the follicle. Other proteins detected by this approach included the keratin anchor protein desmoplakin, as well as vimentin and epithelial keratins, histones, ribosomal proteins and collagens. Two-dimensional electrophoretic (2DE) analysis of dissected portions of 50 follicles revealed substantial changes in the position, number and intensity of the spots of the trichocyte keratins as they progressed through the follicle zones, suggesting that they are subject to modification as a result of the keratinisation process. Also present in the 2DE maps were a number of epithelial keratins, presumably from the inner and outer root sheaths, and the dermal components.

  9. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernar, E.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline, extraction by organic solvents and freezing. The different methods for wastewater purification after scouring in use are: settling/floculation, biological treatment, adsorptionand catalytic oxidation. In this work, wastewater treatments after improved raw wool scouring with enzymes and EDTA have been investigated. Isothermal adsorption on zeolite A, active carbon and a natural and H+ type of bentonite for removal of the obtained wastewater impurities was used. The results were determined by means of different physical-chemical test methods.

  10. The Wool Lab SS13 Succeed at Pitti Immagine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Woolmark Company successfully presented the Wool Lab Spring Summer 2013 at Pitti Immagine Uomo, the fashion and apparel trade show gathering more than 1000 brands in Florence, from January lOth to 13th.

  11. The Formation and Binding of Gold Nanoparticles onto Wool Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James H.; Burridge, Kerstin A.; Kelly, Fern M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the novel use of nanosize gold with different plasmon resonance colours, as stable colourfast colourants on wool fibres for use in high quality fabrics and textiles. The gold nanoparticles are synthesised by the controlled reduction of Au3+ in the AuCl4- complex to Au0 onto the surface of the wool where they attach to the S in the cystine amino acids in wool keratin proteins. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows the nanoparticles are present on the cuticles of the fibre surface and are concentrated at the edges of these cuticles. EDS analysis shows a strong correlation of Au with S and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests Au-S bond formation. Hence the nanogold colourants are chemically bound to the wool fibre surface and do not fade as traditional organic dyes do. A range of coloured fibres have been produced.

  12. Facade insulation with mineral wool. Fassadendaemmung mit Mineralwolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-10-01

    Mineral wool insulations have proved worthwhile in construction engineering as apart from their very good thermal and sound insulating properties and they can be used nearly everywhere in construction as means of fire protection. With the passing of the 3rd Waermeschutzverordnung (regulation about thermal insulation) the requirements on the insulation of buildings have drastically increased. In this article insulation systems for external walls with mineral wool are described which are suited to meet also this new high insulation standard. (orig.)

  13. Evaluating a marketing loan program for wool and mohair

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The wool and mohair industries have been in a period of radical transition over the last few years. A number of issues have adversely impacted wool and mohair producers. These include loss of milling infrastructure, world economic events that have severely damaged export markets, increasing imports of lamb, and severe drought. This analysis builds on an econometric model of the sheep and angora goat industries. The models estimate and project supply, demand, and price. Projections are made ov...

  14. Superabsorbent dressings for copiously exuding wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Nathalie; Safar, Helene; Baret, Mylène; Philippe, Anne; Farid, Rachida

    Exudate control is important in the management of both acute and chronic wounds. A new category of absorbent dressings that contain superabsorbent particles promises high absorbency. The aim of this multicentre, prospective, non-comparative observational study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and absorbent capacity of a superabsorbent dressing. Fifteen inpatients and outpatients with highly exuding wounds were included. Most patients (n=8) (53%) had chronic wounds; 20% (n=3) had ulcerating tumours. The superabsorbent dressing was used as a primary or a secondary dressing. Assessment was on day 0 (start), day 3 and day 7 (end of study). The study looked at wound bed and periwound skin condition, exudate production, pain upon dressing removal, reason for dressing removal, and frequency of dressing changes. A clinical visual scoring tool was used, together with digital photographs, which were assessed by the same experienced clinician. All 15 patients completed the study, during which no adverse events were noted. At day 7, maceration had reduced from 46.7% (n=7) at day 0 to 6.7% (n=1). After only 3 days, dressing change frequency was reduced from once daily to twice weekly in 80% (n=12) of patients. The superabsorbent dressing seems to reduce complications associated with exudate production, stimulate wound healing and increase patient comfort; it may also save time and costs for caregivers.

  15. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  16. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  17. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  18. Major genes and QTL influencing wool production and quality: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvis Ian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The opportunity exists to utilise our knowledge of major genes that influence the economically important traits in wool sheep. Genes with Mendelian inheritance have been identified for many important traits in wool sheep. Of particular importance are genes influencing pigmentation, wool quality and the keratin proteins, the latter of which are important for the morphology of the wool fibre. Gene mapping studies have identified some chromosomal regions associated with variation in wool quality and production traits. The challenge now is to build on this knowledge base in a cost-effective way to deliver molecular tools that facilitate enhanced genetic improvement programs for wool sheep.

  19. The development of the rhizosphere: simulation of root exudation for two contrasting exudates: citrate and mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Cheng; Bol, Roland; Vetterlein, Doris; Vanderborght, Jan; Schnepf, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Different types of root exudates and their effect on soil/rhizosphere properties have received a lot of attention. Since their influence of rhizosphere properties and processes depends on their concentration in the soil, the assessment of the spatial-temporal exudate concentration distribution around roots is of key importance for understanding the functioning of the rhizosphere. Different root systems have different root architectures. Different types of root exudates diffuse in the rhizosphere with different diffusion coefficient. Both of them are responsible for the dynamics of exudate concentration distribution in the rhizosphere. Hence, simulations of root exudation involving four kinds of plant root systems (Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, Triticum aestivum and Zea mays) and two kinds of root exudates (citrate and mucilage) were conducted. We consider a simplified root architecture where each root is represented by a straight line. Assuming that root tips move at a constant velocity and that mucilage transport is linear, concentration distributions can be obtained from a convolution of the analytical solution of the transport equation in a stationary flow field for an instantaneous point source injection with the spatial-temporal distribution of the source strength. By coupling the analytical equation with a root growth model that delivers the spatial-temporal source term, we simulated exudate concentration distributions for citrate and mucilage with MATLAB. From the simulation results, we inferred the following information about the rhizosphere: (a) the dynamics of the root architecture development is the main effect of exudate distribution in the root zone; (b) a steady rhizosphere with constant width is more likely to develop for individual roots when the diffusion coefficient is small. The simulations suggest that rhizosphere development depends in the following way on the root and exudate properties: the dynamics of the root architecture result in various

  20. Action of plant root exudates in bioremediations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dundek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a summary of literature dealing with the use of plant root exudates in bioremediations. Bioremediation using plants (phytoremediation or rhizoremediation and associate rhizosphere to decontaminate polluted soil is a method based on the catabolic potential of root-associated microorganisms, which are supported by the organic substrates released from roots. These substrates are called “root exudates”. Root exudates support metabolism of pollutants-decomposing microorganisms in the rhizosphere, and affect sorption / desorption of pollutants. Awareness of exudation rates is necessary for testing soil decontamination. Commonly, water-soluble root exudates of different plants are studied for their qualitative composition which should be related to total carbon of exuded water-soluble compounds. This paper presents the determined rate of plant root exudation and the amount of root exudates carbon used to form artificial rhizosphere.

  1. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  2. Apparatuses in the manufacture of mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, J.; Moisala, T.

    1991-01-08

    In a process for manufacturing mineral wool, at the discharge section of the tapping spout to the spinning machine, at least one oxy-fuel burner is disposed. The burner is located at a predetermined distance and in a predetermined direction so that the discharge section of the tapping spout and a first portion of the tapping jet departing from the spout are heated by the burner flame, and the impulse of the burner is of such a size that the configuration and position of the tapping jet will remain unaffected. Employment of the apparatus of the invention will prevent molten mineral material in the spout jet from solidifying and accumulating on the tapping spout. This minimizes cleaning of the tapping spout, and an even and uniform spout jet will be continually led down towards the spinning wheels in the spinning machine, which results in a more uniform and even production in the spinning operation and a higher yield in the spinning process. Furthermore, because of the even, continuous jet of molten material, wear on the spinning wheels will be reduced and the working life of the spinning machine will be lengthened. 2 figs.

  3. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Broekman, H.; Guebitz, G.M.; Kokol, V.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged

  4. Minoxidil-associated exudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Atif; Ansari, Mohammed; Shakil, Jawairia; Chemitiganti, Rama

    2010-05-01

    Recurrent pleural effusions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Drug-related reactions causing pleural effusions are not common, but their identification can potentially improve patient outcome. Minoxidil has been implicated in pleuropericardial effusions in patients with chronic kidney disease. The exact mechanism by which pleural effusion occurs is still unclear. We report a case of isolated exudative pleural effusion associated with minoxidil in a patient without underlying kidney disease that almost completely resolved after the drug was discontinued.

  5. Concordant and Discordant Exudates and Their Effect on the Accuracy of Light's Criteria to Diagnose Exudative Pleural Effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rolando; Valdés, Luis; Kummerfeldt, Carlos E; Huggins, John T

    2016-12-01

    To describe the incidence of discordant exudate (DE) effusions, their underlying etiologies and their effect on the accuracy of the Light's criteria to diagnose exudate effusions. A retrospective review of pleural fluid analysis (PFA) from a cohort of patients with pleural effusion (PE) who underwent thoracentesis. PEs were defined as exudative based on the Light's criteria. The effusions were further classified in concordant or DE. From 847 PE samples, 611 (72.1%) were diagnosed as an exudate and 236 (27.9%) as a transudate. In 10.3% of cases (n = 87), there was discordancy between the final pleural fluid diagnosis and the PFA defined by Light's criteria. 281 (33.2%) of the 632 effusions classified as an exudate by Light's criteria were DE (52 transudates and 229 exudates). 182 (65%) of the 281 DE were found to be protein discordant (37 transudates and 145 exudates), and 99 (35.2%) were lactate dehydrogenase discordant (15 transudates and 84 exudates). The positive predictive value and positive likelihood ratio of Light's criteria for the diagnosis of an exudate effusion decreased from 99.4% and 67.4%, respectively, when the exudates were concordant to 81.5% and 1.7, respectively, if they were discordant. In a significant percentage of patients, there is discordancy between the results of the PFA and the final clinical diagnosis. DE decreased the accuracy of Light's criteria to identify exudate PE, increasing the risk of misclassifying a transudate as an exudate. Concordant exudates almost universally established the presence of an exudative PE. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of cotton nano-powder and its textile application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN YingTing; LI Yi

    2008-01-01

    A combination of chemical and mechanical treatment of cotton produced cotton powder (fibrils) with a mean diameter of 97 nm is analyzed by Laser Particle Size Analyzer. Transmission Electron Micro scope (TEM) study showed that the diameter of the fibrils was about 10-30 nm and the length was from 70nm to over 400 nm. The powder was then coated onto fabrics (100% polyester fabric, 100% wool fabric and 100% cotton fabric). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study showed that cotton fibrils were adhered to the surface of treated fabrics (fibers). The ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) value (AS/NZS 4399:1996) for cotton fabrics increased about 20% after the treatment. This implies that the treated samples give a better protection from UV light. The moisture management test (MMT) of the fabrics such as wetting time at bottom, top maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum wetted radius and bottom spreading speed, et al., showed that there were significant changes after the treatment. These changes gave better moisture management ability to the treated fabrics and thus made the fabric more comfortable. However, Wide-angle X-ray Diffraction and Fourie Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis proved that supermolecular structure and chemical structure of treated fabrics were the same as the original fabrics. Other properties of the treated fabric such as thermal conductivity, wrinkle recovery, hand, et al., did not change. This implied that the basic function of the treated fabrics for the clothing industry was the same as untreated fabrics. This study is a foundation for further researches on textile application.

  7. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  8. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  9. Adsorption Properties of Lac Dyes on Wool, Silk, and Nylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in the dyeing of textiles with natural dyes. The research about the adsorption properties of natural dyes can help to understand their adsorption mechanism and to control their dyeing process. This study is concerned with the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of lac dyes on wool, silk, and nylon fibers. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the pseudosecond-order kinetic model, and the adsorption rate of lac dyes was the fastest for silk and the slowest for wool. The activation energies for the adsorption process on wool, silk, and nylon were found to be 107.15, 87.85, and 45.31 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the Langmuir mechanism, indicating that the electrostatic interactions between lac dyes and those fibers occurred. The saturation values for lac adsorption on the three fibers decreased in the order of wool > silk > nylon; the Langmuir affinity constant of lac adsorption on nylon was much higher than those on wool and silk.

  10. Characterisation of keratin biomass from butchery and wool industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Marina; Aluigi, Annalisa; Tonin, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    The chemical and structural characteristics of wool and horn-hoof were compared with the aim of better addressing possible exploitation of protein biomasses available as waste from textile industry and butchery. Amino acid analysis showed that wool has a higher amount of cystine and a lower amount of the amino acids that favour α-helix formation than horn-hoof. The difference in the α-helix content is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Electrophoresis separation patterns showed two characteristic protein fractions related to low-sulphur proteins (between 60,000 and 45,000 Da) in wool, while different low-sulphur proteins are present in horn-hoof. These data are partially confirmed by DSC analyses that showed different endothermic peaks at temperatures higher than 200 °C in the horn-hoof thermograms, probably due to denaturation of α-keratins at different molecular weights. Moreover, wool keratin was more hygroscopic and showed a higher extractability with reducing agents than horn-hoof. On the basis of these results, waste wool is a more suitable source than horn-hoof for uses involving protein extraction, but application can be envisaged also in surfactant foams for fire extinguishers and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

  11. ON THE HIDDEN REVENUE EFFECTS OF WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA: INITIAL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of demand in eight major OECD wool-consuming countries is used to provide up-to-date estimates of price elasticities of demand for wool. Those elasticities are employed to calculate ex ante market prices, assuming no wool price stabilisation in Australia. The computed ex ante prices are used in a dynamic simulation to estimate demand and, hence, revenue from wool sales to the eight countries in the absence of reserve price operations in Australia. Based on the preferred...

  12. Comparison of hormone transfer to pleural and synovial exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovensky, Jozef; Simorova, Elizabet; Radikova, Zofia; Imrich, Richard; Greguska, Ondrej; Vigas, Milan; Macho, Ladislav

    2006-06-01

    Local effects of hormones on immune and connective tissues could play some role in the development of local inflammation processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of selected hormones in pleural exudates of patients with pleurisy and lung tumours, and compare these levels with hormone concentration in knee synovial fluid. Eleven patients with pleural exudate (mean age 62+/-3) and l9 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (of the same mean age) participated in the observations. Plasma, pleural exudates and synovial fluid levels of cortisol, prolactin, aldosterone, testosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, insulin and C-peptide were determined by specific radioimmunoassay. It was noted that all estimated hormones are transferred into pleural exudates and synovial fluid. Higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and C-peptide were observed in pleural exudates as compared to plasma. The concentrations of testosterone, prolactin and estradiol in males were lower in exudates as compared to plasma. Mean levels of cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone and insulin in plasma were similar to these found in pleural exudates. The comparison of hormone levels in pleural exudates and synovial fluid showed that the levels of cortisol, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone tended to be higher in the exudates as compared to synovial fluid. However, the levels of insulin, testosterone and estradiol in exudates were lower than these in inflammatory synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This study showed the presence of hormones in pleural exudates. The differences in hormone concentrations in pleural exudates and synovial fluid were observed suggesting a specificity of hormone transfer from plasma to these exudates.

  13. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Fiberglass Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of... Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public... hearing for the proposed Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing rule will be held on January 4, 2012 in Kansas...

  14. Effect of Commercial Synthappret BAP Treatment on the Tailorabilitv of Light-Weight Worsted Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gehui(王革辉); Zhang Weiyuan(张渭源); Postle, R.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of measurement with the FAST instruments,the effect of commercial Synthappret BAP treatment on the tailorability of light-weight wool worsted fabrics has been investigated. It was found that the commercial Synthappret BAP treatment improved the tailorability of the light-weight wool fabrics mainly by increasing the bending stiffness of the light-weight wool fabrics.

  15. 7 CFR 31.401 - Cost of samples for wool grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost of samples for wool grades. 31.401 Section 31.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL...

  16. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.27 Wool products containing superimposed...

  17. 7 CFR 31.402 - Cost of samples for wool top grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost of samples for wool top grades. 31.402 Section 31.402 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL...

  18. 16 CFR 300.25 - Country where wool products are processed or manufactured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country where wool products are processed or manufactured. 300.25 Section 300.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.25 Country where wool products...

  19. Comprehensive view on chemistry, manufacturing & applications of lanolin extracted from wool pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sengupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lanolin also called wool wax or wool grease is a yellow waxy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Most lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep breeds that are raised specifically for their wool. Crude lanolin constitutes about 5–25% of the weight of freshly shorn wool. The wool from one Merino sheep will produce about 250–300 ml of recoverable wool grease. Lanolin is extracted by scouring the wool in hot water with a detergent to remove dirt, wool grease (crude lanolin, suint (sweat salts, and anything else stuck to the wool. The wool grease is continuously removed during this washing process by centrifugal separators, which concentrate it into a wax-like substance melting at approximately 38°C. Lanolin and its many derivatives are extracted from wool scouring liquor and converted to a value added products that are generally used extensively in both the personal care (e.g. in high value cosmetics, facial cosmetics, lip products, etc. and health care sectors. It is frequently used in protective baby skin treatment and as a treatment for sore nipples in breastfeeding mothers. Lanolin is used commercially in many industrial products ranging from rust-proof coatings to lubricants.

  20. 76 FR 48804 - Grants to Manufacturers of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... (not estimates) of worsted wool fabric of the kind described in HTS 9902.51.11 or 9902.51.15. At the... International Trade Administration Grants to Manufacturers of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics AGENCY: Department of... providing financial assistance in calendar year 2011 for U.S. manufacturers of certain worsted wool...

  1. 75 FR 47544 - Grants to Manufacturers of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... (not estimates) of worsted wool fabric of the kind described in HTS 9902.51.11 or 9902.51.15. At the... International Trade Administration Grants to Manufacturers of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics AGENCY: Department of... providing financial assistance in calendar year 2010 for U.S. manufacturers of certain worsted wool...

  2. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  3. Indirect selection criteria against clean wool colour in Corriedale sheep and their effects on wool production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of greasy wool colour subjective assessment Visual Colour Score (VCS and the yellow predictive test (YPC as indirect selection criteria for reduction of clean wool colour (CWC in Corriedale sheep was examined. The heritability of these wool colour traits and the wool production traits, greasy (GFW and clean fleece weights (CFW, and mean fibre diameter (MFD and the phenotypic and genetic correlations among these traits were estimated from a Corriedale flock using AIREML procedures. A high genetic correlation between YPC and CWC was observed, indicating that YPC could be a suitable indirect selection criterium for CWC. However, direct selection against CWC was predicted to produce faster genetic improvements in CWC than that expected under indirect selection via YPC. Single trait selection based on VCS or YPC were expected to reduce the response in CWC to 51% and 49% of that estimated for direct selection. The positive genetic correlations of CWC, YPC and VCS with CFW and MFD would cause a reduction in both MFD and CFW to result from selection that reduces wool colour. The results showed that the most effective way to genetically improve CWC was through indirect selection to reduce MFD, CFW or GFW, followed by direct selection, but the premiums for CWC in the Corriedale breed may not be sufficient to justify the expected losses in CFW.

  4. Species identification of skins and development of sheep wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    and skin production, fresh approaches are needed, including new methods. This thesis investigates archaeological and historical skin garments and textiles using an interdisciplinary approach that combines biomolecular methods, archaeology and textile research. The aims of this thesis are first...... to the development of a sheep wool that could be used for textile production in the Danish LN II or EBA I (2000-1500 BC). Changes of the wool seem to again take place in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1-400). The genetic analysis of DNA from wool textiles and sheep bones aimed at extracting the entire mitogenome and nuclear...... PCR is still a valuable tool for species identification. For samples from degrading enviroments, such as the Danish bogs, Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing was proven to be a reliable method for species identification. Moreover, MS-based peptide sequencing provided information of the age...

  5. Species identification of skins and development of sheep wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    to the development of a sheep wool that could be used for textile production in the Danish LN II or EBA I (2000-1500 BC). Changes of the wool seem to again take place in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1-400). The genetic analysis of DNA from wool textiles and sheep bones aimed at extracting the entire mitogenome and nuclear...... markers mapped to the reference genome. The resolution of sheep mitochondrial DNA is, however, too low to generate detailed information of sheep population history and therefore nuclear DNA should be the focus in the future. Three studies focused on the species identification of skins. Traditional species...... and skin production, fresh approaches are needed, including new methods. This thesis investigates archaeological and historical skin garments and textiles using an interdisciplinary approach that combines biomolecular methods, archaeology and textile research. The aims of this thesis are first...

  6. A turning point for mineral wool boards; Vendepunkt for mineralullplater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatheim, Gaute

    2005-07-01

    Mineral wool is a great product, but people should not be exposed to the fibers falling out of it. This has been known for a long time. The author refers to a serious building file from Oslo in which there was a statement from Statsbygg (a leading public builder) that it was of no concern if there was dust in or above the panelled ceiling. Experience in Norway and international research uniquely shows that it must be as clean in and above the ceiling as below or else the pollution comes down into the occupied zone. The particles in mineral wool are too large to be contained in the suspended dust. Most complaints about bad indoor environment are due to unpleasant temperature or to air currents, but the most serious threats to human health are rooted in impurities (atmospheric indoor environment). Two new hospitals are discussed as examples of incompetent use of mineral wool in buildings.

  7. Application of Electrostatic Probe in Wool Fabric LTP Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Binghong

    2009-12-01

    By using a double electron probe the electron density and electron temperature were measured during the low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of wool fabrics. The dependences of the electron density upon the power, pressure and the plasma-treating time was studied. The effects on the wool fabrics' shrinkage were studied. The results showed that the angle of the double electrostatic probe and the area of the treated fabrics had a strong impact on the density measurement. The felt-proof property of wool fabrics treated with an argon plasma was better than that with a nitrogen plasma. The gas, power and pressure of the LTP treatment all affected the electron density. The electron density increased with the increase in power and pressure. The electron density did not change significantly with treating time, in a certain range of both power and pressure of the LTP treatment.

  8. Fiber movements and sound attenuation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of a plane harmonic sound wave in fiber materials such as glass wool is studied theoretically and experimentally. Wave equations are set up that take into account the movement of the fiber skeleton. The attenuation of the sound wave in slabs of glass wool was calculated and measured....... The main new result is that the experimental attenuation at low-frequency propagating wave is lower when the fibers move. For wave with frequency 100 Hz in glass wool of density 20 kg/m3, the attenuation of a layer of thickness 0.20 m is 4 dB if the fibers move, and 12 dB if they do not move...

  9. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  11. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  12. Sand control mechanism analysis of metallic wool screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongquan, H.; Jinzhou, Z.; Zhinjun, W.; Zhaofeng, L. [Southwest Petroleum Institute, China, (China); Lei, Y. [Liaohe petroleum Administration, China, (China)

    1997-08-01

    A filter prepacked with metallic wool was developed and claimed to have been effectively used on thermal and unconsolidated sand oil wells. Structural features of the filter screen and the factors having a bearing on its sand control function, such as particle characteristics, fluid properties, environmental conditions, and the filtering characteristics of metallic wool, were discussed. Some experimental results have been provided to illustrate desirable characteristics and advantages. According to this evidence, sanding velocity is highest at the beginning, stabilizing gradually. Production pressure drop must be appropriately adjusted to achieve best results with well sanding control. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. The characteristics of respiratory ill health of wool textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R G; Muirhead, M; Collins, H P; Soutar, C A

    1991-04-01

    The relations of lung function and chest radiographic appearances with exposure to inspirable dust were examined in 634 workers in five wool textile mills in west Yorkshire, randomly selected to represent fully the range of current exposures to wool mill dust. Most of these workers could be categorised into three large sex and ethnic groups; European men, Asian men, and Asian women. Exposures to inspirable dust had been measured at a previous survey and time spent in current job, and in the industry were used as surrogates for lifetime cumulative exposures. Chest radiographs were interpreted on the International Labour Office (ILO) scale by three medically qualified readers, and the results combined. Profusions of small opacities of 0/1 on the ILO scale, or greater, were present in only 6% of the population, and were not positively associated with current exposure to wool mill dust, or duration of exposure. In general, statistically significant relations between exposure and lung function indices were not found, with the exception of an inverse relation between the forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity ratio and dust concentration in European women. A suggestive but not statistically significant inverse relation between FVC and current dust concentration was seen in Asian men. Substantial differences were found between mills in mean values of lung function variables after adjustment for other factors but these were not apparently related to the differences in dust concentrations between these mills. Dyeworkers and wool scourers (mostly European men in relatively dust free jobs) on average experienced an FEV1 251 ml lower than other workers when age, height, smoking habits, and occupational factors had been taken into account. Twenty four per cent of the workforce responded to intracutaneous application of one or more common allergens (weal diameter at least 4 mm), only 12 (7.9%) of these responding to wool extracts. Atopic subjects did not appear to have

  14. A risk assessment for exposure to glass wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1999-10-01

    Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) have been widely used as insulation material in places where asbestos was used many years ago and therefore the hazards have been compared. Since the three principal types of asbestos fibers types have caused lung cancer at high exposures, there is a widely held belief that all fibers are carcinogenic if inhaled in large enough doses. Hence, on a morphological basis, SVFs have been studied for their carcinogenic potential. However, there is considerable evidence that differences exist among fibers in their potency to produce a carcinogenic response. In this attempt to carry out a numerical risk assessment for the installers of blown glass wool (fiber) insulation, we start with a characterization of the material; then we review the exposures both in manufacturing and installation. Neither the epidemiological studies of human exposure nor the animal studies have shown a marked hazardous effect from glass wool and we can therefore be sure that any effect that might exist is small. But in this case, as in many other situations where there is a potential hazard, society desires further reassurance and therefore we have made a mechanistic calculation. There are good estimates of the risk associated with exposure to chrysotile asbestos at high exposures and doses. We have therefore taken these numbers and discussed how much less risky an exposure to glass wool fibers might be. We conclude that for a given fiber count, glass wool is five to ten times less risky (and of course the risk might be zero). The risk for a nonsmoking installer of glass wool fiber insulation who wears a respirator is about 6 in a million (and might be zero) per year. This means that out of a million installers there might be six lung cancers from this cause every year or out of 10,000 installers there might be one in 16 years. The low risk of 6 in a million per year of a worker blowing glass wool is consistent with the fact that no one has found any of cancer

  15. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; N. Bam; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameter...

  16. Alternative methods for the wool wax extraction from wool scouring wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool fibers have to be properly washed out before being processed into fabrics. This scouring process generates high pollutant wastes in two forms, a liquid phase and a solid phase. Both phases contain a large amount of the grease (wool wax generated by the animal which may be recovered and purified to obtain lanolin, a highly valued product. To evaluate the amount of grease in such wastes, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvent is the technique more widely used in laboratories worldwide as it provides a high grease recovery although it is a time and solvent consuming technique. The present work compares alternative extraction techniques to the Soxhlet extraction (Microwave, automated Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluids recovering 100% of the grease, reducing the time of analysis, the solvent consumption and the waste generation.Las fibras de lana, tras obtenerlas de las ovejas y antes de ser procesadas industrialmente, han de ser lavadas. Este proceso genera residuos altamente contaminantes que pueden obtenerse en dos formas diferentes, una fase líquida y una fase sólida. Ambas fases contienen, entre otros, una gran cantidad de la grasa generada por las ovejas y que se puede recuperar y purificar para obtener lanolina, un producto de alto valor industrial. Para evaluar la cantidad de grasa contenida en dichos efluentes, la técnica más extendida en los laboratorios es la extracción por Soxhlet, la cual consume tiempo y disolventes orgánicos pero obteniendo altos porcentajes de recuperación. En el presente trabajo se compara el porcentaje de recuperación de la cera de lana de efluentes industriales mediante técnicas alternativas a la tradicional (Microondas, Soxhlet automatizado y Fluidos Supercríticos obteniendo recuperaciones del 100%, reduciendo el tiempo de análisis, el consumo de disolvente y la generación de residuos.

  17. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  18. Assessing Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt with Wire Wool Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed N. Bdour; Yahia Khalayleh; Aslam A. Al-Omari

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential application of wire wool in the modification of hot asphalt mixes (HMA). Wire wool material is widely available at local markets as a by-product of wire wool industry and as waste products from homes. For the purpose of this study, wire wool was cut into small pieces so that it can be placed in the asphalt mixes. Different percentages of wire wool were incorporated with the hot asphalt mixes (0.0%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) of the total weight of the asphalt binde...

  19. Back to Natural Fiber: Wool Color Influences Its Sensitivity to Enzymatic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro A. Amara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many missed biotechnological opportunities in the developmental countries. Wool quality improvement is one of them. This study is concerning with improving the wool quality using technical enzymes. White wool proves to be more susceptible to the enzymatic treatment than blackish brown wool. This proves that the enzymatic reaction is sensitive to the natural color differences between wool fibers. A simple enzymatic method has been used to improve the wool quality as well as to investigate the changes happened in the wool fibers. Geobacillus stearothermophilus has been used under mesophilic and static cultivation conditions using wool as the main carbon source. These conditions prove to be more suitable for maintaining the fiber structure, less expensive, and reliable as an in-house biotechnological process that can be adapted everywhere. The enzyme activity in case of white wool was 4 Units/ml and for blackish brown wool was 1.5 Units/ml. Electron microscope has been used to evaluate the end result. By following the process included in this paper using probable microbial strain(s, the wool quality improvement can be applied globally and can add another value to the economy of the developmental countries.

  20. Back to Natural Fiber: Wool Color Influences Its Sensitivity to Enzymatic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Amro A.

    2012-01-01

    There are many missed biotechnological opportunities in the developmental countries. Wool quality improvement is one of them. This study is concerning with improving the wool quality using technical enzymes. White wool proves to be more susceptible to the enzymatic treatment than blackish brown wool. This proves that the enzymatic reaction is sensitive to the natural color differences between wool fibers. A simple enzymatic method has been used to improve the wool quality as well as to investigate the changes happened in the wool fibers. Geobacillus stearothermophilus has been used under mesophilic and static cultivation conditions using wool as the main carbon source. These conditions prove to be more suitable for maintaining the fiber structure, less expensive, and reliable as an in-house biotechnological process that can be adapted everywhere. The enzyme activity in case of white wool was 4 Units/ml and for blackish brown wool was 1.5 Units/ml. Electron microscope has been used to evaluate the end result. By following the process included in this paper using probable microbial strain(s), the wool quality improvement can be applied globally and can add another value to the economy of the developmental countries. PMID:22629141

  1. INVESTIGATION OF NUTGALL AND SOME NATURAL DYES WITH MORDANTS COTTON DYEING AND FASTNESS LEVEL IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECOLOGICAL TEXTILE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞARAN, Fatma Nur; Sarıkaya, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Humans have been using plant-based dyestuff for centuries as the main provider of dyes for industrial products such as textiles, food, leather, etc. Specifically in Turkey, such plants have been used for the dyeing of the fibre and yarn of cotton, wool and silk used in handicraft products, such as carpets, rugs, fabrics, etc. With the discovery of synthetic dyestuffs in the mid-19th century, natural dyes, and thus, natural dyeing, gradually lost importance, although today, plant-based dyestuf...

  2. INVESTIGATION OF NUTGALL AND SOME NATURAL DYES WITH MORDANTS COTTON DYEING AND FASTNESS LEVEL IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECOLOGICAL TEXTILE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞARAN, Fatma Nur; Sarıkaya, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Humans have been using plant-based dyestuff for centuries as the main provider of dyes for industrial products such as textiles, food, leather, etc. Specifically in Turkey, such plants have been used for the dyeing of the fibre and yarn of cotton, wool and silk used in handicraft products, such as carpets, rugs, fabrics, etc. With the discovery of synthetic dyestuffs in the mid-19th century, natural dyes, and thus, natural dyeing, gradually lost importance, although today, plant-based dyestuf...

  3. Plasma Induced Physicochemical Changes and Reactive Dyeing of Wool Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Udakhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma treatment on physical and chemical properties of wool fabric and its relation to exhaustion of Drimalan Navy Blue FBI reactive dye. AFM analysis of plasma treated wool fabric has shown partial removal of epicuticle and thus reduced scale height. FD spectroscopy has shown improvement in hydrophilicity by many folds after plasma treatment. ATR graphs depict the removal of hydrophobic layer of 18-MEA and introduction of hydrophilic groups like cysteic acid after plasma treatment. Alkali solubility of wool fabric increases with increasing plasma treatment time. Wetting time for plasma treated fabric reduces drastically when compared to untreated wool fabric. It is found that plasma treated fabric takes much lesser time to reach maximum dye exhaustion than untreated fabric. Substantivity of the dye increases significantly after plasma treatment. Colour fastness properties improve with increase in plasma treatment time. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of spent dyebath liquor is found to reduce with increase in plasma treatment time. Biological oxygen demand (BOD is found to be higher for plasma treated samples, while ratio of COD/BOD has reduced with increase in the plasma treatment time.

  4. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  5. THE SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE FLAVONOIDS IN AEONIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; HART, HT; WOLLENWEBER, E

    1995-01-01

    Leaf exudates of 32 species of Aeonium were examined for the presence of flavonoids. Thirty two flavonoids were detected in exudates of half of the species. The flavonoids were identified as methyl ethers of kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and scutellarein. The distribution of

  6. THE SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE FLAVONOIDS IN AEONIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; HART, HT; WOLLENWEBER, E

    1995-01-01

    Leaf exudates of 32 species of Aeonium were examined for the presence of flavonoids. Thirty two flavonoids were detected in exudates of half of the species. The flavonoids were identified as methyl ethers of kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and scutellarein. The distribution of

  7. Weighted ensemble based automatic detection of exudates in fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentasic, Pavle; Loncaric, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a visual complication of diabetes, which has become one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world. Exudate detection is an important problem in automatic screening systems for detection of diabetic retinopathy using color fundus photographs. In this paper, we present a method for detection of exudates in color fundus photographs, which combines several preprocessing and candidate extraction algorithms to increase the exudate detection accuracy. The first stage of the method consists of an ensemble of several exudate candidate extraction algorithms. In the learning phase, simulated annealing is used to determine weights for combining the results of the ensemble candidate extraction algorithms. The second stage of the method uses a machine learning-based classification for detection of exudate regions. The experimental validation was performed using the DRiDB color fundus image set. The validation has demonstrated that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy in comparison to state-of-the art methods.

  8. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  9. Diagnostic value of uric acid to differentiate transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, K; Vural, H; Ozer, F; Imecik, O

    2000-07-01

    Uric acid is known to be an end product of purine metabolism. Increases in uric acid may be found in clinical conditions associated with tissue hypoxia. We have investigated the value of uric acid to differentiate between a transudate and exudate. In this study, we measured uric acid in the pleural fluid and the serum of 110 patients, 30 women and 80 men with a mean age of 49.5+/-19 years. Light's criteria were used to differentiate between a transudate and exudate. Mean serum uric acid was 496.7+/-153.4 micromol/l in patients with transudates and 291.3+/-143.1 micromol/l in patients with exudates. Mean pleural fluid uric acid was 487.7+/-165 micromol/l in patients with transudates and 279.9+/-142.1 micromol/l in patients with exudates. These data showed that the levels of serum and pleural uric acid were higher in transudates than exudates (p0.05). The specificity and sensitivity of pleural uric acid for diagnosis of transudate effusions were 73% and 80.6%, respectively. The specificity and sensitivity of pleural uric acid for diagnosis of transudate effusions from exudates without malignancy were 71.8% and 91.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of pleural lactate dehydrogenase for diagnosis of exudates were 82% and 89%; the sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid/serum lactate dehydrogenase were 85% and 89%; the sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid/serum protein were 91% and 89%, respectively. Using all three of Light's criteria together, the sensitivity was 91% and its specificity was 94%. Our findings indicate that determination of uric acid in pleural fluid may be of diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of transudates and exudates. The sensitivity of pleural uric acid measurement was higher for exudates without malignancy. However, Light's criteria remain the best means of separating transudates from exudates.

  10. The effects of zeolite molecular sieve based surface treatments on the properties of wool fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carran, Richard S.; Ghosh, Arun, E-mail: Arun.Ghosh@agresearch.co.nz; Dyer, Jolon M.

    2013-12-15

    Wool is a natural composite fiber, with keratin and keratin-associated proteins as the key molecular components. The outermost surface of wool fibers comprises a hydrophobic lipid layer that can lead to unsatisfactory processing and properties of fabric products. In this study, molecular sieve 5A, a Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} exchanged type A zeolite with a 1:1 Si:Al ratio was integrated onto the surface of wool using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane. The resultant surface morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical performance of the treated wool fabrics were then evaluated. Notably, the surface hydrophilicity of wool was observed to increase dramatically. When wool was treated with a dispersion of 2 wt% acetic acid, 2.5 wt% zeolite and 0.3 wt% or more silane, the water contact angle was observed to decrease from an average value of 148° to 0° over a period of approximately 30 s. Scanning electron microscopic imaging indicated good coverage of the wool surface with zeolite particles, with infrared spectroscopic evaluation indicating strong bonding of the dealuminated zeolite to wool keratins. This application of zeolite showed no adverse effects on the tensile and other mechanical properties of the fabric. This study indicates that zeolite-based treatment is a potentially efficient approach to increasing the surface hydrophilicity and modifying other key surface properties of wool and wool fabrics.

  11. Characteristics Of Virgin And Pulled Wool Fibres Used In Tunisian Handmade Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Harizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors such as production methods fibre quality and structural parameters have distinctive influence on the quality and performance of a hand woven carpet. Because the most common fiber used for producing handmade carpet is wool this experiment was aimed to identify virgin and pulled wool characteristics of Tunisian sheep breeds. A total of 84 sheep and 15 samples of commercial pulled wool were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length SL mean fiber diameter MFD coefficient of variation of fiber diameter FDCV fine fiber contain FC Breaking strength and Elongation. Results showed that Tunisian wool can be considered as medium wool. By conducting well-planned sorting Fine Queue of west sheep breed can supply the wool needed for textile industries. The wool of other sheep breeds can be used in handmade carpets. Also staple strength as one of the important wool characteristic affected significantly by alkali treatment during chemical unhairing process compared with wool collected by shearing process. Great attention must be paid to know the real characteristics of pulled wool before using it in handmade carpet industry.

  12. The effects of zeolite molecular sieve based surface treatments on the properties of wool fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carran, Richard S.; Ghosh, Arun; Dyer, Jolon M.

    2013-12-01

    Wool is a natural composite fiber, with keratin and keratin-associated proteins as the key molecular components. The outermost surface of wool fibers comprises a hydrophobic lipid layer that can lead to unsatisfactory processing and properties of fabric products. In this study, molecular sieve 5A, a Na+ and Ca2+ exchanged type A zeolite with a 1:1 Si:Al ratio was integrated onto the surface of wool using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane. The resultant surface morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical performance of the treated wool fabrics were then evaluated. Notably, the surface hydrophilicity of wool was observed to increase dramatically. When wool was treated with a dispersion of 2 wt% acetic acid, 2.5 wt% zeolite and 0.3 wt% or more silane, the water contact angle was observed to decrease from an average value of 148° to 0° over a period of approximately 30 s. Scanning electron microscopic imaging indicated good coverage of the wool surface with zeolite particles, with infrared spectroscopic evaluation indicating strong bonding of the dealuminated zeolite to wool keratins. This application of zeolite showed no adverse effects on the tensile and other mechanical properties of the fabric. This study indicates that zeolite-based treatment is a potentially efficient approach to increasing the surface hydrophilicity and modifying other key surface properties of wool and wool fabrics.

  13. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  14. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  15. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  16. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light’s criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19 and exudates (43. The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP, pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were for exudates, for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (. It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.

  17. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; Bam, N.; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion. PMID:23365740

  18. Scouring of Domestic Wool in Croatia and its Impacts on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubas, D.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wool and wastewaters from scouring can be a mixed blessing - a useful technological raw material or an environmental problem. If wool is scoured with no control, as the case most often is in Croatia, the wastewater released could endanger the environmental stability of the existing water systems. Since the interest has been growing recently for processing domestic wool, which also presents a considerable hazard of polluting water because of unskilled scouring and uncontrolled wastewater release into the natural water flows, we have organized investigations aimed at determining potentially dangerous ecological loads on the Croatian water systems, caused by scouring domestic wool. The results obtained indicate that improper disposal of the wool and/or uncontrolled release of wastewater from scouring present a considerable environmental hazard. We have concluded that impacts on the environment of scouring domestic wool in Croatia are the same as impacts on the environment obtained by normal functioning of a town of 1700-2000 inhabitants.

  19. Wool Keratin-Associated Protein Genes in Sheep-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Zhou, Huitong; Forrest, Rachel H J; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Dyer, Jolon M; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2016-05-28

    The importance of sheep's wool in making textiles has inspired extensive research into its structure and the underlying genetics since the 1960s. Wool keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a key structural component of the wool fibre. The characterisation of the genes encoding these proteins has progressed rapidly with advances in the nucleotide and protein sequencing. This review describes our knowledge of ovine KAPs, their categorisation into families, polymorphism in the proteins and genes, the clustering and chromosomal location of the genes, some characteristics of gene expression and some potential effects of the KAPs on wool traits. The extent and nature of genetic variation in wool KAP genes and its association with fibre characteristics, provides an opportunity for the development of gene-markers for selective breeding of sheep to produce better wool with properties highly matched to specific end-uses.

  20. Wool Keratin-Associated Protein Genes in Sheep—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Zhou, Huitong; Forrest, Rachel H. J.; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Dyer, Jolon M.; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of sheep’s wool in making textiles has inspired extensive research into its structure and the underlying genetics since the 1960s. Wool keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a key structural component of the wool fibre. The characterisation of the genes encoding these proteins has progressed rapidly with advances in the nucleotide and protein sequencing. This review describes our knowledge of ovine KAPs, their categorisation into families, polymorphism in the proteins and genes, the clustering and chromosomal location of the genes, some characteristics of gene expression and some potential effects of the KAPs on wool traits. The extent and nature of genetic variation in wool KAP genes and its association with fibre characteristics, provides an opportunity for the development of gene-markers for selective breeding of sheep to produce better wool with properties highly matched to specific end-uses. PMID:27240405

  1. A novel approach for grafting of β-cyclodextrin onto wool via laccase/TEMPO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Jiugang; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Ping

    2016-11-20

    This study demonstrated a new enzymatic methodology to graft β-cyclodextrin onto wool. The primary hydroxyl groups in β-cyclodextrin were oxidized to aldehyde groups using laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), which reacted with the amino groups of wool to form Schiff bases. The effects of treatment conditions (treatment temperature, laccase dosage, TEMPO dosage, treatment time) on the aldehyde and carboxyl contents in β-cyclodextrin were studied. FTIR spectrum of oxidized β-cyclodextrin showed the presence of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Results of MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the coupling of β-cyclodextrin to tyrosine, which was used as a model compound for wool. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the grafted wool confirmed the presence of β-cyclodextrin in grafted wool and the formation of a Schiff base between β-cyclodextrin and wool.

  2. Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

    A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

  3. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  4. Natural convection in sheep's wool and paper insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    The natural convection of two types of alternative insulation material has been measured in the convection apparatus of Department of Buildings and Energy. Measurements have been made on a type of sheep's wool (Herawool) with support fibres from the firm of Heraklith and a type of paper insulation...... (Ekofiber Vind) from Ekofiber. The density of the sheep's wool was 28 kg/m3 and the paper insulation was 65 kg/m3. The temperature on the hot side of the test specimen was 30°C and on the cold side ca. -10°C, that is a temperature difference over the test specimen of ca. 40 K.The measurements on the two...... alternative insulation materials have been compared to previous measurements on a traditional insulation material (Rockwool).Calculations of the convection conditions in the two materials have been made by means of a computer program CHConP. The measurements have been compared with these calculations....

  5. The efficacy of dieldrin against wool destroying insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ayappa

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of dieldrin as a protection against the wool destroying insects. Anthrenus flavipes Lec. (wooly bear and Tinea pellionella Linn. (case bearing clothes moth has been investigated. In very low concentrations (0.02-0.05percent on the weight of fabric, the insecticides offers adequate protection against both the insects. the effectiveness of treatment is not impaired by laundering (12 times or dry-cleaning (12 times. The resistance to laundering and dry-cleaning is not, however, as satisfactory when the insecticide is applied from solution. The economics of utilization of dieldrin as a protectant against the wool destroying insects has been discussed in relation to DDT, and it is shown that the former insecticide is much less expensive.

  6. Internal lipids of felted, yellowed and pathologically thin wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Tkachuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The keratin fibers contain small amount of the internal lipids which are in free state or bound with fiber proteins via tioester of 18-methyleicosanoic acid. Today the origin of these lipids, their composition and functional properties are still not found. Therefore, our objective was to examine the content and composition of internal lipids in sheep’s wool with different defects. We observed that regardless of the type of fibers defect there are significant changes especially in the quality composition of the internal lipids, although the total content of free and covalently bound lipids in all cases is practically identical. Notably, both free and covalently bound lipids composition of felted and simultaneously felted and yellowed wool is characterized by changes in contents mainly of free fatty acids and ceramides whereas abnormal thinning of fibers is accompanied only by a decrease of sulfolipids.

  7. New Plaster Composite with Mineral Wool Fibres from CDW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Romaniega Piñeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the intense activity of the building sector has generated large quantities of construction and demolition waste (CDW. In particular, in Europe around 890 million tons of CDW is generated every year; however, only 50% of them are recycled. In Spain, over the last years 40 millions of tons of construction and demolition waste have been generated. On the other hand, since the implementation of the Technical Building Code regulation the use of mineral wools as building insulation materials has become a widespread solution in both rehabilitation and new construction works, and because of that, this kind of insulation waste is increasing. This research analyzes the potential of a new composite (gypsum and fiber waste including several mineral wools waste into a plaster matrix. For this purpose, an experimental plan, characterizing the physical and mechanical behaviour as well as the Shore C hardness of the new composite, was elaborated fulfilling UNE Standards.

  8. Genetic parameters of wool colour and skin traits in Corriedale sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Clean wool colour (CWC) is an important wool price determinant and has been related to suint characteristics, i.e. sudoriparous and sebaceous gland secretions, such as suint percentage and suint K content. In this work heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations among wool colour and skin traits were examined. The genetic estimates were assessed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures using average information algorithm (AIREML) in a Corriedale flock. The traits analysed were...

  9. Speedup in competitiveness slowdown in export growth China’s wool industry in first four months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang; Lin’aiyi

    2007-01-01

    The wool textile production has always been one of the underpinnings of China’s industrial chain.At present,with more than four million wool spindles,China’s wool industry is already ahead of the world in terms of quantity.Besides, it’s also featured by the integral system,large production scale,high-quality but relatively lower-cost labor force and

  10. The Process Analysis of the Roller Stretching for Wool Slenderization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪玲; 于伟东; 章悦庭

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical estimation for the multiple-drawing has been derived under the consideration of fiber length distribution for the wool fiber stretching system. The functions of the roller drawing system and the parameters in stretching process have also been analyzed. The theoretical algorithms have been verified by the experimental results and can be used for the estimation of fiber length and its distribution after the stretching.

  11. Study of wool characteristics in the aranese ovine breed

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Jordana i Vidal, Jordi; Perezgrovas Garza, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    To date, no ethnological study on the wool characteristics of the Spanish Aranese ovine breed has been published.Fifty three animals belonging to this breed are tested as fleece samples. Each sample is analyzed for fleece type and length, yield by isoalcohol scouring, fiber length for each kind of fiber, variation in fiber diameter, and proportions of non-medullated and medullated or kemp fibers. Fiber length appears shorter than that previously reported for the breed by other authors. Fleece...

  12. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal....... It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin....

  13. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  14. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF MINERAL WOOL SLABS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal insulation materials is an effective method to create an insulating envelope of a building, as well as to reduce energy costs and increase the durability of building structures. The properties of stone wool products and their operational durability is largely determined by the conditions of formation of the mineral wool carpet, uniform distribution of binder and its curing and the heat treatment conditions. Most domestic technologies are aimed at the production of mineral wool products with volume-oriented structure, which is formed using special units: spreader and corrugator placed in a production line. The next step to obtain the optimum structures is the production of dual density slabs. The denser upper layer receives mechanical loads caused by the operating conditions; the lower, less dense, but more thick layer performs the main function - insulation. The dual density slabs are produced on standard lines supplemented with a special unit, which is located in front of the heat treatment camera. Optimization of heat treatment parameters and prediction of the properties of materials is performed using software package.

  15. Insulating wool production plant of reduced environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, A.

    1990-11-09

    A plant for producing insulating wool, such as glass wool and/or rock wool, comprises at least one forming machine, at least one polymerization oven, and first and second air treatment means. The total air load of the forming machine and the total air load of the polymerization oven are fed to the first air treament means, from the buffer vessel of which a recycle air load is drawn off. Both the forming machine and the polymerization oven introduce infiltration air loads, which result in the need for a bleed air load to be discharged into the atmosphere through the second air treatment means. In addition, in plants of sufficiently high capacity, it is economically attractive to feed the total air load of the forming machine and polymerization oven separately to the first air treatment means so that the temperature of the forming machine air load undergoes temperature control while the oven air load not only retains its entire heat content, but if possible increases it by heat exchange with other points of the plant at higher temperature. For example, it is possible to increase the temperature of the oven air load with heat recovery downstream of the incinerator furnace so as to recycle it to the oven and reduce or eliminate fuel consumption there. An example of the air load and energy savings possible at a typical plant is included. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Shen

    Full Text Available Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01 and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01. Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01. Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  17. Phosphorus Metabolic Disorder of Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

  18. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  19. Simulation of past exposure in slag wool production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallentin, B; Kamstrup, O

    1993-08-01

    A survey of the working conditions at a Danish slag wool production factory during the early technological phase in the 1940s is presented. No exposure data, however, are available for that period. So, a full-scale simulation of the past production of slag wool has been performed. Air monitoring was carried out in the working area around the cupola furnace. The aim was to measure exposure to air pollutants other than fibres. Such exposure might have confounded a possible association between lung cancer and exposure to fibres, in the early technological phase of slag wool production. The simulation experiment demonstrated exposure to PAH, a known lung carcinogen. The effect of other concurrent exposures is difficult to assess. Time-weighted average concentrations of particulate material ranged between 12.9 and 49.1 mg m-3 at the upper decks around the cupola. Corresponding concentrations of the dominant metals zinc and lead were 4.4-22.7 mg Zn m-3 and 0.9-4.7 mg Pb m-3. Significant concentrations of PAH up to 269 micrograms PAH m-3 (4 micrograms BaP m-3) occurred during ignition of the cupola furnace. The carbon monoxide level reached 270 ppm also during ignition.

  20. HEAT TREATMENTS INFLUENCE ON THE BREAKING TORSION OF WOOL TYPE FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORDEIANU Demetra Lăcrămioara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to convert the textile fibers in yarns, these must be subjected to twisting operation which confers them a certain tensile strength. Twisting also results in certain effects, such as crepe effect. The importance of knowing the twisting behavior consists in the possibility to avoid fiber degradation as the result of an excessive twisting. The present work took for study three types of chemical fibers (wool-type rayon, wool-type polyester, wool-type polyacrylonitrile and two types of wool fibers S11 and S12. The main characteristics of wool type chemical fibers (fiber count, nominal length, breaking length, relative elongation, brightness and of wool fibers (diameter, almeter length, uster irregularit have been measured. Then the fibers were subjected to thermal treatments in certain conditions. From the researches performed for the both wool blends, S11 and S21, one can notice that the torsional rigidity/stiffness increases after the thermal treatment and the wool fibers changes their handle accordingly. The rayon fibers present the biggest torsional rigidity, as compared to the other types of analyzed fibers, both untreated and heat treated. After heat treatment, the rayon fibers considerable improves their handle. The variation coefficient of breaking torsion increases in the case of heat treated polyester and poly-acrylonitrile fibers while for rayon and wool fibers this coefficient decreases.

  1. Mechanical Reinforcement of Wool Fiber through Polyelectrolyte Complexation with Chitosan and Gellan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anuar Mat Amin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH and gellan gum (GG solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the order of addition, i.e., dipping GG-treated fibers into chitosan resulted in mechanical reinforcement, whereas the reverse-order process did not.

  2. Grafting of chitosan as a biopolymer onto wool fabric using anhydride bridge and its antibacterial property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Arami, Mokhtar; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2010-04-01

    Weak binding of chitosan on the wool constitutes the main problem in its application. In this paper, the surface modification of wool fabric using anhydrides to graft the chitosan was studied. Weight gain, antibacterial and antifelting properties of the chitosan grafted-acylated wool fabric were investigated. Wool fabrics were acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), using different solvents (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of wool were investigated. Chitosan was grafted to the acylated wool and the effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated wool were evaluated. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) and weight gain analyses provided evidence that chitosan was grafted on to the acylated wool through the formation of new covalent bonds. The grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to existence of the antibacterial property of chitosan. In addition, the chitosan grafted-acylated wool samples have antifelting property. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fabrics. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  4. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  5. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  6. Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dye cotton blue by Penicillium ochrochloron MTCC 517.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Dhanve, Rhishikesh; Jadhav, Jyoti

    2008-09-15

    Triphenylmethane dyes belong to the most important group of synthetic colorants and are used extensively in the textile industries for dying cotton, wool, silk, nylon, etc. They are generally considered as the xenobiotic compounds, which are very recalcitrant to biodegradation. Penicillium ochrochloron decolorizes cotton blue (50 mg l(-1)) within 2.5 h under static condition at pH 6.5 and temperature 25 degrees C. TLC, FTIR and HPLC analysis confirms biodegradation of cotton blue. FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis indicated sulphonamide and triphenylmethane as the final products of cotton blue degradation. The pH, temperature and maturity of biomass affected the rate of decolorization. Presence of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities in the cell homogenate as well as increase in the extracellular activity of lignin peroxidase suggests the role of these enzymes in the decolorization process. The phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies of extracted metabolites suggest the less toxic nature of them.

  7. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection.

  8. New criteria for the differentiation between transudates and exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Paramothayan, N S; Barron, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements in fluids are more sensitive and specific markers for differentiating between exudates and transudates, as confirmed clinically, than the measurement of fluid total protein concentrations alone.

  9. Elevated pleural copeptin levels can distinguish to exudate from transudates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gümüş, Aziz; Çınarka, Halit; Karataş, Mevlüt; Kırbaş, Aynur; Kayhan, Servet; Şahin, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    ... and malignacy.Tuberculosis is one of the other major causes of pleural effusion in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to assess whether pleural copeptin level may be a new discriminative biomarker for exudates and transudates pleural effusions...

  10. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  11. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A; Williams, Graeme J; Olson, John A; Sharp, Peter F

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13,219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Results of submacular surgery to remove diabetic submacular hard exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Takeshi; Matsushita, Shingo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Katome, Takashi; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Shiota, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate outcomes of submacular surgery to remove massive submacular hard exudates with diabetic macular edema. Retrospective, non-comparative, interventional consecutive case series. Fifty-six eyes of 40 patients with massive submacular hard exudates with diabetic macular edema. Submacular surgery was performed to remove massive submacular hard exudates. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuities and clinical findings. All patients were followed for more than 1 year postoperatively. The macular hard exudates underlying the fovea almost disappeared, and macular edema remarkably reduced following surgery. Visual acuities ranged from 0.01 to 0.3 before surgery, and from 0.04 to 1.0 after surgery. Visual acuity improved by two lines or more in 45 eyes (80.4%), remained unchanged in 8 eyes (14.3%) and worsened in 3 eyes (5.3%). Visual acuity improved to 0.3 or more in 24 eyes (42.9%). Better postoperative visual acuity (0.3 or better) was related to hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and the size of hard exudates. Results showed the efficacy of submacular surgery to remove massive hard exudates with diabetic macular edema, and outcomes were satisfactory.

  13. Diagnostic value of adenosine deaminase to differentiate exudates and transudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Ashish Anantrao; Bardapurkar, Jayashree Suhas

    2007-01-01

    The differentiation of pleural effusions as exudates or transudates is the first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) concentration in the pleural effusions for differentiating exudates from transudates. Sixty indoor patients, admitted to our hospital, having pleural effusions and suffering from varying etiologies were included in this study. According to the final diagnosis, these 60 patients were divided into two groups: exudates (50) and transudates (10). The mean pleural ADA, serum ADA and pleural fluid/serum ADA ratio were significantly (P exudates as compared to transudates. Using a cut-off point of 22 IU/L, the sensitivity and specificity of pleural ADA in the diagnosis of exudates was computed to be 90% and 90% respectively. At a cut-off point 1.28, pleural fluid/serum ADA ratio was found to have sensitivity 84% and specificity 90%, respectively. From this study it is concluded that, ADA is a useful biochemical marker to suggest exudative effusions.

  14. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  15. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  16. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Broekman, H.; Guebitz, G.M.; Kokol, V.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged proteoly

  17. Effect of enzyme and oxidative treatments on the properties of coarse wool and mohair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barkhuysen, FA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available extensively for the treatment of wool. Recently Prabhu and Kanoongo (1) have isolated a naturally occurring mould and extracted a new keratin-degrading enzyme suitable for use in shrinkproofing of wool. Levene and Shakkour (2) used enzymes to enhance...

  18. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Broekman, H.; Guebitz, G.M.; Kokol, V.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged proteoly

  19. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products Labeling Act, and Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, where it appears to the Commission that it...

  20. Genetic relationship between wool shedding in ewe-lambs and ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in reducing labor costs related to shearing has led to the development of breeds that naturally shed their wool annually. This goal has been achieved by introducing hair-sheep genetics. These developments are relatively recent and thus the genetic underpinnings of wool shedding (WS) are not...

  1. 40 CFR 410.10 - Applicability; description of the wool scouring subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the wool scouring subcategory. 410.10 Section 410.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.10 Applicability; description...

  2. 40 CFR 410.20 - Applicability; description of the wool finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the wool finishing subcategory. 410.20 Section 410.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.20 Applicability; description...

  3. 16 CFR 300.15 - Labeling of containers or packaging of wool products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers or packaging of wool products. 300.15 Section 300.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.15 Labeling of containers or packaging of...

  4. Differential expression of genes and proteins associated with wool follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Li, Hegang; Liu, Kaidong; Yu, Juanjuan; Cheng, Ming; De, Wei; Liu, Jifeng; Shi, Shuyan; He, Yanghua; Zhao, Jinshan

    2014-08-01

    Sheep are valuable resources for the wool industry. Wool growth of Aohan fine wool sheep has cycled during different seasons in 1 year. Therefore, identifying genes that control wool growth cycling might lead to ways for improving the quality and yield of fine wool. In this study, we employed Agilent sheep gene expression microarray and proteomic technology to compare the gene expression patterns of the body side skins at August and December time points in Aohan fine wool sheep (a Chinese indigenous breed). Microarray study revealed that 2,223 transcripts were differentially expressed, including 1,162 up-regulated and 1,061 down-regulated transcripts, comparing body side skin at the August time point to the December one (A/D) in Aohan fine wool sheep. Then seven differentially expressed genes were selected to validated the reliability of the gene chip data. The majority of the genes possibly related to follicle development and wool growth could be assigned into the categories including regulation of receptor binding, extracellular region, protein binding and extracellular space. Proteomic study revealed that 84 protein spots showed significant differences in expression levels. Of the 84, 63 protein spots were upregulated and 21 were downregulated in A/D. Finally, 55 protein points were determined through MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. Furthermore, the regulation mechanism of hair follicle might resemble that of fetation.

  5. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... marking of country of origin, § 134.55 of this chapter. (c) Packages of wool products subject to the... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... be taken to effect the collection of liquidated damages in an amount equal to the entered value...

  6. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... from individuals; \\8\\ one from the Bureau Veritas CPS; \\9\\ one from the American Apparel & Footwear...\\ American Apparel & Footwear Association (5). \\11\\ American Manufacturing Trade Action Coalition, American... named above, which manufactures, markets, or handles wool products: (1) Guarantees that any wool product...

  7. Zirconium Oxychloride as a Novel Mordant for Natural Dyeing of Wool Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forouharshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium oxychloride, a well-known flame retardant, is introduced as a novel mordant for wool dyeing. This has been indicated by mordanting of wool yarns with zirconium oxychloride in different conditions and then dyeing with madder as a famous natural dye. The tenacity, color coordinates, washing, and light fastnesses of the dyed wool confirmed the positive influence of zirconium oxychloride as a useful mordant for wool dyeing with a low impact on the color coordinates. Further, an appropriate washing and light fastness were obtained for the zirconium-oxychloride-mordanted wool yarns. The central composite design (CCD was used to design the experiments with four variables on the results of tensile strength. Statistical analysis confirmed the optimum conditions obtained through the experimental results.

  8. Preparation of flame retardant wool using zirconium acetate optimized by CCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouharshad, M., E-mail: Forouharmahdi@gmail.com [Textile Department, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, M., E-mail: tex5mm@aut.ac.ir [Textile Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Center of Excellence in Textile, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, M.B. [Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, Allameh-Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saligheh, O. [Textile Department, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Young Researchers Club, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate effect of ZrAc and formic acid on the flame retardancy of wool fabric. {yields} The response surface methodology uses for the experimental plan. {yields} The thermal degradation studies by thermal analysis, LOI and vertical flame test. {yields} The fabric surfaces observe by SEM. {yields} Results show an increase in the decomposition temperature, residual mass and LOI. - Abstract: The thermal degradation of wool treated with the flame retardant synergistic system, zirconium acetate, citric acid and formic acid, was studied by thermal analysis, mass loss, limited oxygen index (LOI) and vertical flame test. The surfaces of the wool samples were observed by SEM. The treated wool samples show an increase in the temperature of decomposition, residual mass and LOI in comparison with the untreated wool. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the experimental plan with four variables on the results of flame retardancy. Statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results.

  9. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  10. Arsenic speciation in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Wood, B Alan; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Andralojc, P John; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-01

    How arsenic (As) is transported in phloem remains unknown. To help answer this question, we quantified the chemical species of As in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean (Ricinus communis) exposed to arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid. In the As(V)- and As(III)-exposed plants, As(V) was the main species in xylem exudate (55%-83%) whereas As(III) predominated in phloem exudate (70%-94%). The ratio of As concentrations in phloem to xylem exudate varied from 0.7 to 3.9. Analyses of phloem exudate using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography identified high concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione and some oxidized phytochelatin, but no As(III)-thiol complexes. It is thought that As(III)-thiol complexes would not be stable in the alkaline conditions of phloem sap. Small concentrations of oxidized glutathione and oxidized phytochelatin were found in xylem exudate, where there was also no evidence of As(III)-thiol complexes. MMA(V) was partially reduced to MMA(III) in roots, but only MMA(V) was found in xylem and phloem exudate. Despite the smallest uptake among the four As species supplied to plants, dimethylarsinic acid was most efficiently transported in both xylem and phloem, and its phloem concentration was 3.2 times that in xylem. Our results show that free inorganic As, mainly As(III), was transported in the phloem of castor bean exposed to either As(V) or As(III), and that methylated As species were more mobile than inorganic As in the phloem.

  11. [Elevated pleural copeptin levels can distinguish to exudate from transudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Aziz; Çınarka, Halit; Karataş, Mevlüt; Kırbaş, Aynur; Kayhan, Servet; Şahin, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Copeptin is released simultaneously along with arginine-vasopressine as a result of different stimuli from the neurohypophysis. Physiological function of copeptin is still unclear. Increased blood copeptin levels is associated with poor prognosis in many diseases. Pleural effusion is a common clinical condition. The most common causes of pleural effusions are heart failure, parapneumonic effusion, pulmonary embolism and malignacy.Tuberculosis is one of the other major causes of pleural effusion in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to assess whether pleural copeptin level may be a new discriminative biomarker for exudates and transudates pleural effusions. Research was done at Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine in the Department of Chest Diseases. The concentrations of pleural copeptin and typical pleural and serum marker levels were measured in 76 subjects with pleural effusions including 22 transudates caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), and 54 exudates including 18 parapneumonic (PPE), 18 tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPEs), 18 malignant effusions (MPEs). Median pleural fluid copeptin levels were higher in exudates than in transudates (1936 ng/mL and 1313 pg/mL, p value exudates (n= 54). Pleural copeptin levels of exudates, with a cut off value of 1469 ng/mL, yielded a 79.6% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, with an are a under the curve of 0.851. Pleural copeptin level is a new biomarker to separate exudates from transudates. Pleural effusion discriminative effect of copeptin is lower than plasma protein level and plasma lactat dehydrogenase (LDH). Pleural copeptin measurement is not recommended for routine clinical use. Pleural copeptin level is not contribute to different iate exudative pleural fluids from each other like PPE, TBPE and MPE.

  12. Analysis, anaerobic treatment and ozonation of wool scouring wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteverdi, A.; Rindone, B.; Sorlini, C. (Univ. di Milano (Italy)); Andreoni, V. (Univ. di Torino (Italy)); Rozzi, A. (Inst. di Ingegneria Sanitaria del Politechnico di Milano (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    Wool scouring effluents (WSE) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS), and then exposed to anaerobic biological treatment using laboratory scale fixed-bed filters. This resulted in a nearly 50% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Ozonation of the effluent from the biological step led to an even further decrease in total organic carbon (TOC). The fatty acid content of the WSE was affected by both biological treatment and ozonation. Finally, steroids in the WSE underwent reduction reactions when exposed to the anaerobic biological treatment.

  13. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  14. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: acemioglu@kilis.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  15. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  16. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae): exploratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Boere, Vanner

    2014-01-01

    Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp.) and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  17. New criteria for the differentiation between transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramothayan, N S; Barron, J

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements in fluids are more sensitive and specific markers for differentiating between exudates and transudates, as confirmed clinically, than the measurement of fluid total protein concentrations alone. Serum, pleural fluid, and ascitic fluid from 61 unselected patients were analysed retrospectively for LDH, cholesterol, and total protein. Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was reached independently by reviewing clinical details and laboratory data. Of 54 samples (40 pleural fluid and 14 ascitic fluid), 30 were classified clinically as exudates and 24 as transudates. Fluid LDH and fluid to serum protein ratio measurements were equally good at differentiating between exudates and transudates, with a sensitivity of 90%, a specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 84%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 86%. A combination of these parameters improved sensitivity to 100% and NPV to 100%, but lowered the specificity to 71% and PPV to 81%. This combination achieved a higher efficiency than Light's criteria. Routine measurement of fluid LDH values and the calculation of fluid to serum total protein ratios will aid in differentiating exudates from transudates.

  18. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  19. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  20. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  1. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  2. Natural convection in sheep's wool and paper insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    alternative insulation materials have been compared to previous measurements on a traditional insulation material (Rockwool).Calculations of the convection conditions in the two materials have been made by means of a computer program CHConP. The measurements have been compared with these calculations.......The natural convection of two types of alternative insulation material has been measured in the convection apparatus of Department of Buildings and Energy. Measurements have been made on a type of sheep's wool (Herawool) with support fibres from the firm of Heraklith and a type of paper insulation...... (Ekofiber Vind) from Ekofiber. The density of the sheep's wool was 28 kg/m3 and the paper insulation was 65 kg/m3. The temperature on the hot side of the test specimen was 30°C and on the cold side ca. -10°C, that is a temperature difference over the test specimen of ca. 40 K.The measurements on the two...

  3. Enhanced heat transfer with metal wool filled tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Khounsary, A.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Morales, G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) to be constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) utilizes magnetic devices which generate x-ray beams with very intense heat flux levels. The flux levels encountered can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than those commonly found in nuclear reactors or fusion devices. The beam line elements and optics on such beams pose significant challenge to the researchers and designers to keep them cooled at acceptable levels of surface temperature and/or temperature gradients. Therefore, methods and techniques achieving heat removal enhancement are constantly sought. One such technique suggested and considered is the use of conductive metal wool filled tubes where the filter is brazed to the tube walls. A comparative investigation of the conventionally achievable heat transfer coefficient h'' with water and the wall conductance of a heavy wall copper tube reveals that major resistance is on the coolant side. Therefore, there exists a significant opportunity to improve heat transfer in the tubes by enhancement of the coolant side. To this end a variety of copper wool filled tubes as well as a commercially available enhanced copper tube were subjected to laboratory tests with water and conventional heating to assess the resulting heat transfer improvement. Design improvements using enhanced cooling are discussed in terms of structural weight, controls, grazing angles, the operational reliability. 9 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of Mullite Wool Waste on the Properties of Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita MALAIŠKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the influence of mullite wool waste additive on the properties of building ceramics is analysed. For that purpose four formation masses were prepared, dried and fired at the analogous regimes (maximum firing temperature 1080 °C. The fired samples were used to determine the structural and physical-mechanical properties. The values of these parameters are analysed: water absorption, total and effective porosity, rate of capillary mass flow, reserve of porous volume, compressive strength, density and estimated exploitation frost resistance. It has been determined that mullite wool waste can be applied to the production of building ceramics and the optimum quantity of waste in a formation mass is 10 % according to weight. Water absorption of those ceramic samples was less than 4 %, compressive strength was 28.6 MPa, density - 2033 kg/m3, forecasted resistance to frost about 400 cycles.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.255

  5. Effect of cotton padding on the setting properties of plaster slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, D; Bansal, R; Barlow, T; Rhee, S J; Kuiper, J H; Makwana, N K

    2013-03-01

    Plaster of Paris (PoP) impregnated bandages have been used to maintain the position of bones and joints for over a century. Classically, wool dressing is applied to the limb before the PoP, which can then be moulded to the desired shape. A modification of this practice is to wrap the PoP bandages circumferentially in cotton before wetting and applying to the patient in an attempt to reduce inhalation of plaster dust and reduce mess. However, this may affect the water content of the cast and therefore also its setting properties and strength. This study compared the setting properties of PoP casts when used with and without cotton wrapping. Sixty specimens, compliant with the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for three-point bending tests, were prepared, with thirty wrapped in cotton. All were weighed before and after water immersion, and wrapped around a plastic cylinder to mimic limb application. Bending stiffness and yield strength was measured on a servohydraulic materials testing machine at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The water content of cotton-wrapped plaster was significantly higher (50%) than that of standard plaster. It had significantly lower strength up to 24 hours and significantly lower stiffness up to 72 hours. The initial decrease in strength and stiffness of the cast wrapped in cotton may comprise the ability of the backslab to hold the joint or bone in an optimal position. Any modification of the standard plaster slab application technique should allow for the potential adverse effects on the plaster setting properties.

  6. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  7. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  8. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  9. The proteome of liquid Sclerotial exudates from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yue; Strelkov, Stephen E; Kav, Nat N V

    2010-06-04

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) is a necrotrophic plant pathogen that is capable of infecting more than 400 plant species worldwide. The sclerotium plays important roles in the disease and fungal life cycles. The exudation of liquid droplets is a common feature during sclerotial development, but little is known regarding the nature of these exudates. A proteome-level study was performed in order to gain a better understanding of the types of proteins present in the exudates. Fifty-six proteins were identified and classified into several functional categories, including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid and secondary metabolism, as well as energy, signal transduction, and those with unknown functions. The roles of the identified proteins are discussed within the context of sclerotial development and fungal virulence. Our results may facilitate additional studies aimed at characterizing the function of these proteins in the formation of sclerotia and the life cycle of S. sclerotiorum.

  10. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  11. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Vivanco, Jorge M; Edison, Arthur S

    2009-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to interact chemically with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed by using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites that include organic acids, amino acids, and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and Escherichia coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Pseudomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, thus demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems.

  12. Identification of Novel Chondroprotective Mediators in Resolving Inflammatory Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneva, Magdalena K; Greco, Karin V; Headland, Sarah E; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Mori, Prashant; Greenslade, Kevin; Pitzalis, Costantino; Moore, Adrian; Perretti, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesized that exudates collected at the beginning of the resolution phase of inflammation might be enriched for tissue protective molecules; thus an integrated cellular and molecular approach was applied to identify novel chondroprotective bioactions. Exudates were collected 6 h (inflammatory) and 24 h (resolving) following carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. The resolving exudate was subjected to gel filtration chromatography followed by proteomics, identifying 61 proteins. Fractions were added to C28/I2 chondrocytes, grown in micromasses, ions with or without IL-1β or osteoarthritic synovial fluids for 48 h. Three proteins were selected from the proteomic analysis, α1-antitrypsin (AAT), hemopexin (HX), and gelsolin (GSN), and tested against catabolic stimulation for their effects on glycosaminoglycan deposition as assessed by Alcian blue staining, and gene expression of key anabolic proteins by real-time PCR. In an in vivo model of inflammatory arthritis, cartilage integrity was determined histologically 48 h after intra-articular injection of AAT or GSN. The resolving exudate displayed protective activities on chondrocytes, using multiple readouts: these effects were retained in low m.w. fractions of the exudate (46.7% increase in glycosaminoglycan deposition; ∼20% upregulation of COL2A1 and aggrecan mRNA expression), which reversed the effect of IL-1β. Exogenous administration of HX, GSN, or AAT abrogated the effects of IL-1β and osteoarthritic synovial fluids on anabolic gene expression and increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. Intra-articular injection of AAT or GSN protected cartilage integrity in mice with inflammatory arthritis. In summary, the strategy for identification of novel chondroprotective activities in resolving exudates identified HX, GSN and AAT as potential leads for new drug discovery programs. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of cholinesterase to differentiate pleural exudates and transudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Gupta, K B; Goyal, Kirori M; Nand, Nitya

    2004-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholinesterase (PChE) level in pleural fluid and its ratio to serum cholinesterase (P/SChE) in order to differentiate transudates and exudates and to compare their diagnostic efficacy with the Light's criteria. A total of 110 patients of pleural effusion of diverse etiology were studied. Eighty patients were of exudative pleural effusion of tubercular, malignant or parapneumonic origin and 30 patients were of transudative effusion. Cholinesterase was estimated in the pleural fluid and serum in all the patients. The mean PChE and P/S ChE were significantly higher in exudates as compared to transudates (p exudates and transudates, respectively. When a cut-off value of 469 IU/L for PChE was taken for the diagnosis, it was found that 10% of exudates and 2.5% of transudates were misclassified. However percentage of misclassification decreased to 1.25% in exudates and 3.3% in transudates when the cut-off value of 0.24 for P/S ChE ratio was used. Using Light's criteria, a sensitivity of 91.25% and specificity of 90% with positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.05% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 79.42% was observed. However using P/S ChE, the PPV was 98.75% and NPV was 96.67%. The estimation of PChE and P/SChE ratio had better discriminatory capacity than Light's criteria. It is cost effective and more specific, therefore its routine estimation is recommended.

  14. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Ting [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Cheng, An, E-mail: ancheng@niu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu [Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: • We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. • Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. • The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. • The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. • XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  15. Genetic parameters of wool colour and skin traits in Corriedale sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Benavides

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean wool colour (CWC is an important wool price determinant and has been related to suint characteristics, i.e. sudoriparous and sebaceous gland secretions, such as suint percentage and suint K content. In this work heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations among wool colour and skin traits were examined. The genetic estimates were assessed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML procedures using average information algorithm (AIREML in a Corriedale flock. The traits analysed were wool colour traits (CWC, yellow predictive colour (YPC, and Visual Score; suint traits such as suint percentage and potassium and sodium concentrations in suint, and physiological traits such as potassium and sodium concentrations in the skin, including plasma and red blood cells. The objectives of this study were to assess phenotypic and genetic correlations between wool colour and skin traits, and to find the suitability of these traits as indirect selection criteria for clean wool colour. Suint traits were highly genetically correlated to YPC. Suint K, but not suint percentage, was found to have a high genetic correlation with CWC. Skin K, Visual Score, YPC and suint K were amongst the best indirect selection criteria for clean wool colour. However, selection using these traits was expected to reduce CWC from 52% to 49% of that estimated under direct selection.

  16. Genetic relationships between dagginess, breech bareness, and wool traits in New Zealand dual-purpose sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Blair, H T; Hickson, R E; Dodds, K G; Johnson, P L; McEwan, J C

    2013-10-01

    Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated for dagginess, breech, wool, and fiber traits from approximately 29,500 progeny born in 2009 and 2010 in New Zealand dual-purpose ram breeding sheep flocks. Dagginess is adherence of fecal matter to the wool, and this study investigates the genetic and phenotypic correlations between dagginess and breech and wool traits. Estimates for heritability were moderate (0.21 to 0.44) for the following traits: dag score at 3 and 8 mo (DAG3, DAG8), breech bareness, wool length, wool bulk (BULK), mean fiber diameter, mean fiber diameter SD, mean fiber diameter CV, curvature (CURV), weaning weight at 3 mo, and autumn BW. Heritability estimates for fleece weight at 12 mo and proportion of medullated fibers were high (0.49 and 0.53, respectively). Dag score at 3 mo and DAG8 had low genetic and phenotypic correlations with all traits. Breech bareness had positive genetic and phenotypic correlations with CURV and BULK and mostly negative genetic correlations with all other wool traits. In summary the quantity and attributes of wool were not primary causative factors in fecal accumulation, leaving fecal consistency and composition as the major factors.

  17. Assessment of rock wool as support material for on-site sanitation: hydrodynamic and mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Adrien; Laurent, Julien; Bois, Paul; Mosé, Robert; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Bahlouli, Nadia; Tiffay, Serge; Braun, Bouke; Provo kluit, Pieter-Willem

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes mechanical and hydrodynamic characterization of rock wool used as support material in compact filter. A double-pronged approach, based on experimental simulation of various physical states of this material was done. First of all a scanning electron microscopy observation allows to highlight the fibrous network structure, the fibres sizing distribution and the atomic absorption spectrum. The material was essentially lacunar with 97 ± 2% of void space. Static compression tests on variably saturated rock wool samples provide the fact that the strain/stress behaviours depend on both the sample conditioning and the saturation level. Results showed that water exerts plastifying effect on mechanical behaviour of rock wool. The load-displacement curves and drainage evolution under different water saturation levels allowed exhibiting hydraulic retention capacities under stress. Finally, several tracer experiments on rock wool column considering continuous and batch feeding flow regime allowed: (i) to determine the flow model for each test case and the implications for water dynamic in rock wool medium, (ii) to assess the rock wool double porosity and discuss its advantages for wastewater treatment, (iii) to analyse the benefits effect for water treatment when the high level of rock wool hydric retention was associated with the plug-flow effect, and (iv) to discuss the practical contributions for compact filter conception and management.

  18. Trial of human laser epilation technology for permanent wool removal in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, I G; Cox, T; Small, A H

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether human laser epilation technology can permanently prevent wool growth in sheep. An observational study. Two commercial human epilation lasers (Sharplan alexandrite 755 nm laser, and Lumenis LightSheer 800 nm diode laser) were tested at energies between 10 and 100 J/cm2 and pulse widths from 2 to 400 ms. Wool was clipped from flank, breech, pizzle and around the eyes of superfine Merino sheep with Oster clippers. After initial laser removal of residual wool to reveal bare skin, individual skin sites were treated with up to 15 cycles of laser irradiation. Behavioural responses during treatment, skin temperature immediately after treatment and skin and wool responses for 3 months after treatment were monitored. A clear transudate was evident on the skin surface within minutes. A dry superficial scab developed by 24 h and remained adherent for at least 6 weeks. When scabs were shed, there was evidence of scarring at sites receiving multiple treatment cycles and normal wool growth in unscarred skin. There was no evidence of laser energy level or pulse width affecting the response of skin and wool to treatment and no evidence of permanent inhibition of wool growth by laser treatment. Laser treatment was well tolerated by the sheep. Treatment of woolled skin with laser parameters that induce epilation by selective photothermolysis in humans failed to induce permanent inhibition of wool growth in sheep. Absence of melanin in wool may have contributed to the result. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  20. 花期喷施赤霉素对棉铃空间分布及品质的影响%Effect of Cotton boll Quality and Spatial Distribution by Way of Spraying Gibberellin in Flowering Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小峰; 彭延; 马丽; 李慧琴; 郭建斌

    2012-01-01

    This test sprayed gibberellin on middle long-staple cotton in flowering period,in order to illuminate the effect of different concentration and different quantity of gibberellin to the cotton boll spatial distribution,cotton yield and quality. The results indicated that,spraying gibberellin could increase the cotton boll,but was not remarkable to the quality of cotton;It was propitious to produce cotton boll and heighten the quality of cotton wool by spraying the 10mg/L solution of gibberelin time after time.%通过对中长绒棉在开花期花喷施不同浓度的赤霉素进行试验,以阐明赤霉素对棉铃空间分布及产量和品质的影响。结果表明:赤霉素能增加中长绒棉的结铃,对品质的影响不显著;用赤霉素10 mg/L溶液多次喷施更有利于棉花结铃,有利于提高原棉质量。

  1. One-bath Dyeing of Polyester/Wool Blend with Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔; 宋心远

    2001-01-01

    The role of auxiliary LAB as vehicle in dyeing polyester/wool blends with disperse dyes is described. Dye exhaustion and bonding on polyester/wool samples are studied under different experimental conditions - the LAB amount, the temperature and pH value- to achieve optimum conditions. The results are compared with those obtained with and without conventional dyeing auxiliary products. Although dye exhaustion is higher in the presence of commercial carriers, the dye bonded increases markedly in the presence of auxiliary LAB in both fibers. The role played by auxiliary LAB in polyester/wool blend dyeing can provide a new method for this process.

  2. Mineral Wool Macrostructure Parameter’s Relation with Product’s Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius BUSKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests established the relations of rigid mineral wool products (with different structure macrostructure parameters with main their mechanical characteristic – compressibility. The products within the nominal density between 45 and 170 kg/m3 were analysed. Determined that strong functional relationship exists between the values of critical compressive stress and macrostructure parameters, density and organic content of mineral wool products, because the value of the multiple correlation coefficient equals 0.95. Using the obtained empirical equation is possible predict and calculate the mechanical behiaviour (compression stress of mineral wool slabs by using macrostructure parameters and other (density, organic content characteristics.

  3. Use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering to Study Various Properties of Wool and Mohair Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, C. B.; Török, Gy.

    2011-12-01

    To maintain a competitive edge in the wool and mohair industry, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the properties of wool fibres is essential. Standard techniques are used to determine fibre diameter, length and strength; however, properties such as hydroscopicity, lustre and changes in fibre structure following chemical or mechanical treatment are not so well understood. The unique capabilities of small angle neutron scattering to study changes in the supermolecular structure of wool fibres, particularly at the level of the microfibril-matrix complex, have been used to provide previously unknown features of the fibres. The results of these studies are presented.

  4. Use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering to Study Various Properties of Wool and Mohair Fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Toeroek, Gy. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2011-12-13

    To maintain a competitive edge in the wool and mohair industry, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the properties of wool fibres is essential. Standard techniques are used to determine fibre diameter, length and strength; however, properties such as hydroscopicity, lustre and changes in fibre structure following chemical or mechanical treatment are not so well understood. The unique capabilities of small angle neutron scattering to study changes in the supermolecular structure of wool fibres, particularly at the level of the microfibril-matrix complex, have been used to provide previously unknown features of the fibres. The results of these studies are presented.

  5. A distributed knowledge-based system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomusa Dlodlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the concept and development of a knowledge-based advisory system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool for the benefit of present and potential investors and other interested parties. Wool is a natural animal fibre produced in varying quantities around the world. The wool fibre is far from homogenous; its type and quality, such as fineness and length, depending on the breed of sheep and the environmental conditions prevailing during its growth. Wool is used in a variety of end uses, ranging from fi ne worsted suiting, to hand knitting yarn, carpets, blankets and aircraft upholstery, its use depending largely on its fibre fineness and length. The wool industry is one of the oldest agricultural industries in South Africa, playing an important economic role as an earner of foreign exchange, and providing a living to many people. Wool is produced in many parts of South Africa under extensive, semi-extensive or intensive conditions, and is largely an export commodity. It is produced and traded in a sophisticated free market business environment into the international market place, where supply and demand forces determine price levels. More than 90% of locally produced wool is exported in an unprocessed or semi-processed form which detrimentally affects employment, foreign exchange and income-generating opportunities associated with value-addition prior to export. To reduce the amount of wool exported in unprocessed or semi-processed form, wool-processing enterprises need to be established to produce internationally marketable end products. Therefore, South Africa needs to attract investors into the wool sector, who will set up manufacturing mills in an economically sustainable manner. Potential and present investors in the South African (S.A. wool industry need easily accessible and up-to-date information on the production statistics, processing properties and end-use pplications of the wool they need for the

  6. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  7. The influence of enzymatic treatment on wool fibre properties using PEG-modified proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Jus, Suzana; Schroeder, Marc; Gübitz, Georg M.; Heine, Elisabeth; Kokol, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    The main contribution of the presented work was to introduce the use of proteases modified with the soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the bio-finishing process of wool fibres, to target enzyme action to the outerparts of wool fibres, i.e. to avoid the diffusion and consequent destroying of the inner parts of the wool fibre structure, in the case of native proteases using. Different proteolytic enzymes from Bacillus lentus and Bacillus subtilis in native and PEG-modified forms were ...

  8. Increased oxidative stress in exudative pleural effusions: a new marker for the differentiation between exudates and transudates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Evangelia; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Karetsi, Eleni; Mpatavanis, Georgios; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2005-11-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with various respiratory disorders. We tested the hypothesis that exudates would present higher levels of oxidative stress compared to transudates, expressing the increased local oxidative burst in the former. Prospective, cross-sectional study. One hundred six consecutive patients who had undergone thoracentesis were studied. Ninety patients with a final diagnosis of pleural effusion were further analyzed. The respiratory department and a clinical laboratory of a tertiary hospital. Subjects underwent diagnostic thoracentesis, and standard biochemical parameters (ie, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and albumin levels) were measured in pleural fluid and serum. Oxidative stress levels were assessed with a commercially available method (d-ROMs test; Diacron; Grosseto, Italy) that uses conventional Carratelli units (UCarr). In 14 patients, duplicate measurements of oxidative stress and a second thoracentesis were performed on the following day for the assessment of the repeatability of measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in order to determine the optimal cutoff level for the differentiation between exudates and transudates. Oxidative stress levels were higher in exudates compared to transudates (mean [+/- SD] stress level, 274 +/- 72 vs 126 +/- 34 UCarr, respectively; p exudative effusions of different etiologies. The area under the ROC curve was 0.992 (95% confidence interval, 0.945 to 0.997), and the method provided high sensitivity (96.8%), high specificity (96.3%), and high accuracy (96.7%) for the diagnosis of exudates at a cutoff level for oxidative stress of 186 UCarr. Consecutive measurements of oxidative stress in the same samples and on fluid from two different thoracenteses performed on 2 consecutive days presented excellent repeatability. Oxidative stress levels are higher in exudative pleural effusions compared to transudative effusions, probably due to reactive oxygen

  9. Physical engineering of rhizosphere by plant exudates varies with species, origin and microbial decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Brown, Lawrie; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Koebernick, Nicolai; Cooper, Laura; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Rhizosphere physical conditions are continually modified by the release of plant root exudates and microbial metabolites. Separate studies have shown that model root exudates influence surface tension, contact angle, water retention and soil stability, but an integrated assessment of these properties for different real root exudates is absent. We hypothesise that influence of root exudates on soil physical properties depends on the physico-chemical characteristics of the exudates itself. The first part of this study examines the physico-chemical characteristics of barley root exudate, maize root exudate, and chia seed exudate. The second part of the study has shown the influence of these root exudates on micromechanics (dispersion and aggregation), water retention, hysteresis and shrinkage-swelling of soils. Highest amount of amino acids and organic acids were observed for barley root exudate followed by maize root and chia seed, respectively. Conversely, the reverse is true for sugars i.e. chia seed exudate > maize root exudate > barley root exudate. We found that barley root exudates have the capacity to weaken soil followed by strengthening after biological decomposition. The initial weakening of soil by barley root exudation may ease root penetration through soil and help in releasing nutrients from soil that were initially not accessible. Maize root exudates and chia seed exudates, on the other hand, strengthen soil from the onset, with biological decomposition decreasing strength that was still significantly higher compared to that of control soil. This strengthening of soil by maize root and chia seed exudation could drive more stable soil structure near roots. Under drying conditions both maize root and chia seed exudates were acted as a gel that retained more water but also enhanced hysteresis during rewetting. On the other hand barely root exudate more acted as a surfactant that decreased soil water retention as well as hysteresis compared to the control

  10. Hydraulic resistance of carper of cylindrical shape mineral wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the mineral wool mat are determined by the mode of heat treatment and properties of the products. The main parameter to assess the properties of highly porous fibrous material is its resistance to the air flow, which can be estimated by the value of the hydraulic resistance. This parameter includes both the characteristics of the mineral fiber (diameter, length, density characteristics of the system as a whole (total porosity, average density, the content of fibrous inclusions and gas environment parameters (temperature and speed of its motion through the porous layer. Characteristics of the gaseous medium are technological factors, which influence the material during the heat treatment, and hence optimization of the process parameters. The flow of gas through the perforated wall of the hole determined by characteristics, pressurized inside a rolling pin, and the structural characteristics of the mineral geometrical cylinder and his hydraulic resistance. So, a universal criterion, which measures the mass transfer efficiency and hence the effectiveness of the heat treatment, is a hydraulic resistance cylinder. The study of the processes occurring in the mineral wool carpet, showed that its hydraulic resistance is directly proportional to the surface of fibers per unit bed volume and inversely proportional to the third degree of porosity of the layer. Researches have shown that increasing the degree of perforation increases the uneven distribution. However, if total power increases 1.87 times, because the perforation through the inlet portion perforation of rolling pin was disclosure, substantially uniform distribution was achieved. The investigations led to the following conclusions: the specific surface layer has a linear dependence on its average density; hydraulic resistance of the layer will be greater, when the amount of beads and fibers diameter is smaller. The obtained exact dependence allows calculating the hydraulic

  11. Respiratory and allergic symptoms in wool textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R G; Smith, T A; Gurr, D; Soutar, C A; Scarisbrick, D A; Seaton, A

    1988-11-01

    An epidemiological study of 2153 workers in 15 West Yorkshire wool textile mills was conducted to determine relations between respiratory symptoms and exposure to inspirable wool mill dust. A questionnaire designed to elicit all the common respiratory symptoms was developed and tested, and administered to all workers willing to participate (85%). It was translated and administered in Urdu for the 385 workers from Pakistan whose English was not fluent. Symptoms investigated included cough and phlegm, wheezing and chest tightness, breathlessness and its variability, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, chills, nosebleeds, and chest illnesses. Additional questions were asked, where appropriate, about the times of day, days of the week, seasons, and places that the symptoms were worse or better than normal. An environmental survey was carried out at each mill, which included 629 measurements of inspirable dust, enabling estimates to be made of the airborne concentrations of inspirable dust usually experienced by each member of the workforce under current conditions. Overall symptom prevalences were: persistent cough and phlegm, 9%; wheeze, 31%; breathlessness on walking with others on level ground, 10%; persistent rhinitis, 18%; persistent conjunctivitis, 10%; persistent chills, 2%; ten or more nosebleeds a year, 2%; and three or more chest illnesses in past three years, 5%. After allowing for the effects of age, sex, smoking habit, and ethnic group, cough and phlegm, wheeze, breathlessness, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and nosebleeds were found to be more frequent in those exposed to higher than to lower concentrations of dust. In some experiencing high concentrations (blenders and carpet yarn backwinders) cough and phlegm, wheeze, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis were related to the years worked in such jobs. Relative risks of each symptom in relation to inspirable dust concentrations were calculated by means of a logistic regression analysis. At concentrations of 10 mg/m3, the

  12. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  13. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  14. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  15. Exudate protein composition and meat tenderness of broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between meat tenderness and the protein composition of muscle exudates collected from broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times was investigated. A total of 85 broilers were processed and breast fillets from each carcass were deboned at either 2 h (early-deboned,...

  16. Allelopathic inhibition of phytoplankton by exudates from Stratiotes aloides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Mooij, W.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Van Donk, E.

    2005-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of exudates from the aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides on the growth of phytoplankton was investigated. A selection of phytoplankton species, occurring in habitats similar to that of Stratiotes, was used: two cyanobacterial strains (toxic and non-toxic Microcystis

  17. Root exudate impact on gene expression of Sporisorium reilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S K; Panjakeh, N; Salary, M

    2009-01-01

    Sporisorium reilianum f.sp zeae, a basidiomycetous fungus belonging to Ustilaginaceae, is the causal agent of the maize head smut disease. This soilborne pathogen infects the host plant at the seedling stage by penetrating roots. The infection is systemic, and disease symptoms become apparent only after the onset of flower development when the fungal sori replace male or female inflorescences. In order to investigate the mechanism of infection, we analysed the transcriptome of the fungus in response to root exudates during the previous phase of infection. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to generate cDNA libraries representing genes differentially expressed in haploid cell forms of the fungus exposed to root exudates Leading to 960 ESTs. By using cDNA macroarray hybridization, we identified 36 ESTs which were differentially expressed in response to exudates application. In this first transcriptomic analysis realized on S. reilianum, we show that maize root exudates may affect gene expression of the fungus involved in cell respiration, cell wall development, metabolism and hypothetical proteins during the previous step of infection and could play an important role in fungi growth promotion and plant pathogenesis.

  18. New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts.

  19. Alginates: an effective primary dressing for exuding wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Andrew

    Alginates are an effective dressing for medium to highly exuding wounds and have been in use for the past 30 years. The literature demonstrates their value as an effective primary dressing for a range of wounds from donor sites to cavity wounds.

  20. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  1. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed.

  2. Freezing of water saturated in aluminum wool mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, M.; Onodera, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Tago, M. [Akita University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita (Japan); Beer, H. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Technische Thermodynamik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper is concerned with the freezing of water saturated in aluminum wool mats (AWM) around a cooling pipe. Two arrangements of AWM around the pipe are considered, i.e. a disk-type and a roll-type. Freezing mass M(kg/m{sup 2}) in the disk type for a porosity {epsilon} = 0.95, indicates to be two times larger compared with that without AWM (i.e. {epsilon} = 1) at the freezing time t = 180 min. Even a small AWM volume fraction enhances considerably freezing of water in the disk type. However, freezing enhancement in the roll type is small compared with that of the disk type. Numerical calculation predicts well freezing at the disk type arrangement by using an anisotropy model for the effective thermal conductivity of ice/water saturated AWM, however, poor predictions for the roll type arrangement. (orig.)

  3. Freezing of water saturated in aluminum wool mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, M.; Onodera, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Tago, M.; Beer, H.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the freezing of water saturated in aluminum wool mats (AWM) around a cooling pipe. Two arrangements of AWM around the pipe are considered, i.e. a disk-type and a roll-type. Freezing mass M(kg/m2) in the disk type for a porosity ɛ = 0.95, indicates to be two times larger compared with that without AWM (i.e. ɛ = 1) at the freezing time t = 180 min. Even a small AWM volume fraction enhances considerably freezing of water in the disk type. However, freezing enhancement in the roll type is small compared with that of the disk type. Numerical calculation predicts well freezing at the disk type arrangement by using an anisotropy model for the effective thermal conductivity of ice/water saturated AWM, however, poor predictions for the roll type arrangement.

  4. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  5. COMPUTER-BASED ANALYSIS OF THERMAL TREATMENT PARAMETERS APPLICABLE TO MINERAL WOOL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of mineral wool products are, to a significant extent, pre-set by conditions of their thermal treatment. The findings of analytical and experimental researches into patterns of thermal treatment of mineral wool carpets have been converted into dominant factors of influence used to compile a network of factor-to-factor dependencies and resulting characteristics. Dependencies derived in pursuance of the aforementioned pattern serve as the basis for the algorithm of software programmes integrated into a single software facility. The software facility is designated for the analysis of the value of hydraulic resistance of a mineral wool carpet exposed to thermal treatment using the method of heat carrier blowing through the mineral wool carpet layer spread over the punched surface of the transporter. The software facility may be used to identify the minimal length of the thermal treatment chamber and the thermal treatment exposure time.

  6. Purification of the envelope glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus by glass wool column chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Simizu, B

    1980-01-01

    Glass wool column chromatography was used for separation of the two glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus. Cross-contamination of each protein separated was confirmed to be negligible by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  7. Flow Manipulation in Thread-Based Microfluidics by Tuning the Wettability of Wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So-Hyoun; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Jung, Won Suk; Seo, Hyeon-Jin; Nam, Sung Woo; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Yun, Sang H

    2015-02-01

    Recent progress in thread-based microfluidic devices has provided portable and inexpensive field-based technologies enabling medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. However, capillary-driven liquid flow in a single thread, a crucial aspect of thread-based microfluidics, is difficult to control. Among potential materials, hydrophobic wool thread is an appropriate candidate for liquid flow control in thread-based microfluidics because its wettability can be readily tuned by the introduction of a natural color pigment, thereby manipulating flow. Thus, utilizing natural wool thread as a channel, we demonstrate here that liquid flow manipulations, such as microselecting and micromixing, can be achieved by coating the complex Al(III) (Alum) brazilein onto wool thread. In addition to enabling flow control, the coated wool channels consisting entirely of naturally occurring substances will be beneficial for biological sensing devices.

  8. Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Composite Prepared using Carbon Wool Conducting Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, S.; Nakamura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Tabuchi, M.

    2011-05-01

    New carbon particles, carbon wool, were utilized as conducting additives for the cathode composite, and the electrochemical properties of the cathode composite were examined. The carbon wool particles exhibit good conductivity (~100S m-1), because they have large fraction (approximately 80%) of sp2 graphite-like component and three-dimensional network structure. Partial replacement of acetylene black with carbon wool has no affect on the low current rate performance but a negative influence on high current rate performance. However, a small addition of carbon wool to the appropriate amount of acetylene black leads to the improvement of high rate capability without a significant reduction of the cathode density. Therefore, it may give us a possibility to obtain the cathode having both high density and high power capability.

  9. Negotiating climate change agreements - the view from the mineral wool sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudon, Robert [Cadogan Consultants (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Trade associations representing energy-intensive industrial sectors in the UK have negotiated agreements with the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) to enable their members to receive an 80% rebate on the climate change levy (CCL) providing they meet agreed energy saving targets. Insulation manufacturing is represented by Eurisol and the Mineral Wool Energy Savings Company (MINESCO). Rock wool and glass wool manufacture uses energy for blending, melting, fiberising, curing, cooling, cutting and packaging. However the mineral wool sector has already made significant improvements in energy efficiency over the last 20 years. Confidentiality issues led to Eurisol appointing consultants to advise on how individual plants could achieve further energy savings. Cadogan Consultants developed a strategy that incorporated both qualitative and quantitative issues and allowed the energy saving potential at each site to be identified. MINESCO agreed energy saving targets with the DETR in December 2000, but much work remains to be done.

  10. Molecular structure and properties of wool fiber surface-grafted with nano-antibacterial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mei; Liu, Xuguang; Dai, Jinming; Hou, Wensheng; Wei, Liqiao; Xu, Bingshe

    2012-02-01

    Wool fiber was modified by ultraviolet irradiation (UV) and functionalized by grafting antibacterial agent. The structure and properties of antibacterial wool fiber were discussed in detail. The secondary structure changes and crystal structure were analyzed based on Fourier Transformation Raman Spectrometry (FTR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the disordered degree of UV-treated sample was increased and the antibacterial sample became more oriented. Compared with parent wool fiber, the antibacterial wool fiber was improved in mechanical property. The force, tensile strength and elongation were increased by 18%, 16%, and 7%, respectively. Also, the anti-shrinkage performance was increased because of the decrease in the directional frictional effect (DFE).

  11. Species-specific PCR for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Rong-Qing

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish rapid and species-specific method of goat cashmere and sheep wool identification, a polymerase chain reaction using specific primer pairs targeting mitochondrial D-loop was developed. The goat specific primers yielded a 294 bp PCR fragment and the sheep specific primers yielded three PCR fragments of which only the 404 bp fragment was found highly diagnostic. The specificity and reliability of the developed species-specific PCR assay was validated by considering as many as 500 cashmere and wool samples. The developed species-specific PCR was found effective in detecting mixed samples of cashmere and wool precisely with the relative content over 9.09%. The species-specific PCR method proved to be low cost, fast, easy and reliable alternative to determine the addition of sheep wool in goat cashmere.

  12. Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Composite Prepared using Carbon Wool Conducting Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, S; Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo, 671-2201 (Japan); Tabuchi, M, E-mail: tatsuya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    New carbon particles, carbon wool, were utilized as conducting additives for the cathode composite, and the electrochemical properties of the cathode composite were examined. The carbon wool particles exhibit good conductivity ({approx}10{sup 0}S m{sup -1}), because they have large fraction (approximately 80%) of sp{sup 2} graphite-like component and three-dimensional network structure. Partial replacement of acetylene black with carbon wool has no affect on the low current rate performance but a negative influence on high current rate performance. However, a small addition of carbon wool to the appropriate amount of acetylene black leads to the improvement of high rate capability without a significant reduction of the cathode density. Therefore, it may give us a possibility to obtain the cathode having both high density and high power capability.

  13. Effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the properties of wool fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Xiaolin; Xu, Weilin

    2012-10-01

    In this study, hydrogen peroxide treatment was applied to improve the surface wettability, moisture transfer properties and other related properties of wool fabric. SEM images showed the tip of wool scale was smoothened and parts of the scale were peeled off after hydrogen peroxide treatment. The time for a water droplet to sink into the fabric could decrease to less than 1 s and the wicking properties of wool fabrics were dramatically improved after hydrogen peroxide treatment. Shrinkage and whiteness of the fabric were improved due to the modification of scale and the bleaching effect of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The fabrics became weaker and ductile with less than 4% weight loss. This study would benefit further application of wool fiber in summer clothing in which the surface wettability and moisture transfer properties are essential and determinative.

  14. Assessment of health implications related to processing and use of natural wool insulation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, E; Loxton, C; Elias, R M; Ormondroyd, G A

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses possible health implications related to dust particles released during the manufacture of sheep's wool-based non-woven insulation material. Such insulation may replace traditional synthetic insulation products used in roofs, wall cavities, etc. A review of the literature concerning organic dusts in general and sheep's wool fiber summarizes dust exposure patterns, toxicological pathways and the hazards imposed by inhalation and explosion risk. This paper highlights a need for more research in order to refrain from overgeneralizing potential pulmonary and carcinogenic risks across the industries. Variables existing between industries such as the use of different wool types, processes, and additives are shown to have varying health effects. Within the final section of the paper, the health issues raised are compared with those that have been extensively documented for the rock and glass wool industries.

  15. The Antimicrobial Activity of Wool Fabrics Treated with Crosslinking Agents and Polyhexamethylene Biguanide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; HE JINxin; ZHAN Yizhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In this study, we used citric acid (CA) as a crosslinking agent, mixed with polyhexamethylene biguanide, to perform a pad-dry-cure treatment on wool fabrics to study its antimicrobial effects and physical properties. The surface characteristic and the structure of wool fabric were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to study the crosslinking mechanism of the treated fabric.

  16. Change in Properties of Wool Fabrics by Low Temperature Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    奥野, 温子; 江川, 文; 浅野, 昌美; 吉田, 恭子; 安田, 武

    1999-01-01

    The effect of plasma treatment using various gases on the end use properties of wool fabrics was investigated. The results are summarized as follows: The etching by air plasma generated remarkable irregularities on the surface of the wool fabrics, and the static friction coefficient tended to increase. However, the treatment softened the fabric handling. On the other hand, the plasma treatment using CF_4 and N_2 gas hardly changed the fabric handling in spite of a large weight loss of the sam...

  17. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial property of green composites from cellulose, wool, hair and chicken feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chieu D; Prosencyes, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-10-20

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm(+)Cl(-)), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing.

  18. Wool and grain dusts stimulate TNF secretion by alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of two organic dusts, wool and grain, and their soluble leachates to stimulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages with special reference to the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Rat alveolar macrophages were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated in vitro with whole dust, dust leachates, and a standard LPS preparation. TNF production was measured in supernatants with the L929 cell line bioassay. RESULTS: Both wool and grain dust samples were capable of stimulating TNF release from rat alveolar macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The standard LPS preparation caused a dose-dependent secretion of TNF. Leachates prepared from the dusts contained LPS and also caused TNF release but leachable LPS could not account for the TNF release and it was clear that non-LPS leachable activity was present in the grain dust and that wool dust particles themselves were capable of causing release of TNF. The role of LPS in wool dust leachates was further investigated by treating peritoneal macrophages from two strains of mice, LPS responders (C3H) and LPS non-responders (C3H/HEJ), with LPS. The non-responder mouse macrophages produced very low concentrations of TNF in response to the wool dust leachates compared with the responders. CONCLUSIONS: LPS and other unidentified leachable substances present on the surface of grain dust, and to a lesser extent on wool dust, are a trigger for TNF release by lung macrophages. Wool dust particles themselves stimulate TNF. TNF release from macrophages could contribute to enhancement of inflammatory responses and symptoms of bronchitis and breathlessness in workers exposed to organic dusts such as wool and grain. PMID:8758033

  19. THE ROLE OF QUALITY: SPANISH WOOL IN PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.

  20. Analysis of structural transformation in wool fiber resulting from oxygen plasma treatment using vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hossein; Haji, Aminoddin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oxygen plasma procedure at different time treatments on wool fiber using the micro-Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive vibrational spectroscopic technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amide I and III regions, Csbnd C skeletal vibration region, and Ssbnd S and Csbnd S bonds vibration regions were analyzed with the Raman microscope. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscope analysis was employed to find out the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the cysteic acid residues content of the wool fiber sample. The results indicated that the α-helix structure was the highest component content of wool fiber. Moreover, the protein secondary structure of wool fibers was transformed from α-helical arrangement to the β-pleated sheet configuration during the oxygen plasma treatment. Also, the disulphide bonds content in the treated wool fiber reduced because they were fractured and oxidized during oxygen plasma treatment. The oxygen plasma treated samples presented higher cysteic acid compared to the untreated wool samples due to produce more cleavage of disulfide linkages.

  1. A 57-bp deletion in the ovine KAP6-1 gene affects wool fibre diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Gong, H; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2015-08-01

    High glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated proteins (HGT-KAPs) are predominantly present in the orthocortex of wool fibres. They vary in abundance in different wools and have been implicated in regulating wool fibre properties, but little is known about the functional roles of these proteins in the fibre matrix. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to screen for variation in a gene encoding the ovine HGT-KAP6-1 protein. We identified three gene variants (A, B and C). Variants A and B were similar to each other, with only three nucleotide differences occurring downstream of the coding sequence. However, variant C had a 57-bp deletion that would notionally result in a loss of 19 amino acids in the protein. The presence of C was found to be associated with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD) and prickle factor (percentage of fibres over 30 microns; PF). Sheep of genotype BC produced wool of greater MFD, FDSD and PF than sheep of genotypes AA, AB and BB. The CVFD was greater in the BC sheep than the AB sheep. The results suggest that variation in ovine KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter-associated traits and that the 57-bp deletion in this gene would lead to coarser wool with greater FDSD, CVFD and PF.

  2. FE-SEM COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SURFACE MODIFICATION OF WOOL FIBER AFTER DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS

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    BONET-ARACIL Marilés

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wool surface comprehends numerous scales which are responsible of certain undesirable behavior of this fiber during its use and maintenance. One of the most significant issues is related to shrinkage, caused during washing, as a consequence of friction between the fibers. Chemical modification of wool is considered a useful option to avoid these kind of circumstances. During the last years, multiple alternatives for chemical modification of wool have been studied, comprising enzymes or acids amongst others. In this case of study, three different treatments were carried out in order to evaluate wool morphological appearance. The first treatment was an oxidative procedure, containing Basolan DC and sodium acetate as the main components. The second treatment was accomplished using Lanaperm VPO, a commercial finishing agent for wool fiber that claims to soften its surface. The third finishing process was performed employing Siligen FA, a commercial agent intended to act as an antimigrant for dye baths and also provide a smoother and regular surface. After said treatments, microphotographs of all treated and untreated fibers were taken so that a comparison between final appearance could be done. Analyzing results and conclusions, it can be stated that chemical modification of fiber does change its surface appearance and, consequently, its behaviour. Oxidation, Lanaperm, Siligen, wool cuticle, scales

  3. Application of non-equilibrium plasmas in treatment of wool fibers and seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran

    2003-10-01

    While large effort is under way to achieve stable, large area, non-equilibrium plasma reactors operating at atmospheric pressure we should still consider application of low pressure reactors, which provide well defined, easily controlled reactive plasmas. Therefore, the application of low pressure rf plasmas for the treatment of wool and seed was investigated. The studies were aimed at establishing optimal procedure to achieve better wettability, dyeability and printability of wool. Plasma treatment led to a modification of wool fiber topography and formation of new polar functional groups inducing the increase of wool hydrophylicity. Plasma activation of fiber surface was also used to achieve better binding of biopolymer chitosan to wool in order to increase the content of favorable functional groups and thus improving sorption properties of recycled wool fibers for heavy metal ions and acid dyes. In another study, the increase of germination percentage of seeds induced by plasmas was investigated. We have selected dry (unimbibed) Empress tree seeds (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.). Empress tree seed has been studied extensively and its mechanism of germination is well documented. Germination of these seeds is triggered by light in a limited range of wavelengths. Interaction between activated plasma particles and seed, inside the plasma reactor, leads to changes in its surface topography, modifies the surface layer and increases the active surface area. Consequently, some bioactive nitrogeneous compounds could be bound to the activated surface layer causing the increment of germination percentage.

  4. The Influence of Hydrophobicity Factor on Wool Fibre Dyeing With Anionic Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa TREIGIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study two alkylphenolethoxylates with different ethoxylation degree c.a. EO 9 (Lanasan LT as NPE-1 and EO 40 (Disponil AA P43 as NPE-2 were selected with the purpose to evaluate the influence of hydrophobicity of nonionic surfactants on wool dyeing efficiency. Anionic C.I. Acid Orange 7 dye was used to carry out an experiment in dyeing of wool fibre at 30 °C or 60 °C temperature using wool fabric which was prepared for dyeing by extraction of the lipid materials soluble in chloroform and methanol mixture. The surfactant with a shorter hydrophilic chain (NPE-1 intensified the adsorption of the dye. This fact allowed to presume that the dye diffusion into wool fibre might be influenced by hydrophobic interaction between the surfactant and hydrophobic sites of wool fibre. The results of surfactants adsorption showed that the interaction of NPE-2 with the fibre was weak as compared to that of NPE-1. The results of the investigation suggest that the ethoxylated nonylphenol of a lower hydrophility index might interact with the active sites of wool fibre more intensively than that of a higher index of hydrophility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.596

  5. Adsorption and Flame Retardant Properties of Bio-Based Phytic Acid on Wool Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Wei Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based phytic acid (PA as a nontoxic naturally occurring compound is a promising prospect for flame-retardant (FR modifications to polymers. In this work, PA was applied to wool fabric using an exhaustion technique, and the adsorption and FR properties of PA on wool fabric were studied. The flame retardancy of the treated wool fabrics depended greatly on the adsorption quantity of PA, which was related to the pH of treatment solution, immersing temperature and initial PA concentration. The Langmuir adsorption of PA took place due to electrostatic interactions between PA and wool fiber. The limiting oxygen index, vertical burning and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry tests revealed that the treated wool fabrics exhibited good flame retardancy. The measurements of the phosphorus content of the burned fabric residues and thermogravimetric analyses suggested that a significant condensed-phase FR action was applicable to the PA treated fabrics. PA treatment was found to have little adverse effect on the whiteness and mechanical performance of wool. Additionally, the washing resistance of the FR fabrics should be further improved.

  6. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  7. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  8. Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes. Part 6: The Costs of Global Tariff Barriers on Wool Products; Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...

  9. Pleural mesothelioma in differential diagnostics of a tubercular exudative pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Raznatovskaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Difficulties of differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma and such one of tubercular etiology can take a long time that is the reason of delayed well-timed and correct treatment order. Etiological diagnostics of exudative pleuritis has to be based on an integrated approach taking into account the data of clinical inspection of a patient, a laboratory research of pleural exudate, radial, instrumental, pathomorphological and surgical methods. The aim of our study is to establish the features of diagnosis of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma by determining of informativeness and value of applied diagnostic methods for further use for differential diagnostics with exudative pleuritis of tubercular etiology on the cases of own clinical observations. Materials and methods. Four clinical cases of diagnostics of pleura mesothelioma in the patients with exudative pleuritis at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” were analyzed. Results. Four cases of pleura mesothelioma were diagnosed at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” within differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis of obscure origin. In all cases the following similar features of pleura mesothelioma were observed: patients were male; patients complained about dyspnoea at exercise stress, thorax pain (on the side of mesothelioma localization, general weakness, periodic cough; the patients denied tuberculosis contact; the general blood test revealed only lymphopenia against the background of the accelerated ESR; micobacteria of tuberculosis were not revealed at all; steady accumulation of an exudate, despite its systematic evacuation; cytologic research of pleural liquid was characterized by a moderate turbidity, serous (serous and hemorrhagic character, with the specific weight of 1015–1016, rising of protein to 33–66 g/l, positive

  10. Citrate-Linked Keto- and Aldo-Hexose Monosaccharide Cellulose Conjugates Demonstrate Selective Human Neutrophil Elastase-Lowering Activity in Cotton Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Caston-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and subsequent analysis of the free monosaccharide with high performance anion exchange chromatography. The ketohexose and aldohexose conjugate levels on cotton were quantified on cotton using chromatography and found to be present in milligram/gram amounts. The citrate-cellulose ester bonds were characterized with FTIR. Ketohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates sequestered more elastase activity than aldohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates. The monosaccharide cellulose conjugate families each gave distinctive profiles in elastase-lowering effects. Possible mechanisms of elastase binding to the monosaccharide-cellulose conjugates are discussed.

  11. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  12. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  13. [Identification of fine wool and cashmere by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gui-fang; Zhu, Deng-sheng; He, Yong

    2008-06-01

    As a rapid and non-destructive methodology, near infrared spectroscopy technique has been attracting much attention recently. The present study applied Vis/NIR spectra to the identification of cashmere and fine wool fiber. Cashmere and fine wool are resemble in superficies, but they differs in diameter, height, thickness, angle of inclination, and marginal morphology of surface scale. Although researchers both at home and abroad did a lot researches and experiments to distinguish fine wool from cashmere, the resolution of cashmere and fine wool is still not satisfactory, and it is always a challenging task to differentiate and recognize fine wool and cashmere. This paper presents an automatic recognition scheme for the fine wool fiber and cashmere fiber by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique, aiming at the characteristics of Vis/NIR spectra of cashmere and fine wool. One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere and fine wool with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN). Preliminary qualitative analysis model has been built: Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques were used to collect the spectral data of cashmere and fine wool, and two kinds of data pretreatment methods were applied: the standard normal variate (SNV) was used for scatter correction. Savitzky-Golay with the segment size 3 was used as the smoothing way to decrease the noise processed. Following the pretreatment, spectral data were processed using principal component analysis, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.8%, and the scores of these 6 PCs would be taken as the input of the three-layer back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The BP-ANN was trained with samples in calibration collection and predicted the samples in prediction collection were predicted. Experiments demonstrate that the system works quickly and effectively, and has remarkable advantages in comparison with the previous systems

  14. Expression Profiling Reveals Genes Involved in the Regulation of Wool Follicle Bulb Regression and Regeneration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.

  15. Thermal properties of wool fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica sols through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool fabric was treated with silica sol and phosphorus doped silica sol by sol-gel method in order to improve its thermal properties and flame retardance. The thermal stability, combustion behavior, and smoke suppression of the control and finished wool fabric were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis, limited oxygen index, micro combustion calorimeter, and smoke chamber. The results showed that wool fabric treated by phosphorus doped silica sol had excellent thermal properties and flame retardance with higher final char residue and LOI value. Furthermore, heat release rate and smoke density results indicated the safety performance of the treated wool fabric on fire.

  16. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  17. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  18. Swabs and other sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J C; Ameen, H

    1998-05-01

    This study explores the absorptive capacity of standard cotton wool-tipped swabs in vitro and in vivo. An alternative wound exudate sampling technique using small filter paper discs is also briefly examined. Results showed a poor uniformity of fluid absorption by swabs and a limited correlation of wound exudate quantities in relation to visual estimates and size of wound. It was found, however, that swabs reliably removed material from a wound surface. The filter paper technique appeared to offer no advantages.

  19. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  20. Root exudates: the hidden part of plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetz, Ulrike; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    The significance of root exudates as belowground defense substances has long been underestimated, presumably due to being buried out of sight. Nevertheless, this chapter of root biology has been progressively addressed within the past decade through the characterization of novel constitutively secreted and inducible phytochemicals that directly repel, inhibit, or kill pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere. In addition, the complex transport machinery involved in their export has been considerably unraveled. It has become evident that the profile of defense root exudates is not only diverse in its composition, but also strikingly dynamic. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the nature and regulation of root-secreted defense compounds and the role of transport proteins in modulating their release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  2. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  3. Referral system for hard exudates in eye fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Gohar; Zafar, Muhammad Faisal; Haq, Ihsan ul

    2015-09-01

    Hard exudates are one of the most common anomalies/artifacts found in the eye fundus of patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. These exudates are the major cause of loss of sight or blindness in people having diabetic retinopathy. Diagnosis of hard exudates requires considerable time and effort of an ophthalmologist. The ophthalmologists have become overloaded, so that there is a need for an automated diagnostic/referral system. In this paper a referral system for the hard exudates in the eye-fundus images has been presented. The proposed referral system works by combining different techniques like Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), K-means Clustering, Visual Dictionaries and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The system was also tested with Back Propagation Neural Network as a classifier. To test the performance of the system four fundus image databases were used. One publicly available image database was used to compare the performance of the system to the existing systems. To test the general performance of the system when the images are taken under different conditions and come from different sources, three other fundus image databases were mixed. The evaluation of the system was also performed on different sizes of the visual dictionaries. When using only one fundus image database the area under the curve (AUC) of maximum 0.9702 (97.02%) was achieved with accuracy of 95.02%. In case of mixed image databases an AUC of 0.9349 (93.49%) was recorded having accuracy of 87.23%. The results were compared to the existing systems and were found better/comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol in pleural exudates depends mainly on increased capillary permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Luis; San-José, Esther; Estévez, Juan Carlos; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Alvarez-Dobaño, José Manuel; Golpe, Antonio; Valle, José Manuel; Penela, Pedro; Vizcaíno, Luis; Pose, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Pleural fluid (PF) cholesterol is a useful parameter to differentiate between pleural transudates and exudates, although the pathophysiologic mechanisms for its increase in exudates are not fully understood. We aim to elucidate the cause of this increase by analyzing the levels of cholesterol-high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-in PF and blood as well as the number of leucocytes and red cells in the PF. We studied 259 patients with pleural effusion (57 transudates and 202 exudates). The correlations of the pleural and serum (S) levels of these parameters were analyzed, with the pleural cholesterol fractions as the dependent variables and their levels in blood and the pleural/serum protein ratio (P/S prot ratio) as the independent variables. The pleural fluid cholesterol levels (PFCHOL) correlated with their blood levels and the capillary permeability (r=0.885). No significant differences were found between the percentage of LDL, with regard to total cholesterol in the serum [SCHOL], and the same percentage in the exudates, between the PF/S LDL ratio (0.46) and the PF/S CHOL ratio (0.48), or between the PF/S ApoB ratio and the PF/S LDL ratio. The percentage of PF cholesterol bound to HDL and LDL was significantly higher (91.9%) than in the blood (90%). No significant correlations were found between any of the lipids studied and the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes. In conclusion, the PFCHOL may be predicted from the SCHOL, and the capillary permeability may be reflected by the PF/S prot ratio. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of methionine synthase gene polymorphisms with wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, E G; Yang, H; Zhang, Z W; Wang, Z P; Yan, X H; Li, H; Wang, N

    2015-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of intracellular methionine, folate, and homocysteine, and its activity correlates with DNA methylation in many mammalian tissues. Our previous genomewide association study identified that 1 SNP located in the gene was associated with several wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino. To confirm the potential involvement of the gene in sheep wool production and quality traits, we performed sheep tissue expression profiling, SNP detection, and association analysis with sheep wool production and quality traits. The semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed in skin from Merino and Kazak sheep. The sequencing analysis identified a total of 13 SNP in the gene from Chinese Merino sheep. Comparison of the allele frequencies revealed that these 13 identified SNP were significantly different among the 6 tested Chinese Merino strains ( < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that SNP 3 to 11 were strongly linked in a single haplotype block in the tested population. Association analysis showed that SNP 2 to 11 were significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter and the fineness SD and that SNP 4 to 11 were significantly associated with the CV of fiber diameter trait ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2 and SNP 5 to 12 were weakly associated with wool crimp. Similarly, the haplotypes derived from these 13 identified SNP were also significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter, fineness SD, and the CV of fiber diameter ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that is a candidate gene for sheep wool production and quality traits, and the identified SNP might be used in sheep breeding.

  6. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  7. A multiscale optimization approach to detect exudates in the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Carla; Murray, Victor; Yu, Honggang; Wigdahl, Jeffrey; Pattichis, Marios; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, E Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Pathologies that occur on or near the fovea, such as clinically significant macular edema (CSME), represent high risk for vision loss. The presence of exudates, lipid residues of serous leakage from damaged capillaries, has been associated with CSME, in particular if they are located one optic disc-diameter away from the fovea. In this paper, we present an automatic system to detect exudates in the macula. Our approach uses optimal thresholding of instantaneous amplitude (IA) components that are extracted from multiple frequency scales to generate candidate exudate regions. For each candidate region, we extract color, shape, and texture features that are used for classification. Classification is performed using partial least squares (PLS). We tested the performance of the system on two different databases of 652 and 400 images. The system achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 for the combination of both databases and an AUC of 0.97 for each of them when they were evaluated independently.

  8. Useful tests on pleural fluid that distinguish transudates from exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Vives, M; Vicente de Vera, M C; Cao, G; Rubio, M; Rivas, M C

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to compare the classic Light's criteria with different testing strategies in an effort to improve the accuracy of pleural fluid (PF) categorization. Thirty-two patients with transudates and 140 with exudates on the basis of their clinical diagnosis were entered into the study. We examined the discriminative properties of 10 analytes in the identification of PF, both singly and in combination with an 'or' rule, to see which was best in distinguishing a transudate from an exudate. A combination of PF lactate dehydrogenase (LD) > 307 U/L (two-thirds of the upper limit of the serum LD reference range) with either PF cholesterol > 1.55 mmol/L or PF to serum protein ratio > 0.5 had a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of Light's criteria. We suggest the use of PF LD and cholesterol in combination as an alternative method for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates. This test combination avoids the need for venepuncture and the simultaneous collection of a blood sample.

  9. Cholesterol in the separation of transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M A; Marchi, E; Vargas, F S

    2001-07-01

    The Light criteria represent the most acceptable method to separate transudates and exudates. However, approximately 10% of patients with transudates, especially those with congestive heart disease, are misdiagnosed with these criteria. To improve diagnostic accuracy, many biochemical markers have been proposed as alternatives to differentiate transudates and exudates. Cholesterol has raised particular interest because only pleural fluid is needed, which makes blood samples unnecessary and simplifies the procedure. In most clinical studies, cholesterol has been shown to be as sensitive as the Light criteria, although it is less specific. Other randomized studies are necessary to determine the real potential value of pleural-fluid cholesterol measurements. Studies of pleural-fluid cholesterol are aimed at better understanding the mechanisms by which cholesterol enters the pleural cavity and its role in diseases. The ideal cutoff point of cholesterol to differentiate transudates and exudates is still unknown. Recently, aspects of the cholesterol turnover in diseases have raised great interest. Cholesterol generated great interest after it was related to coronary artery diseases. The involvement of cholesterol in the atherosclerotic process is well known, although its importance in body cavities is still unclear.

  10. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  11. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  14. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  15. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  16. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  17. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  19. Root exudate cocktails: the link between plant diversity and soil microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Katja; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Higher plant diversity is often associated with higher soil microbial biomass and diversity, which is assumed to be partly due to elevated root exudate diversity. However, there is little experimental evidence that diversity of root exudates shapes soil microbial communities. We tested whether higher root exudate diversity enhances soil microbial biomass and diversity in a plant diversity gradient, thereby negating significant plant diversity effects on soil microbial properties. We set up plant monocultures and two- and three-species mixtures in microcosms using functionally dissimilar plants and soil of a grassland biodiversity experiment in Germany. Artificial exudate cocktails were added by combining the most common sugars, organic acids, and amino acids found in root exudates. We applied four different exudate cocktails: two exudate diversity levels (low- and high-diversity) and two nutrient-enriched levels (carbon- and nitrogen-enriched), and a control with water only. Soil microorganisms were more carbon- than nitrogen-limited. Cultivation-independent fingerprinting analysis revealed significantly different soil microbial communities among exudate diversity treatments. Most notably and according to our hypothesis, adding diverse exudate cocktails negated the significant plant diversity effect on soil microbial properties. Our findings provide the first experimental evidence that root exudate diversity is a crucial link between plant diversity and soil microorganisms.

  20. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  1. Properties of Hydrophilic Mineral Wool for Desalination of Historical Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo ANTEPARA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic mineral wool (HMW is considered as a possible alternative to the commonly used cellulose in desalination of historical masonry. HMW also allows water and salt solutions transport along the hydrophilic fibres, which is the necessary condition for its possible application for desalination measures, but contrary to cellulose it is inorganic material, which reduces maintenance of the poultice. On this account, the hygric transport and storage properties of newly developed HMW is determined in the paper. In order to get detailed information on HMW performance, its thermal properties are measured as well. For its basic characterization, bulk density, matrix density, saturation moisture and salt content, and apparent total open porosity are accessed. The results are in good agreement with those published in literature for similar types of HMW. The process of drying of three different types of sandstone, as typical materials frequently used in historical buildings, using HMW board is monitored to analyse the practical applicability of the proposed desalination treatment. The obtained results show that HMW slows the drying process. However, the final level of drying is the same as without the HMW, which indicates the possible applicability of studied HMW for desalination purposes.

  2. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  3. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  4. Mitotic activity in cells of the wool follicle bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, P I; Schlink, A C; Phillips, P M; Scobie, D R

    1986-01-01

    Mitotic activity in the cells of the germinative region of wool follicle bulbs was quantified by using small (0.1-0.5 ml) intradermal doses of colchicine and selective staining of the metaphase-blocked nuclei using either crystal violet, iodine and eosin or haematoxylin and eosin. The number of metaphase nuclei present 3 h after colchicine administration increased with colchicine dose from 0 to 1 microgram and thereafter remained relatively constant up to 200 micrograms colchicine. The accumulation of metaphase nuclei was linear for up to 6 h after intradermal colchicine. The metaphase-blocking effect of intradermal colchicine was confined to a radius of less than 5 cm from the injection site, allowing a number of estimates of mitotic rates to be made over a small area of skin. Such estimates revealed little variation in mitotic activity over the midside region of the sheep, although there were substantial differences in follicle activity at different sites over the body. The technique is simple, allows serial or concurrent estimates of mitotic activity to be made in the same animal, and eliminates problems associated with intravenous colchicine administration. It was used to derive the relationship between follicle activity and fibre production after nutritional changes, and to define the time course of mitotic events after administration of the antimitotic defleecing agent cyclophosphamide.

  5. Polymorphisms of exon 5, exon 7 and intron 10 of MMP2 gene and their association with wool density in Rex rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.J. Chen; Y.J. Liu; T. Liu; B.J. Chen; Z.L. Gu

    2017-01-01

    Wool density is an important index that influences Rex rabbit fur quality. In our earlier studies, we found some important differentially expressed genes in different wool density of Rex rabbit by cDNA microarray...

  6. Moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool: application of the effective media theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Antepara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of mineral wool based materials appear to be of particular importance for their practical applications because the majority of them is used in the form of thermal insulation boards. Every catalogue list of any material producer of mineral wool contains thermal conductivity, sometimes also specific heat capacity, but they give only single characteristic values for dry state of material mostly. Exposure to outside climate or any other environment containing moisture can negatively affect the thermal insulation properties of mineral wool. Nevertheless, the mineral wool materials due to their climatic loading and their environmental exposure contain moisture that can negatively affect their thermal insulation properties. Because the presence of water in mineral wool material is undesirable for the majority of applications, many products are provided with hydrophobic substances. Hydrophilic additives are seldom used in mineral wool products. However, this kind of materials has a good potential for application for instance in interior thermal insulation systems, masonry desalination, green roofs, etc. For these materials, certain moisture content must be estimated and thus their thermal properties will be different than for the dry state. On this account, moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool (HMW are studied in a wide range of moisture content using a pulse technique. The experimentally determined thermal conductivity data is analysed using several homogenization formulas based on the effective media theory. In terms of homogenization, a porous material is considered as a mixture of two or three phases. In case of dry state, material consists from solid and gaseous phase. When moistened, liquid phase is also present. Mineral wool consists of the solid phase represented by basalt fibers, the liquid phase by water and the gaseous phase by air. At first, the homogenization techniques are applied for the

  7. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenting, Herman B M; Broekman, Henk; Guebitz, Georg M; Kokol, Vanja; Shen, Jinsong

    2009-10-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged proteolytic enzyme by chemical modification was applied successfully to prevent substantial fiber strength loss. Felt-ball analysis of the fibers as obtained from this industrial process showed substantial improvement in felting resistance. Further processing of these enzyme-modified fibers and finally integration in bed covering quilts have been executed successfully on industrial production lines. The observed fiber losses during processing were in the range of 4.5-6% which is comparable with that of nonmodified fibers. The machine-washability of these produced bed covering quilts was tested in a household washing machine using both wool and normal wash programs applied at different temperatures. It appeared that, contrary to the good washing results in terms of shrinkage and consolidation resistance using the wool program at moderate temperatures, this resistance is marginal when washed with the normal washing program with higher mechanical agitation level or with the wool program at elevated temperature. This result was different from that obtained with woolen fabrics and explained by the less-structured organisation of fibers within a fleece.

  8. Analysis of Structure and Deformation Mechanisms of Mineral Wool Slabs under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutis STEPONAITIS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The products of mineral wool are widely used for thermal insulation of buildings, both at construction of new buildings and at renovation of old ones. The mechanical resistance and stability of them, as well as their energy saving and heat saving requirements are in most cases related to the essential specifications of the building. The mechanical characteristics of these products are subject to structure of material, density, content of binder in the product and to technology of production. Subject to the latter, mineral wool products with different fibrous structure are received, therefore, for the structure of each type, the individual structural models are developed attempting to describe the properties of fibrous systems. The deformability of mineral wool products is conditioned by mobility of fibrous structure, which shows up best under compression by short term loads. This study established the impact of various thicknesses and deformations on changes in structure of rock wool products. It also established that the thickness of mineral wool products conditions and influences considerable changes in their structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.2.1926

  9. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  10. Estimating heritability of wool shedding in a cross-bred ewe population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jurado, N; Leymaster, K A; Kuehn, L A; Lewis, R M

    2016-10-01

    Low wool prices and high production costs in sheep systems have resulted in the introduction of genotypes that shed wool into flocks to reduce shearing costs. Wool shedding occurs naturally in a few breeds and can be incorporated by cross-breeding. The opportunity to enhance shedding through selection depends on the extent of genetic variability present. Genetic and environmental parameters for wool shedding for ewes from a three-breed composite population were estimated using Bayesian inference. Data on 2025 cross-bred ewes, including 3345 wool shedding scores (WS) and 1647 breeding weight (BW) records, were analysed using bivariate and, for WS, univariate animal repeatability models. Breeding weight was included to account for possible selection bias. Breeding weight was moderately heritable and highly repeatable with means of 0.317 and 0.724, respectively. Under both models, WS was found to be moderately heritable and repeatable with means of 0.256 and 0.399, respectively. Based on a cumulative link model and contingency table analysis, age and reproductive activity influenced the extent of WS (p < 0.05). Given that WS is moderately heritable, selective gain in WS can be achieved.

  11. Wool Base determination using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Chris [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: c.kroger@gns.cri.nz; Murray Bartle, C. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); West, John G. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Rensburg, Brendon van [New Zealand Wool Testing Authority Ltd., Napier (New Zealand)

    2006-12-15

    An industry grade dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner was calibrated for Wool Base determination. The calibration used 201 Crossbred and Merino wool samples, and a further 72 samples to validate the calibration. The prediction correlation had the smallest residual standard deviation (RSD) when the independently measured mean fibre diameter (MFD) was included in the multiple regression analysis. Best results were achieved when separate calibrations were used for individual wool breeds. The RSD for the Merino calibration set of 44 samples was 1.88, when the MFD was included in the regression, and 2.1 without. The RSD for 144 Crossbred samples was 1.73 including the MFD, and 2.59 without. The validation trial with 46 Crossbred and 24 Merino wool samples resulted in RSD of 2.35 and 2.23, respectively. An excellent DEXA repeatability was achieved at a standard deviation of {approx}0.2%. Improvement of the calibration is expected from concurrent laboratory testing and scanning. The research shows the promising potential for DEXA as a tool to determine Wool Base.

  12. Flame retardant wool using zirconium oxychloride in various acidic media optimized by RSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouharshad, M., E-mail: Forouharmahdi@gmail.com [Textile Department, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, M., E-mail: tex5mm@aut.ac.ir [Textile Department, Center of Excellence, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, M.B. [Department of Statistics, Allameh-Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saligheh, O. [Textile Department, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Young Researchers Club, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-20

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigate effect of ZrOCl{sub 2} and HCl on the flame retardancy of wool fabric. {yields} The response surface methodology uses for the experimental plan with. {yields} The thermal degradation studies by thermal analysis, LOI and vertical flame test. {yields} The fabric surfaces observe by SEM. {yields} Results show an increase in the decomposition temperature, residual mass and LOI. - Abstract: The flame retardant wool was prepared using zirconium oxychloride with various acids. The thermal degradation of wool treated with the flame retardant synergistic system, zirconium oxychloride, citric acid and hydrochloric acid, was studied by thermal analysis, mass loss, limiting oxygen index (LOI) and vertical flame test. The fabric surfaces were also observed by SEM. The wool treated with the flame-retardant shows an increase in the decomposition temperature, residual mass and LOI. Also the wool treated with hydrochloric acid showed improved flame retardant properties compared to the use of formic acid. The response surface methodology (RSM) was also used for the experimental plan with four variables on the results of flame retardancy. The statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results.

  13. Criteria for the identification of insulation wool fibres by microscopic evaluation of filter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, U.F. [Deutsche Rockwool Mineralwoll-GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany); Teichert, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schadstoffmessung und Auftragsanalytik, Neuss (Germany); Schneider, T. [National Inst. of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Denmark); Trappmann, J. [Gruenzweig und Hartmann AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In various investigations on fibre concentrations at workplaces as well as in indoor air or the environment it was tried to differentiate between different types of inorganic fibres as e.g. asbestos fibres, gypsum fibres and inorganic fibres other than gypsum including insulation wool fibres. Up to now in nearly all investigations only the criterion of chemical composition has been used for this purpose. Morphological criteria have not been taken into account most of the time. This is not justified at least for insulation wool fibres. Stone and glass wool fibres fulfil the criterion of parallel edges. Therefore this criterion as well as the criterion of chemical composition has to be used for the identification of potential insulation wool fibres. It is assumed on the basis of literature data and of the reevaluation of filter samples from fibre measurements that the percentage of potential insulation wool fibres in indoor air and in the environment is probably less than 5% of the total inorganic fibre content and does not exceed some hundred fibres/m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  14. Genetic parameters among weight, prolificacy, and wool traits of Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, C M; Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D

    2000-04-01

    Genetic parameters for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep were estimated using REML with animal models for prolificacy, weight, and wool traits. All bivariate analyses included a covariance between additive genetic effects for the two traits plus appropriate additional covariances. Number of observations by breed ranged from 5,140 to 7,095 for prolificacy traits, from 7,750 to 9,530 for weight traits, and from 4,603 to 34,746 for wool traits. Heritability estimates ranged from .03 to .11 for prolificacy traits (litter size at birth and litter size at weaning), from .09 to .26 for weight traits (birth weight and average daily gain), and from .25 to .53 for wool traits (fleece weight, fleece grade and staple length). Estimates of direct genetic correlations among prolificacy and among weight traits were positive and ranged from .58 to 1.00 and .18 to 1.00, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between fleece weight and staple length were positive (.50 to .70) but were negative between fleece weight and fleece grade (-.60 to -.34) and between staple length and fleece grade (-.72 and -.40). Prolificacy and wool traits were essentially uncorrelated. Weight and prolificacy traits were slightly positively correlated. Weight traits had a moderate positive direct genetic correlation with fleece weight and staple length, but were uncorrelated with fleece grade. These estimates of genetic parameters between prolificacy, weight, and wool traits can be used to construct multiple-trait selection indexes for dual-purpose sheep.

  15. Analysis of Structure and Deformation Mechanisms of Mineral Wool Slabs under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutis STEPONAITIS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The products of mineral wool are widely used for thermal insulation of buildings, both at construction of new buildings and at renovation of old ones. The mechanical resistance and stability of them, as well as their energy saving and heat saving requirements are in most cases related to the essential specifications of the building. The mechanical characteristics of these products are subject to structure of material, density, content of binder in the product and to technology of production. Subject to the latter, mineral wool products with different fibrous structure are received, therefore, for the structure of each type, the individual structural models are developed attempting to describe the properties of fibrous systems. The deformability of mineral wool products is conditioned by mobility of fibrous structure, which shows up best under compression by short term loads. This study established the impact of various thicknesses and deformations on changes in structure of rock wool products. It also established that the thickness of mineral wool products conditions and influences considerable changes in their structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.2.1926

  16. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Simon, Frank; Liesiene, Jolanta; Šaponjic, Zoran; Dutschk, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (RDye/Ag = [Dye]/[AgNO3]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgNPs loaded fabrics showed excellent antibacterial efficiency even after five washing cycles. To investigate the nature of interaction and bonding between the AgNPs and the wool substrate XPS measurements were performed.

  17. Multifunctionalization of wool fabrics through nanoparticles: A chemical route towards smart textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Stefania; Greppi, Gianfranco; Malfatti, Luca; Lasio, Barbara; Sanna, Vanna; Mura, Maria Elena; Marceddu, Salvatore; Lugliè, Antonella

    2015-10-15

    A new approach towards the design of smart nanotextiles with innovative properties is presented. Silica (SiO2), titania (TiO2), and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), were synthesized without the use of any toxic organic compound and then were used, alone and in combination, to functionalize wool fabrics. Electrostatic forces, influenced by a low pH of the solutions, allowed the interactions between wool fabrics and NPs, enabling a robust functionalization. This was verified by X-ray microfluorescence and visualized by scanning electron microscopy measurements. The antibacterial Ag NPs were embedded in a polymer, alginic acid, to reduce the possible side effect due to their direct contact with the skin. SiO2 NPs, instead, were used to change the hydrophilicity of wool while the functionalization with TiO2 NPs was chosen to provide self-cleaning properties. The antibacterial activity of the fabrics was studied against the bacteria Escherichia coli, while the hydrophilicity of wool was studied by contact angle measurements and the self-cleaning properties were tested by estimating the visible discoloring of a dye stain under sunlight irradiation. Interestingly the combination of three different types of NPs provided the best results. SiO2 and Ag made the wool superhydrophilic providing at the same time the best antibacterial properties, while fabrics with titania (alone or in combination) were hydrophobic and showed the best self-cleaning properties.

  18. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Ngaio, E-mail: ngaio.richards@anglia.ac.uk [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Hall, Sarah [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Scott, Karen [Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Harrison, Nancy [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures. - Highlights: > In this study we qualitatively detected the NSAID flunixin in sheep's wool using GC-MS. > Potential applications of this technique to the conservation of avian scavengers are outlined. > The quantitative and confirmatory steps required to fully validate the method are also provided. - This is the first time that an NSAID has been investigated or detected in sheep's wool. As such, it details a novel exposure pathway for scavenging species in the environment and offers a potential tool for future monitoring effort in vulture conservation.

  19. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  20. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  1. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  2. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological...... interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction......, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way...

  3. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  4. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  5. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  6. Surface roughness and wettability of wool fabrics loaded with silver nanoparticles: Influence of synthesis and application methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barani, H.; Montazer, M.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, V.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophilization of wool fabrics was performed by silver nanoparticles with different surface charge using three different methods: exhausting, pad–dry–cure and in situ synthesis. Dynamic wetting measurements and surface topography analysis were used to evaluate surface changes on wool fabrics. The

  7. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. 113.68 Section 113.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions....

  8. Extension in Tough Times--Addressing Failures in Public and Private Extension, Lessons from the Tasmanian Wool Industry, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Warren; Coutts, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports research on the impact of introducing a range of extension approaches into the wool-growing regions of Tasmania Australia to meet an emerging knowledge and skills gap in the sector. The wool-growing industry of the state has experienced minimal government extension support for over 15 years. There is a failure in both private…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF USE, DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MINERAL WOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES POLLUTION BY WASTE RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  10. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  11. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mezentseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the middle ear.

  12. Intraretinal Exudates in Coats' Disease as Demonstrated by Spectral-Domain OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Rivka Kessner; Adiel Barak; Meira Neudorfer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in a case of Coats’ disease, with emphasis on the intraretinal exudates. Methods: Case report of a 4.5-year-old girl who presented with total exudative retinal detachment and organized exudates in a stellate configuration. SD-OCT was performed before and after treatment, which included surgical drainage of subretinal fluid and indirect laser application during the surgery. Results: At presentation, the SD-...

  13. Study of inflammatory responses to crocidolite and basalt wool in the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Z; Kerényi, T; Honma, K; Jäckel, M; Tátrai, E; Ungváry, G

    2001-03-09

    The subacute effects of crocidolite and basalt wool dusts were studied by nmeans of biochemical, morphological. and histological methods 1 and .3 mo after intrabronchial instillation. The cell count, protein and phospholipid contents, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Both types of fibers induced a prolonged inflammatory reaction in the lung. All the parameters studied in the experimental groups were more markedly elevated after 3 mo. Relative to the control, the protein and LDH values were increased three- to fivefold, the phospholipid content twofold, and the number of free cells in the BAL exceeded the control level up to ninefold. The inflammatory responses to crocidolite and basalt wool in the lung did not differ significantly. In spite of this, basalt wool is recoinmended as an asbestos substitute, as the use of this man-nade fiber may result in a significantly lower release of dust than that from crocidolite.

  14. Effect of low-temperature plasma treatment on tailorability and thermal properties of wool fabrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Goud; J S Udakhe

    2011-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge type of plasma reactor was used for the low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of the wool fabrics. Air was used as the non-polymerizing gas for the plasma treatment at different time intervals. Low-stress mechanical properties of the treated and untreated wool fabrics were evaluated using Siro-fast technique which revealed that the tensile, bending, compression, shear, dimensional stability and surface properties were altered after the LTP treatment. Other properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal resistance and pilling propensity were also evaluated. The surface topographical changes of the wool fibres after LTP treatment were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in these properties are supposed to be related closely to the interfibre and interyarn frictional force and increased surface area of the fibres induced by the etching effect of plasma.

  15. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ngaio; Hall, Sarah; Scott, Karen; Harrison, Nancy

    2011-05-01

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures.

  16. Investigation of Ageing Effects on Organic Binders used for Mineral Wool Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar

    for the same duration of ageing. The main purpose of the present work is to examine the chemical changes occurring in the phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder based mineral fibres due to ageing, which cause deterioration of the mechanical properties of mineral wool products. This has been done using surface...... properties is the PUF binder, therefore further research work was performed to the pure PUF binder coatings to directly observe the ageing effects on the surface chemistry of the binder. High mass resolution ToFSIMS spectra of the pure PUF binder coatings confirmed that the depolymerisation of the cured......Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder based mineral wool products’ mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while mineral wool products based on a newly developed alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder exhibited better ageing properties...

  17. Dyeing and Adsorption Studies of Madder (Rubia tinctorum on Wool Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FEIZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dyeing behavior of wool fabrics with madder has been studied. Three well-known types of adsorption isotherms i.e. the Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to fit the data. It was found that the adsorption isotherm of madder on wool fibers follows Freundlich type of adsorption. The exponent α in Freundlich isotherm equation (Cf = k.Csα was obtained 0.61 corresponding to 0.5 for the direct dyes on cellulosic fibers. The effect of salt and pH on dyeing of wool samples was investigated by the use of color characteristics measurements. The results showed that addition of salt and acid (pH 4.5 to the dyebath resulted in an increase of adsorption. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5150

  18. A New Method for Descaling Wool Fibres by Nano Abrasive Calcium Carbonate Particles in Ultrasonic Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali rezaghasemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the most conventional methods for descaling of wool fibre are based on chemical degradation and resin covering of scales or a combination of them. These methods are producing wastewater and can cover physical properties of the fibres beside scales orderly. In this study, a new and clean method is developed on the basis of abrasion effect of calcium carbonate Nano particles (CCNP in an ultrasonic bath. Woolen Samples (fibre and yarn were sonicated with different levels of CCNP. Tensile properties of the yarns, directional friction effect of the fibres and scanning electron microscope images of the fibres were studied. Test results showed that sonicated Nano treatment of woolyarn reduced its tenacity, extension and work of rupture and increased its coefficient of friction. Scanning electron microscope images of fibres and measurement of fibres directional displacement confirmed descaling of Nano abrasive treated wool samples in comparison to the raw wool.

  19. Hard Carbon Fibers Pyrolyzed from Wool as High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Qian; Qiu, Shen; Liu, Xiaoling; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that the wool from worn-out clothes can serve as a low-cost and easy-to-collect precursor to preparing high-performance hard carbons for Na-ion batteries. Morphological characterizations demonstrate that this wool-derived hard carbon presents well-defined and homogeneously dispersed fiber networks. X-ray diffraction results combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that the interlayer space (d(002)) of the graphitic layers is 0.376 nm, sufficient for Na insertion into the stacked graphene layers. Electrochemical results show that the wool-derived hard carbon can deliver a high capacity of 303 mAh g-1 and excellent cycle stability over 80 cycles. This satisfactory electrochemical performance and easy synthetic procedure make it a promising anode material for practical SIBs.

  20. A comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea metabolism between Tibetan and fine-wool sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J W; Mi, J D; Titgemeyer, E C; Guo, X S; Ding, L M; Wang, H C; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Long, R J

    2015-06-01

    To study metabolic adaptation to harsh foraging conditions, an experiment was conducted to characterize and quantify N utilization efficiency and urea metabolism in Tibetan and fine-wool sheep fed 4 levels of dietary N (11.0, 16.7, 23.1, and 29.2 g N/kg DM) in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Urea kinetics were determined using continuous intrajugular infusions of 15N15N-urea. Urinary excretions of total N and urea N increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary N and were not different between breeds (P ≥ 0.37). Fecal N excretion increased with dietary N for Tibetan sheep but not for fine-wool sheep (linear dietary N × breed; P < 0.05). Nitrogen retention (both amount per day and percentage of N intake) increased with increasing dietary N concentration (P < 0.001), and the rates of increase were greater in fine-wool than in Tibetan sheep (linear dietary N × breed and cubic dietary N × breed; P < 0.05). In Tibetan sheep, N retention as a percentage of intake was greatest for diets containing 16.7 g N/kg DM, whereas it was maximal for fine-wool sheep when the diet contained 23.1 g N/kg DM. Urea N entry rate, urea N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and urea N returned to the ornithine cycle all increased with dietary N (P < 0.05), and all were greater in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep for the 11.0 g N/kg DM diet but were greater in fine-wool than Tibetan sheep for the diet with 29.2 g N/kg DM (linear dietary N × breed; P < 0.05). Urea N excreted in feces, both amount and fraction of GIT entry rate, was less in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep for the 11.0 and 16.7 g N/kg DM diets but similar for diets with 23.1 or 29.2 g N/kg DM (linear dietary N × breed; P < 0.01). For the lowest-protein diet, the fraction of urea N production recycled to the GIT was greater in the Tibetan than fine-wool sheep (88% vs. 82%), but for the diet with 29.2 g N/kg DM it was greater for fine-wool than Tibetan sheep (46% vs. 39%; linear dietary N × breed; P < 0

  1. A duplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qing-Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this article attempts were made to establish one-step duplex PCR assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. Primers were selected from published papers or designed in the well-conserved region of mitochondrial D-loop genes after alignment of the available sequences in the GenBank database. A fragment of 294 bp from cashmere goat was amplified and three PCR fragments including a bright main band of approximately 404 bp in length were obtained from sheep. The duplex PCR was found to be effective in detecting mixed samples precisely when sheep wool was mixed to goat cashmere with the relative proportion of over 9.09%. The duplex PCR could be considered as a simple and promising method in identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.

  2. Influence of flow properties on a structure of a mineral wool primary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajcar, Tom; Blagojevic, Bogdan; Sirok, Brane; Dular, Matevz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI - 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-11-15

    Mineral wool primary layer formation is influenced by the aerodynamic characteristics of the blow-away airflow and the secondary surrounding airflow. The distribution of mineral wool fibres in the primary layer was determined experimentally using a computer-aided visualization method. The flow properties in the region where the primary layer is formed were analysed. Numerical simulations with experiment-based boundary conditions were performed. The numerically obtained profile of mineral wool thickness at the collection chamber outlet agreed with the results of the experiment. Presented numerical model confirms that the forming of the primary layer is significantly dependent on local aerodynamic characteristic of the airflow in the collection chamber. Interaction between the local anomalies on the forming layer and the corresponding aerodynamic effects in the surrounding region was also analysed. (author)

  3. Magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool for As(V) removal from drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.kumar@juit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, District Solan (H.P.)- 173 234 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Arsenic (As) removal from contaminated groundwater is a key environmental concern worldwide. In this study, glass wool was coated with magnetite nanoparticles under argon gas flow and magnetite coated glass wool have been investigated for application as an adsorbent for As(V) removal from water. The adsorbent was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and arsenic contaminated water treated with adsorbent was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS results showed that 10 g/L of adsorbent removed 99.4% of As(V) within 5 hours at pH-7 and initial arsenic concentration of 360µg/L. Adsorption kinetics data fitted well in pseudo-first-order kinetics model with high correlation coefficient (R{sup 2} = 0.995). As magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool showed favorable adsorption behavior for As(V), it can be a promising tool for water purification.

  4. Sheeps` wool - the new material for insulation; Daemmstoffe stellen sich vor: Schafwolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doppelmayer, F.

    1997-04-01

    Pure new wool has been used for roof- and wall- insulation as well as acoustic ceilings for years. It is also used and legally approved for thermal insulation of pipes, fittings and air ducts. This article describes the properties of sheeps` wool: morphology of the wool fibre, reaction to humidity and fire, limiting oxygen index LOI. (HW) [Deutsch] Reine Schafschurwolle wird bereits seit Jahren zur Dach- und Wandisolierung sowie fuer Akustikdecken verwendet. Auch fuer die Waermedaemmung von Rohren, Armaturen und Luftkanaelen ist Schafwolle mit baurechtlicher Zulassung im Einsatz. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Eigenschaften von Schafschurwolle vor. Hierbei wird auf folgende Themenbereiche eingegangen: Morphologie der Wollfaser, Verhalten gegenueber Feuchtigkeit, Brandverhalten, Limiting Oxygen Index LOI. (HW)

  5. Dyeing and Adsorption Studies of Madder (Rubia tinctorum on Wool Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FEIZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dyeing behavior of wool fabrics with madder has been studied. Three well-known types of adsorption isotherms i.e. the Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to fit the data. It was found that the adsorption isotherm of madder on wool fibers follows Freundlich type of adsorption. The exponent α in Freundlich isotherm equation (Cf = k.Csα was obtained 0.61 corresponding to 0.5 for the direct dyes on cellulosic fibers. The effect of salt and pH on dyeing of wool samples was investigated by the use of color characteristics measurements. The results showed that addition of salt and acid (pH 4.5 to the dyebath resulted in an increase of adsorption. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5150

  6. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  7. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  8. Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions: differentiation using Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frola, C. [IV Divisione Radiologica, Ospedale S. Martino, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Cantoni, S. [IV Divisione Radiologica, Ospedale S. Martino, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Turtulici, I. [IV Divisione Radiologica, Ospedale S. Martino, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Leoni, C. [Divisione di Chirurgia Toracica, Ospedale S. Martino, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Loria, F. [IV Divisione Radiologica, Ospedale S. Martino, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Gaeta, M. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale Piemonte, I-98100 Messina (Italy); Derchi, L.E. [Cattedra di Radiologia, Universita degli Studi, V. le Benedetto XV, 10, I-16132 Genova (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. An MRI examination was performed on 22 patients with different types of pleural effusion (10 transudative and 12 exudative effusions). T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and 20 min after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The degree of enhancement of pleural effusions was evaluated both by visual assessement and by quantitative analysis of images. None of 10 transudative effusions showed significative enhancement, whereas 10 of 12 exudative effusions showed enhancement (sensitivity 83 %, specificity 100 %, positive predictive value 100 %). The postcontrast signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of exudates were significantly higher than corresponding precontrast ratios (P = 0.0109) and the postcontrast SIRs of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates (P = 0.0300). Exudative pleural effusions show a significant enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA. We presume that this may be caused by increased pleural permeability and more rapid passage of a large amount of Gd-DTPA from the blood into the pleural fluid in case of exudative effusions. In our limited group of patients, signal enhancement proved the presence of an exudative effusion. Absence of signal enhancement suggests a transudate, but does not exclude an exudate. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP and total protein (TP, can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic. CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10 % of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S was 0.10 ± 0.13 . For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15 , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration ( r = 0.764 ; p < 0.0001 . The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5un g/mL. SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates

  10. SERUM CHOLINESTERASE AND PLEURAL CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS AND ITS USAGE TO DIFFERENTIATE PLEURAL TRANSUDATES AND EXUDATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suresh S; Shoukath

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pleural fluid cholinesterase level and comparison of study of pleural fluid cholinesterase levels and serum cholinesterase levels to differentiate transudates from exudates...

  11. The acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A and C reactive protein in transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Lavado, Edson L; Lotufo, Paulo A; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 +/- 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 +/- 0.37 and 0.68 +/- 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764; p transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8-360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates.

  12. THE ASSESMENT OF MAIN CHARACTERISTICS AND PROCESSING AVAILABILITY OF WOOL OBTAINED FROM SHEEP BELONGING TO THE PALAS HIGH PROLIFICACY LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ENCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these researches was to analyze the quantitative and qualitative parameters of wool obtained from the Palas sheep population with high prolificacy and to assess the processing availabilities of these fibres type. Average values recorded for the main wool traits ranged between the following limits: wool production 2.86 ÷ 4.72 kilos; fibres fineness 27.28 ÷ 29.32 microns; variability of fineness ( CV 26.88 ÷ 29.94 %; staple length 9.77 ÷ 14.23 cm, variability of length ( CV 18.01 ÷ 22.06 % ; scouring yield 54.05 ÷ 61.44 % and the variability of yield 8.35 ÷ 14.78 %. . This wool has a technological value similar to that obtained from the sheep breed with medium fineness wool (Tigaie, Spanca .

  13. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on crystallization behaviour and high-temperature stability of stone wool fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasgaard, M.; Jacobsen, P.A.L.; Yue Yuanzheng [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Section of Chemistry

    2005-04-01

    The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the redox state of the iron in stone wool is studied using thermogravimetry (TG). The thermal response of the stone wool is measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The high-temperature stability of stone wool depending on the oxygen partial pressure is observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is confirmed that the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} is responsible for the high-temperature stability of stone wool. Even a minor increase in oxygen partial pressure can considerably alter the crystallization behaviour and enhance the high-temperature stability of the stone wool. The origin for that is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters for wool fiber diameter measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, N Y; Johnson, C L; Russell, W C; Stobart, R H

    1992-04-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritability estimates of side, britch, and core diameters; side and britch CV; side and britch diameter difference; and clean fleece weight were investigated using 385 western white-faced ewes produced by 50 sires and maintained at two locations on a selection study. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance procedures, and effects in the final model included breed of sire-selection line combination, sire within breed-selection line, and location. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib analysis. Sires within breed-selection line represented a significant source of variation for all traits studied. Location had a significant effect on side diameter, side and britch diameter difference, and clean fleece weight. Age of ewe only affected clean fleece weight. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among side, britch, and core diameter measures were high and positive. Phenotypic correlations ranged from .68 to .75 and genetic correlations ranged from .74 to .89. The genetic correlations between side and britch diameter difference and side diameter or core diameter were small (-.16 and .28, respectively). However, there was a stronger genetic correlation between side and britch diameter difference and britch diameter (.55). Heritability of the difference between side and britch diameter was high (.46 +/- .16) and similar to heritability estimates reported for other wool traits. Results of this study indicate that relatively rapid genetic progress through selection for fiber diameter should be possible. In addition, increased uniformity in fiber diameter should be possible through selection for either side and britch diameter difference or side or britch CV.

  15. Genotypic expression at different ages: II. Wool traits of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okut, H; Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    1999-09-01

    Genetic parameters for wool traits for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee breeds of sheep were estimated with single- and multiple-trait analyses using REML with animal models. Traits considered were fleece grade, fleece weight, and staple length. Total number of observations ranged from 11,673 to 34,746 for fleece grade and fleece weight and from 3,500 to 11,641 for staple length for the four breeds. For single-trait analyses, data were divided by age of ewe: young ages (age of 1 yr), middle ages (ages of 2 and 3 yr), and older ages (age greater than 3 yr). Heritability estimates averaged over breeds for fleece grade decreased from .42 at a young age to .37 for older ages. For fleece weight, heritability estimates averaged .52, .57, and .55 within the successively older groups. Heritability estimates for staple length averaged .54 for young and middle age classes. Few older ewes had staple length measurements. After single-trait analyses, new data sets were created for three-trait analyses with traits defined by three age classes when animals were measured. Heritability estimates with three-trait analyses, except for a few cases, were somewhat greater than those from single-trait analyses. For fleece grade, the genetic correlations averaged over breeds were .72 for young with middle, .42 for young with older, and .86 for middle with older age classes. For fleece weight, the average genetic correlations were .81, .83, and .98. For staple length, the average genetic correlation for young with middle age classes was .82. Estimates of genetic correlations across ages varied considerably among breeds. The average estimates of correlations suggest that fleece grade may need to be defined by age, especially for the Columbia and Rambouillet breeds. For fleece weight and staple length, however, the average correlations suggest no need to define those traits by age.

  16. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  17. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  18. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  19. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  20. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  1. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  2. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  3. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  4. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  5. Peat-based organic growbags as a solution to the mineral wool waste problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grunert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast amount of solid waste produced each year is one of the greatest problems associated with greenhouse horticulture in some European countries. In particular, the disposal of used growing media arising from the soil-less cultivation of vegetables in mineral wool creates serious difficulties. The non-biodegradability of these mainly inorganic substrates causes environmental concern and has prompted the search for alternative growing media such as cocos derivatives, perlite and resin foam (Fytocell®. Organic substrates in combination with biodegradable material such as plastic, rope and clippings have the advantage that re-use or recycling of the waste is easier, cheaper and more environmentally friendly than for mineral wool. However, the differing physical and chemical characteristics of the alternative substrates may affect yield significantly. Substrates based respectively on peat and peat with cocos derivatives were tested against a mineral wool control for the production of tomato in three consecutive years. Both organic substrates were placed in biodegradable plastic bags. Greenhouse experiments demonstrated that plants grown in the pure peat substrate rooted more easily than plants grown in the peat-cocos substrate or mineral wool, and that they developed less blossom-end rot in both peat substrates than in mineral wool. Due to the buffering capacity of the organic substrates, the electrical conductivity of the draining water appeared to be more stable during cultivation. The total yield of tomato fruits was similar for all substrates, and no differences between substrates could be observed in the quality of the fruits produced. On the other hand, flavour tests demonstrated that plants grown on peat substrate produced more tasty fruits under certain conditions. The results of this study show that organic growbags are promising and competitive alternatives to mineral wool.

  6. Identification of fine wool and cashmere by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guifang; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    As a rapid and non-destructive methodology, near infrared spectroscopy technique has been paid much attention recently. This paper presents an automatic recognition scheme for the fine wool fiber and cashmere fiber by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique, aim at the characteristics of Vis/NIR spectra on cashmere and fine wool. One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere and fine wool with principal component analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Preliminary qualitative analysis model has been built: We adopt Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques to collect the spectral data of cashmere and fine wool, two kinds of data pretreatment methods were applied: the standard normal variate (SNV) was used as scatter correction. Savitzky-Golay with the segment size 3 was used as the smoothing way to decrease the noise processed. Followed the pretreatment, spectral data were processed using principal component analysis, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.8%, the scores of these 6 PCs would be taken as the input of the three-layer back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (BP-ANN). Trained the BP-ANN with samples in calibration collection and predicted the samples in prediction collection. Experiments demonstrate that the system works quickly and effectively, and has remarkable advantages in comparison with the previous systems, The result indicted a model had been built to discriminate cashmere from fine wool using Vis/NIR spectra method combined with PCA-BP technology. The model works well, which indicates that this kind of approach is effective and promising, can raise resolution of cashmere and fine wool.

  7. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies.

  8. The Dyeing Procedures Evaluation of Wool Fibers with Prangos ferulacea and Fastness Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dyeing procedure of wool fibers with Prangos ferulacea was evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Using this method, the quantitive relationship between dye concentration of Prangos ferulacea, mordant concentration, dyeing temperature, and dyeing time on the dyeing procedure was investigated. The effect of these variables as well as plasma pretreatment was examined on the color strength of dyed samples. Finally, the fastness characteristic of dye sampled at proposed optimized condition was reported. The obtained results indicate that the presence of mordant improved the fastness properties and dyes uptake of wool fibers.

  9. Glass-wool study of laser-induced spin currents en route to hyperpolarized Cs salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear spin polarization of optically pumped Cs atoms flows to the surface of Cs hydride in a vapor cell. A fine glass wool lightly coated with the salt helps greatly increase the surface area in contact with the pumped atoms and enhance the spin polarization of the salt nuclei. Even though the glass wool randomly scatters the pump light, the atomic vapor can be polarized with unpolarized light in a magnetic field. The measured enhancement in the salt enables study of the polarizations of light and atomic nuclei very near the salt surface.

  10. Effect of pressure of supercritical carbon dioxide on morphology of wool fibers during dyeing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lai-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of pressure release rate on dyeing of wool fibers was studied in the supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing. Surface morphology, chemical composition and color difference at different pressure release rates were investigated by employing scanning electron microscope, color matching, and measuring instrument. Experiment data reveal that wool fibers are easy to be damaged with increasing pressure release rate. Fiber’s surface brightness varies also with the pressure release rate. The phenomena are theoretically explained using Bernoulli's principle.

  11. Glass-wool study of laser-induced spin currents en route to hyperpolarized Cs salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    The nuclear spin polarization of optically pumped Cs atoms flows to the surface of Cs hydride in a vapor cell. A fine glass wool lightly coated with the salt helps greatly increase the surface area in contact with the pumped atoms and enhance the spin polarization of the salt nuclei. Even though the glass wool randomly scatters the pump light, the atomic vapor can be polarized with unpolarized light in a magnetic field. The measured enhancement in the salt enables study of the polarizations of light and atomic nuclei very near the salt surface.

  12. Measurement of medullation in wool and mohair using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, C J; Pfeiffer, F A

    1998-05-01

    We conducted three experiments to evaluate the Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser (OFDA) for estimating medullation (med [M], kemp [K], and total [T] medullated fiber content) in mohair and wool produced by Angora goats and sheep, respectively. Medullation can be a beneficial characteristic in certain types of wool, but it is highly undesirable in mohair and apparel wools. Current techniques for evaluating medullation in animal fibers are laborious, slow, and expensive. The OFDA had been modified by the manufacturer to measure fiber opacity distribution, a characteristic known to be indicative of medullation in white fibers, and was capable of providing such measurements in a very short time. Measurements made on magnified fiber images produced with a projection microscope (PM) were used as a reference for M, K, and T in fiber samples. An initial experiment with 124 mohair samples (T = .10 to 9.10%) seemed to indicate that OFDA estimates of M, K, and T were only poorly correlated with corresponding PM values (r2 = .5409, .1401, and .5576, respectively). However, a second experiment using wool and mohair samples containing a wider range of medullation (T = .58 to 26.54%) revealed that OFDA estimates of M, K, and T for wool were highly correlated with PM measurements (r2 = .9853, .9307, and .9728, respectively). Evidence was also obtained indicating that the low r2 values associated with mohair relationships were likely due to a combination of factors: 1) high variation among the standard PM measurements and 2) the relatively low M, K, and T contents of the mohair samples compared with wool. In a third experiment, greater accuracy was obtained in the PM measurements by evaluating many more individual fibers per sample (10,000). In this case, OFDA estimates of M, K, and T for mohair were highly correlated with corresponding PM measurements (r2 = .8601, .9939, and .9696, respectively). However, the two sets of linear regression equations obtained for wool and mohair were

  13. A sustainable building product: advanced insulation panels obtained by recycling regional sheep’s wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bosia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deal with an ongoing research aimed at developing an advanced self-bearing panel, fitted for thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings, derived from the reuse and recycling of local sheep wool. The development of a supply chain of environmentally friendly products (a self bearing panel made of 100% wool encourages, on the one hand, the use of a material so far classified in Italy as special waste and, on the one other, provides new opportunities for a sheepfarming that it is now going through an economic recession, with positive effects on the mountain and the hill landscape.

  14. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  15. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  16. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  17. Migration and keratinization of cells in wool follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R E; Downes, A M; Wilson, P A

    1980-10-01

    Migration of cells in wool follicles of an adult Merino sheep was studied autoradiographically in skin samples taken at intervals after an intravenous injection of [3H]thymidine. Fibre and inner root sheath cells incorporated [3H]thymidine in a cone-shape region of the follicle bulb. Labelled inner sheath cells migrated out of the bulb ahead of contemporaneous cells in the fibre and remained in advance, although to a progressively lesser extent, until the inner sheath cells sloughed into the follicle lumen. Outer root sheath cells incorporated [3H]thymidine along the length of the follicle. Cells in the proximal half of the outer sheath migrated inwards and distally and sloughed into the follicle lumen before contemporaneous inner sheath cells. Other cells in the distal half of the outer sheath migrated past the level where cells from the proximal population were shed and also sloughed into the lumen. In the most distal part of the outer sheath, which formed the epidermis-like lining of the follicle canal, little migration of cells was observed during 8 days of observation. The specific activity of tritium in fibres plucked from the same sheep at intervals after the intravenous injection of [3H]thymidine was determined by scintillation counting and assessed in terms of cell migration and hardening of the fibres. The time which the specific activity of solvent-degreased fibres reached a maximum was found to give an estimate of the time for cells in the fibre to migrate to the upper limit of the keratogenous zone. When the plucked fibres were extracted with 8 M urea the times of the maximum specific activities of the urea-dispersible and urea-insoluble material provided respectively estimates of the times at which hardening of the fibres began and ended. The effects of different planes of nutrition were examined in two other Merino sheep by radioassay of fibres plucked after intravenous injections of [3H]thymidine given after equilibration period of at least 2 months

  18. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., paper, or non-woven cotton fabric, the payment will be calculated on 25 percent of the weight (gross... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or manufacture of non-woven cotton fabric, 25 percent of... definitions from the regulations for cotton non-recourse loans and loan deficiency payments. It clarifies...

  19. Evaluating the role of root citrate exudation as a mechanism of aluminium resistance in maize genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, E.D.; Keltjens, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Organic anion exudation by roots as a mechanism of aluminium (Al) resistance has been intensively studied lately. In the present study, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative aspects of root exudation of organic anions in maize genotypes of distinct sensitivity to Al in response to Al exposure. R

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  1. [Identification of chemicals in root exudates of potato and their effects on Rhizoctonia solani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-ming; Qiu, Hui-zhen; Zhang, Chun-hong; Hai, Long

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify chemicals in root exudates and their effect on Rhizoctonia solani in potato cropping systems. Root exudates were collected from the fields with 5 years of continuous potato cropping in comparison with rotational cropping of potato and other crops, using in-house made root boxes at the seedling and squaring stages. Chemicals in the root exudates were identified using the GC-MS method. The results showed that glucide concentration was the highest in the root exudates, followed by organic acids. Compared with the rotational cropping, the continuous cropping significantly decreased the glucide content and increased the content of organic acids in the root exudates. The contents of almitic acid in root exudates under continuous cropping was 0.94% at seedling stage and 1.4% at squaring stage, the dibutyl phthalate was 0.15%, whereas under rotational cropping, those values were decreased to 0.15%, 0.2%, and being negligible, respectively. The root exudates promoted the growth of R. solani, especially under continuous potato cropping. The simulation test showed that the palmitic acid and dibutyl phthalate in root exudates could promote the growth of R. solani.

  2. Influence of plant root exudates on the mobility of fuel volatile compounds in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation and its associated microorganisms play an important role in the behaviour of soil contaminants. One of the most important elements is root exudation, since it can affect the mobility, and therefore, the bioavailability of soil contaminants. In this study, we evaluated the influence of root exudates on the mobility of fuel derived compounds in contaminated soils. Samples of humic acid, montmorillonite, and an A horizon from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were contaminated with volatile contaminants present in fuel: oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE) and monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Natural root exudates obtained from Holcus lanatus and Cytisus striatus and ten artificial exudates (components frequently found in natural exudates) were added to the samples, individually and as a mixture, to evaluate their effects on contaminant mobility. Fuel compounds were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the addition of natural and artificial exudates increased the mobility of all contaminants in humic acid. In A horizon and montmorillonite, natural or artificial exudates (as a mixture) decreased the contaminant mobility. However, artificial exudates individually had different effects: carboxylic components increased and phenolic components decreased the contaminant mobility. These results established a base for developing and improving phytoremediation processes of fuel-contaminated soils.

  3. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  4. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root exudates and their influence upon soil microorg

  5. SERUM CHOLINESTERASE AND PLEURAL CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS AND ITS USAGE TO DIFFERENTIATE PLEURAL TRANSUDATES AND EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh S.; Shoukath

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pleural fluid cholinesterase level and comparison of study of pleural fluid cholinesterase levels and serum cholinesterase levels to differentiate transudates from exudates. Light’s criteria were used to compare transudate from exudate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 patients of pleural effusion of different diseases like tuberculosis, malignancy, Para pneumonic effusion, congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis were selected...

  6. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  7. Cotton dust-mediated lung epithelial injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayars, G H; Altman, L C; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T; Chi, E Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. ...

  8. Pigmented spots in the wool-bearing skin on white merino sheep induced by ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J W; Fleet, M R

    1986-01-01

    Black-grey pigmented skin spots, some of which contained pigmented wool fibres, were observed in a flock of 8.5-year-old white Merino ewes. The spots were concentrated along the backline and increased in number following shearing, suggesting exposure to sunlight to be of importance in the development of these non-congenital pigmented skin spots in genetically white Merino sheep. To test the effect of ultraviolet light, white Merino sheep, ranging in age from 3 to 8 years, had a closely clipped midside area of wool-bearing skin irradiated on each of 28 consecutive days. Pigmented skin spots developed in 6 of the 16 white Merino sheep irradiated. Spots first appeared after 10 days of irradiation, the number subsequently increasing with time, and two skin spots were found to contain sparse numbers of black-grey pigmented wool fibres. Histological examination showed both the naturally occurring and irradiation-induced pigmented skin spots resulted from an increase in both number and activity of melanocytes localized along the epidermal-dermal border of the epidermis. With time, the melanocytes were observed to have entered, to varying depths, the outer-root sheath of follicles still producing white wool fibres. These ultraviolet-light-induced changes to epidermal melanocytes in white Merino sheep presumably occur due to alterations within the local tissue environment in which the melanocytes lie.

  9. Removal of natural organic dyes from wool-implications for ancient textile provenance studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina; Frei, Robert;

    2010-01-01

    Ancient wool textiles recovered from archaeological sites are in many cases originally dyed with natural organic dyestuffs from vegetable sources. These include among others woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), weld (Reseda luteola L.), and madder (Rubia tinctorum L.). These dyestuffs could be a threat...

  10. A comparison of phenotypic performance of wool physical properties in Awassi ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Al-Dabbagh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from two different animal stations were recorded on two flocks of Awassi ewes. Data were analyzed for two productive seasons 2010 and 2011 years to estimate wool yield, Physical Properties and the phenotypic relationships between them. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01 for the flock on all wool properties except for fiber diameter (FD. and a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01 for year on clean fleece weight (CFW and clean wool (CW, and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05 on vegetable matter (VM and (FD. Interaction of flock × year had a highly significant effect (P≤ 0.01 on (CFW, (CW and (VM, and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05 on greasy fleece weight, staple length (SL, fiber length (FL and (FD. Phenotypic correlation between wool traits in both flocks were mostly highly significant (P≤ 0.01 between positive and negative ranged from -0.200 and 0.490, -0.203 and 0.498 for the correlation between (CW and (VM, and between (SL and (FL respectively. With a significant correlation (P≤ 0.05 -0.113 and 0.098, -0.155 and 0.099 between (VM and (FD, (CFW and (FD respectively. While the rest were non significant

  11. Effect of underground water attack on the performance of mineral wool pipe insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zeng, X. [General Motors Corp., Troy, MI (United States). Advanced Technology Vehicles; Ye, L. [Eaton Corp., Rochester Hills, MI (United States). Climate Control Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The performance of mineral wool pipe insulation employed to insulate the underground pipes in district heating and cooling systems has been investigated when it is subjected to underground water attack. The pipe fluid temperature was tested from 35 F (1.6 C) to 450 F (232.2 C). The surrounding water was maintained from 46 F (7.7 C) to 100 F (37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures when the system fails. Under heated conditions (pipe temperature higher than water temperature), the effective thermal conductivity of the wet mineral wool insulation can be, depending on the insulation and the surrounding water temperatures, 50 times higher than that of dry insulation. The effective thermal conductivity data of wet insulation were correlated as functions of insulation mean temperature and surrounding water temperature. Correlations have also been developed in the form of a Nusselt number vs. a Rayleigh number. Under cooled test conditions (pipe temperature lower than water temperature), the effective thermal conductivity of saturated mineral wool is about 14 times higher than that of dry mineral wool. For both heated and cooled conditions, after drying, the effective thermal conductivity returned to the value before submersion.

  12. 9 CFR 95.8 - Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions. 95.8 Section 95.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL...

  13. Genome-wide association study for wool production traits in a Chinese Merino sheep population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Wang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS provide a powerful approach for identifying quantitative trait loci without prior knowledge of location or function. To identify loci associated with wool production traits, we performed a genome-wide association study on a total of 765 Chinese Merino sheep (JunKen type genotyped with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In the present study, five wool production traits were examined: fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, staple length and crimp. We detected 28 genome-wide significant SNPs for fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, and crimp trait in the Chinese Merino sheep. About 43% of the significant SNP markers were located within known or predicted genes, including YWHAZ, KRTCAP3, TSPEAR, PIK3R4, KIF16B, PTPN3, GPRC5A, DDX47, TCF9, TPTE2, EPHA5 and NBEA genes. Our results not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel SNP markers and candidate genes associated with wool traits. Our findings will be useful for exploring the genetic control of wool traits in sheep.

  14. Investigations into the Anti-Felting Properties of Sputtered Wool Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Borghei, S.; Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Abdolahi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the effects of mordant and plasma sputtering treatments on the crystallinity and morphological properties of wool fabrics were investigated. The felting behavior of the treated samples was also studied. We used madder as a natural dye and copper sulfate as a metal mordant. We also used copper as the electrode material in a DC magnetron plasma sputtering device. The anti-felting properties of the wool samples before and after dying was studied, and it was shown that the shrink resistance and anti-felting behavior of the wool had been significantly improved by the plasma sputtering treatment. In addition, the percentage of crystallinity and the size of the crystals were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer, and a scanning electron microscope was used for morphological analysis. The amount of copper particles on the surface of the mordanted and sputtered fabrics was studied using the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) method, and the hydrophobic properties of the samples were examined using the water drop test. The results show that with plasma sputtering treatment, the hydrophobic properties of the surface of wool become super hydrophobic.

  15. 9 CFR 95.7 - Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry. 95.7 Section 95.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  16. Genome-wide association study for wool production traits in a Chinese Merino sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wang, Shouzhi; Rong, Enguang; Pei, Wenyu; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful approach for identifying quantitative trait loci without prior knowledge of location or function. To identify loci associated with wool production traits, we performed a genome-wide association study on a total of 765 Chinese Merino sheep (JunKen type) genotyped with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study, five wool production traits were examined: fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, staple length and crimp. We detected 28 genome-wide significant SNPs for fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, and crimp trait in the Chinese Merino sheep. About 43% of the significant SNP markers were located within known or predicted genes, including YWHAZ, KRTCAP3, TSPEAR, PIK3R4, KIF16B, PTPN3, GPRC5A, DDX47, TCF9, TPTE2, EPHA5 and NBEA genes. Our results not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel SNP markers and candidate genes associated with wool traits. Our findings will be useful for exploring the genetic control of wool traits in sheep.

  17. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  18. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  19. Effect of Zirconium Chloride as a Mordant on Flammability of Dyeing Wool with Madder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Almasian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of zirconium salt as a mordant on flammability of dyeing wool fabric with madder was studied.Wool fabrics were treated with different concentrations of zirconium salt in water solution including 1, 3, 6 and 9% o.w.f. and the dyeing process was carried out on the fabrics in the states before, simultaneously and after-mordanting with madder. Formic acid and oxalic acid were used to generate acidic pH.The chemical characteristics and the changes induced by zirconium were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR. Flammability of samples was investigated by horizontal flammability test (HFT. The surfaces of untreated and treated fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphological changes. The EDX results showed presence of zirconium salt on the surface of wool.The results show that zirconium treated fabrics have a higher weight and lower bending rigidity compared to untreated ones. Furthermore,the zirconium mordant made the wool fabric hydrophobic.

  20. In Situ Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles on Wool Powder and Their Catalytic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs were synthesized in situ on wool powder (WP under heating conditions. Wool powder not only reduced Au ions to AuNPs, but also provided a support for as-synthesized AuNPs. WPs were treated under different concentrations of Au ions, and corresponding optical features and morphologies of the treated WPs were investigated by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscope (TEM were also employed to characterize the WP treated with AuNPs. The results demonstrate that AuNPs were produced in the presence of WP and distributed over the wool particles. The porous structure led to the synthesis of AuNPs in the internal parts of WP. Acid conditions and high temperature facilitated the synthesis of AuNPs by WP in aqueous solution. The reducibility of wool was improved after being converted to powder from fibers, due to exposure of more active groups. Moreover, the obtained AuNP-WP complexes showed significant catalytic activity to accelerate the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP by sodium borohydride (NaBH4.

  1. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  2. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  3. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  5. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature...... wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic...... and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland...

  6. Detection of exudates in fundus images using a Markovian segmentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Balazs; Hajdu, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causing of vision loss in developed countries. In early stage of DR, some signs like exudates appear in the retinal images. An automatic screening system must be capable to detect these signs properly so that the treatment of the patients may begin in time. The appearance of exudates shows a rich variety regarding their shape and size making automatic detection more challenging. We propose a way for the automatic segmentation of exudates consisting of a candidate extraction step followed by exact contour detection and region-wise classification. More specifically, we extract possible exudate candidates using grayscale morphology and their proper shape is determined by a Markovian segmentation model considering edge information. Finally, we label the candidates as true or false ones by an optimally adjusted SVM classifier. For testing purposes, we considered the publicly available database DiaretDB1, where the proposed method outperformed several state-of-the-art exudate detectors.

  7. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we...... describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds...... that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates...

  8. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  9. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  10. Effects of various environmental conditions on the transformation of chlorinated solvents by Methanosarcina thermophila cell exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J L; Novak, P J

    2001-12-20

    Several microbiologically produced biomolecules have been shown to degrade chlorinated contaminants found in groundwater systems. It was discovered that the cell-free exudates of the methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila were capable of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) degradation. Characterization of the exudates suggested that the active agents were porphorinogen-type molecules, possibly containing zinc. This research was performed to determine if the exudates from M. thermophila could be used for remediation purposes. The cell exudates were found to be capable of degrading CT, CF, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. CT degradation was used to gauge exudate activity under a variety of conditions that would be encountered in the environment. The cell exudates were active when incubated in two types of soil matrices and at temperatures ranging from 4 to 23 degrees C. Over a 35-day period approximately 10.2 micromoles of CT were degraded by M. thermophila exudates. To test the hypothesis that the exudates contained either a zinc porphorinogen or a quinone, experiments were performed with zinc 5,10,15,20-tetra (4-pyridyl)-21 H, 23 H-porphine tetrakis, protoporphyrin IX zinc, and juglone. The two zinc porphyrins were capable of mediating CT degradation at rates comparable to those observed with the M. thermophila exudates; however, juglone was only capable of very slow CT transformation. The electron-transfer activity of the M. thermophila cell exudates was therefore more consistent with the activity of porphorinogens rather than quinones. Finally, in two enrichment cultures established from aquifer material and marine sediment, the possibility of excreted agents capable of degrading CT was evident.

  11. Union Dyeing Behavior on the Blends of Tencel and Shrinkproofing Wool with the Same Reactive Dyestuffs in One Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Quan; WU Chan-juan; XU Bin

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain union colour on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and improve the efficiency of dyeing process, the dyeing behavior on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool in the same bath was studied. The Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs were involved in the dyeing process. The parameters under different conditions such as exhaustion, fixation,compatibility as well as soaping fastness were investigated in detail. It is shown that the Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs are suitable for dyeing of blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and good dyeing behavior can be expected.

  12. Genetic factors controlling wool shedding in a composite Easycare sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matika, O; Bishop, S C; Pong-Wong, R; Riggio, V; Headon, D J

    2013-12-01

    Historically, sheep have been selectively bred for desirable traits including wool characteristics. However, recent moves towards extensive farming and reduced farm labour have seen a renewed interest in Easycare breeds. The aim of this study was to quantify the underlying genetic architecture of wool shedding in an Easycare flock. Wool shedding scores were collected from 565 pedigreed commercial Easycare sheep from 2002 to 2010. The wool scoring system was based on a 10-point (0-9) scale, with score 0 for animals retaining full fleece and 9 for those completely shedding. DNA was sampled from 200 animals of which 48 with extreme phenotypes were genotyped using a 50-k SNP chip. Three genetic analyses were performed: heritability analysis, complex segregation analysis to test for a major gene hypothesis and a genome-wide association study to map regions in the genome affecting the trait. Phenotypes were treated as a continuous or binary variable and categories. High estimates of heritability (0.80 when treated as a continuous, 0.65-0.75 as binary and 0.75 as categories) for shedding were obtained from linear mixed model analyses. Complex segregation analysis gave similar estimates (0.80 ± 0.06) to those above with additional evidence for a major gene with dominance effects. Mixed model association analyses identified four significant (P wool shedding, demonstrated the possibility of a single putative dominant gene controlling this trait and identified four SNPs that may be in partial linkage disequilibrium with gene(s) controlling shedding.

  13. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  14. Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy: A Variant of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Mashayekhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR in an elderly patient. Case Report: A 74-year-old Caucasian woman, with a 20-year history of a stable choroidal nevus in her right eye, was referred for evaluation of two small hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs affecting the temporal peripheral fundus of the same eye. Nine months later, the lesions became larger and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vascular changes corresponding to the location of the ophthalmoscopically visible PEDs. Despite one session of verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the lesions continued to enlarge eventually resulting in the development of a large hemorrhagic PED, which failed to respond to two subsequent injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. The final ophthalmoscopic appearance of the large hemorrhagic PED was typical of PEHCR. Conclusion: This case suggests that polypoidal choroidal vascular changes similar to that seen in our patient may underlie the development of PEHCR in some cases.

  15. Isoflavanones from the allelopathic aqueous root exudate of Desmodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanuo, Muniru K; Hassanali, Ahmed; Hooper, Antony M; Khan, Zeyaur; Kaberia, Festus; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J

    2003-09-01

    Three isoflavanones, 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (1), 4",5"-dihydro-5,2',4'-trihydroxy-5"-isopropenylfurano-(2",3";7,6)-isoflavanone (2) and 4",5"-dihydro-2'-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-5"-isopropenylfurano-(2",3";7,6)-isoflavanone (3) and a previously known isoflavone 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone [genistein (4)] were isolated and characterised spectroscopically from the root exudate of the legume Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC. We propose the names uncinanone A, B, and C for compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Isolated fractions containing uncinanone B (2) induced germination of seeds from the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and fractions containing uncinanone C (3) moderately inhibited radical growth, the first example of a newly identified potential allelopathic mechanism to prevent S. hermonthica parasitism.

  16. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  17. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations...), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee. Equivalent Instrument means a cotton dust...

  19. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  20. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  1. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  2. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  3. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  4. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  5. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  6. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  7. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  8. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  9. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  10. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... creates technical problems if the loan schedules and base grade specifications are changed. CCC... cotton industry to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). AMS can and does change...

  11. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  12. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  13. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  14. [Automatic detection of exudates in retinal images based on threshold moving average models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaeng, K; Hiransakolwong, N; Pothiruk, E

    2015-01-01

    Since exudate diagnostic procedures require the attention of an expert ophthalmologist as well as regular monitoring of the disease, the workload of expert ophthalmologists will eventually exceed the current screening capabilities. Retinal imaging technology is a current practice screening capability providing a great potential solution. In this paper, a fast and robust automatic detection of exudates based on moving average histogram models of the fuzzy image was applied, and then the better histogram was derived. After segmentation of the exudate candidates, the true exudates were pruned based on Sobel edge detector and automatic Otsu's thresholding algorithm that resulted in the accurate location of the exudates in digital retinal images. To compare the performance of exudate detection methods we have constructed a large database of digital retinal images. The method was trained on a set of 200 retinal images, and tested on a completely independent set of 1220 retinal images. Results show that the exudate detection method performs overall best sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 90.42%, 94.60%, and 93.69%, respectively.

  15. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  16. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  17. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  19. Dyeing, moisture regain and mechanical properties of wool fabric grafted with PMMA by chemical and radiation-initiated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naggar, A.M.; Marie, M.M.; El Gendy, E.H.; El Miligy, A.A. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-04-01

    PMMA polymer has been grafted onto wool fabric by two methods of grafting preirradiation method and chemical initiation using KMnO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} system. The grafted wool showed an enhancement in dyeability towards some basic dyes differing in size and chemical structure. Preirradiated grafted wool exhibited a relatively higher dyeing affinity than that prepared by the chemical method. Graft yield of up to 26% of PPMA did not have a noticeable effect on the moisture regain of wool fabric. Further increase in graft yield was found to cause a slight reduction in moisture regain. The tensile strength was reduced by the graft process, but elongation at break was not affects. (author).

  20. Industrial Education in the Middle Ages: Apprenticeship in the Wool Textile Industry in Thirteenth-Century Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannabecker, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of 13th-century industrial regulations in Paris shows how medieval apprenticeships in the textile industry functioned. The investigation interprets wool industry apprenticeship in the context of the production system and the social environment. (SK)