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Sample records for extruded truss-web landing

  1. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  2. 钢桁腹预应力混凝土组合梁桥的剪滞效应%Study on Shear-lag Effect of Steel Truss-web and Pre-stressed Concrete Composite Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朵; 张建东; 刘钊

    2013-01-01

    The steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge consists of two parts :steel truss-web and top-and-bottom concrete board .Because the distribution of shear deformation is non-uniform ,the composite box girder bridge has the obvious shear-lag effect under longitudinal bending .Taking a steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge for example ,the shear-lag effect and the distribution law of effective width are analyzed by the fi-nite element model of space ,and the effects of top-and-bottom thickness and steel pipe thickness on the shear-lag effect are studied here so as to provide references for the similar design in the future .%钢桁腹预应力混凝土组合梁桥在截面形式上采用桁式腹杆和混凝土顶底板,由于剪切变形的不均匀性,使得组合箱梁在纵向弯曲时产生较为明显的剪滞效应。以某钢桁腹混凝土组合梁桥为例,利用空间实体模型分析了剪滞效应和有效宽度分布规律,并研究了顶底板厚度及钢管壁厚对剪滞效应的影响,为今后同类桥型的设计提供参考。

  3. Physical properties of extrudates containing distillers grains extruded in a twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  4. Optimal Parameters Multicomponent Mixtures Extruding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil F. Sagitov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of multicomponent mixtures extruding from production wastes are carried out, unit for production of composites from different types of waste is presented. Having analyzed dependence of multicomponent mixtures extruding energy requirements on die length and components content at three values of angular rate of screw rotation, we received the values of energy requirements at optimal length of the die, angular speed and percent of binding additives.

  5. RDX/Sylgard extrudable explosive development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, A.G.; Schmitz, G.T.; Stallings, T.L.; West, G.T.; Ashcraft, R.W.

    1977-10-01

    Formulation procedures for X-0208, an 80 percent RDX/20 percent Sylgard extrudable, have been developed. The extrudable explosive, made from a mixture of micronized RDX and Class E RDX, will sustain detonation in a 1.65 mm channel and can be mechanically extruded into ribbon-type configurations.

  6. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    Filter-extrusion is a widely used technique for down-sizing of phospholipid vesicles. In order to gain a detailed insight into size and size distributions of filter-extruded vesicles composed of egg phosphatidyl-choline (with varying fractions of cholesterol) – in relation to extrusionparameters...

  7. Twin-Screw Extruders in Ceramic Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Werner; Hölzel, Maria

    The machines mainly used for compounding plastics, chemicals and food are co-rotating, closely intermeshing twin-screw extruders. Some 30 000 such extruders are in use worldwide, about 1/3 are ZSKs from Coperion Werner & Pfleiderer, Stuttgart. In the chemical industry more and more batch mixers are being replaced by continuous twin-screw kneaders.

  8. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk densit...

  9. Extrudate Expansion Modelling through Dimensional Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A new model framework is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extrusion operation parameters for a food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis principle, i.e. Buckingham pi theorem. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. energy, water content and temperature, are suggested...... to describe the extrudates expansion. From the three dimensionless groups, an equation with three experimentally determined parameters is derived to express the extrudate expansion. The model is evaluated with whole wheat flour and aquatic feed extrusion experimental data. The average deviations...

  10. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  11. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  12. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  13. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaFu-go; WuFeng-zhi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed.In recent years.However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption.Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction.The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three different kinds of extrudates and processing conditions.These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time.The effects of process variables,including applied pressure,pressing temperature and sample height,were investigated.Results indicated that over 90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples.The information generated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pretreatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  14. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed. In recent years. However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption. Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction. The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three differ- ent kinds of extrudates and processing conditions. These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time. The effects of process variables ,in- cluding applied pressure, pressing temperature and sample height, were investigated. Results indicated that over90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples. The information gen- erated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pre- treatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  15. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  16. Screw Extruder for Pellet Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar K. Chhantbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy reactor. A technique for continuous production of solid hydrogen and its isotopes by a screw extruder is suggested for the production of an unlimited number of pellets. The idea was developed and patented by PELIN laboratories, Inc. (Canada. A Gifford McMahon cryocooler is used for the generation of solid hydrogenic fluid pellets. Requirements of the pellets is depends upon the energy to be produced by tokamak. This review paper focuses on the model for the screw extruder for solidification of hydrogen ice having high injection reliability.

  17. A correlation for heat transfer coefficients in food extruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L; Rockwood, J

    1986-06-01

    A dimensionless correlation of heat transfer coefficient for heat flow between the extruder barrel wall and extrudate is presented. The standard error of estimate of the correlation is 12.4%. The correlation is useful for the design and scale-up of food extruders and the design of associated temperature control systems.

  18. Properties of extruded teff-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff is an ancient grain that is becoming more popular since it is gluten-free and a good source of vitamins, minerals and protein. Relatively little is known about the properties of extruded teff, although the high insoluble fiber and protein contents have been shown to limit expansion. The health ...

  19. RHEOLOGY OF EXTRUDED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein isolate (WPI), a high-quality protein used to fortify a number of foods, may be texturized with a twin-screw extruder. Since extrusion of food is commonly performed above 70°C, which causes whey protein to denature, cold extrusion below 70°C was investigated to determine the effects on...

  20. A phenomenological study on twin screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although more and more twin screw extruders are being used in the polymer industry, the theoretical background is relatively undeveloped. The literature abounds in contradictions and often informs the reader that all extrusion problems can be solved if a certain new design is considered. The develop

  1. Interface Properties in Extruded FRC-Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In a research and development project recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering and Materials, Technical University of Denmark a new extrusion process for HPFRCC-materials was demonstrated.It is shown that superior interfacial properties are obtained in a polypropylene fiber...... reinforced cementitious material extruded by the developed process. It is further more shown that the fiber-matrix bond is highly dependent on the relative slip at the interface and a bond-slip relationship is suggested for the extruded material. The observed very high fiber-matrix bond is explained...... by the densification of the interfacial matrix material which has taken place during the consolidation process and which can be observed in the thin-section analysis....

  2. Description of Extrudate Swell for Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrudate swell is often observed to be weakened in nanocomposites compared to the pure polymer matrix. A theory quantifying this would be significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. A unified extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters was suggested for polymer melt and their nanocomposites when considering the reservoir entry effect. More importantly, it was the first to find that the composite swell ratio can be the matrix swell ratio multiplied by the concentration shift factor, which is similar to the dynamic moduli expression for composites. The factor is a function of the shear field (stress or shear rate, filler content, filler internal structure and the surface state as well as the matrix properties. Several sets of swell data for nanocomposites were chosen from publications to test the new theories. The proposed quantitative model displayed good fit for the five kinds of nanocomposites, which verified the rationality of the swell theory for nanocomposites.

  3. EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE FOAM IN FLAT ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our article we prove the necessity of applying thermal insulation with low water absorption and resistance and preserving mechanical and thermophysical properties in corrosive environment in flat roofs, where there is always a danger of penetrating condensed moisture into the structure. As such material we offered extruded polystyrene foam - heat-insulating polymer material with uniformly distributed closed cells. The products are used in the form of slab insulation and special items - for forming slopes and venting.

  4. Direct compression properties of melt-extruded isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindayino, F; Henrist, D; Kiekens, F; Van den Mooter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2002-03-20

    Isomalt, a sugar alcohol, was melt-extruded prior to compression in order to improve its tabletting properties. After fusion, crystalline isomalt was transformed into an amorphous form as shown by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The tabletting properties of amorphous isomalt were dramatically improved. Mixtures formulated with paracetamol (50%) and extruded isomalt yielded hard tablets. However, extruded isomalt powder showed agglomeration problems due to recrystallization of the amorphous phase into a stable crystalline form in the presence of atmospheric moisture. The evolution of the moisture content correlated well with the compressibility data. The tablets made of extruded isomalt powder had a lower friability in comparison to the tablets formulated with non-extruded isomalt powder. Their disintegration was fast and a rapid dissolution rate was recorded. Extruded isomalt displayed excellent tabletting properties; however, further experiments should be conducted to delay or even prevent recrystallization of amorphous isomalt.

  5. A whole life assessment of extruded double base propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, J.

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing process for solventless extruded double base propellants involves a number of rolling and reworking stages. Throughout these processes a decrease in weight average molecular weight was observed, this was attributed to denitration. Differential scanning calorimetery data indicated that the reworking stages of extruded double base propellant manufacture were crucial to the homogenisation of the propellant mixture. To determine the homogeneity of the final extruded product, a s...

  6. [Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

    2009-01-01

    We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests.

  7. The counter-rotating twin screw extruder as a polymerization reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, Klaassien Jakoba

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine the possibilities of this type of extruder as a polymerization reactor, and to develop models of the extruder reactor which accurately describe the reaction progress in the extruder. See summary

  8. Thermal and Microstructural Property of Extruded Snack: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahuya Hom Choudhury,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice and Chapra (Fenneropenaeus indicus mixture were extruded using a co rotating fully intermeshing twin-screw extruder to prepare carbohydrate protein based snack. The aim of the present work is to study the glass transition temperature and microstructural behaviour of carbohydrate-protein extrudate snack. Parkin Elmer Differential Scanning Calorimeter method was used for studying phase transition behaviour of complex carbohydrate-protein extrudate at a heating rate of 5ºC/min and in the temperature range - 80ºC to 180ºC. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to study the microstructural behavior of multicomponent extrudate at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV and at 1000 X magnification. State diagram indicated phase separation of carbohydrate-protein complex food system at macromolecular level. The glass transition temperature of protein dictated the texture of the mixed system. At room temperature, extrudate with 15% moisture is glassy while extrudates obtained <15% moisture shows rubbery texture and higher moisture profile shows burnt texture. Microstructural analysis performed by SEM shows typical network like structure at 150C and 15% moisture.

  9. Simplified models for estimating isothermal operating characteristics of food extruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L; Rockwood, J

    1985-09-01

    A model of isothermal food extruder performance is described. Inferences about alternative extruder screw designs and their performance are drawn from the model. The model suggests that thread depth or diameter compression screws are superior in performance to a pitch compression screw. The advantage gained from using diameter compression screws is paid for with significantly higher rates of energy dissipation. The use of the model to characterize screws having both a compression zone and metering zone is described.

  10. Bio rapid prototyping by extruding/aspirating/refilling thermoreversible hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwami, K; Noda, T; Ishida, K; Umeda, N [Department of Mechanical Systems and Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Morishima, K [Department of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Nakamura, M, E-mail: k_iwami@cc.tuat.ac.j [Department of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    This paper reports a method for rapid prototyping of cell tissues, which is based on a system that extrudes, aspirates and refills a mixture of cells and thermoreversible hydrogel as a scaffold. In the extruding mode, a cell-mixed scaffold solution in the sol state is extruded from a cooled micronozzle into a temperature-controlled substrate, which keeps the scaffold in the gel state. In the aspiration mode, the opposite process is performed by Bernoulli suction. In the refilling mode, the solution is extruded into a groove created in the aspiration mode. The minimum width of extruded hydrogel pattern is 114 +- 15 mum by employing a nozzle of diameter 100 mum, and that of aspirated groove was 355 +- 10 mum using a 500 mum-diameter nozzle. Gum arabic is mixed with the scaffold solution to avoid peeling-off of the gel pattern from the substrate. Patterning of Sf-9 cell tissue is demonstrated, and the stability of the patterned cell is investigated. This system offers a procedure for rapid prototyping and local modification of cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  11. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  12. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  13. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality.

  14. Quantitative analyses of extrudate swell for polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejian; Sun, Chongxiao

    2009-07-01

    The quantitative theory of extrudate swell for nanocomposite and pure polymer is significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. Based on Song's die swell theory for entangled polymers, one extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters was developed for polymer melt and their nanocomposites when compensating reservoir entry effect. It was the first to find that the composite swell ratio can be the matrix swell ratio multiplied by the concentration shift factor. The factor is the functions of the shear field, filler content, filler internal structure and the surface state as well as the matrix properties. The quantitative model was well fitful for the five kinds of nanoomposites.

  15. Efficient Welding Fabrication of Extruded Aluminum Mat Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    aged to produce the needle structure. This is confirmed by Enjo (Ref. 41) for 6063 - T5 alloy. However, as was shown by Dumolt (Ref. 38), increase in...According to Ref. 1, extrudability of 6061 alloy is rated as 60% of that of the standard 6063 alloy. The various combinations of properties and economics of...extrudability 2-17 TABLE 2-1. ExtrudabUilty of AI-Mg-SI Alloys A.A. Designation Grading Characteristics 6063 Low Strength Good finish, high extrusion

  16. The modelling of counter-rotating twin screw extruders as reactors for single-component reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Capel, J.E.; Wal, D.J. van der; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  17. 78 FR 58520 - Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... unliquidated entries of certain extruded rubber thread from Malaysia produced and/or exported by Heveafil, and... International Trade Administration Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on extruded rubber thread from Malaysia.\\1\\ The period of review...

  18. The modelling of counter-rotating twin screw extruders as reactors for single-component reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Capel, J.E.; Wal, D.J. van der; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  19. Residence time distribution in twin-screw extruders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the twin-screw extruders used in the food industry at short time high temperature processes the knowledge of their reactor properties is incomplete for mass- and heat flow. Therefore each process change such as: scale-up or product development requires a great number of measurements before an ac

  20. Residence time distribution in twin-screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the twin-screw extruders used in the food industry at short time high temperature processes the knowledge of their reactor properties is incomplete for mass- and heat flow. Therefore each process change such as: scale-up or product development requires a great number of measurements

  1. A consolidation based extruder model to explore GAME process configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model from literature was adapted to predict the pressure profile and oil yield for canola in a lab-scale extruder. Changing the description of the expression process from filtration to consolidation significantly improved the performance and physical meaning of the model. The model

  2. Buckling of a beam extruded into highly viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, F. P.; Neetzow, P.; Paak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by microscopic Paramecia which use trichocyst extrusion to propel themselves away from thermal aggression, we propose a macroscopic experiment to study the stability of a slender beam extruded in a highly viscous fluid. Piano wires were extruded axially at constant speed in a tank filled with corn syrup. The force necessary to extrude the wire was measured to increase linearly at first until the compressive viscous force causes the wire to buckle. A numerical model, coupling a lengthening elastica formulation with resistive-force theory, predicts a similar behavior. The model is used to study the dynamics at large time when the beam is highly deformed. It is found that at large time, a large deformation regime exists in which the force necessary to extrude the beam at constant speed becomes constant and length independent. With a proper dimensional analysis, the beam can be shown to buckle at a critical length based on the extrusion speed, the bending rigidity, and the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. Hypothesizing that the trichocysts of Paramecia must be sized to maximize their thrust per unit volume as well as avoid buckling instabilities, we predict that their bending rigidity must be about 3 ×10-9N μ m2 . The verification of this prediction is left for future work.

  3. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived of being cut off on barrel wall, were found to have the capacity of the positive conveying. Experimental data were obtained using a specially designed extruder with a helically channeled barrel in the feeding zone and a pressure-adjustable die. The effects of the barrel channel geometry and friction coefficients on the conveying mechanism were presented and compared with the experimental results. The simulations showed that the positive conveying could be achieved after optimizing extruder designs. Compared with the traditional design with the friction-drag conveying, the throughput is higher while screw torque and energy consumption are decreased. Besides, the design criteria of the barrel channel were also discussed.

  4. 99. 99% Al/ 6063 Alloy Co-extruded beam chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, H.; Narushima, K.; Kanazawa, K.

    1988-09-30

    In an electron storage ring, synchrotron radiation causes stimulated gas desorption from the vacuum chamber wall. It raises the operating pressure far above the ultrahigh vacuum range needed for long beam lifetimes. In order to determine an ideal material for low dynamic gas desorption we have studied the properties of co-extruded 99.99%Al/ 6063 alloy. (AIP)

  5. The influence of plasticizer on extruded thermoplastic starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderBurgt, M.C.; VanderWoude, M.E.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Burgt, M.C. van der; Woude, M.E. van der

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an extruder for the plastification process of potato starch with glycerol and water as plasticizers. The influence of both plasticizers is expressed in the water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI). The amount of water added prior to extrusion is a

  6. Processing and characterization of extruded zein-based biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying

    The objectives of this study were to prepare biodegradable zein films by extrusion processing and to evaluate relevant physical properties of resulting films with respect to their potential as packaging materials. The manufacture of protein-based packaging films by extrusion has remained a challenge. In this study, a zein resin was prepared by combining zein and oleic acid. This resin was formed into films by blown extrusion at the bench-top scale. Resin moisture content and extruder barrel temperature profile were identified as major parameters controlling the process. The optimum temperature of the blowing head was determined to be 40--45°C, while optimum moisture at film collection was 14--15%. Physico-chemical properties of the extruded products were characterized. Extruded products exhibited plastic behavior and ductility. Morphology characterization by SEM showed micro voids in extruded zein sheets, caused by entrapped air bubbles or water droplets. DSC characterization showed that zein was effectively plasticized by oleic acid as evidenced by the lowered glass transition temperature of zein films. X-ray scattering was used to investigate changes in zein molecular aggregation during processing. It was observed that higher mechanical energy treatment progressively disrupted zein molecular aggregates, resulting in a more uniform distribution of individual zein molecules. With the incorporation of oleic acid as plasticizer and monoglycerides as emulsifier, zein formed structures with long-range periodicity which varied depending on the formulation and processing methods. Processing methods for film formation affected the binding of oleic acid to zein with higher mechanical energy treatment resulting in better interaction between the two components. The moisture sorption capacity of extruded zein films was reduced due to the compact morphology caused by extrusion. Plasticization with oleic acid further reduced moisture sorption of zein films. The overall

  7. Evaluation of roll-extruded Alloy 718 tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, G R; Korth, G E

    1978-05-01

    A sample of roll-extruded Alloy 718 tubing, a product identified for use in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor, was evaluated. The tubing satisfied AMS 5589 requirements for seamless tubing, and had tensile and fatigue properties comparable to plate for the conventional 955/sup 0/C (1750/sup 0/F) heat treatment. Recrystallization was retarded in this product and bands of very small grains resulted from the conventional heat treatment. Both as-roll-extruded and directly aged material showed the results of thermomechanical processing in high strengths and reductions in area. It is recommended that work continue toward realizing improved fatigue and stress rupture properties in this product by means of ''Minigrain'' and thermomechanical processing. 10 figures, 6 tables.

  8. A Novel cooked extruded lentils analog: physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud; Alavi, Sajid; Al-Shathri, Abdulaziz

    2015-07-01

    Developing an extruded lentil analog is our aim. Lentil analog with six formulations were produced using a pilot-scale single (SS) and twin screw (TS) extruders. Texture analysis of lentil analogs prepared for consumption revealed that the products formulated with 60:40 and 70:30 soy: wheat ratios exhibited a significantly higher hardness, adhesiveness and lower springiness as compared to all other treatments. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results indicated that all starches in dry blend are completely 100 % gelatinized by extrusion for all treatments at 100 °C. The maximum peak of viscosity for TS was formed after 5.58 min. from the run at 89.9 °C for the best treatment. However, this lentil analog product can provide a high quality lentil which can be used as a substitute for regular lentils.

  9. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Noirfontaine M.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs, especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP, have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  10. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  11. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    OpenAIRE

    De Noirfontaine M.N.; Mounanga P.; Khelidj A.; Dunstetter F.; Cherkaoui K.; Courtial M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  12. Essential fatty acids in extruded and raw dog foods

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Juni S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections: section 1 explaining the theory about fat and fatty acids functions, health effects and sources, section 2 includes a study of commercial extruded and raw dog foods. Fat is the most energy dens nutrient and functions as energy, structural components in cell membranes, source of essential fatty acids (EFA), precursor to biological active substrates and carrier of fat-soluble vitamins. EFA cannot be synthesized by the animal, and needs to be added ...

  13. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Brnčić; Sven Karlović; Tomislav Bosiljkov; Branko Tripalo; Damir Ježek; Ivana Cugelj; Valentina Obradović

    2008-01-01

    Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is ...

  14. Extrudability and Consolidation of Blends between CGM and DDGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. R. Verbeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the global biofuels industry has experienced exponential growth. By-products such as high protein corn gluten meal (CGM and high fibre distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS have grown in parallel. CGM has been shown to be suitable as a biopolymer; the high fibre content of DDGS reduces its effectiveness, although it is considerably cheaper. In this study, the processing behaviour of CGM and DDGS blends was evaluated and resulting extrudate properties were determined. Prior to processing, urea was used as a denaturant. DDGS : CGM ratios of 0, 33, 50, 66, and 100% were processed in a single screw extruder, which solely used dissipative heating. Blends containing DDGS were less uniformly consolidated and resulted in more dissipative heating. Blends showed multiple glass transitions, which is characteristic of mechanically compatible blends. Transmission electron microscopy revealed phase separation on a microscale, although distinct CGM or DDGS phases could not be identified. On a macroscale, optical microscopy suggested that CGM-rich blends were better consolidated, supported by visual observations of a more continuous extrudate formed during extrusion. Future work should aim to also characterize the mechanical properties of these blends to assess their suitability as either bioplastic feedstock or pelletized livestock feed.

  15. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  16. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon; Petronilho, Fabricia; Soldi, Valdir; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes.

  17. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  18. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p extruder feed was positively related to ER (p Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA.

  19. Development of a Twin-Screw D-2 Extruder for the ITER Pellet Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McFee, Marshall T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Sitterson, R G [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with single-stage gas gun into the plasma. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. Deuterium gas is precooled and liquefied before being introduced into the extruder. The precooler consists of a copper vessel containing liquid nitrogen surrounded by a deuterium gas filled copper coil. The liquefier is comprised of a copper cylinder connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which is surrounded by a copper coil that the precooled deuterium flows through. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at approximate to 15 K) before it is forced through the extruder nozzle. A viewport located below the extruder nozzle provides a direct view of the extrusion. A camera is used to document the extrusion quality and duration. A data acquisition system records the extruder temperatures, torque, and speed, upstream, and downstream pressures. This paper will describe the prototype twin-screw extruder and initial extrusion results.

  20. Extruded contents of colloid cysts after endoscopic removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Assem M; Souweidane, Mark M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Mineralized or desiccated colloid cysts pose some unique challenges to endoscopic removal. The extrusion of the solid matrix into the intraventricular compartment has not been previously reported and, as such, no guidance exists regarding its predilection, prevention, and fate. METHODS Postoperative imaging studies in a registry of patients undergoing endoscopic removal of colloid cyst were reviewed to detect any solid matrix within the ventricular compartment. Preoperative images and operative notes were used to determine if any features were predictive. Serial postoperative images and clinical notes were used to characterize the implications of these findings. RESULTS From a review of 94 patients, 10 (10.6%) patients had evidence of an extruded intraventricular solid fragment (median follow-up 4 months; range 0.5-115 months). Of the evaluable patients, 7 of 9 patients had T1-weighted hyperintense and T2-weighted hypointense cysts on preoperative scans. Seventy-eight percent of the extrusions were on the same side as the endoscopic entry. Three patients demonstrated early fragment migration, but not after 8 months of radiological follow-up. All evaluable patients demonstrated improvement in their hydrocephalus, and none suffered a complication attributable to the intraventricular extruded fragments. CONCLUSIONS Intraventricular extruded colloid fragments can occur after endoscopic resection, with the possible risk demonstrated as cyst hypointensity on preoperative T2-weighted images. The finding does not seem to result in any clinical morbidity, and radiographic involution is the rule. Migratory capacity, however, does exist and justifies a more frequent imaging surveillance schedule and consideration for removal.

  1. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  2. Extrude Hone deburring with X-base media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1973-09-01

    Small precision mechanisms must have burr-free, sharp-edged parts to operate well. Controlling the size of burrs can lower burr removal costs and improve edge repeatability. Study results indicated that with conventional tooling approaches, Extrude Hone deburring with x-base media removes more material from the hole than desired and is less repeatable than required on precision miniature parts. With this media, the process is most applicable to precision miniature parts with burrs less than 25.4 ..mu..m thick, allowable hole size changes equal to burr thickness, and allowable hole size repeatability of +-0.2 times the actual average hole size change.

  3. Extruded single ring hollow core optical fibers for Raman sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Rowland, K. J.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.; Spooner, N. A.; Monro, T. M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of the first extruded hollow core optical fiber with a single ring of cladding holes. A lead-silicate glass billet is used to produce a preform through glass extrusion to create a larger-scale version of the final structure that is subsequently drawn to an optical fiber. The simple single suspended ring structure allows antiresonance reflection guiding. The resulting fibers were used to perform Raman sensing of liquid samples filling the length of the fiber, demonstrating its potential for fiber sensing applications.

  4. Encapsulation of liquids using a counter rotating twin screw extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Krauss, Ralph; Marmann, Andreas; Thommes, Markus; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Until now extrusion is not applied for pharmaceutical encapsulation processes, whereas extrusion is widely used for encapsulation of flavours within food applications. Based on previous mixing studies, a hot melt counter-rotating extrusion process for encapsulation of liquid active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was investigated. The mixing ratio of maltodextrin to sucrose as matrix material was adapted in first extrusion trials. Then the number of die holes was investigated to decrease expansion and agglutination of extrudates to a minimum. At a screw speed of 180 min(-1) the product temperature was decreased below 142 °C, resulting in extrudates of cylindrical shape with a crystalline content of 9-16%. Volatile orange terpenes and the nonvolatile α-tocopherol were chosen as model APIs. Design of experiments were performed to investigate the influences of barrel temperature, powder feed rate, and API content on the API retentions. A maximum of 9.2% α-tocopherol was encapsulated, while the orange terpene encapsulation rate decreased to 6.0% due to evaporation after leaving the die. During 12 weeks of storage re-crystallization of sucrose occurred; however, the encapsulated orange terpene amount remained unchanged.

  5. EUCALYPTUS CELLULOSE MICRO/NANOFIBRILS IN EXTRUDED FIBERCEMENT COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Soares Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is an alternative process for fiber-cement production and allows many advantages such as different geometries for the extruded products and the low initial investment for industrial production. In this context the aim of this study was to produce cellulose micro/nanofibrils from Eucalyptus pulp and evaluate the properties of cementitious composites made with different contents of cellulose micro/nanofibrils. Cellulose micro/ nanofibrils were produced using a mechanical defibrillator, and characterized for their morphology. Extruded composites were produced with 0.5 to 1.0% (by mass of micro/ nanofibrils and compared to unreinforced composites. Composites reinforced with 1.0% of micro/nanofibrils presented higher water absorption and apparent porosity than their counter parts. No significant differences were observed for modulus of rupture (MOR, limit of proportionality (LOP and final specific deformation, between the composites reinforced with 0.5% and 1.0% of micro/nanofibrils and those with no reinforcement. The static elastic modulus (MOE increased and specific energy decreased with the inclusion of 1.0% of micro/nanofibrils. Dynamic elastic modulus (E of the composites increased with the increase of micro/nanofibrils content and of weathering exposition. This study indicates that fiber-cements are sensitive to changes in structural composition and time of ageing (135 days. This information can be useful for developing of new products based on cellulose micro/nanofibrils.

  6. Energy consumption analysis for a single screw extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jing; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Price, Mark; Karnachi, Nayeem [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Fei, Minrui [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Polymer extrusion is regarded as an energy intensive production process, the real-time monitoring of both thermal energy and motor drive energy consumption becomes necessary for the development of energy efficient management system. The use of power meter is a simple and easy way to achieve this, however the cost sometimes can be high. Mathematical models based on the process settings provide an affordable alternative, but the resultant models cannot be easily extended to other extruders with different geometry. In this paper, simple and accurate energy real-time monitoring methods are developed for the analysis of energy consumption of the thermal heating and motor drive respectively. This is achieved by looking inside the controller, and use the control variables to calculate the power consumption. The developed methods are then adopted to study the effects of operating settings on the energy efficiency. These include the barrel heating temperature, water cooling temperature, and screw speed. The experimental results on Killion KTS-100 extruder show that the barrel heating temperature has a negative effect on energy efficiency, while the water cooling setting affects the energy efficiency positively but insignificantly. Undoubtedly, screw speed has the most significant effect on energy efficiency.

  7. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and

  8. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    1992-01-01

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and de

  9. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  10. Тhe effectiveness of extruding the poly-cereal mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ospanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies about the effectiveness of extruding the floury polycereal mixtures; obtained dependence of the operating parameters of the process on the variable rotation frequency of extruder’ auger and humidity value of extruded poly-cereal mixture. The obtained results have practical significance in the construction of the technological scheme of food production of high readiness.

  11. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    ... %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM...

  12. Effect of Extrusion Variables on the Hardness of Lentil Semolina Extrudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Todorka; Ruskova, Milena; Tzonev, Panayot; Zsivanovits, Gabor; Penov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    Lentil semolina was extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany) with screw diameter 19 mm and die diameter 5 mm. Effects of moisture content, barrel temperature, metering zone temperature, screw speed, and screw compression ratio on hardness of the extruded products were studied. Response surface methodology with combinations of moisture content (18, 22, 25, 28, 32%), metering zone temperature (136, 150, 160, 170, 184° C), barrel temperature (136, 150, 160, 170, 184° C), screw speed (132, 160, 180, 200, 228 rpm), and screw compression ratio (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1) was applied. Feed screw speed was fixed at 70 rpm. Feed zone temperature was kept constant at 150° C. The hardness of the extrudates was measured with a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems. The textural profiles of the extrudates showed that feed moisture had the highest effect on the hardness.

  13. Reimplantation of an Extruded Femoral Segment After Gamma Sterilization in A Type IIIA Supracondylar Femur Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizah N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded bone is a rare complication of high energy open fractures, and there is only a handful of literature on reimplantation of the extruded segment. No clear guidelines exist regarding timing of reimplantation, stabilization of extruded bone segments, and also bone disinfection and sterilization techniques. Previous reports describe sterilization using thermal or chemical methods. We present a case of successful reimplantation of an extruded metaphyseal segment of femur after gamma sterilization in a fourteen- year old boy.

  14. Economic feasibility of hay enriched extruded production as a complete diet for equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Feltre

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the economic feasibility of production and commercialization project of Hay Enriched Extruded (HEE as a complete diet for horses. The study was based on survey data and quotation activities involving price from the land preparation (repair, planting and fertilization to the processing of the product at the factory (extrusion and marketing. Transportation costs and taxes were also considered. Discounted Cash Flow (30 years was used to calculate the profitability indicator and the Profit and Loss Statement (PLS. Calculations were developed using Microsoft Office Excel® spreadsheets. Three production scenarios were simulated with different consumer prices: Scenario 1 - equivalent to the complete diet, where the ingredients are supplied together, but purchased separately; Scenario 2 - Considering a value 10% higher than the complete diet; Scenario 3 - Considering a value 20% higher than the complete diet. We observed that the project was economically viable in the three suggested scenarios with positive Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return greater than 9.4% and payback of 11 to 2 years. The results enable us to conclude that the product may be a promising investment for both product quality and ease of use as the rapid return on invested capital.

  15. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and...

  16. THE MODELING OF COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS AS REACTORS FOR SINGLE-COMPONENT REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; CAPEL, JE; VANDERWAL, DJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    1994-01-01

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  17. THE MODELING OF COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS AS REACTORS FOR SINGLE-COMPONENT REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; CAPEL, JE; VANDERWAL, DJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  18. An advanced extruder-feeder biomass liquefaction reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Don H.; Wolf, D.; Davenport, G.; Mathews, S.; Porter, M.; Zhao, Y.

    1987-11-01

    A unique method of pumping concentrated, viscous biomass slurries that are characteristic of biomass direct liquefaction systems was developed. A modified single-screw extruder was shown to be capable of pumping solid slurries as high as 60 weight percent wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms, as compared to only 10 to 20 weight percent wood flour in wood oil in conventional systems. During the period August, 1985 to April, 1987, a total of 18 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using white birch feedstock. Good operability with feed rates up to 30 lb/hr covering a range of carbon monoxide, sodium carbonate catalyst, pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350 C to 430 C was achieved. Crude wood oils containing 6 to 10 weight percent residual oxygen were obtained. Other wood oil characteristics are reported.

  19. Shear flow analyses for polymer melt extruding under superimposed vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue-jun; FAN Shu-hong; SHI Pu

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of a vibration force field has a profound influence on the polymer formation process.However, its formation mechanism has not been explored until now. With the application of experimental equipment designed by the authors named "Constant Velocity Type Dynamic Rheometer of Capillary" or (CVDRC),we were able to analyze in detail the whole extrusion process of a polymer melt. We did this after superimposing a sine vibration of small amplitude parallel to the extruding direction of the polymer melt. Then, we created a calculation model to determine the shear stress at the wall of the capillary using a superimposed vibration. We also determined the calculation steps needed to establish the afore-mentioned shear stress. Through measurement and analysis, the instantaneous entry pressure of the capillary, the pressure gradient, and the shear stress of the polymer melt within the capillary under vibration force field can be calculated.

  20. THE OPTIMIZATION OF FLOW RATES OF AN EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The article addresses how the flow rates of an extruder can be optimized. It mentions the plastic recycling industry as an example, which is only one of many solid waste recycling industries. The literature on flow rates is reviewed to demonstrate a gap that the current study aims to fills, in the hope that it will stimulate further research in a fertile area.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel adresseer die vraagstuk van vloeitempo van ‘n ekstrusieproses. Dit handel met ‘n voorbeeld van ‘n plastiekherwinningsproses wat spruit uit soliede afvalverwerking. ‘n Literatuurstudie toon hoedat die navorsing verdere areas wat braak lê, aanspreek in die hoop dat verdere studie gestimuleer sal word.

  1. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...... in most national building regulations. The paper aims to present a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the loss of loadbearing capacity of hollow-core slabs when exposed to fire. Design/methodology/approach – Furthermore, it compares theoretica calculation and assessment according...... to the structural codes with data derived from a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Findings – Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. Originality...

  2. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...... national building regulations. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the loss of load-bearing capacity of hollow-core slabs when exposed to fire. Furthermore, it compares theoretical calculation and assessment according to the structural codes with data derived from...... a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. For the first time the mechanisms responsible for loss of load...

  3. Autocalibrating Tiled Projectors on Piecewise Smooth Vertically Extruded Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Behzad; Majumder, Aditi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique to calibrate multiple casually aligned projectors on fiducial-free piecewise smooth vertically extruded surfaces using a single camera. Such surfaces include cylindrical displays and CAVEs, common in immersive virtual reality systems. We impose two priors to the display surface. We assume the surface is a piecewise smooth vertically extruded surface for which the aspect ratio of the rectangle formed by the four corners of the surface is known and the boundary is visible and segmentable. Using these priors, we can estimate the display's 3D geometry and camera extrinsic parameters using a nonlinear optimization technique from a single image without any explicit display to camera correspondences. Using the estimated camera and display properties, the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each projector are recovered using a single projected pattern seen by the camera. This in turn is used to register the images on the display from any arbitrary viewpoint making it appropriate for virtual reality systems. The fast convergence and robustness of this method is achieved via a novel dimension reduction technique for camera parameter estimation and a novel deterministic technique for projector property estimation. This simplicity, efficiency, and robustness of our method enable several coveted features for nonplanar projection-based displays. First, it allows fast recalibration in the face of projector, display or camera movements and even change in display shape. Second, this opens up, for the first time, the possibility of allowing multiple projectors to overlap on the corners of the CAVE-a popular immersive VR display system. Finally, this opens up the possibility of easily deploying multiprojector displays on aesthetic novel shapes for edutainment and digital signage applications.

  4. Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

    Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

  5. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-09-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals.

  6. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals. PMID:27752504

  7. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature.

  8. Twin-screw extruded lipid implants containing TRP2 peptide for tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Marie-Paule; Bobbala, Sharan; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2017-01-16

    Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed. All formulations were characterised in terms of extrudability, implant properties and in vitro release behaviour of the model antigen ovalbumin. The type of extruder used to produce the implants had a major influence on implant properties and the release behaviour, demonstrating that extrusion parameters and lipid formulations have to be individually adapted to each extrusion device. Subsequently, lipid implants containing TRP-2 peptide were extruded on the ZE mini extruder and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo study showed that mice having received TRP2 loaded implants had delayed tumour growth for 3days compared to groups having received no TRP2.

  9. Effect of Some Extrusion Variables on Rheological Properties and Physicochemical Changes of Cornmeal Extruded by Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Y.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion variables, such as barrel temperature (100 to 170ºC, feed rate (100 to 500 g/min, feed moisture (20 to 40 g/100 g wet basis, screw speed rate (from 100 to 500 rpm, and slit die rheometer configuration (0.15 and 0.30 cm height were studied using a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder coupled to a slit die rheometer on the rheological properties of yellow cornmeal. An increase in feed rate decreased WAI and WSI, but increased the viscosity values. The temperature interacts strongly with screw speed in affecting the WSI. The most important factor in starch degradation was the screw speed. Increasing the screw speed completely modifies the organised structure of starch (crystalline region.

  10. Successful reimplantation of extruded long bone segments in open fractures of lower limb--a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Chandra Mohan, Arun Kamal; Agraharam, Devendra; Perumal, Ramesh; Jayaramaraju, Dheenadhayalan; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Extruded bone segments are rare complication of high energy open fractures. Routinely these fractures are treated by debridement followed by bone loss management in the form of either bone transport or free fibula transfer. There are very few reports in the literature about reimplantation of extruded segments of bone and there are no clear guidelines regarding timing of reimplantation, bone stabilisation and sterilisation techniques. Reimplantation of extruded bone is a risky procedure due to high chances of infection which determines the final outcome and can result in secondary amputations. We present two cases of successful reimplantation of extruded diaphyseal segment of femur and one case of reimplantation of extruded segment of tibia.

  11. Corn types with different nutritional profiles, extruded or not, on piglets (6 to 15 kg) feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira; Ivan Moreira; Antonio Claudio Furlan; Liliane Maria Piano; Juliana Beatriz Toledo; Lina Maria Peñuela Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC), extruded common corn (ECC), high-lysine corn (HLC), extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC), high-oil corn (HOC) and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC). In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates...

  12. Development of flaxseed fortified rice – corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ganorkar, P. M.; Jain, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice – corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15–25 %), moisture content of feed (12–16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120–140 °C) and screw speed (300–330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) s...

  13. The use of twin screw extruders for feeding coal against pressures of up to 1500 PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, W.; Mack, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent tests with a twin-screw, co-rotating extruder which was successfully used to convey and feed coal against pressures of up to 1500 psi are described. Intermeshing and self-wiping, co-rotating twin-screws give greatly improved conveying and pressure built-up capabilities and avoid hangup and eventual decomposition of coal particles in the screw flights. The conveying action of intermeshing, self-wiping, co-rotating extruder systems approaches that of a positive displacement pump. With this feature, it is possible to maintain very accurate control over all aspects of product conveyance in the extruder, i.e., intake, conveyance and pressure buildup.

  14. Evaluations of Flow and Mixing Efficiency in the Kneading Disks of a Novel Tri-Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The forward or backward stagger angles of the kneading disks have great effects on configures of the special center region along axial length in a novel tri-screw extruder. In this paper, the flow and mixing of a nonNewtonian polyethylene in kneading disks of a tri-screw extruder were simulated using three-dimensional finite element modeling based on mesh superposition technique. Three types of kneading disks, neutral stagger, staggered 30° forward and staggered 30° reverse were considered for the tri-screw extruder. The effects of stagger angles of kneading disks on the flow pattern in the tri-screw extruder were investigated. Moreover, at different stagger angles, the dispersive and distributive mixing efficiencies in the kneading disks of the tri-screw extruder and the twin-screw extruder were calculated and compared by means of mean shear rate, stretching rates, maximal stress magnitudes, mixing index, residence time distribution (RTD and logarithm of area stretch. It is found that increasing the stagger angles decreases the axial velocities of polymer melt in the center region for the tri-screw extruder. The staggered 30° reverse is relatively reasonable for the tri-screw extruder and neutral stagger for the twin-screw extruder for the mixing efficiency. In comparison, the kneading disks in the tri-screw extruder have higher distributive and dispersive mixing efficiencies than those in the twin-screw extruder with the same stagger angles.

  15. Investigation of the extruded products based on lupins, lentils and sublimated meat hydrophilic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the calorimetric method have been studied the swelling kinetics of developed vegetable-meat mixture on the basis of lentils, lupine and sublimated meat to create extruded functionality products.

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  17. Lysine reactivity and starch gelatinization in extruded and pelleted canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.; Lin, van C.G.J.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen dry adult canine diets (i.e., dinners, extrudates, pellets) were collected from retailers in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and chemically and physically characterized. Quality measurements were lysine O-methylisourea (OMIU) reactivity and starch gelatinization degree (SGD). In general,

  18. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lloyd L.

    2015-07-28

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  19. Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...... dynamical parameters. This research sets the foundation for further research within melted extrusion based additive manufacturing. The heating process of the extruder will be described and a note on the material feeding will be given....

  20. Conformal optimal design and processing of extruding die cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐红元; 陈科山; 杜凤山

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at the optimal analysis and processing technology of die cavity of special-shaped products extrusion, by numerical analysis of trigonometric interpolation and Conformal Mapping theory, on the non-circle cross-section of special-shaped products, the conformal mapping function can be set up to translate the cross-section region into unit dish region, over numerical finite interpolation points between even and odd. Products extrusion forming can be turned into two-dimension problem, and plastic stream function can be deduced, as well as the mathematical model of the die cavity surface is established based on deferent kinds of vertical curve. By applying Upper-bound Principle, the vertical curves and related parameters of die cavity are optimized. Combining with electrical discharge machining (EDM) process and numerical control (NC) milling machine technology, the optimal processing of die cavity can be realized. Taking ellipse-shaped products as an instance, the optimal analysis and processing of die cavity including extruding experiment are carried out.

  1. Differences in time-dependent mechanical properties between extruded and molded hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersumo, N; Witherel, CE; Spiller, KL

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of hydrogels used in biomaterials and tissue engineering applications are critical determinants of their functionality. Despite the recent rise of additive manufacturing, and specifically extrusion-based bioprinting, as a prominent biofabrication method, comprehensive studies investigating the mechanical behavior of extruded constructs remain lacking. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared the mechanical properties and swelling properties of crosslinked gelatin-based hydrogels prepared by conventional molding techniques or by 3D bioprinting using a BioBots Beta pneumatic extruder. A preliminary characterization of the impact of bioprinting parameters on construct properties revealed that both Young's modulus and optimal extruding pressure increased with polymer content, and that printing resolution increased with both printing speed and nozzle gauge. High viability (>95%) of encapsulated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts confirmed the cytocompatibility of the construct preparation process. Interestingly, the Young's moduli of extruded and molded constructs were not different, but extruded constructs did show increases in both the rate and extent of time-dependent mechanical behavior observed in creep. Despite similar polymer densities, extruded hydrogels showed greater swelling over time compared to molded hydrogels, suggesting that differences in creep behavior derived from differences in microstructure and fluid flow. Because of the crucial roles of time-dependent mechanical properties, fluid flow, and swelling properties on tissue and cell behavior, these findings highlight the need for greater consideration of the effects of the extrusion process on hydrogel properties. PMID:27550945

  2. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  3. Comparison of the effect of various irrigants on apically extruded debris after root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Jalali, Shahrzad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Several factors can influence the amount of apically extruded debris. The aim was to quantitatively compare the amount of debris extruded apically from root canals when 3 different irrigants were used during canal preparation with rotary instruments. Ninety-one extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were used. The teeth were randomly divided into 1 control group (group 1, n = 4) and 3 experimental groups of 29 teeth each. Hero 642 instruments were used for root canal preparation in all teeth, and 3 different irrigants were used (group 2, 2% chlorhexidine; group 3, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; group 4, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite). Seven Eppendorf tubes served as a second control group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference. Group 3 (sodium hypochlorite 5.25%) had the highest amount of extruded debris, which was significantly different from the other groups (P irrigant used can affect the amount of apically extruded debris. The 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite had the greatest amount of debris. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hot Deformation Mechanisms in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Extruded at Different Temperatures: Impact of Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ulrich Kainer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy rod extruded at temperatures of 300 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C have been studied in compression. The extruded material had a fiber texture with  parallel to the extrusion axis. When extruded at 450 °C, the texture was less intense and the  direction moved away from the extrusion axis. The processing maps for the material extruded at 300 °C and 350 °C are qualitatively similar to the material with near-random texture (cast-homogenized and exhibited three dynamic recrystallization (DRX domains. In domains #1 and #2, prismatic slip is the dominant process and DRX is controlled by lattice self-diffusion and grain boundary self-diffusion, respectively. In domain #3, pyramidal slip occurs extensively and DRX is controlled by cross-slip on pyramidal slip systems. The material extruded at 450 °C exhibited two domains similar to #1 and #2 above, which moved to higher temperatures, but domain #3 is absent. The results are interpreted in terms of the changes in  fiber texture with extrusion temperature. Highly intense  texture, as in the rod extruded at 350 °C, will enhance the occurrence of prismatic slip in domains #1 and #2 and promotes pyramidal slip at temperatures >450 °C (domain #3.

  5. Nanostructure Characterization of Bismuth Telluride-Based Powders and Extruded Alloys by Various Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskiy, D.; Bourbia, O.; Gosselin, S.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations of mechanically alloyed powders and bulk extruded alloys give experimental evidence of nanosized grains in bismuth telluride-based materials. In this study we combine HRTEM observations and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, of both mechanically alloyed powders and extruded samples, with mechanical spectroscopy (MS) of extruded rods. Both HRTEM and XRD show that nanostructures with an average grain size near 25 nm can be achieved within 2 h of mechanical alloying from pure elements in an attritor-type milling machine. Residual strain orthogonal to the c-axis of powder nanoparticles has been evaluated at about 1.2% by XRD peak broadening. In contrast, XRD has been found unreliable for evaluation of grain size in highly textured extruded materials for which diffraction conditions are similar to those of single crystals, while MS appears promising for study of bulk extruded samples. Nanostructured extruded alloys at room temperature exhibit an internal friction (IF) background that is one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional zone-melted material with a grain size of several millimeters. IF as a function of sample temperature gives activation energies that are also different between bulk materials having nano- and millimeter-size grains, a result that is attributed to different creep mechanisms. Nanograin size, as well as orientation and volumetric proportion, provide valuable information for optimization of technological parameters of thermoelectric alloys and should be carefully cross-examined by various independent methods.

  6. Continuously graded extruded polymer composites for energetic applications fabricated using twin-screw extrusion processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Frederick M.

    A novel method of fabricating functionally graded extruded composite materials is proposed for propellant applications using the technology of continuous processing with a Twin-Screw Extruder. The method is applied to the manufacturing of grains for solid rocket motors in an end-burning configuration with an axial gradient in ammonium perchlorate volume fraction and relative coarse/fine particle size distributions. The fabrication of functionally graded extruded polymer composites with either inert or energetic ingredients has yet to be investigated. The lack of knowledge concerning the processing of these novel materials has necessitated that a number of research issues be addressed. Of primary concern is characterizing and modeling the relationship between the extruder screw geometry, transient processing conditions, and the gradient architecture that evolves in the extruder. Recent interpretations of the Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) and Residence Volume Distributions (RVDs) for polymer composites in the TSE are used to develop new process models for predicting gradient architectures in the direction of extrusion. An approach is developed for characterizing the sections of the extrudate using optical, mechanical, and compositional analysis to determine the gradient architectures. The effects of processing on the burning rate properties of extruded energetic polymer composites are characterized for homogeneous formulations over a range of compositions to determine realistic gradient architectures for solid rocket motor applications. The new process models and burning rate properties that have been characterized in this research effort will be the basis for an inverse design procedure that is capable of determining gradient architectures for grains in solid rocket motors that possess tailored burning rate distributions that conform to user-defined performance specifications.

  7. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  8. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  9. Multilayer laminar co-extrudate as a novel controlled release dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Katrin C; Wahl, Martin A; Pinto, João F

    2013-07-16

    Design of a new dosage form manufactured by laminar extrusion for oral administration of drugs. Different mixtures of materials (microcrystalline cellulose [MCC], hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC], lactose [LAC], dicalcium phosphate [DCP], coumarin [COU], propranolol hydrochloride [PRO], water [W]) were prepared prior to laminar extrusion. Mono, bi and tri layer extrudates were manufactured and evaluated for extrudability, drying, water uptake and swelling ability and in vitro characterization of the drug release. Good quality extrudates were manufactured with higher HPMC molecular weight and fraction in formulation at an extrusion rate of 400 mm/min and slow drying (forced air stream), otherwise surface roughness, thickness in-homogeneity, bending and shark skin were present in the extrudates. Swelling of extrudates was dependent on HPMC fraction and molecular weight (60% up to 90% weight gain for low and high polymer chains, respectively) and the presence of either MCC or DCP. The release of drug was dependent on its solubility (PRO>COU), the fraction of HPMC (low>high fractions), the type of diluent (DCP>MCC) and number of layers (1>2>3 layers). By designing the number and type of layers, dosage forms with well-defined release-kinetics can be tailored. The study has shown the ability of the technology of extrusion to manufacture a controlled release dosage form in a continuous fashion.

  10. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  11. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  12. Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov;

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...... look into the physical behaviour of the nozzle, heating and cooling systems. Experiments on the model were performed at different sub-mm diameters of the extruder. Physical parameters of the model – especially temperature dependent parameters – were set into analytical relationships in order to receive...... dynamical parameters. This research sets the foundation for further research within melted extrusion based additive manufacturing. The heating process of the extruder will be described and a note on the material feeding will be given....

  13. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...... and temperature, are formed to model the extrusion process from dimensional analysis. The model is evaluated with experimental data for extrusion of whole wheat flour and fish feed. The average deviations of the model correlations are 5.9% and 9% based on experimental data for the whole wheat flour and fish feed...

  14. Hot deformation mechanisms and microstructural control in high-temperature extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Rao, K.P. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (China)

    2007-07-15

    A Processing map has been developed for Magnesium alloy AZ31 extruded at 450 C which revealed that the extruded rods may be further processed into components industrially at 400 C and at a strain rate of 10 s{sup -1}. If processed at lower strain rates in the vicinity of 0.1 s{sup -1}, unusual grain size variations with temperature and strain rate are observed, suggesting that grain size control will be difficult. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. 40 CFR 428.70 - Applicability; description of the large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.70 Section 428.70... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Large-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. A characterization for the flow behavior of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy by the improved Arrhenius model with variable parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Li, Gui-sheng; Wang, Yang; Lv, Wen-quan; Yu, Chun-tang; Zhou, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform the numerical simulations of forging response and establish the processing parameters for as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy, the compressive deformation behavior of as-extruded 7075...

  18. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kasperson, K M; Whitlock, L A

    2001-10-01

    Milk was collected from eight multiparous Holstein and four multiparous Brown Swiss cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four 4-wk periods. The four treatments included a control diet of a 50:50 ratio of forage-to-concentrate; a fish oil diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; a fish oil with extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil and 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans; and an extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets contained 3.31, 2.58, 2.94, and 3.47% fat, respectively. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk were highest in the fish oil (2.30 g/100 g of fatty acids) and fish oil with extruded soybean (2.17 g/100 g of fatty acids) diets compared with the control (0.56 g/100 g fatty acids) diet. Milk, cream, butter, and buttermilk from the fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets had higher concentrations of transvaccenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with the controls. Butter made from the extruded soybean diet was softest compared with all treatments. An experienced sensory panel found no flavor differences in milks or butters.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the drying of extruded fish feed and its experimental demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Simonsen, B.; Løvgreen, S.

    This paper present a mathematical model for the drying of extruded fish feed pellets. The model relies on conservation balances for moisture and energy. Sorption isotherms from literature are used together with diffusion and transfer coefficients obtained from dual parameter regression analysis...

  20. Effect of twin-screw extrusion parameters on mechanical hardness of direct-expanded extrudates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Brnčić; B Tripalo; D Ježek; D Semenski; N Drvar; M Ukrainczyk

    2006-10-01

    Mechanical properties of cereal (starch-based) extrudates are perceived by the final consumer as criteria of quality. We investigate one of the important characteristics of extrudates, mechanical hardness, which is one of the main texture parameters. Texture quality has an influence on taste sensory evaluation, and thus on the acceptability of the product. Characteristics that have great influence on acceptability are crispness, elasticity, hardness and softness. These attributes are narrowly related to, and affected by, the process parameters. A 2-level–4-factor factorial experimental design was used to investigate the influence of temperature of expansion, screw speed, feed moisture content and feed rate, and their interactions, on the mechanical hardness of extrudates. Feed moisture content, screw speed and temperature are found to influence, while feed rate does not have significant effect on extrudate hardness. Mechanical properties of specimens were measured by means of compression testing, based on the concept of nominal stress, using a universal testing machine and special grips that were constructed for this purpose.

  1. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703-409 versus 637-407 J/g; 33.0-21.0 versus 20.1-11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64-3.47 versus 8.27-4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7-5.1 versus 8.4-6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60-2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  2. Wheat gluten in extruded fish feed: Effects on morphology and on physical and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding the role of vital wheat gluten on the structural parameters of extruded fish feed and its correlation to the physical and functional properties. Gluten–soy protein concentrate blends with five gluten concentrations (0–200 g kg-1) were produced. An abrupt

  3. Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...

  4. Twin screw extruders as polymerization reactors for a free radical homo polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The bulk polymerization of n-butylmethacrylate was investigated in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. It appeared that the gel effect, occurring with bulk polymerizations, affected the polymerization progress very strongly. Due to this effect the conversion of the reaction is independent of the

  5. Effect of Starch Sources and Protein Content on Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3x3 completely randomized design was used to investigate the extrusion cooking and product characteristics of DDGS, protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20, 30, and 40% wb) were extru...

  6. Extrusion trials with a TSK045 twin screw extruder (Poster presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, H.W.R.; Schonewille, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994 a 45mm twin screw extruder was introduced at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of TNO for the processing of energetic materials. Initial safety experiments were carried out by using inert compositions with small amounts of different energetic components and micro encapsulated chemical sensors to

  7. Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Bianchini, Andreia

    2014-11-15

    This study characterised pineapple pomace (PP) and evaluated its application in extrusion to enhance fibre content of the final product. The pomace had low fat (0.61%) and high dietary fibre (45.22%), showing its potential for fibre enrichment of nutritionally poor products, as some extruded snacks. Results also showed low microbiological counts, water activity, and pH indicating good microbiological quality and low risk of physicochemical deterioration. During extrusion, pomace (0%, 10.5% and 21%), moisture (14%, 15% and 16%) and temperature (140 and 160°C) were evaluated. The PP addition decreased expansion and luminosity; while increasing redness of the extrudates compared to the control (0% pomace/14% moisture/140°C). When hardness, yellowness, water absorption, and bulk density were compared to the control, there was no effect (p>0.05) of 10.5% PP addition on the extrudates, indicating that, at this level, PP could be added without affecting the properties of the final extruded product.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of extruded poly(lactic acid)-based Paulownia elongata biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was tested as bio-filler with polylactic acid (PLA). Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled and separated into particle fractions and then blended with PLA with a single screw extruder. Mechanical and thermal properties were tested. Dif...

  9. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeli Peralta-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P and high gravity (20°P worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI was higher (9.8 percentage units and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN, pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency.

  10. Extrusion trials with a TSK045 twin screw extruder (Poster presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, H.W.R.; Schonewille, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994 a 45mm twin screw extruder was introduced at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of TNO for the processing of energetic materials. Initial safety experiments were carried out by using inert compositions with small amounts of different energetic components and micro encapsulated chemical sensors to

  11. Dissolving cellulose with twin-screw extruder in a NaOH complex aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Zhang, Y.; Dawelbeit, A.; Yu, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Novel cellulose dissolution method with twin-screw extruder was developed in order to improve the dissolution property, to simplify production procedure and to produce cellulose spinning dope which is stable and which has a higher concentration of cellulose. Therefore, the extrusion conditions on the cellulose dissolution in NaOH/thiourea/urea were extensively studied in this work. The resulted extrudates of twin-screw extruder dissolution method were characterized by polarized optical microscope image, the solubility experiment and the apparent viscosity. The results revealed that the screw revolution speed of such process could improve the solubility value (S a) of cellulose, and the solubility of cellulose reached a maximum value of 7.5 wt% at higher revolutions 450 rpm. On the other hand, the cellulose solutions were more transparent and balanced with its apparent viscosity values lower and more stable compare to stirring method, which indicated dissolving cellulose with twin-screw extruder was reliable. Moreover, the whole dissolving time is quite short, and the process is simple. The soluble effect of twin screw extrusion was far superior to traditional stirring, and the most suitable temperature was -2°C.

  12. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  13. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  14. Wheat gluten in extruded fish feed: Effects on morphology and on physical and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding the role of vital wheat gluten on the structural parameters of extruded fish feed and its correlation to the physical and functional properties. Gluten–soy protein concentrate blends with five gluten concentrations (0–200 g kg-1) were produced. An abrupt reducti

  15. 99.99% Al/ 6063 Alloy Co-extruded beam chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, H.; Narushima, K.; Kanazawa, K.

    1988-09-01

    In an electron storage ring, synchrotron radiation causes stimulated gas desorption from the vacuum chamber wall. It raises the operating pressure far above the ultrahigh vacuum range needed for long beam lifetimes. In order to determine an ideal material for low dynamic gas desorption we have studied the properties of co-extruded 99.99%Al/ 6063 alloy. (AIP)

  16. Flow characteristics of screws and special mixing enhancers in a co-rotating twin screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, T.; Todd, D.B.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The flow behavior of a Newtonian fluid through special mixing enhancers in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder has been examined. The mixing enhancers are slotted screws and gear mixing elements. Particular attention has been directed to drag and pressure flow characteristics and

  17. Investigation of melting in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Chul

    Since the first patent regarding the co-rotating twin screw extruder was published in 1869, the co-rotating twin screw extruder has evolved into a high performance extruder, having self wiping capability, modular screw configuration, starved feed zone, kneading disc block elements, and special mixing devices. For this device, flow studies began in the mid 1960's but melting studies started in the early 1990's. Former researchers have insisted on their own melting mechanisms because they found different melting mechanisms under their limited and unsystematic experimental conditions. In this dissertation, melting mechanisms were studied systemically to determine when they occur according to the various process operating conditions. This melting study was carried out using an amorphous polymer: polystyrene (PS), two semi-crystalline polymers: linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polypropylene (PP), one powder type LLDPE, and four LLDPE compounds with aluminum flake or calcium carbonate, which were used to provide differences in filler size or content. We observed the screw melting initiation and melting propagation first and categorized melting regimes such as screw melting initiation (SM) internal melting initiation (IM) and barrel melting initiation (BM) as melting initiation mechanisms, and screw melting propagation internal melting propagation barrel melting propagation and bed instability (BI) as melting propagation mechanisms. We translated these melting initiation mechanisms and melting propagation mechanisms into mathematical models. Then we integrated these models into user friendly commercial software, Akro-Co-Twin ScrewR, developed previously at our laboratories. We simulated several homopolymers at various operating conditions using the Akro-Co-Twin ScrewR. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results and were found to be in good agreement within the range of simulation. Using this software, twin screw extruder process

  18. Cyclic Deformation Behavior of a Rare-Earth Containing Extruded Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, F. A.; Chen, D. L.; Li, D. J.; Zeng, X. Q.

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating strain-controlled cyclic deformation behavior of a rare-earth (RE) element containing Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) alloy in different states (as-extruded, peak-aged (T5), and solution-treated and peak-aged (T6)). The addition of RE elements led to an effective grain refinement and weak texture in the as-extruded alloy. While heat treatment resulted in a grain growth modestly in the T5 state and significantly in the T6 state, a high density of nano-sized and bamboo-leaf/plate-shaped β' (Mg7(Gd,Y)) precipitates was observed to distribute uniformly in the α-Mg matrix. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, as well as the maximum and minimum peak stresses during cyclic deformation in the T5 and T6 states were significantly higher than those in the as-extruded state. Unlike RE-free extruded Mg alloys, symmetrical hysteresis loops in tension and compression and cyclic stabilization were present in the GW103K alloy in different states. The fatigue life of this alloy in the three conditions, which could be well described by the Coffin-Manson law and Basquin's equation, was equivalent within the experimental scatter and was longer than that of RE-free extruded Mg alloys. This was predominantly attributed to the presence of the relatively weak texture and the suppression of twinning activities stemming from the fine grain sizes and especially RE-containing β' precipitates. Fatigue crack was observed to initiate from the specimen surface in all the three alloy states and the initiation site contained some cleavage-like facets after T6 heat treatment. Crack propagation was characterized mainly by the characteristic fatigue striations.

  19. Corn types with different nutritional profiles, extruded or not, on piglets (6 to 15 kg feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC, extruded common corn (ECC, high-lysine corn (HLC, extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC, high-oil corn (HOC and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC. In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates, and one piglet per experimental unit. The values of digestible energy (DE, as well as metabolizable energy (ME as-fed basis for CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were: 3,428 and 3,327 kcal/kg; 3,439 and 3,355 kcal/kg; 3,533 and 3,414 kcal/kg; 3,515 and 3,427 kcal/kg; 3,483 and 3,377 kcal/kg; 3,585 and 3,482 kcal/kg, respectively. In the performance experiment, 84 piglets, weaned at 21 days old, initial live weight of 6.06 ± 0.54 kg were used. Animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, using three types of corn (CC, HLC and HOC, two forms of processing (processed or not by extrusion, seven replicates and two piglets per experimental unit. Six diets containing CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were studied. There were no advantages in the digestibility and performance by extruding the types of corn with different nutritional profiles, for their use in commercial diets for piglets. The results of the two experiments emphasize the importance of segregating the types of corn, extruded or not, in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for the formulation of piglet diets in the nursery phase.

  20. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm(3) ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  2. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  3. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P industry to manipulate the glycaemic response of extruded snack products.

  4. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  5. Drug release from extruded solid lipid matrices: theoretical predictions and independent experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güres, Sinan; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a mechanistically realistic mathematical model based on Fick's second law to quantitatively predict the release profiles from solid lipid extrudates consisting of a ternary matrix. Diprophylline was studied as a freely water-soluble model drug, glycerol tristearate as a matrix former and polyethylene glycol or crospovidone as a pore former (blend ratio: 50:45:5%w/w/w). The choice of these ratios is based on former studies. Strains with a diameter of 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2.7 and 3.5mm were prepared using a twin-screw extruder at 65 °C and cut into cylinders of varying lengths. Drug release in demineralised water was measured using the USP 32 basket apparatus. Based on SEM pictures of extrudates before and after exposure to the release medium as well as on DSC measurements and visual observations, an analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was identified in order to quantify the resulting diprophylline release kinetics from the systems. Fitting the model to one set of experimentally determined diprophylline release kinetics from PEG containing extrudates allowed determining the apparent diffusion coefficient of this drug (or water) in this lipid matrix. Knowing this value, the impact of the dimensions of the cylinders on drug release could be quantitatively predicted. Importantly, these theoretical predictions could be confirmed by independent experimental results. Thus, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism controlling drug release in this type of advanced drug delivery systems. In contrast, theoretical predictions of the impact of the device dimensions in the case of crospovidone containing extrudates significantly underestimated the real diprophylline release rates. This could be attributed to the disintegration of this type of dosage forms when exceeding a specific minimal device diameter. Thus, mathematical modelling can potentially significantly speed up the development of solid lipid extrudates, but care has

  6. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  7. Color of single-screw extruded blends of soy-sweet potato flour --a response surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwe, M O; van Zuilichem, D J; Ngoddy, P O

    2000-01-01

    Blends of defatted soy flour and sweet potato flour were extruded in a single-screw extruder run at varying pre-set rotational speeds. Die diameter of the extruder was also varied. A central composite, rotatable nearly orthogonal response surface design was used in studying the interactive effects of extrusion variables on color of the extrudates. Color of raw and processed samples was determined on a DRLANGE Tricolor LFM3 instrument. Measurements were made in duplicates to obtain the CIELAB L*a*b* values. Results showed that whiteness (L*) decreased with increase in sweet potato in the blends during extrusion. Reduction in whiteness (darkening) evidenced in decreased L* values of samples was only affected by increase in sweet potatoes in the blends. Redness (a*) significantly increased as sweet potatoes content increased, which confirmed the decrease in whiteness. Yellowness (b*) also increased considerably, but as a result of the die diameter.

  8. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  9. Extruded soybean and flaxseed enhance fat composition of milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formigoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded full-fat soybean and flaxseed dietary supplementation, at the level authorized by Consorzio of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese(CPRC feeding guidelines (1.0 and 0.4 kg/cow/day, on milk production and fatty acid composition. Diet was typically based on alfalfa and mixed hays and cereals. Compared with the concentrations before trial start, CLA and DHA were significantly increased by dietary treatment. These results confirm that the inclusion of extruded full-fat soybean and flaxseed, in the amount authorized by CPRC rules, in the diet of dairy cows is a possible strategy to enhance milk fat composition.

  10. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  11. Tailored sPP/Silica Nanocomposite for Ecofriendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP/silica as an ecofriendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5–3% nanosilica. We found that the silica/sPP nanocomposite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nanosilica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nanosilica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nanocomposite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future ecofriendly extruded HVDC cables.

  12. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  13. Filament Winding of Co-Extruded Polypropylene Tapes for Fully Recyclable All-Polypropylene Composite Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, N. O.; Alcock, B.; Klompen, E. T. J.; Peijs, T.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of high-strength co-extruded polypropylene (PP) tapes allows the production of recyclable “all-polypropylene” (all-PP) composite products, with a large temperature processing window and a high fibre volume fraction. Available technologies for all-PP composites are mostly based on manufacturing processes such as thermoforming of pre-consolidated sheets. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of filament winding as a manufacturing process for all-PP composites made directly from co-extruded tapes or woven fabric. Filament wound pipes or rings were tested either by the split-disk method or a hydrostatic pressure test in order to determine the hoop properties, while an optical strain mapping system was used to measure the deformation of the pipe surfaces.

  14. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded corncob residues after pretreatment in a twin-screw extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A modified twin-screw extruder incorporated with a filtration device was used as a liquid/solid separator for xylose removal from steam exploded corncobs. A face centered central composite design was used to study the combined effects of various enzymatic hydrolysis process variables (enzyme loading, surfactant addition, and hydrolysis time with two differently extruded corncobs (7% xylose removal, 80% xylose removal on glucose conversion. The results showed that the extrusion process led to an increase in cellulose crystallinity, while structural changes could also be observed via SEM. A quadratic polynomial model was developed for predicting the glucose conversion and the fitted model provided an adequate approximation of the true response as verified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA.

  16. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  17. Strengthening mechanisms of indirect-extruded Mg–Sn based alloys at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength of a material is dependent on how dislocations in its crystal lattice can be easily propagated. These dislocations create stress fields within the material depending on their intrinsic character. Generally, the following strengthening mechanisms are relevant in wrought magnesium materials tested at room temperature: fine-grain strengthening, precipitate strengthening and solid solution strengthening as well as texture strengthening. The indirect-extruded Mg–8Sn (T8 and Mg–8Sn–1Al–1Zn (TAZ811 alloys present superior tensile properties compared to the commercial AZ31 alloy extruded in the same condition. The contributions to the strengthen of Mg–Sn based alloys made by four strengthening mechanisms were calculated quantitatively based on the microstructure characteristics, physical characteristics, thermomechanical analysis and interactions of alloying elements using AZ31 alloy as benchmark.

  18. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  19. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Makowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such prod- ucts as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Material and methods. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. Results. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*. In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desir- ability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. Conclusion

  20. Understanding External Plasticization of Melt Extruded PHBV-Wheat Straw Fibers Biodegradable Composites for Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Lucrezia; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Gontard, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to get further knowledge on the external plasticization mechanisms of melt extruded polyhydroxyl-3-butyrate-co-3-valerate (PHBV) when combined with wheat straw fibers (WSF). Different types of biodegradable substances, all authorized for food contact according to the European regulation, i.e., acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), glycerol triacetate (GTA) and (PEG) at different molecular weights, were tested at different percentages (5, 10 and 20 wt %). Thermal and mec...

  1. Melt extruded helical waxy matrices as a new sustained drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, Dritan; Perissutti, Beatrice; Grassi, Mario; Zacchigna, Marina; Pagotto, Milva; Lenaz, Davide; Kleinebudde, Peter; Voinovich, Dario

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare helical and cylindrical extrudates by melt extrusion and to evaluate their potential as sustained release dosage form. The systems contained theophylline as water-soluble model drug and microcrystalline wax as thermoplastic binder. The temperature suitable to ensure a successful extrusion process of formulations containing the wax in three different percentages was found to be below the melting point of the excipient. After the production of the extrudates in three different helical shapes (having 2, 3 and 4 blades) and a classical cylindrical shape, the systems were studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry to check possible variations of the solid state of the drug during the thermal process. The morphology and chemical composition of the surface of the extrudates were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis to evaluate the presence of the drug on the surface of the extrudates and to monitor changes on the aspect of the waxy matrix during dissolution. Then, the different systems were analysed from the in vitro dissolution point of view to study the influence of the shape and of the composition on the drug release. An in vivo pilot study on the best performing system (helix with 3 blades) was carried out on five healthy volunteers and monitoring the intestinal transit by X-ray images. The resulting plasma profiles were analysed by means of a suitable pharmacokinetic analysis. Finally, an ad hoc mathematical model was developed to perform an accurate description of the in vitro release and in vivo performance of the 3-blades helical system.

  2. Two phase residence time distribution in a modified twin screw extruder

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Biomass fractionation is performed with a modified Clextral twin-screw extruder used as a thermo-mechano-chemical reactor. This new process is firstly analyzed. Visual observations, residence time distributions, and global mass balances are used to obtain information about the process phenomena and their coupling. Residence time distributions (RTD) classical models are adopted to represent the experimental plots. The influence of continuous and discrete process parameters upon the RTD of the ...

  3. Development of a pilot-scale kinetic extruder feeder system and test program. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    This report describes the work done under Phase I, the moisture tolerance testing of the Kinetic Extruder. The following coals were used in the test program: Western Bituminous (Utah), Eastern Bituminous (Pennsylvania), North Dakota Lignite, Sub-Bituminous (Montana), and Eastern Bituminous coal mixed with 20-percent Limestone. The coals were initially tested at the as-received moisture level and subsequently tested after surface moisture was added by water spray. Test results and recommendations for future research and development work are presented.

  4. Physical and functional evaluation of extruded flours obtained from different rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Salamoni Becker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of broken grains into native flours modified by extrusion is an alternative to add value to these co-products from the paddy rice processing. This study aimed to analyze the process of extrusion cooking on the physical and functional characteristics of extruded flours obtained from different rice genotypes (IRGA-417, BRS-Primavera and CNA-8502. The experimental design was completely randomized (3x2 factorial with four original replicates and analysis of variance to assess particle size, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b*, water absorption index (WAI, milk absorption index (MAI, oil absorption index (OAI, water solubility index (WSI and milk solubility index (MSI of rice flour. The extrusion process promoted changes in all physical and functional properties of rice flour, but only WSI and color parameters were influenced by genotype and by the industrial processing. Rice flours become darker, tending to a more reddish and yellow coloration after extrusion. Native and extruded rice flours of genotypes IRGA-417, BRS-Primavera and extruded rice flour of genotype CNA-8502 showed finer particles, while native flour of genotype CNA-8502 showed coarser particles. The extruded flours of IRGA-417 genotype obtained higher expansion and luminosity, and lower values of chroma a*, chroma b* and water solubility, while the BRS-Primavera higher values of chroma a* and b*, and lower luminosity and expansion, and CAN-8502 higher water solubility and lower expansion and value of chroma a*. The extrusion process led to flours with high water and milk absorption and solubility, low oil absorption and with potential for application in instant products, regardless of genotype.

  5. Extruded Flaxseed Meal Enhances the Nutritional Quality of Cereal-based Products

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomino, S.; Peñas, Elena; Ferreyra, V.; Pellegrino, N.; Fournier, M.; Apro, Nicolás; Olivera Carrión, Margarita; Frías, Juana

    2013-01-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequ...

  6. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  7. Sustained release from hot-melt extruded matrices based on ethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A; Brabant, L; Siepmann, F; De Beer, T; Bouquet, W; Van Hoorebeke, L; Siepmann, J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of matrix flexibility of hot-melt extruded (HME) ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrices (with vinyl acetate (VA) contents of 9%, 15%, 28% and 40%), through the addition of hydrophilic polymers with distinct swelling capacity. Polyethylene oxide (PEO 100K, 1M and 7M) was used as swelling agent and metoprolol tartrate (MPT) as model drug. The processability via HME and drug release profiles of EVA/MPT/PEO formulations were assessed. Solid state characteristics, porosity and polymer miscibility of EVA/PEO matrices were evaluated by means of DSC, X-ray tomography and Raman spectroscopy. The processability via HME varied according to the VA content: EVA 40 and 28 were extruded at 90°C, whereas higher viscosity EVA grades (EVA 15 and 9) required a minimum extrusion temperature of 110°C to obtain high-quality extrudates. Drug release from EVA matrices depended on the VA content, PEO molecular weight and PEO content, matrix porosity as well as pore size distribution. Interestingly, the interplay of PEO leaching, matrix swelling, water influx and changes in matrix porosity influenced drug release: EVA 40- and 28-based matrices extruded with PEO of higher MW accelerated drug release, whereas for EVA 15- and 9-based matrices, drug release slowed down. These differences were related to the distinct polymer flexibility imposed by the VA content (lower VA content presents higher crystallinity and less free movement of the amorphous segments resulting in a higher rigidity). In all cases, diffusional mass transport seems to play a major role, as demonstrated by mathematical modeling using an analytical solution of Fick's second law. The bioavailability of EVA 40 and 28 matrices in dogs was not significantly different, independent of PEO 7M concentration.

  8. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  9. Microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of as extruded Mg–Mn–Zn–Nd alloys for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying-Long, E-mail: ylzhou@fosu.edu.cn [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, Guangdong (China); Li, Yuncang [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Luo, Dong-Mei [Department of Civil Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, Guangdong (China); Ding, Yunfei; Hodgson, Peter [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Victoria 3217 (Australia)

    2015-04-01

    Extruded Mg–1Mn–2Zn–xNd alloys (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mass %) have been developed for their potential use as biomaterials. The extrusion on the alloys was performed at temperature of 623 K with an extrusion ratio of 14.7 under an average extrusion speed of 4 mm/s. The microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the extruded Mg–Mn–Zn–Nd alloys have been investigated in this study. The microstructure was examined using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were determined from uniaxial tensile and compressive tests. The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical measurement. The biocompatibility was evaluated using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The experimental results indicate that all extruded Mg–1Mn–2Zn–xNd alloys are composed of both α phase of Mg and a compound of Mg{sub 7}Zn{sub 3} with very fine microstructures, and show good ductility and much higher mechanical strength than that of cast pure Mg and natural bone. The tensile strength and elongation of the extruded alloys increase with an increase in neodymium content. Their compressive strength does not change significantly with an increase in neodymium content. The extruded alloys show good biocompatibility and much higher corrosion resistance than that of cast pure Mg. The extruded Mg–1Mn–2Zn–1.0Nd alloy shows a great potential for biomedical applications due to the combination of enhanced mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. - Highlights: • Extruded Mg–1Mn–2Zn–xNd alloys exhibit very fine microstructures. • Extrusion greatly improves the tensile property and corrosion behavior of alloys. • Tensile strength and ductility of the extruded alloys increase with Nd content. • Increase of Nd does not significantly alter the corrosion resistance. • Mg–1Mn–2Zn–1Nd alloy shows a great potential for biomedical applications.

  10. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyong; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were studied for orthopedic application, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and compressive tests, immersion test, electrochemical test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were composed of α-Mg and Mg17Sr2 phases, and the content of Mg17Sr2 phases increased with increasing Sr content. As-extruded Mg-Sr alloy with 0.5wt.% Sr was equiaxed grains, while the one with a higher Sr content was long elongated grains and the grain size of the long elongated grains decreased with increasing Sr content. Tensile and compressive tests showed an increase of both tensile and compressive strength and a decrease of elongation with increasing Sr content. Immersion and electrochemical tests showed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy exhibited the best anti-corrosion property, and the anti-corrosion property of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys deteriorated with increasing Sr content, which was greatly associated with galvanic couple effect. The cytotoxicity test revealed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy did not induce toxicity to cells. These results indicated that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy with suitable mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and good cytocompatibility was potential as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct compression and moulding properties of co-extruded isomalt/drug mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindayino, F; Vervaet, C; Van den Mooter, G; Remon, J P

    2002-03-20

    Isomalt, a disaccharide alcohol was co-extruded with paracetamol or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in order to improve its tabletting properties. After extrusion, isomalt was transformed into an amorphous form, while paracetamol remained crystalline. Hot stage microscopy showed that HCT was amorphous in the isomalt carrier up to a concentration of 1% (w/w). Direct compression of mixtures formulated with co-extruded isomalt/paracetamol powders yielded harder tablets compared with physical mixtures and no powder agglomeration was observed. Direct moulding of isomalt co-extruded with either paracetamol or HCT was feasible, yielding hard tablets. A fast dissolution rate was seen for both the compressed and the moulded tablets (>80% paracetamol and 60% HCT released within 20 min). The compressed tablets showed a dramatic decrease in tensile strength during storage at 85% RH, while the tensile strength of the moulded tablets remained above 0.80 MPa after 6 months storage at the same conditions. Co-extrusion of isomalt with paracetamol and HCT dramatically improved the tabletting properties of the mixtures (compared with physical mixtures of drug and isomalt). Direct moulding proved to be a suitable technique to produce isomalt based tablets.

  12. Study on Hardware-in-loop Simulation of Twin-screw Extruder Experiment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In order to facilitate the teaching of industrial processes and experiments on the twin-screw extruder control debugging,and be closer to the actual testing,to reduce the debugging costs and the risk of debugging process,the paper designs a hardware-in-loop simulation of twin-screw extruder experiment system which is closer to scene,low cost and high safety.The system through the establishment of twin-screw extruder’s mathematical model on computer to simulate the realistic system and there is hardware practicality in the computer simulation loop.The hardware based on C8051F020 can operate in the simulation loop in real time.In computer software design, we desigh man-machine interface that is intuitive and easy to operate,can reflect twin-screw extruder main operation information vividly.Finally,twin-screw extruder’s 3 heater temperature mathematical model and PID incremental control algorithm are presented.

  13. Starch-guar gum extrudates: microstructure, physicochemical properties and in-vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries-Medrano, Erich; Jaime-Fonseca, Mónica R; Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Starch-guar gum mixtures were obtained by extrusion using a three-variable Box-Behnken statistic design. Morphology, expansion index, viscosity, crystallinity and digestion in vitro of the extruded samples were analyzed through response surface methodology (RSM). The extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the samples. Starch-guar gum samples showed expansion index and viscosity up to 1.55 and 1400mPas, respectively. The crystallinity of the samples was modified by adding guar gum to the extrudates, showing correlation between long-range order (X-ray diffraction) and short-range order (FTIR spectroscopy). Guar induced microstructural changes and its role in gelatinization-melting processes was significant. The rate of glucose release decreased from 0.47 to 0.43mM/min when the extrusion temperature decreased. However, adding guar gum to starch had no significant effect on glucose release. Overall, the extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded samples.

  14. Analysis of Extruded Polystyrene Short-Term Compression Dependence on Exposure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius VAITKUS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extruded polystyrene is extensively used in many applications such as thermal insulation, packaging, structural use and buoyancy. In order to an effective use of this material it is essential to know its behavior under compression. The research in this work was carried out by using extruded polystyrene boards (F200, F300, F400, F500 and F700 which were produced by Lithuanian and Finland manufacturers. The changes of extruded polystyrene ultimate compressive stress σcr, ultimate strain, initial modulus of elasticity and thickness were determined right away after production and after a certain exposure time of specimens. It was noticed significant changes in strength characteristics after 45 days. Compression tests and conditioning of specimens were conducted at 23 °C ±2 °C ambient temperature and 50 % ±5 % relative humidity. Regression dependences of ultimate compressive stress σcr and ultimate strain on exposure time (from 10 to 326 days were presented. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2582

  15. Direct Forming of All-Polypropylene Composites Products from Fabrics made of Co-Extruded Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N. O.; Barkoula, N. M.; Peijs, T.

    2009-04-01

    Many technologies presented in literature for the forming of self-reinforced or all-polymer composites are based on manufacturing processes involving thermoforming of pre-consolidated sheets. This paper describes novel direct forming routes to manufacture simple geometries of self-reinforced, all-polypropylene (all-PP) composites, by moulding fabrics of woven co-extruded polypropylene tapes directly into composite products, without the need for pre-consolidated sheet. High strength co-extruded PP tapes have potential processing advantages over mono-extruded fibres or tapes as they allow for a larger temperature processing window for consolidation. This enlarged temperature processing window makes direct forming routes feasible, without the need for an intermediate pre-consolidated sheet product. Thermoforming studies show that direct forming is an interesting alternative to stamping of pre-consolidated sheets, as it eliminates an expensive belt-pressing step which is normally needed for the manufacturing of semi-finished sheets products. Moreover, results from forming studies shows that only half the energy was required to directly form a simple dome geometry from a stack of fabrics compared to stamping the same shape from a pre-consolidated sheet.

  16. The effect of extrusion processing on the physiochemical properties of extruded orange pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Ma, Ya-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) is considered the most effective fraction of dietary fibre (DF) for human health. In this study, extrusion technology was applied to enhance the SDF obtained from orange pomace, a byproduct of juice extraction containing a high level of DF. The pomace was processed in a single-screw extruder at various barrel temperatures (X1; 115-135 °C), feed moistures (X2; 10-18 g/100g), and screw speeds (X3; 230-350 rpm). Based on response surface methodology, the optimum extrusion conditions, which produced a maximum SDF value of 30.36%, were as follows: barrel temperature, 129 °C; feed moisture, 15%; and screw speed, 299 rpm. Compared with unextruded pomace, SDF fraction in extrudate had a higher level of uronic acid. Furthermore, the extrusion process improved the physicochemical properties of extrudate, increasing the water-holding capacity, swelling, water solubility index, and cation-exchange capacity and decreasing the oil-holding capacity.

  17. Microstructural transformation of quasicrystalline AlFeCrTi extruded bars upon long thermal treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Escorial, A., E-mail: age@cenim.csic.es [CENIM-CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Natale, E.; Cremaschi, V.J. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Todd, I. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin St., Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Lieblich, M. [CENIM-CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlight: • Evolution upon heating of quasicrystalline AlFeCrTi alloy in bulk sample. • Warm extrusion of gas atomised powder particles. • Microstructural evolution of QC-AlFeCrTi extruded bars. - Abstract: Bulk Al{sub 93}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Ti{sub 2} bars extruded from gas atomised powder particles present a microstructure of an aluminium matrix reinforced with a spherical nanoquasicrystalline phase. In this work the evolution of the microstructure of Al{sub 93}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Ti{sub 2} extruded bars upon heating at 400 °C for up to 1000 h is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. According to our observations we propose that the quasicrystalline alloy evolves in two steps: a first step consists in the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution of the matrix and the quasicrystals, and a second step in the transformation of the quasicrystals into the equilibrium phases.

  18. Flow of Chemically Reactive non-Newtonian Fluids in Twin-Screw Extruders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Jaluria, Yogesh

    1998-11-01

    Many applications of twin-screw extruders are found in the processing of food, plastics, pharmaceutical materials and other highly viscous materials. In reactive extrusion, complex interactions in which the flow pattern, and the heat and mass transfer are affected by viscous dissipation, reaction energy, convection, residence time distribution and rheology of the materials may occur. The fluid flow, heat transfer and chemical reactions in a fully intermeshing, corotating and self wiping twin screw extruder were investigated numerically by using the finite volume method. The screw channel of a twin screw extruder are approximated as translation (parabolic) domain and intermeshing (elliptic) domain. The full governing equations were solved to determine the velocity components in the three coordinate directions. The energy equation is coupled with the equations of motion through viscosity. The Residence Time Distribution (RTD), was obtained by using a particle tracking method. The flow field, temperature field, pressure as well as RTD and chemical conversion were obtained by numerical simulation and the results yielded agreement with experimental measurements and expected physical characteristic of the process.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-extruded AZ31 powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, K.; Hatsuakno, K.; Hanada, K.; Shimizu, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial and Science Technology(AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Sano, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    AZ31 alloy powder was prepared by gas-atomization and consolidated into a round bar by hot extrusion at temperatures of 573 K and 623 K with extrusion ratios of 1:10 and 1:20. The extruded AZ31 alloy powders consist of fine grain with an average grain size of 10 {mu} m and show a high tensile strength of 340 MPa with an elongation of about 18% at room temperature. The compression test at elevated temperatures reveals that the sample extruded with extrusion ratio of 1:20 was easily deformed to a forming degree of 0.6 without fracture at temperatures above 423 K and have a good formability. On the contrast, the extruded sample with an extrusion ratio of 1:10 shows cracks after deformation. The extrusion ratio plays an important role on the formability. It is said that the powder metallurgical processing is useful to produce a high strength Mg alloys with a good formability at temperatures above 423 K. (orig.)

  20. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  1. Investigation into mixing capability and solid dispersion preparation using the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Thommes, Markus

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to qualify the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder as a formulation screening tool for early-stage hot-melt extrusion. Dispersive and distributive mixing was investigated using soluplus, copovidone or basic butylated methacrylate copolymer with sodium chloride (NaCl) in a batch size of 5 g. Eleven types of solid dispersions were prepared using various drugs and carriers in batches of 5 g in accordance with the literature. The dispersive mixing was a function of screw speed and recirculation time and the particle size was remarkably reduced after 1 min of processing, regardless of the polymers. An inverse relationship between the particle size and specific mechanical energy (SME) was also found. The SME values were higher than those in large-scale extruders. After 1 min recirculation at 200 rpm, the uniformity of NaCl content met the criteria of the European Pharmacopoeia, indicating that distributive mixing was achieved in this time. For the solid dispersions preparations, the results from different scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and in-vitro dissolution tests confirmed that all solid-dispersion systems were successfully prepared. These findings demonstrated that the extruder is a useful tool to screen solid-dispersion formulations and their material properties on a small scale. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  3. Solid lipid extrudates as sustained-release matrices: the effect of surface structure on drug release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Claudia; Strachan, Clare; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2008-11-15

    The study focused on the structural characterization of sustained-release lipid matrices prepared by solid lipid extrusion. Drug-containing lipid extrudates were locally analyzed in order to identify differences between the chemical and structural composition of surface and core elements. Independent of the lipid the dissolution from the outer extrudate surfaces was slower compared with dissolution from surfaces prepared by cutting the extrudate. The burst effect was higher for the cross-sections indicating more drug was exposed on these surfaces. The release from glycerol trimyristate (Dynasan 114) extrudates was slower compared with glycerol palmitostearate (Precirol ATO 5) extrudates. By solid-state analysis using DSC, ATR-FTIR and SEM measurements the differences between surface material and core material could be attributed mainly to morphological differences. Chemical differences between the core and the outer surface were not relevant. The differences between the surfaces might be explained by the friction induced temperature increase during extrusion in the die plate. The obtained results and a proposed scheme were used to explain the influence of different formulation/processing parameters, such as drug particle size and milling on the drug dissolution behaviour. Small drug particles and intact extrudates are a means of minimizing the burst release.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Temperature and Mixing Performances of Tri-screw Extruders with Non-isothermal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tri-screw extruders are new extrusion equipments for food and polymer processing. Especially, there is one special circumfluence exists in center region only at cross section. In this study, the 2D transient and non-isothermal modeling of a tri-screw extruder is established by using Finite Element Method (FEM with particle tracking technology to reduce the axial effects. The transient temperature and flow fields are calculated with a commercial code, Polyflow. Moreover, the effect of temperature rise due to viscous heating on the flow and mixing characteristics such as mixing index, segregation scale, mean and instantaneous time-averaged efficiency of mixing for the tri-screw extruder are carried out. The results show that in the special center region, the velocity and mixing index is small and viscosity and temperature are relatively big, indicating the poor mixing efficiency. When the heat transfers due to self-heating is considered, the dispersive mixing of the tri-screw extruder decreases, but the distributive mixing and stretching mixing efficiency all increase for the tri-screw extruder. In particular, the stretching effect of the fluid particles in the tri-screw extruder decreases due to the decrease of viscous dissipation when the non-isothermal model is employed.

  5. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  6. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure of hot extruded AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzwonczyk, J.; Bohlen, J.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U. [Inst. for Materials Research, Center for Magnesium Technology, GKSS Research Center (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In the last years magnesium alloys have been increasingly considered as attractive materials for the transportation industry. Extruded magnesium alloys have been found in the centre of interest combining their lightweight, surface quality with the wide range of possible achievable geometries. In the present study the alloy AZ31 has been chosen for investigation as one of the most common commercial magnesium wrought alloys. Round bars have been obtained through hot direct extrusion. After primary microstructural characterisation and mechanical testing in the as-extruded condition the specimens have been subjected to heat treatment consisting of different times (1, 2 and 4 hours) at different temperatures (200 C, 300 C, 400 C and 500 C) followed by cooling in air. Subsequently the specimens have been subjected to microstructural characterisation using light optical microscopy. Average grain size and grain size distribution have been determined using dedicated software. The microstructural analysis has been supported by microhardness testing on selected specimens. Additionally, the specimens have been subjected to tensile tests at room temperature applying a deformation rate of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} as used for the material in as-extruded conditions. The obtained results have shown that heat treatment has no substantial influence on the microstructure characteristics of AZ31 up to 400 C. However, specimens treated at 500 C for one hour revealed a course grain, homogeneous structure with a substantial increase in grain size from 8 {mu}m in as-extruded condition to 18 {mu}m. This change in microstructure slightly reduced the strain-hardening exponent from 0.2 to 0.16. The remaining mechanical properties did not vary extensively when compared to the untreated, as-extruded material. It is assumed that the average grain size and grain size distribution have been influenced by complex thermomechanical treatments, which occurred during extrusion process as well as

  7. Optimization of Process for Rice Noodle Direct Extruded by Twin-Screw Extruder%直接挤出制备米粉(线)工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红周; 范运乾; 豆洪启; 杨波涛; 张瑞莉; 李盘欣

    2012-01-01

    为了获得直接挤压制备米粉(线)的最适工艺参数,采用响应面(RSM)方法设计试验方案,对挤压机挤压制作米粉的工艺参数进行优化分析.研究原料含水量、机筒温度、螺杆转速对米粉糊化度的影响.结果表明:3个因素对糊化度影响大小依次为机筒Ⅲ区温度>螺杆转速>原料含水量.通过响应面分析得出挤压米粉最佳工艺:原料含水量35.1%,Ⅲ区温度102℃,螺杆转速117r/min.在此条件下,米粉糊化度为92.1.与3种市售产品对比,自制米粉在硬度、糊化度、咀嚼性和感官品质方面达到了市售产品平均水平.%Optimized process for direct extruded rice noodles which designed by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was studied by evaluate effect of extrusion process parameters (feed moisture content, barrel temperature, and screw speed) on gelatinization degree and sensory scoring of rice extrudate. The result indicated that the effect order of four factors on gelatinization degree was as follows: barrel temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content. The canonical analysis revealed that optimal conditions for processing of direct extruded rice noodles were: feed moisture content 35.1% ,barrel temperature 102℃,screw speed 117r/min. Under optimal conditions, the gelatinization degree of rice noodles was 92. 1. Compared with 3 varieties of commercial products, trial product has the similar hardness, gelatinization, chewiness and sensory evaluation.

  8. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  9. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats (n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  10. Temporal analysis of the effect of extruded flaxseed on the swine gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chénier, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid, an essential ω-3 fatty acid reported to have beneficial health effects in humans. Feeding swine a diet supplemented with flaxseed has been found to enrich pork products with ω-3 fatty acids. However, the effect of flaxseed supplementation on the swine gut microbiota has not been assessed to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate if extruded flaxseed has any impact on the bacterial and archaeal microbiota in the feces of growing-finishing pigs over a 51-day period, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Bacterial DGGE profile analysis revealed major temporal shifts in the bacterial microbiota with only minor ones related to diet. The archaeal microbiota was significantly less diverse than that of Bacteria. The majority of bacterial DGGE bands sequenced belonged to the Firmicutes phylum while the archaeal DGGE bands were found to consist of only 2 species, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased significantly from day 0 to day 21 in all diet groups while the abundance of Firmicutes was relatively stable across all diet cohorts and sampling times. There was also no significant correlation between pig mass and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. While the addition of extruded flaxseed to the feed of growing-finishing pigs was beneficial for improving ω-3 fatty acid content of pork, it had no detectable impact on the fecal bacterial and archaeal microbiota, suggesting that extruded flaxseed may be used to improve meat quality without adverse effect on the swine gut microbiota or animal performance.

  11. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of high-pressure extruded food waste by inoculum optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xin; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Zhao, Ke; He, Liang

    2016-01-15

    The inoculation for extruded food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) was optimized to improve methane (CH4) yield. The inoculum of acclimated anaerobic sludge resulted in high biodegradability, producing CH4 yields from 580 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded to 605 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded, with corresponding BDCH4 ranging from 90% to 94%. We also investigated inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs). With regards to digested slurry as inoculum, we found that a decrease in ISR improved CH4 yield, while a lower ISR prolonged the lag time of the initial AD stage due to lipid inhibition caused by excessive food waste. These results demonstrate that minimal inocula are required to start the AD system for high-pressure extruded food waste because it is easily biodegraded. High ammonia concentration had a negative effect on CH4 production (i.e., when free ammonia nitrogen [FAN] increased from 20 to 30 mg L(-1) to 120-140 mg L(-1), the CH4 yield decreased by 25%), suggesting that FAN was a significant inhibitor in CH4 yield reduction. In terms of CH4 yield and lag time of the AD process, the optimal inoculation of digested slurry for the extruded food waste had an ISR of 0.33 with CH4 yield of 505 mLCH4 g(-1)VSadded, which was 20% higher than what was found for higher ISR controls of 2, 1 and 0.5.

  12. Hot Extruded Polycrystalline Mg2Si with Embedded XS2 Nano-particles (X: Mo, W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercegol, A.; Christophe, V.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Vasilevskiy, D.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic constituent elements, magnesium silicide and related alloys are attractive for large-scale thermoelectric (TE) applications in the 500-800 K temperature range, in particular for energy conversion. In this work, we propose a hot extrusion method favorable for large-scale production, where the starting materials (Mg2Si and XS2, X: W, Mo) are milled together in a sealed vial. The MoS2 nano-particles (0.5-2 at.%) act as solid lubricant during the extrusion process, thus facilitating material densification, as confirmed by density measurements based on Archimedes' method. Scanning electron microscopy images of bulk extruded specimens show a wide distribution of grain size, covering the range from 0.1 μm to 10 μm, and energy dispersive spectroscopy shows oxygen preferentially distributed at the grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the major phase is the expected cubic structure of Mg2Si. The TE properties of these extruded alloys have been measured by the Harman method between 300 K and 700 K. Resistivity values at 700 K vary between 370 μΩ m and 530 μΩ m. The ZT value reaches a maximum of 0.26 for a sample with 2 at.% MoS2. Heat conductivity is reduced for extruded samples containing MoS2, which most likely behave as scattering centers for phonons. The reason why the WS2 particles do not bring any enhancement, for either densification or heat transfer reduction, might be linked to their tendency to agglomerate. These results open the way for further investigation to optimize the processing parameters for this family of TE alloys.

  13. Gastrointestinal transit of extruded or pelletized diets in pacu fed distinct inclusion levels of lipid and carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pelletized or extruded diets, with different levels of carbohydrate and lipid, on the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT and its modulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. One hundred and eighty pacu juveniles were fed with eight isonitrogenous diets containing two carbohydrate levels (40 and 50% and two lipid levels (4 and 8%. Four diets were pelletized and four were extruded. Carbohydrate and lipid experimental levels caused no changes to the bolus transit time. However, the bolus permanence time was related to diet processing. Fish fed pelletized diets exhibited the highest gastrointestinal transit time. Regression analysis of bolus behavior for pelletized and extruded diets with 4% lipid depicted different fits. GITT regression analysis of fish fed 8% lipid was fitted to a cubic equation and displayed adjustments of food permanence, with enhanced utilization of the diets, either with extruded or pelletized diets. GITT of fish fed extruded diets with 4% lipid was adjusted to a linear equation. The GITT of pacu depends on the diet processing and is affected by dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate.

  14. Effects of selected process parameters in extrusion of yam flour (Dioscorea rotundata) on physicochemical properties of the extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebio, L; Chang, Y K

    2000-04-01

    Raw yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour was cooked and extruded in a Brabender single-screw laboratory scale extruder. Response surface methodology using an incomplete factorial design was applied with various combinations of barrel temperature [100, 125, 150 degrees C], feed moisture content [18, 22, 26%] and screw speed [100, 150, 200 rpm]. Initial viscosity at 30 degrees C, water solubility index, expansion and hardness were determined. The highest values of initial viscosity were at the highest barrel temperatures and the highest moisture contents. At high feed moisture content and high barrel temperatures the yam extrudate flour showed the greatest values of water solubility index. The physical properties of the extruded product showed that at high temperature the lower the moisture content the greater the expansion index. Hardness was influenced directly by moisture content and inversely by extrusion temperature. The extrusion of yam flour led to the production of snacks and pre-gelatinized flours of diverse properties. Also extruded yam flour can be successfully used in the preparation of 'futu' (pre-cooked compact dough), a yam-based food, popular in Western Africa.

  15. Physicochemical Changes and Resistant-Starch Content of Extruded Cornstarch with and without Storage at Refrigerator Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neder-Suárez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of extrusion cooking and low-temperature storage on the physicochemical changes and resistant starch (RS content in cornstarch were evaluated. The cornstarch was conditioned at 20%–40% moisture contents and extruded in the range 90–130 °C and at screw speeds in the range 200–360 rpm. The extrudates were stored at 4 °C for 120 h and then at room temperature. The water absorption, solubility index, RS content, viscoelastic, thermal, and microstructural properties of the extrudates were evaluated before and after storage. The extrusion temperature and moisture content significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extrudates before and after storage. The RS content increased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature, and the viscoelastic and thermal properties showed related behaviors. Microscopic analysis showed that extrusion cooking damaged the native starch structure, producing gelatinization and retrogradation and forming RS. The starch containing 35% moisture and extruded at 120 °C and 320 rpm produced the most RS (1.13 g/100 g after to storage at low temperature. Although the RS formation was low, the results suggest that extrusion cooking could be advantageous for RS production and application in the food industry since it is a pollution less, continuous process requiring only a short residence time.

  16. The effect of extrusion on the functional components and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato pulp added corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Bade; Sensoy, Ilkay; Karakaya, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C and 130 °C and 80 °C, 100 °C, 130 °C and 160 °C. Screw speed and feed rate were kept constant at 225 rpm and 36 ± 1 g min(-1), respectively. The feed moisture content was adjusted to 30 ± 1% by mixing the tomato pulp to the corn grit. Antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content decreased after the extrusion process. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the lycopene content decreased after the extrusion process when feed and extrudates were compared. In vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene for the extruded samples with 160 °C last zone treatment temperature was higher than the feed and extruded samples with 130 °C last zone treatment temperature. The results indicate that extrusion affects the food matrix and the release of functional components.

  17. Mechanical properties and microstructure of as-cast and extruded Mg-(Ce, Nd)-Zn-Zr alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kun; LI Wen-xian; WANG Ri-chu

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the mechanical properties and microstructures of as-cast and extruded Mg-Ce-Zn-Zr and Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloys have been made before and after heat treatment. The results show that the mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Ce and Mg-Nd alloys are as good as those of typical die cast AZ91 alloy and the heat resistant WE43 alloy. In Nd-containing alloys, the precipitated phase Mg12Nd contributes significantly to age hardening. The mechanical properties of extruded alloys are improved obviously compared with those of as-cast alloys. The ultimate strength is 257.8 MPa for extruded Mg-Ce alloy and 265.6 MPa for extruded Mg-Nd alloy. Extrusion is a useful method to improve both the strengths and elongations of the two experimental alloys at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The grain refinement and precipitation strengthening are the main strengthening mechanisms in the alloys. Tensile fracture surfaces show a dimple pattern after extruding and therefore reflect an improved elongation.

  18. Instrumental and Sensory Texture Attributes of High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded Milk Protein Concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-05-01

    Previous instrumental study of high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars formulated with extruded milk protein concentrate (MPC) indicated slower hardening compared to bars formulated with unmodified MPC. However, hardness, and its change during storage, insufficiently characterizes HPN bar texture. In this study, MPC80 was extruded at 2 different conditions and model HPN bars were prepared. A trained sensory panel and instrumental techniques were used to measure HPN bar firmness, crumbliness, fracturability, hardness, cohesiveness, and other attributes to characterize texture change during storage. Extrusion modification, storage temperature, and storage time significantly affected the instrumental and sensory panel measured texture attributes. The HPN bars became firmer and less cohesive during storage. When evaluated at the same storage conditions, the texture attributes of the HPN bars formulated with the different extrudates did not differ significantly from each other. However, textural differences were noted most of the time between the control and the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80. An adapted HPN bar crumbliness measurement technique produced results that were correlated with sensory panel measured crumbliness (r = 0.85) and cohesiveness (r = -0.84). Overall, the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were significantly softer, less crumbly, and more cohesive than the control during storage.

  19. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... collected at storage day 8, 15, 22, 92 and 183 for chemical determination of the astaxanthin concentration. The degradation of astaxanthin was shown to primarily be affected by light and limited to occur at the surface of the fish feed pellets, whereas the astaxanthin embedded in the core of the pellets...

  20. Analysis of the cyclic behavior and fatigue damage of extruded AA2017 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, A., E-mail: abdelghani1980@yahoo.fr [INSA/GPM, CNRS UMR 6634, BP 08 avenue de l' université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17 Bordj El-Bahri Algiers (Algeria); Taleb, L., E-mail: lakhdar.taleb@insa-rouen.fr [INSA/GPM, CNRS UMR 6634, BP 08 avenue de l' université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Belouchrani, M.A., E-mail: nbelouch@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17 Bordj El-Bahri Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-06-01

    The present work is devoted to study the anisotropic behavior of an extruded aluminum alloy under cyclic loading in axial and shear directions. In first, we have studied its elastoplastic behavior through the evolution of stress–strain loops, isotropic and kinematic hardening and we have associated this behavior with the evolution of its elastic adaptation (shakedown). In second, we have studied the behavior of the material in fatigue damage using the evolution of stiffness. Finally, microstructural investigations were performed on fractured surfaces using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to understand the evolution of fatigue damage during cyclic loading.

  1. Effect of neodymium on the as-extruded ZK20 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚忠; 潘复生; 彭建; 王维青; 罗素琴

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Nd addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ZK20 magnesium alloy was investigated by room tensile test, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to develop a magnesium alloy with higher ductility. Results showed that the crystal grains of as-extruded ZK20+0.5%Nd magnesium alloy were effectively refined, and the alloy exhibited higher strength and ductility, with the UTS of 237 MPa and the elongation of 32.8%, increasing by 5...

  2. SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED COMPOSITES TYPE OF POROUS PVC-METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies of selected physical and mechanical properties of hybrid materials type of polymer-metal. In the frame of this work modification of PVC with the iron and copper powder in amount of 0, 1.5 and 3% and blowing agent in amount of 0, 0.5, 1% was done. Extrudates in a form of pipe were tested to determine density, porosity, maximum tensile stress, stress at break, modulus of elasticity and elongation with break. The samples were also observed in a microscope. The studies have shown significant influence of the added components on the properties tested.

  3. Rheology of Steel Fibre Containing Alumina-Magnesia-Extruded Graphite Pellets Self-Flowing Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Balamurugan; K.Sankaranarayanane; ZHOU Xianxin; Michel Riguad

    2007-01-01

    The influences of adding steel fibres of different lengths up to 3 volume percentages,on the rheological behaviour of an alumina-magnesia-extruded graphite pellet containing castables have been studied using a rheometer.Free-flow measurements have shown that the flow is severely affected by increasing the length of steel fibres.The calculated values of rheological constants indicate that 19 mm and 25 mm fibre up to 2 volume percentage is permitted while one volume percentage of 50 mm fibres severely degrades the rheology of the castable.

  4. Surface quality of extruding metal special-shape products and frictional behavior in optimized die cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yuan; ZHU Heng-jun

    2004-01-01

    With the help of Complex Function Mapping theory, the complicated three-dimensional deformation problems are transferred into two-dimensional problems, and the function of strain ratio field is analyzed in the metal plastic extruding deformation. Taking the strain-hardening effect of metal deformation into account, the relationship between friction behavior and optimized mathematical model is analyzed by the numerical analysis friction energy dissipation function. As a result, the method of lowering the material hardening and decreasing the reduction ratio over multi-procedures can be used to improve the surface quality of metal special-shape extrusion products.

  5. Plastification of polymers in twin-screw-extruders: New visualization technic using high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieper, A., E-mail: Alexander.Knieper@lbf.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: Christian.Beinert@lbf.fraunhofer.de; Beinert, C., E-mail: Alexander.Knieper@lbf.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: Christian.Beinert@lbf.fraunhofer.de [Group Polymer Processing, Division Plastics, Fraunhofer-Institute LBF (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The initial melting of the first granules through plastic energy dissipation (PED) at the beginning of the melting zone, in the co-rotating twin-screw extruder is visualized in this work. The visualization was created through the use of a high speed camera in the cross section of the melting zone. The parameters screw speed, granule-temperature, temperature-profile, type of polymer and back pressure were examined. It was shown that the screw speed and the temperature-profile have significant influence on the rate of initial melting.

  6. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  7. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  8. Optimization of barrel temperature and kidney bean flour percentage based on various physical properties of extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathian, G; Semwal, A D; Sharma, G K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to optimize barrel temperature (122 to 178 ± 0.5 °C) and red kidney bean flour percentage (KBF) (12 to 68 ± 0.5 %) based on physical properties of extrudates like flash off percentage, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), bulk density (BD), radial expansion ratio (RER) and overall acceptability (OAA) using single screw extruder. The study was carried out by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) using Response surface methodology (RSM) and moisture content of feed was kept as constant 16.0 ± 0.5 % throughout experiments. Mathematical models for various responses were found to fit significantly (P Extruded snack prepared with rice flour (80 %) and kidney bean flour (20 %) at optimized conditions was accepted by the taste panellists and above 20 % KB incorporation was found to decrease overall acceptability score.

  9. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  10. Determination of Processing Quality Tests of Full Fat Soybean Extruded at Three Temperatures and Correlation with Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mirghelenj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the correlation between growth performance of chicks fed full fat soybean (FFSB extruded at 145, 155 and o 165 and laboratory quality tests. In biological study, one hundred and forty four d-old male broiler chicks were divided into 12 groups including 3 treatments with 4 replicates of 12 chicks each and fed three diets containing 15 % FFSB extruded at 145, 155 and 165 o C from 0 to 21 d of age. Feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG and feed conversion ratio (FCR of chicks were not affected with increasing FFSB extrusion temperatures during 0-21 d of age. For evaluation the quality tests, the urea activity index (UA was obtained as 0.11, 0.09 and 0.05 for FFSB extruded at 145, 155 and 165 °C, respectively. The correlation between UA with WG and FCR of chicks were 88 and 85 percent, respectively. The protein solubility in KOH (PSKOH of FFSB extruded at 145, 155 and 165 °C, were 80.2, 78.1 and 72.4, respectively. The correlation between PSKOH with WG and FCR of chicks were 81and 88 percent, respectively. The protein dispersibility index (PDI were 21.5, 20.8 and 16.5 for FFSB extruded at 145, 155 and 165 °C, respectively. The correlation of PDI with WG and FCR of chicks were 92 and 89 percent, respectively. It is concluded that the laboratory quality tests of FFSB were extruded at 145, 155 and 165 °C were in optimum range for broiler nutrition. Also the PDI had higher correlation with growth rate of chickens as compared to UA and PSKOH and could be the best quality index for estimating the growth rate of broiler chickens fed EFFSB.

  11. Superplastic behavior of hot extruded gamma TiAl (Mo, Si) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.A.; Carsi, M.; Ruano, O.A. [Dept. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain); Frommeyer, G.; Knippscher, S. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Max Planck Inst. fuer Eisenforschung, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wittig, J. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Superplastic behavior of hot extruded intermetallic Ti-46Al-1.7(Mo,Si) (at%) alloys was studied by stress change tests in compression and tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1050 C. The material produced by arc melting exhibited a structure of coarse lamellar grains in the as-cast condition that transforms to an equiaxic near {gamma} microstructure after processing by hot extrusion at 1250 C. This microstructure consists of zones of {gamma} grains finer than 1 {mu}m and band like regions with coarser grains, ranging from 5 to 20 {mu}m. In addition to {gamma} grains, a volume fraction of more than 20 vol% of {alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al particles finely dispersed are also present in the fine-grained zones. Compression tests of the extruded material at stresses ranging from 4 to 825 MPa showed values of the strain-rate-sensitivity exponent near 0.5 at low stresses and/or high temperatures. The microstructure in the fine-grained areas remains essentially constant during deformation. TEM analysis of deformed samples in this regime leads to relate grain boundary sliding as the mechanism controlling the deformation process. High elongation to failure, characteristic of superplasticity, was achieved at 975 and 1050 C at an initial strain rate of 4.6 x 10{sup -4} and 4.6 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  12. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  13. Effect of cysteine and cystine addition on sensory profile and potent odorants of extruded potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2007-07-11

    Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine.

  14. Evolution of microstructure and tensile properties of extruded Mg-4Zn-1Y alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉宝; 王峰; 毛萍莉; 刘正

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of extrusion on Mg-4Zn-1Y alloy, microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), en-ergy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and tensile testing. The results indicated that the microstructure was obviously refined by extrusion and dynamic recrystallization. The second phases were dynamic precipitated and distributed more dispersively through extrusion. W-Phases (Mg3Zn3Y2) were twisted and broken, while I-Phases (Mg3Zn6Y) were spheroidized by deformation. Twin bands were formed to achieve the large deformation and hinder the slip of dislocations effectively to improve tensile properties. The tensile strength and elon-gation of extruded Mg-4Zn-1Y alloy were 254.94 MPa and 17.9%respectively which were improved greatly compared with those of as-cast alloy. The strengthening mechanisms of the extruded alloy were mainly fine-grain strengthening and distortion strengthening.

  15. Effect of Mn on microstructure and corrosion properties of extruded Mg-1%Zn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Ma, Y.; Xi, Z. Z.; Xu, C. J.; Lv, Z. L.

    2017-03-01

    The microstructure of the extruded Mg-1Zn alloy doped with different content of manganese was analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The mass-loss immersion method and electrochemical test were used to evaluate the corrosion properties. The results show that the microstructure of the extruded Mg-1%Zn-x%Mn (mass fraction, x=0.4, 0.8, 1.2) alloys consists of α-Mg and α-Mn, the grain size of α-Mg decreases with increasing Mn content. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the alloys is similar. Mn has considerable effect on the corrosion rate, the corrosion process is exacerbated by the galvanic corrosion occurred at interface between α-Mg and α-Mn. The corrosion rate increases as the Mn content increases. Mg-1%Zn-0.4% Mn alloy exhibits the best corrosion resistance between the Mg-1%Zn-x%Mn alloys

  16. Extruded Bread Classification on the Basis of Acoustic Emission Signal With Application of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Marzec, Agata

    2015-04-01

    The presented work covers the problem of developing a method of extruded bread classification with the application of artificial neural networks. Extruded flat graham, corn, and rye breads differening in water activity were used. The breads were subjected to the compression test with simultaneous registration of acoustic signal. The amplitude-time records were analyzed both in time and frequency domains. Acoustic emission signal parameters: single energy, counts, amplitude, and duration acoustic emission were determined for the breads in four water activities: initial (0.362 for rye, 0.377 for corn, and 0.371 for graham bread), 0.432, 0.529, and 0.648. For classification and the clustering process, radial basis function, and self-organizing maps (Kohonen network) were used. Artificial neural networks were examined with respect to their ability to classify or to cluster samples according to the bread type, water activity value, and both of them. The best examination results were achieved by the radial basis function network in classification according to water activity (88%), while the self-organizing maps network yielded 81% during bread type clustering.

  17. Microstructures and mechanical properties of double hot-extruded AZ80+xSr wrought alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Sr addition on microstructures and tensile properties of the as-cast and hot-extruded AZ80 alloys were studied by OM, SEM, EDS, XRD, DSC and Instron tester. The results show that the microstructures of as-cast alloys consist of α-Mg and β-Mg17Al12 phase. Sr gathers on the boundaries, and dissolves into β-Mg17Al12 phase or forms Mg17Sr2 phase. The grains of as-cast alloys are refined and discontinuous net-shaped structure is formed. The compound phases on the boundaries become thicker with increasing Sr content. The ultimate tensile stress(UTS) and elongation are improved compared with the corresponding Sr-free alloy. After preliminary hot-extruding, the UTS is up to 308-320 MPa and elongation reaches 8.0%-13.5%. After double hot-extrusion, the dynamic recrystallization completes totally, and the UTS is up to 310-355 MPa, but the elongation does not change apparently. The alloy with 0.02%Sr (mass fraction) obtains the best comprehensive performance with the UTS of 355 MPa and elongation of 13.2%. The SEM morphology of fracture surface shows that the alloys with Sr present good ductility after double hot-extrusion.

  18. Low temperature calcium hydroxide treatment enhances anaerobic methane production from (extruded) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Way Cern; Rabaey, Korneel; Vervaeren, Han

    2015-01-01

    Ca(OH)2 treatment was applied to enhance methane yield. Different alkali concentration, incubation temperature and duration were evaluated for their effect on methane production and COD conversion efficiency from (non-)extruded biomass during mesophilic anaerobic digestion at lab-scale. An optimum Ca(OH)2 pretreatment for grass is found at 7.5% lime loading at 10°C for 20h (37.3% surplus), while mild (50°C) and high temperatures perform sub-optimal. Ca(OH)2 post-treatment after fast extrusion gives an additional surplus compared to extruded material of 15.2% (grass), 11.2% (maize straw) and 8.2% (sprout stem) regarding methane production. COD conversion improves accordingly, with additional improvements of 10.3% (grass), 9.0% (maize straw) and 6.8% (sprout stem) by Ca(OH)2 post-treatment. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and post-treatment at low temperature generate an additional effect regarding methane production and COD conversion efficiency. Fast extrusion gives a higher energy efficiency ratio compared to slow extrusion.

  19. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON EXTRUDATE SWELL FOR VISCOELASTIC FLUID:USING MAXWELL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shu-xin; LU Chuan-jing; JIANG Ti-qian

    2004-01-01

    The numerical investigation on extrudate swell through capillary die for viscoelastic fluid characteried by integral-type Maxwell constitutive equation was conducted by employing the finite element method with the calculation of viscoelastic extra stress in the conventional finite element. The method of avoiding singularity was also adopted by integrating the strain history of the Gauss points for each element near the wall and the free surface. The convergence solutions at high Weissenberg number can be obtained by using the appropriate methods to reduce errors and improve the speed of convergence of the calculation, which include adding a relaxation factor of velocity in iteration process, or enlarging the reference viscosity, or reducing the elapsed time. The highest Weissenberg number obtained here is up to 3.8, while the solution at the Weissenberg number of 3.75 was given in the previous work with similar extrudate swell ratio and the exit pressure drop by using differential Maxwell model with Elastic-Viscous Stress Split (EVSS) combined with Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. The calculations indicated that the method of dealing with integral consti- tutive equation introduced in this paper is suitable in simulating viscoelastic flow characterized by integral constitutive equation at high elastic level.

  20. Effect of extruding full-fat soy flakes on trans fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongxia; Sui, Xiaonan; Chang, Yunhe; Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of extrusion process on the trans fatty acids (TFAs) formation in soybean crude oils, three different extrusion parameters, namely, extrusion temperature (80-160 °C), feed moisture (10-26%), and screw speed (100-500 rpm), were carried out. It was found that only five different types of TFAs were detected out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before the extrusion started, the initial amount of total TFAs was 3.04 g/100 g. However, after extruding under every level of any variable, the total amounts of TFAs were significantly higher than those in the control sample (P trans fatty acid (TTFA) was 1.62 times the amount of that in the control sample, whereas the lowest amount of TTFA was 1.54 times the amount of that in the control sample. Importantly, it was observed that the amounts of every type of trans fatty acid were not continuously increasing with the increase of the level of any extrusion variable. This phenomenon demonstrated that the formation and diversification were intricate during extruding process and need to be further studied.

  1. Effect of Extruding Full-Fat Soy Flakes on Trans Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of extrusion process on the trans fatty acids (TFAs formation in soybean crude oils, three different extrusion parameters, namely, extrusion temperature (80–160°C, feed moisture (10–26%, and screw speed (100–500 rpm, were carried out. It was found that only five different types of TFAs were detected out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before the extrusion started, the initial amount of total TFAs was 3.04 g/100 g. However, after extruding under every level of any variable, the total amounts of TFAs were significantly higher than those in the control sample (P<0.05. For example, taking the effect of extrusion temperature into account, we can find that the highest amount of total of trans fatty acid (TTFA was 1.62 times the amount of that in the control sample, whereas the lowest amount of TTFA was 1.54 times the amount of that in the control sample. Importantly, it was observed that the amounts of every type of trans fatty acid were not continuously increasing with the increase of the level of any extrusion variable. This phenomenon demonstrated that the formation and diversification were intricate during extruding process and need to be further studied.

  2. Twin-Screw Extruder and Pellet Accelerator Integration Developments for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2011-01-01

    The ITER pellet injection system consisting of a twinscrew frozen hydrogen isotope extruder, coupled to a combination solenoid actuated pellet cutter and pneumatic pellet accelerator, is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion and will be integrated with a secondary section, where pellets are cut, chambered, and launched with a single-stage pneumatic accelerator into the plasma through a guide tube. This integrated pellet injection system is designed to provide 5 mm fueling pellets, injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, or 3 mm edge localized mode (ELM) triggering pellets, injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. The pellet cutter, chamber mechanism, and the solenoid operated pneumatic valve for the accelerator are optimized to provide pellet velocities between 200-300 m/s to ensure high pellet survivability while traversing the inner wall fueling guide tubes, and outer wall ELMpacing guide tubes. This paper outlines the current twin-screwextruder design, pellet accelerator design, and the integrationrequired for both fueling and ELM pacing pellets.

  3. Microstructure and properties of hot extruded AZ31-0.25%Sb Mg-alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of hot extrusion treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31-0.25%Sb Mg alloy were mvestlgated by means of mechanical properties measurement and microstructure observation.The results show that the (UTS) and yield tensile strength(YTS) of the alloy are obviously enhanced by hot extrusion treatment,and the enhanced extent of UTS and YTS increases with the decrease of hot extrusion temperature,moreover,the YTS value of the alloy at RT,after extruded at 220℃,increases up to 131.4%,which attributes to the finer grains resulted from the dynamic recrystallization occurred during hot extrusion.As not extrusion goes on,the slipping and concentration of dislocations continue to occur within the finer grains,which promotes the formation of the subgrains in the alloy.The deformation features of the extruded alloy during tensile deformation at RT are the twinning deformation and dislocation slipping in the twinning regions.Moreover,the deformation mechanisms of the alloy are a dislocation activation on the basal plane and a+c dislocation activation on the pyramidal planes.

  4. Extruded flaxseed meal enhances the nutritional quality of cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, S; Peñas, E; Ferreyra, V; Pellegrino, N; Fournier, M; Apro, N; Carrión, M Olivera; Frias, J

    2013-06-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequence of extrusion, phytic acid did not change and trypsin inhibitor activity was undetectable. Proximate composition and nutritional quality determined by biological and chemical indexes were compared among EFM, flour mixes (FM) and cereal bars (CB). They presented high protein levels (26, 20 and 17 %, respectively), good biological value (BV) (80, 79 and 65, respectively), acceptable true protein digestibility (TD) (73, 79 and 78, respectively), and high dietary fiber (33, 20.5 and 18 %, respectively). The ratio of ω6:ω3 for CB was within the WHO/FAO recommendations. These results open a new venue for the usefulsess of nutritious/healthy extruded flaxseed flours into ready-to-eat cereal-based products with improved nutritional quality.

  5. Impact of screw elements on continuous granulation with a twin-screw extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Dejan; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2008-11-01

    The influence of different screw element types on wet granulation process with a twin-screw extruder was investigated. Lactose granules were prepared with different screw configurations such as conveying, combing mixer and kneading elements. The use of kneading blocks led to an almost complete agglomeration of lactose, whereas kneading and combing mixer elements resulted in smaller granules in comparison. Granule porosity varied between 17.4% and 50.6%. Granule friability values ranged from 1.2% to 38.5%. Conveying elements led to the most porous and friable granules, whereas kneading blocks produced the densest and least friable granules. Combing mixer elements produced granules with median properties. A linear correlation between granule porosity and the natural logarithm of granule friability was detected. Flowability of granules was also influenced by the element type. Compressed granules with higher granule porosities resulted in tablets with higher tensile strength values and vice versa. Twin-screw extruders proved to be a versatile tool for wet granulation. By the choice of a suitable screw element granule and tablet characteristics were influenced.

  6. Validation of a continuous granulation process using a twin-screw extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melkebeke, B; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2008-05-22

    Using twin-screw granulation as particle size enlargement technique, the effect of modifying the screw configuration (number of mixing zones, configuration of kneading block) on granule quality, tablet properties and mixing efficiency was investigated. The amount of oversized agglomerates and yield was significantly influenced by the presence of an extra conveying element at the screw end. Changing the staggering angle of the kneading block significantly affected yield and granule friability. The 90 degrees configuration resulted in a lower yield and granule friability. Disintegration time was the only tablet property significantly influenced by the screw configuration as disintegration was significantly faster when an extra conveying element was placed at the screw end. The influence of tracer addition method (wet vs. dry) on mixing efficiency inside the extruder barrel was investigated by means of different tracers: riboflavin (0.05%) suspended in the granulation liquid and hydrochlorothiazide (2.5%) added separately as powder. Mixing efficiency in function of time and granule size (above and below 1400 microm) was tested using riboflavine sodium phosphate (0.05%) dissolved in the granulation liquid. Since a good mixing efficiency was obtained independent of tracer addition method, tracer solubility, granulation time and granule size, continuous granulation using a twin-screw extruder was identified as a robust process.

  7. Mechanistic studies on the release of lysozyme from twin-screw extruded lipid implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Gerhard; Winter, Gerhard

    2012-10-28

    The influence of lipid melting on the in-vitro release of lysozyme from twin-screw extruded lipid implants was investigated. Triglyceride based implants were prepared by admixing of glycerol tristearin and various low melting lipids and subsequent twin-screw extrusion (tsc-extrusion) of these mixtures at moderate temperatures. Lysozyme was embedded as model protein and PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 was used as pore-forming excipient. By decreasing the amount of pore-forming agent from 40% to 0% lysozyme release became more sustained and the release kinetics changed from a matrix-type release profile to a linear release profile. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements showed a change in implant structure upon long-term release (240 days) at 37 °C which was explained by partial matrix melting. In addition, partial melting of the implants was found to facilitate complete drug release at 37 °C whereas at 20 °C without partial melting 20% to 90% of the incorporated protein remained trapped in the implant matrix. In conclusion, partial melting of the implants during in-vitro release was found to be a major factor for the control of protein release from extruded implants and can be useful to trigger release, achieve in-vivo biodegradability and complete long-term protein release.

  8. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, A; Shah, K; Tolosa, V; Sheth, H; Felix, S; Delima, T; Pannu, S

    2012-03-29

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {mu}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal studbumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9x10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  9. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, K G; Delima, T; Felix, S; Sheth, H; Tolosa, V; Tooker, A; Pannu, S S

    2012-03-28

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {micro}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal stud-bumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9 x 10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  10. Effect of annealing temperatures on the secondary re-crystallization of extruded PM2000 steel bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-L; Tatlock, G J; Jones, A R

    2009-03-01

    The ferritic oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy PM2000 is an ideal candidate for high-temperature applications as it contains uniform nano-oxide dispersoids, which act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion and therefore impart excellent creep resistance. The development of the microstructure during re-crystallization of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys has been discussed by a number of authors, but the precise mechanism of secondary re-crystallization still remains uncertain. Hence, this work is aimed at investigating the re-crystallization behaviour of extruded PM2000 bar for different annealing temperatures, using electron backscatter diffraction, in particular, to determine grain orientations, grain boundary misorientation angles, etc. The results show that the as-extruded bar microstructure comprises both low-angle grain boundaries pinned by oxide particles and high-angle boundaries that will have inherent boundary mobility to allow boundary migration. In addition, dynamical re-crystallization was found in the outer region of the non-heat-treated PM2000 bar, which suggested that deformation heterogeneities can be introduced during thermo-mechanical processing that enhance the nucleation of re-crystallization. Subsequent heat treatments promote and stimulate secondary re-crystallization, giving rise to large grains with few sub-grain boundaries.

  11. TECHNICAL MEANS FOR OBTAINING INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS OF THE CASING AND TOPPINGS FOR EXTRUDED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pal’chikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article is devoted to the new technical facilities for food production, which technological chain of production process includes computer hardware as a part of the equipment used for body of semi-processed food preparation, blancher for hydrobionts and abrasive blender. For the whole group of the necessary equipment the principal schemes are designed, and the abrasive blender was tested during the experimental approbation to reveal the optimal design. The culinary fish pastes have already been produced in the enterprises in many countries for many years and they are particularly popular in Japan, Germany, Scandinavian and other country. In Poland the mixtures of fish pasted have become widely spread, and are used for production of portioned meals. These pastes may be blended into larger or smaller pieces. The aromatization process of such pastes is conducted with adding the liquid smoke, natural or synthetic fragrances. There is an increasing popularization of the use of flaxseed as a source of alpha-linoleic acid, high-quality protein, phenolics, fiber and minerals. Products with flax meal can be recommended for inclusion in the diet to make up for the deficit of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber. In this regard, it is appropriate to use the semi-finished product formulations for the respective housings extruded snack food. The results of the conducted research could be used in the production of domestic extruded snacks, which have the form of the cushions with vitaminized dough body and hydrobionts stuffing if setting the special extrusion modes.

  12. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41) with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased....

  13. Novel method of measuring polymer melt viscosity using a short length of single screw extruder at the closed discharge state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Kang, Seok-Jin; Kim, Moon Sung; Choi, Sunwoong

    2016-03-01

    Theory of single screw extruders has been used for analyzing the processing characteristics of various polymeric fabricated such material as plastics, rubber, and food products. Recently this theory extended to measuring the polymer melt viscosity using the closed discharging state of the short single screw extruder. The batch wise operation of the closed discharged state change the complex extrusion characteristic equation into simple calculation form of shear rate and viscosity equation, which related between the geometrical factors and the screw speed and the axial pressure generation, respectively.

  14. 40 CFR 428.100 - Applicability; description of the latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory. 428.100 Section 428.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex-Dipped, Latex-Extruded, and Latex-Molded Rubber Subcategory §...

  15. Characterization of hot-melt extruded drug delivery systems for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mididoddi, Praveen K; Repka, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to study the physico-chemical properties of hot-melt extruded (HME) films for onychomycosis and to determine the stability of the model antifungal drug incorporated within these films. The influence of etching and instrument variables on the bioadhesion of these drug delivery systems for the human nail was also studied. Six 250 g batches (F1-F6) of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and/or poly(ethylene oxide) films containing ketoconazole (20%) were extruded using a Killion extruder (Model KLB-100). The thermal properties of HME films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the drugs, physical mixtures as well as the HME films. Stability studies were performed on the films stored at 25 degrees C/60%RH. The bioadhesive properties of these films were investigated on the human nail (ex vivo) using a Texture Analyzer. The nail samples tested were either non-treated (control) or treated with an etching gel. The parameters measured were peak adhesion force (PAF) and area under the curve (AUC). The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using a combination of Hoy and Hoftyzer/Van Krevelen methods to estimate the likelihood of drug-polymer miscibility. SEM provided direct physical evidence of the physical state of the drug within the films. The theoretical post-extrusion content of ketoconazole remaining in the six film batches ranged from 90.3% (+/-2.2) to 102.4% (+/-9.0) for up to 6 months and from 83.9% (+/-3.6) to 91.6% (+/-3.0) for up to 12 months. Bioadhesion studies of HPC film tested on 'etched' nails recorded significantly higher PAF and AUC than that of the non-treated 'control' nails. Ketoconazole was found to be relatively stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not

  16. Prediction of digestible energy value of extruded dog food: comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervera, M; Baucells, M D; Torre, C; Buj, A; Castrillo, C

    2008-06-01

    The proposal of National Research Council (NRC), based on the use of modified Atwater factors, is nowadays the widely used method to estimate digestible energy (DE) content of pet foods. Recently, alternative methods have been suggested for predicting energy content of commercial canine dry food. Factorial equations including food fibre content as estimator, in vitro digestions methods or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques have been considered as good approaches to predict the energy content of dog foods. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of some of those estimation methods. Seventeen samples of commercial extruded dog food were used to validate and compare some estimation methods of energy digestibility (Ed, %) and DE value [MJ/kg dry matter (DM)]. The apparent Ed and DE of each food were previously determined by in vivo trials. In vivo Ed and DE of foods ranged from 79.30% to 91.05% and from 16.25 to 21.82 MJ/kg DM, respectively, and their crude fibre (CF) content ranged from 0.72% to 3.28% (in DM base). The % Ed of each sample was estimated by the factorial equation (% Ed = 91.2 - 1.43 x CF %) and by the in vitro digestion method [% Ed(in vitro) = -2.45 + 0.98 organic matter (OM) disappearance(in vitro)%]. The set of samples also was analysed by NIRS, using a calibration equation developed from a set of 69 samples of commercial extruded dog food (0.76 and 0.89 cross-validation r(2) and 2.33 and 0.61 cross-validation SE for Ed and DE respectively). The in vitro method gave better estimations of Ed in vivo than NIRS and factorial methods, although all the methods assessed showed a very good and similar accuracy in the prediction of DE value. These three methods showed a slight better accuracy than that previously proposed by the NRC. To consider constant digestibility values of nutrient content of food can result in bias and error in the estimated energy values. The alternative prediction methods used in this study take into account

  17. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  18. Three-Dimensional Flow Modeling of a Self-wiping Corotating Twin-Screw Extruder. Part II : The Kneading Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, D.J. van der; Goffart, D.; Klomp, E.M.; Hoogstraten, H.W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional flow simulations of kneading elements in an intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder are performed by solving the Navier Stokes equations with a finite element package, Sepran. Instead of using the whole geometry of the 8-shaped barrel a simplified geometry is used, representing

  19. THE SELF-WIPING CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER AS A POLYMERIZATION REACTOR FOR METHACRYLATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, H.A.; Kiewiet, J.A.; van Dijk, J.H.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder was studied as a reactor for two polymerizations in bulk: the homopolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate and the copolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate with 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate. The influence of the extrusion parameters on the product was analy

  20. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  1. 全自动粉丝挤出机的设计%Design of Full-automatic Vermicelli Extruder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 丁美锋; 张建中

    2013-01-01

    全自动粉丝挤出机是依据龙口2万吨的粉丝生产流水线要求专门设计的自熟挤出粉丝机;本机是在对现有机型存在的缺点进行分析的基础上,结合自动化设计的要求;首先对粉丝挤出机进行机械结构上的改进,增添部分自动控制元件,设计出全自动粉丝挤出机。经过企业经济分析,全自动粉丝机能带来很高的经济效益。%Automatic vermicelli extruder is based on 20000 tons of Longkou fans production lines require specially designed the extruding vermicelli machine;the machine is analyzed based on the existing models exist shortcomings,combined with the design requirements;the vermicelli extruder was improved structure on the mechanical structure,add the automatic control part,design of automatic vermicelli extruder.Through the eco-nomic analysis,automatic fans can bring high economic benefit.

  2. Influence of dried Hokkaido pumpkin and ascorbic acid addition on chemical properties and colour of corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Valentina; Babić, Jurislav; Šubarić, Drago; Jozinović, Antun; Ačkar, Đurđica; Klarić, Ilija

    2015-09-15

    The influence of Hokkaido pumpkin powder (PP) addition to corn grits at levels 4%, 6%, and 8% and ascorbic acid (AA) addition at levels 0.5% and 1% was evaluated. Extrusion was done using a single-screw extruder at two temperature regimes: 135/170/170°C (E1) and 100/150/150°C (E2). Mathematical models that describe the influence of additives on the colour of extrudates were determined. Raw extrusion mixtures as well as obtained extrudates were tested for ascorbic acid, polyphenol, proteins, fat, crude fibre, ash and carotenoids content, and antioxidant activity. E1 extrusion regime acted favourably on polyphenols, crude fibre content, and antioxidant activity. It also caused higher fat degradation than E2 extrusion. Xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were less sensitive to extrusion than carotenes (α-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and 13-cis-β-carotene). Ascorbic acid was more sensitive to higher extrusion temperatures (49-76% degradation). It provided protection to carotenoids and consequently the colour of the extrudates.

  3. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties.

  4. COST ESTIMATES OF TWIN SCREW EXTRUDED PRODUCTS: TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN SNACKS AND CORN-SOY BLEND USED FOR EMERGENCY FEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operating costs associated with twin screw extrusion cooking of various foods are fixed for a given size and production capacity for any class of products; the greater percentage of costs arise from the choice of ingredients and the product end use. For example, extruder texturized whey proteins...

  5. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder rotational speed: 55, 70, 85 rpm. Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 15. As the results show, pulping of rice stem fiber can be done at a relatively short pretreatment time about 4 hours and a low NaOH concentration about 0.8% by twin-screw extruder with limit extrusion temperature of about 80 oC and extruder rotational speed about 85 rpm. The effect of pretreatment solvent, NaOH, is greatly enhanced by increases in the extrusion temperature. Analysis of the results revealed that this process has suitable potential to be used to obtain a pulp with yields approximately equivalent to neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping at fixed kappa number, which is applicable for fluting paper and linerboard production.

  6. Processing map for hot working of as extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guang-sheng; HUANG Guang-jie; WANG Ling-yun; PAN Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The deformation behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy as extruded under hot compression conditions was characterized in the temperature range of 200 - 400 ℃ and strain rate range of 0. 001 - 1 s-1. The processing maps were obtained at different strains. The results show that the map exhibits flow instabilities as two domains. The domain at beyond 300 ℃ and strain rate of 1 s-1 appears with a peak efficiency of power dissipation about 56% occurring. This domain is expected to happen in a hot process, such as hot rolling, hot extrusion and hot forging. There is high efficiency of power dissipation at temperature beyond 350 ℃ and strain rate 0. 001 s-1. Such domains suggest the occurrence of superplastic deformation.

  7. A versatile single-screw-extruder system designed for magnetic resonance imaging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. H. G.; Hanlon, A. D.; Hall, L. D.; Marriott, C.; Ablett, S.; Wang, W.; Frith, W. J.

    2003-10-01

    A versatile system has been developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements, in which a ceramic barrel/outer cylinder (0.04 m internal diameter) can be configured either as a single-screw extruder (polyetheretherketone (PEEK), length to diameter ratio 4.575, root diameter 0.03 m), or as a concentric-cylinder Couette device (PEEK, length 0.156 m, inner cylinder diameter 0.03 m). A second channel in the sample inlet allows two streams of fluid to be pumped simultaneously through the system for mixing. The shaft rotation speed can be set between 5 and 1200 revolutions per minute (rpm); the barrel and sample feeder can be separately thermostatted to +/-0.2 °C in the range of -10 to +60 °C via coolant jacket systems; samples with viscosity up to 10 Pa s can be pumped at rates up to 36 l h-1. This enables studies to be conducted with the system configured as a Couette device to provide knowledge of the rheological properties of complex fluids before more complicated studies of their flow and mixing with the system configured as a single-screw extruder. Bench and MRI measurements have been carried out to test the thermostat function of the system. The bench tests showed that the internal volume of the device reached thermal equilibrium after 1 h of running and could be maintained at constant temperature (within +/-0.2 °C) for periods of over 6 h. The MRI tests were conducted with the device configured in a Couette geometry for measurements of the flow velocities of pure glycerol and 1% aqueous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in the range of 10-60 °C, and at various rotation speeds. Results showed that although the azimuthal velocity distributions versus the radius (v(r)) were independent of temperature for glycerol, there was strong temperature dependence for the CMC solution. On the latter the power-law index (n) from MRI data agreed well with the literature values for the same concentrations and temperatures, and showed n values increasing with

  8. Texture evaluation in warm deformation of an extruded Mg–6Al–3Zn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kavyani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of strain and strain rate on texture evolution of an extruded Mg–6Al–3Zn alloy, compression tests were carried out. Samples were prepared in the extrusion direction (ED and normal direction (ND. The compression tests were performed at 250 °C and with different strain rates of 0.01 sec−1 and 1 sec−1 and different strains. Microstructural observation and texture investigation show that at early stages of deformation, extension twins lead to the development of strong basal texture intensity along rolling direction (RD in ED samples and contraction twins result in texture evolution along transverse direction (TD in ND samples. Also, microstructural investigation at high strains reveals that dynamic recrystallization occurs in both samples and consequently the basal texture intensity has been decreased.

  9. Fine Extruding Deformation and Modeling Optimization of Die Cavityin Special-Shaped Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Hongyuan; Zhu Hengjun

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of Conformal Mapping theory, using approaches of numerical trigonometric interpolation and vector normal convergence, region function of three-dimension deforming, surface function of die cavity, and mapping function between the plastic flow model and the axis-symmetry model were set up respectively for fine extruding special-shaped products with different arc radius ri. Then the stream function and both fields of velocity and strain ratio are inferred for special-shaped plastic deformation; meanwhile, with the help of Upper-Bound principle, the parameter of die cavity gets optimized. Taking square-shaped and hexagon-shaped products with different arc radius ri as examples,the velocity field gets analyzed, the parameter of die cavity is optimized and the die cavity gets depicted as well. Consequently, above study provides theoretical support for achieving the technical goal of CAD/CAM integration in die cavity of fine extrusion.

  10. Results of the CESI-CPRI research on extruded cables under DC voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, W.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes extensive feasibility studies (involving power frequency withstand, partial discharge, short and long duration stress, lighting impulse and polarity reversal tests) on the the use of extruded DC cables for HVDC links. The results indicate that: either XLPe or EPr insulated cables, although not optimized for DC, show dielectric performances under DC stress that may be considered satisfactory (a mean working stress of around 25 kV/mm appears a realistic figure to be attained with proper materials and manufacturing technology); the behaviour under transient stress seems satisfactory (a fundamental role is played by the absence of defects and by the quality of the interfaces between inner/outer semiconductive screen and main insulation); a suitable protection to prevent moisture penetration in the insulation must be provided in order to avoid a significant reduction in cable dielectric performances (the use of a laminated protective covering could be in an interesting solution).

  11. Multiparametric atomic force microscopy imaging of single bacteriophages extruding from living bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsteens, David; Trabelsi, Heykel; Soumillion, Patrice; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-12-01

    Force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy is a valuable tool to simultaneously image the structure and map the biophysical properties of biological samples at the nanoscale. Traditionally, FD-based atomic force microscopy has been severely limited by its poor temporal and lateral resolutions. Here we report the use of advanced FD-based technology combined with biochemically sensitive tips to image filamentous bacteriophages extruding from living bacteria at unprecedented speed and resolution. Directly correlated multiparametric images of the structure, adhesion and elasticity of infected bacteria demonstrate that the sites of assembly and extrusion localize at the bacterial septum in the form of soft nanodomains surrounded by stiff cell wall material. The quantitative nano-bio-imaging method presented here offers a wealth of opportunities for mapping the physical properties and molecular interactions of complex biosystems, from viruses to tissues.

  12. Cyclic deformation of extruded AM30 magnesium alloy in the transverse direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Emami, A. R.; Luo, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Cyclic deformation characteristics of a recently developed AM30 Mg extrusion alloy in the transverse direction were evaluated under strain-controlled tests at different strain amplitudes. The alloy exhibited strong cyclic hardening especially at higher strain amplitudes. While the initial tensile Young's modulus was essentially the same in both transverse and longitudinal directions, the hysteresis loops were asymmetric in the longitudinal direction, but nearly symmetric in the transverse direction. This tension-compression asymmetry was associated with the presence of strong texture in the extruded Mg alloy. With increasing strain amplitude the mid-life hysteresis loops showed a clockwise rotation which was related to nonlinear or pseudoelastic deformation behavior. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the specimen surface, and multiple initiation sites were observed at higher strain amplitudes. Crack propagation was basically characterized by the formation of characteristic fatigue striations.

  13. Magnetization reversal processes in hot-extruded τ-MnAl-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, J.; Bittner, F.; Woodcock, T. G.

    2017-03-01

    The magnetic domain structure of hot-extruded bulk τ-Mn53Al45C2 was studied by Kerr microscopy under application of a magnetic field in-situ. The microstructure consists of recrystallized, fine-grained regions and large non-recrystallized grains which contain a high density of twins. Within these large polytwinned grains, a clear pinning interaction of magnetic domain walls at twin boundaries was observed but with a rather small pinning force. The smaller, recrystallized grains show a higher resistance to magnetization reversal. The critical single domain particle size of this material was estimated at 773 nm and the fine, recrystallized grains are in the range of this size. Demagnetizing the sample following saturation using a 3 T field pulse revealed that individual fine grains reverse independently from their neighbours.

  14. Effect of Deforming Temperature and Strain on Abnormal Grain Growth of Extruded FGH96 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experiments of isothermal forging wedge-shaped samples, Deform-3D numerical simulation software was used to confirm the strain distribution in the wedge-shaped samples. The effect of deforming temperature and strain on abnormal grain growth(AGG in extruded FGH96 superalloy was examined. It is found that when the forging speed is 0.04 mm/s,the critical AGG occurring temperature is 1100℃,and the critical strain is 2%.AGG does not occur within 1000-1070℃,but still shows the feature of ‘critical strain’,and the region with strain of 5%-10% has the largest average grain size.AGG can be avoided and the uniform fine grains can be gained when the strain is not less than 15%.

  15. Development of self-adjusting hydraulic machine for combination forming of upsetting and extruding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a self-adjusting hydraulic machine for combination forming of upsetting and extruding is systematacially presented in terms of mechanical principle, design principle, machine construction, design of the key components and working routine. The machine is designed with the following features: The lower movable beam is adjusted by the ejecting cylinder, the upper upsetting beam is reset by the backstroke slide rods, and the upsetting cylinders communicate with the gas-liquid accumulators. These features make the machine conformation compact, save both the backstroke cylinder of the upper upsetting beam and the upsetting cylinder of the lower movable beam, and simplify the hydraulic system. Furthermore, the machine can resolve such problems as incomplete filling at the addendum position, microcracks at the dedendum position, greater force and lower die life during precision forging of spur gears.

  16. Effects of RE on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 陈维平; 张卫文; 张大童; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    Effects of rare earth (RE) additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of the wrought AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that, by adding 0.3%, 0.6% and 1.0% RE elements, the as-cast microstructure can be refined, and the as-cast alloys′ elongation and tensile strength can be improved. After extrusion, the alloy with 0.3% and 0.6% RE additions obtain a finer microstructure and the best mechanical properties, but the alloy with 1.0% RE addition has the coarse Al-RE compound particles in grain boundaries which decreased elongation and tensile properties. Usually, Rare earth (RE) elements were used to improve the creep properties of aluminium-containing magnesium pressure die cast alloys at elevated temperatures. In this paper, it is also found that the high temperature strength of extruded materials can be increased by RE elements additions.

  17. A Through Process Model for Extruded AA3xxx Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, W. J.; Wells, M. A.; Parson, N. C.

    The application of extruded AA3xxx aluminum tubing in automotive heat exchanger systems is a growth area. This work involves the development of a series of linked mathematical models which describe microstructure evolution as a function of processing conditions including homogenization, hot extrusion and the final brazing heat treatment. It is necessary to link the processes and track microstructure through the processes in order to predict final microstructure and properties of the aluminum in heat exchanger applications. For example, the homogenization step is critical to control the morphology, shape and spatial distribution of second phase particles, i.e. dispersoids and constituent particles. The results of i) a chemistry dependent finite difference model for homogenization, ii)a finite element based hot extrusion model and iii) a model for cold work and annealing model will be described with emphasis on the successes of the model but the challenges for future work will also be addressed.

  18. New class of additives to inhibit tree growth in solid extruded cable insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devins, J C; Rzad, S J; Reed, C W; Bartosh, D K; Stines, T W

    1976-03-01

    There is now substantial evidence that in many dielectric failures of solid polyolefinic and other polymeric materials the final disruption may be preceded by the long-time progressive development of a three-dimensional pattern of irregular, sometimes (though not always) carbonized hollow channels diverging from a central stem, and that the ultimate failure follows one of these channels. These minute channels are referred to as ''trees'' and the phenomenon as ''treeing.'' Research conducted from May to Sept. 1975 on techniques for evaluating tree growth and on the development of additives to inhibit tree growth in solid extruded polymeric insulation for electric cables is reported. (LCL)

  19. Effect of gelatinized-retrograded and extruded starches on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Katyal, Mehak

    2016-05-01

    The effect of substitution of wheat flour with gelatinized-retrograded starch (GRS) and extruded starch (ES) at 10 and 20 % levels on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles was evaluated. Cookies made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed higher spread ratio and resistant starch (RS) content. Muffins made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed less height, specific volume and gas cells and higher RS content. Muffins containing GRS were less firm while those made by incorporating ES showed higher firmness than those made without substitution. Noodles made with substitution of flour with GRS or ES showed higher RS content and reduced water uptake, gruel solid loss, hardness and adhesiveness. Cookies and noodles prepared with and without substitution of flour with GRS or ES did not show any significant differences in terms of overall acceptability scores.

  20. Screw extrude steam explosion: a promising pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Wengui; Zhang, Hongman; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Huang, He

    2014-06-01

    A screw extrude steam explosion (SESE) apparatus was designed and introduced to pretreat corn stover continuously for its following enzymatic hydrolysis. SESE parameters temperature (100, 120, 150°C) and residence time (1, 2, 3min) were investigated. The enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by SESE and steam explosion (SE) process was carried out and analyzed systematically. A serial of analysis methods were established, and the corn stover before/after the pretreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravity/Derivative Thermal Gravity Analysis (TG/DTG). After treated by SESE pretreatment at the optimum condition (150°C, 2min), the pretreated corn stover exhibited highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (89%), and rare fermentation inhibitors formed. Characterization results indicated that the highest yield could be attributed to the effective removal of lignin/hemicellulose and destruction of cellulose structure by SESE pretreatment.

  1. Effect of Processing Variables and Enzymatic Activity on Wheat Flour Dough Extruded Under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Giuliani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Low processing temperatures are required to improve the texture of products when enzymes are directly added to the extruder. Interaction among processing variables and enzymatic activity can occur during extrusion. In this research, the influence of some extrusion parameters (barrel temperature, dough moisture and screw speed on the activity of two commercial enzymes (Grindamyl Amylase 1000 and Grindamyl Protease 41 has been studied. Wheat flour was used as a model system, and macromolecular degradation was determined by water solubility index (WSI. Moreover, gelatinization degree and die pressure were evaluated. Results showed that barrel temperature affected enzyme activity. High values of WSI were obtained at high barrel temperature using Grindamyl Protease 41. When Grindamyl Amylase 1000 was used, low values of starch gelatinization were obtained. The activity of both enzymes was negatively affected by high values of dough moisture.

  2. Design, development and performance evaluation of chapati press cum vermicelli extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurushree, M N; Nandini, C R; Pratheeksha, K; Prabhasankar, P; Hosamane, Gangadharappa Gundabhakthara

    2011-04-01

    Portable and manually operated chapati press cum vermicelli extruder device was designed and fabricated for the preparation of chapatis and vermicelli. Sensory evaluation overall quality scores of 50.15 and 48.4 for pressed chapatis and rolled chapatis respectively showed that quality of chapatis was not adversely affected as a result of mechanical pressing. The difference in chapati making time by manual rolling and machine pressing was 17 s per chapati and was statistically significant (p  0.05) between 2 mm and 3 mm diameter vermicelli. Cooked weight (72.8 g) and water absorption (191.2%) of 2 mm diameter vermicelli was more compared to 3 mm diameter vermicelli (51.75 g, 107%). This machine can also be used as a laboratory model as products of consistent thickness and diameter were obtained.

  3. Numerical simulation of upsetting-extruding process of dispersion strengthened copper welding electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng-jun; ZHANG Ying-chun; HUANG Dian-yuan; LIU Xin-yu

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of the upsetting-extruding process of dispersion strengthened copper welding electrode was carried out using Deform-2D finite element analysis software, and the characteristics of metal flow and the effect of different friction factors were analysed. The results show that the whole forming process consists of a forward extrusion and a backward extrusion. When the friction factor of the female die is 0.4, it is advantageous to the forward extrusion forming of the electrode work nose part, while the friction factor of the male die is only 0.1, it would be benefit to the backward extrusion forming of the electrode fit-up hole part. Addition of a scoop channel with 1.5 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter at the bottom of the female die can avoid folds at the work nose. The rise in temperature is about 60 ℃ during the forming process.

  4. Morphological and thermal properties of PLA/OMMT nanocomposites prepared via vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Liu, H. Y.; Zhang, G. Z.; Qu, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    Polylactide/Organo-Montmorillonite (PLA/OMMT) Nanocomposites were prepared by melting extrusion using a novel vane extruder (VE), which can induce global elongational flow. In the study, the influence of different concentrations of the OMMT on the morphological and thermal properties were investigated. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively, whereas the thermal behaviors and thermal stabilities were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The results illustrate that PLA/OMMT nanocomposites displayed clear intercalation and/or exfoliation structures. Interestingly, increasing the clay content did not lead to the agglomeration of OMMT layers. Moreover, the presence of nanoclay decreased the enthalpy of crystallization of PLA/OMMT composites. Also, the melting temperatures of the nanocomposites were reduced by the addition of nanoclay.

  5. Highly birefringent extruded elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers with single defect and double defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongjiao He

    2009-01-01

    Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers(PCFs)with single defect and double defects are proposed,which are suppoosed to be achieved by extruding normal circular-hole PCFs based on a triangular lattice photonic crystal structure.Comparative research on the birefringence and the confinement loss of the proposed PCFs with single defect and double defects is presented.Simulation results show that the proposed PCFs with single defect and double defects can be with high birefringence(even up to the order of 10-2).The confinement loss increases when the ellipticity of the air hole of the PCFs increases,which nevertheless can be overconle by increasing the ring number or the area of the air holes in the fiber cladding.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES OF RECIPROCATINGLY EXTRUDED Mg-6.4Zn-1.IY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zhang; C.J. Xu; X.F. Guo

    2008-01-01

    An icosahedral Mg3 YZn6 quasicrystalline phase can be produced in Mg-Zn-Y system alloys when a proper amount of Zn and Y is contained, and it is feasible to prepare the quasicrystal phase-reinforced low-density magnesium alloy. In this article, phase constituents and the effect of reciprocating extrusion on microstructures and properties of the as-cast Mg-6.4Zn-1.1 Y alloy are analyzed. The microstructure of the as-cast Mg-6.4Zn-1.1 Y alloy consists of the a-Mg solid solution, icosahedral Mg3 YZn6 quasicrystal, and Mg3 Y2Zn3 and MgZn2 compounds. After the alloy was reciprocatingly extruded for four passes, grains were refined, Mg3 Y2 Zn3 and MgZn2 phases dissolved into the matrix, whereas, Mg3YZn6 precipitated and distributed uniformly. The alloy possesses the best performance at this state; the tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are 323.4 MPa, 258.2 MPa, and 19.7%, respectively. In comparison with that of the as-cast alloy, the tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation of the reciprocatingly extruded alloy increase by 258.3%, 397.5%, and 18 times, respectively. It is concluded that reciprocating extrusion can substantially improve the properties of the as-cast Mg-6.4Zn-1.1 Y alloy, particularly for elongation. The high performance of the Mg-6.4Zn-1.1 Y alloy after reciprocating extrusion can be attributed to dispersion strengthening and grain-refined microstructures.

  7. Development of an improved extruded dielectric cable rated 230 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, L D; Traut, R T; Bolden, G N

    1977-05-01

    Work performed on developing an improved 230 kV extruded solid dielectric cable, the techniques of jointing such cables and the testing of terminations suitable for operation at that voltage level are described. Difficulties were encountered during manufacture in applying the semi-conducting extruded conductor shield. A new higher melt point compound solved the problem. A joint capable of operating at the 230 kV level was developed but showed a deficiency under voltage impulse testing while the conductor was at elevated temperature. A reduction in contract scope terminated this effort. Two terminals rated for 230 kV were found to be commercially available from domestic manufacturers. The limited testing performed showed them to be compatible with the cable cross-linked polyethylene insulation and electrically sound under 60 Hertz testing. No direct voltage or impulse voltage testing was performed on the terminations. A sample circuit, consisting of cable and joint, was subjected to impulse voltages at both room temperature and normal conductor operating temperature of 90/sup 0/C. While the cable only was able to withstand voltage impulses in excess of the Basic Impulse Level (BIL) at room temperature, it failed at BIL while conductor was heated to 90/sup 0/C. In like manner, a cable and joint circuit was assembled. Similar voltages were impressed at room temperature without incident. The joint failed at 90/sup 0/C conductor temperature. Cable, joint and termination were assembled in a simulated circuit and subjected to conductor loading to elevate temperature while 60 Hz voltages in excess of normal operating levels were continuously applied.

  8. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  9. Nutritional properties of quality protein maize and chickpea extruded based weaning food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Valdéz-Alarcón, C; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in most of the developing countries. To minimize the adversities of malnutrition, low-cost infant supplementary foods have been developed and are being supplied to the needy through state-sponsored nutrition intervention programmers. The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized extruded quality protein maize (NEMF) and extruded chickpea (ECF) flours for producing a weaning food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NEMF/ECF mixture and the weaning food. The NEMF and ECF were produced applying combinations of extrusion temperature/screw speed of 79.4 degrees C/73.5 rpm, and 150.5 degrees C/190.5 rpm, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimum combination NEMF/ECF; the experimental design generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein (TP) and available lysine (AL). Each one of 11 mixtures were used for preparing 11 weaning foods which were sensory evaluated for acceptability (A). The best combination of NEMF/ECF for producing a weaning food was NEMF = 21.2%/ ECF = 78.8 %. This mixture had a global desirability (D) of 0.93; it contained 20.07% proteins (DM), 5.70% lipids (DM), and 71.14% carbohydrates (DM); its essential amino acids (EAA) profile satisfactorily covered the EAA requirements for children 2-5 years old, except for Trp. The weaning food prepared with the optimized mixture had high protein quality and digestibility and could be used to support the growth of infants.

  10. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p < 0.10) differences from the experimental results. Further study would include the sensory properties enhancement of extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  11. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  12. Effect of process and machine parameters on physical properties of extrudate during extrusion cooking of sorghum, horse gram and defatted soy flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basediya, A L; Pandey, Sheela; Shrivastava, S P; Khan, Khursheed Alam; Nema, Anura

    2013-02-01

    Extrusion cooking of sorghum (Sorghum vulgaris), horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) and defatted soy (Glycine max) flour blends was done to prepare snacks by using a Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder. The combined effect of moisture content, blend ratio of feed, barrel temperature and screw speed of extruder on physical parameters of extrudate was studied. It was observed that 15% moisture content of feed, 80:10:10 (sorghum flour: horse gram flour: defatted soy flour) of blend ratio, 130 °C barrel temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed gave the highest sectional expansion index and longitudinal expansion index of extrudate, while 12% moisture content, 75:15:10 of blend ratio of feed, 135 °C of barrel temperature and 135 rpm of screw speed gave lowest bulk density of extrudate. A central composite rotable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology was used to develop prediction model. Second order quadratic regression model fitted adequately in the variation. The significance was established at p ≤ 0.05. It was also observed that increasing feed moisture content results in a higher density and lower expansion of extrudate. Increasing barrel temperature and screw speed reduced density but increased expansion of extrudate.

  13. The Comparison of Water Absorption Analysis between Counterrotating and Corotating Twin-Screw Extruders with Different Antioxidants Content in Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizuddin Ab Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption is a major concern for natural fibers as reinforcement in wood plastic composites (WPCs. This paper presents a study on the comparison analysis of water absorption between two types of twin-screw extruders, namely, counterrotating and corotating with presence of variable antioxidants content. Composites of mixed fibres between rice husk and saw dust with recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE were prepared with two different extruder machines, namely, counterrotating and corotating twin screw, respectively. The contents of matrix (30 wt% and fibres (62 wt% were mixed with additives (8 wt% and compounded using compounder before extruded using both of the machines. Samples were immersed in distilled water according to ASTM D 570-98. From the study, results indicated a significant difference among samples extruded by counterrotating and corotating twin-screw extruders. The counterrotating twin-screw extruder gives the smallest value of water absorption compared to corotating twin-screw extruder. This indicates that the types of screw play an important role in water uptake by improving the adhesion between natural fillers and the polymer matrix.

  14. 发达国家新型食品双螺杆挤出机的发展及其应用%The Progress and Application of New Food Twin Screw Extruder in Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平亮

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国外新型食品双螺杆挤出机,如:PCM型双螺杆挤出机双轴挤出机;异速SCPD型双螺杆挤出机、ZSKMEGA双螺杆挤出机、ZSK60MAXX双螺杆挤出机的原理、性能和应用,提出今后食品双螺杆挤出机的前景和发展方向。%The works and results of new screw extruder at abroad were introduced. The construction, property and application of new screw extruder such as PCM twin screw extruder, SCPD twin screw extruder, ZSK MEGA twin screw extruder, ZSK60MAXX twin screw extruder were described, progress and development of the twin screw extruder of food in future were proposed.

  15. Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Nutrimental Impact of Fortified Cereal Based Extrudate Snacks: Effect of Jackfruit Seed Flour Addition and Extrusion Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of present study was to estimate quantitative changes in nutrimental, physicochemical and phytochemical properties of rice-jackfruit seed flour blend extrudates. Rice-jackfruit seed flour blend was prepared at 70:30 proportions and was subjected to extrusion cooking. Effect of barrel temperature (140-180°C and screw speed (100-300 rpm on nutrimental, physicochemical (expansion, density, WSI, WAI and hardness and phytochemical (TPC and TFC properties were studied. Rice flour extrudate was found to have 6.63% protein and 0.17% fiber which were further increased to about 8.44 and 0.8%, respectively after addition of jackfruit seed flour at 180°C with 300 rpm. Extrusion cooking at lower barrel temperature resulted in increase in TPC and TFC. Rice-jackfruit seed flour blend extrudate at 180°C with 100 rpm resulted in highest antioxidant capacity and reducing power (208.56 µmol of TE/g and 0.26 mg of AAE/g of dry powder respectively. Practical applications: Although there is increased use of extrusion processing, but still there is no fully developed theory to predict the effects of process variables on various raw materials and their mixtures. Any change in feed composition and process variables can influence extrusion performance as well as product quality. Therefore, it is crucial to study the effect of extrusion process parameters (barrel temperature and screw speed on extrudate characteristics. Also, the researchers, so far, tried lots of combinations for nutraceutical enrichment of extrudate snacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report on extrusion cooking of RF fortified with JFSF. In future, this data could be useful for food processing industries. Originality of this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing value added extrudates with improved nutrimental and nutraceutical appeal. Present study shows potential for utilization of jackfruit seed which is part of the waste generated in large quantities when the

  16. Nutritive value of extruded or multi-enzyme supplemented cold-pressed soybean cake for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Levesque, C L

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and NE value of cold-pressed soybean cake (CP-SBC), and the effect of extrusion or adding multi-enzyme to CP-SBC diet for growing pigs. Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW = 79.7 ± 3.97 kg) were fed 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design to give 8 replicates per diet. Diets included a cornstarch-based diet with CP-SBC, extruded CP-SBC, and SBC plus multi-enzyme (1,200 U of xylanase, 150 U of glucanase, 500 U of cellulase, 60 U of mannanase, 700 U of invertase, 5,000 U of protease, and 12,000 U of amylase/kilogram of diet; Superzyme-CS, 0.5 g/kg); and a N-free diet. The CP-SBC was the sole source of protein in the CP-SBC-containing diets. The ratio of cornstarch to sugar and soybean oil in CP-SBC-containing diets was identical to the N-free diet to allow calculation of energy digestibility of CP-SBC by the difference method. The evaluated CP-SBC had been produced by heating the soybean seed at 105°C for 60 min followed by pressing of the heated soybean seeds at less than 42°C (barrel temperature). On a DM basis, CP-SBC and extruded CP-SBC contained 47.8 and 47.1% CP, 15.6 and 10.5% ADF, 7.23 and 8.85% ether extract, 3.11 and 3.08% Lys, and 2.25 and 3.70 trypsin inhibitor units per mg, respectively. Extrusion increased ( value of the CP-SBC from 2,743 to 2,853 kcal/kg of DM. Supplementation of CP-SBC diet with the multi-enzyme increased ( value of CP-SBC. In conclusion, the CP-SBC evaluated in the present study could be an alternative source of AA and energy in swine diets, and its nutritive value can be increased by extrusion following cold-pressing. The multi-enzyme used in this study improved the digestibility of some AA, but had limited effect on energy digestibility and hence NE value of the CP-SBC.

  17. Coupled extruder-headspace, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Coriandrum sativum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriti, Jazia; Msaada, Kamel; Talou, Thierry; Faye, Mamadou; Vilarem, Gerard; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-10-15

    A new method involving concurrent single screw extruder combined with continuous headspace dynamic for the extraction and identification of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruit was developed. The effect of six different nozzle diameters (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 mm) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of coriander fruit was studied. The oils from fruit samples were obtained by OMEGA 20 extruder. The result showed that the highest yield (0.53%) was obtained by the diameter of the nozzle was 8mm. Twenty-nine components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly hydrocarbons and alcohol monoterpenes. The main components linalool, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene and limonene showed significant variations with drying trials.

  18. Rheological evaluation of clays used for extruded refractory products; Avaliacao reologica de argilas para produtos refratarios extrudados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliosa Neto, Carlos; Diniz, Claudia Villa [Ceramica Safran, Betim, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Pandolfelli, Victor Carlos [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1995-12-31

    This paper correlates the rheological properties of different lots of clays from the same extractive area, with their performances to conceive extruded refractories. So as to explain the different rheological behaviours, physical and chemical evaluation was carried out, in addition to an investigation on the particle mineralogy. The technique and the study of clay viscosimetry proved to be a suitable tool to select and control raw materials for the extrusion process. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  20. A one dimensional model for the prediction of extraction yields in a two phases modified twin-screw extruder

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Solid/liquid extraction is performed on raw plant substrate with a modified twin-screw extruder (TSE) used as a thermo-mecanochemical reactor. Visual observations and experimental residence time distributions (RTD) are used to develop a solid transport model based on classical chemical engineering method. Modeled and experimental residence times are compared. The transport model is then coupled with a reactive extraction model in order to predict extraction yields.

  1. The influence of Li on the tensile properties of extruded in situ Al-15%Mg{sub 2}Si composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaghian, A., E-mail: razaghian_ahmad@ikiu.ac.ir [Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, A. [Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamy, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Tehran, 11365-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Li contents on the microstructure of homogenized and extruded Al-15%Mg{sub 2}Si. The optimum concentration of Li was found to be 0.5 wt.%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest UTS and %El. values were 280 MPa and 16 for Al-15%Mg{sub 2}Si-0.5%Li MMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li addition changed the fracture behavior of the composite from brittle to ductile. - Abstract: This work was carried out to investigate the effect of different Li concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) as a modifying agent on the microstructure and tensile properties of an in situ Al-15%Mg{sub 2}Si composite. Cast, modified and homogenized small ingots were extruded at 480 Degree-Sign C at extrusion ratio of 18:1 and ram speed of 1 mm/s. Various techniques including metallography, tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mechanical behavior, microstructural observations and fracture mechanisms of this composite. The results showed that 0.5%Li addition and homogenizing treatment were highly effective in modifying Mg{sub 2}Si particles. The results also exhibited that the addition of Li up to 0.5 wt.% increases both ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation values. However, the tensile results slightly decrease with the addition of more Li (>0.5 wt.%). The highest UTS and elongation values were found to be 280 MPa and 16% for homogenized and extruded Al-15%Mg{sub 2}Si-0.5%Li composite, respectively. Fracture surface examinations revealed a transition from brittle fracture mode in as-cast composite to ductile fracture in homogenized and extruded specimens. This can be attributed to the changes in size and morphology of Mg{sub 2}Si intermetallic and porosity content.

  2. Effect of heat treatment on tensile and fatigue deformation behavior of extruded Al-12 wt%Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Gi-Su; Baek, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Si-Woo; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment on tensile and high-cycle fatigue deformation behavior of extruded Al-12 wt%Si alloy. The material used in this study was extruded at a ratio of 17.7: 1 through extrusion process. To identify the effects of heat treatment, T6 heat treatment (515 °C/1 h, water quenching, and then 175 °C/10 h) was performed. Microstructural observation identified Si phases aligned in the extrusion direction in both extruded alloy (F) and heat treated alloy (T6). The average grain size of F alloy was 8.15 °C, and that of T6 alloy was 8.22 °C. Both alloys were composed of Al matrix, Si, Al2Cu, Al3Ni and AlFeSi phases. As T6 heat treatment was applied, Al2Cu phases became more finely and evenly distributed. Tensile results confirmed that yield strength increased from 119.0 MPa to 329.0 MPa, ultimate tensile strength increased from 226.8 MPa to 391.4 MPa, and the elongation decreased from 16.1% to 5.0% as T6 heat treatment was applied. High-cycle fatigue results represented F alloy's fatigue limit as 185 MPa and T6 alloy's fatigue limit as 275 MPa, indicating that high-cycle fatigue properties increased significantly as heat treatment was conducted. Through tensile and fatigue fracture surface analysis, this study considered the deformation behaviors of extruded and heat treated Al-Si alloys in relation to their microstructures.

  3. Development of a pilot-scale kinetic extruder feeder system and test program. Phase II. Verification testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-12

    This report describes the work done under Phase II, the verification testing of the Kinetic Extruder. The main objective of the test program was to determine failure modes and wear rates. Only minor auxiliary equipment malfunctions were encountered. Wear rates indicate useful life expectancy of from 1 to 5 years for wear-exposed components. Recommendations are made for adapting the equipment for pilot plant and commercial applications. 3 references, 20 figures, 12 tables.

  4. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  5. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  6. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  7. Effects of Ca addition on tensile properties and microstructures of hot-extruded AZ91 alloy tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; LIU Zheng; YU Bao-yi; ZHANG Kui

    2006-01-01

    As-cast AZ91+XCa (X=0, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, mass fraction) magnesium alloys were extruded into tube at 380℃ with an extrusion ratio of 6:1. The tensile properties and microstructures of extruded AZ91+XCa alloy tubes were investigated. The microstructural observation indicates that Ca can obviously refine both α-Mg grains and Mg17Al12 phase of AZ91 magnesium alloy. XRD analysis shows that the microstructure of AZ91+0.5Ca alloy consists of α-Mg solid solution and Mg17Al12 phase, while AZ91+1.5Ca alloy contains additionally Al2Ca phase. The tensile experimental results show that for the AZ91 alloy, the addition of Ca has little influence on the ambient temperature tensile properties but can improve the elevated temperature tensile properties. For the extruded AZ91+XCa alloys, the elevated temperature tensile strength decreases, and elongation increases with increasing the Ca content. The improvement in elevated temperature tensile strength of the alloy can be attributed to the presence of a Ca-containing phase, which can increase the microstructural stability of the alloy at elevated temperature.

  8. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  9. Comparison of apically extruded debris associated with several nickel-titanium systems after determining working length by apex locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ersan; Akkocan, Oguzhan; Furuncuoglu, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: To compare apically extruded debris using ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), WaveOne (WO), Twisted File (TF), M-Two (MT), and Revo-S (RS) after determining the working length (WL) with root ZX. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were selected. The WL determination was performed with root ZX. The teeth were divided into six experimental groups, randomly. In groups, root canals were prepared with PTU to size F4/0.06, with PTN to size X4/0.06, with WO to size 40/0.08, with TF to size 40/0.04, with MT to size 40/0.06, and with RS to size AS40/0.06. After preparations were completed, final irrigation was performed with 2 mL distilled water, and a total of 10 mL of distilled water was used in each tooth. Tubes were stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water before weighing the dry debris. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The RS group led to the highest amount of extruded debris, however, WO led to the least amount of extruded debris. There was no statistically difference among the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that the results obtained might depend on the apex locator used to determine the WL. PMID:26957797

  10. The Effect of Ti on Mechanical Properties of Extruded In-Situ Al-15 pct Mg2Si Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Niloofar; Bahrami, Amin; Pech-Canul, Martin Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the effect of different Ti concentrations as a modifying agent on the microstructure and tensile properties of an in-situ Al-15 pctMg2Si composite. Cast, modified, and homogenized small ingots were extruded at 753 K (480 °C) at the extrusion ratio of 18:1 and ram speed of 1 mm/s. Various techniques including metallography, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the mechanical behavior, microstructural observations, and fracture mechanisms of this composite. The results showed that 0.5 pctTi addition and homogenizing treatment were highly effective in modifying Mg2Si particles. The results also exhibited that the addition of Ti up to 0.5 pct increases both ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation values. The highest UTS and elongation values were found to be 245 MPa and 9.5 pct for homogenized and extruded Al-15 pctMg2Si-0.5 pctTi composite, respectively. Fracture surface examinations revealed a transition from brittle fracture mode in the as-cast composite to ductile fracture in homogenized and extruded specimens. This can be attributed to the changes in size and morphology of Mg2Si intermetallic and porosity content.

  11. Effect of Amaranth addition on the nutritional composition and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified maize snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniso BESWA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the nutrient content and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified (PVA maize snacks. Flours of four varieties of PVA maize were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w substitution of, respectively, and extruded into snacks. The ash content of the snacks increased from 0.53 g/100 g-0.58 g/100 g to 0.650 g/100g-89 g/100 g and protein content increased from 9.12 g/100 g-10.94 g/100 g when Amaranth was increased from 0% to 3%. Similarly, lysine content increased from 0.10 g/100 g to 0.17 g/100 g, whilst methionine increased from 0.14 g/100 g to 0.19 g/100 g. The provitamin A content of the snacks ranged from 1.29 µg/g to 1.40 µg/g at 0% Amaranth and 1.54 µg/g to 1.78 µg/g at 3% Amaranth. The acceptability of the snacks decreased with increasing Amaranth concentration, only a very small proportion (2-8% of the panel liked the snacks extremely. PVA maize with added Amaranth leaf powder has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks, but the consumer acceptability of the snacks should be improved.

  12. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  13. The effect of extrusion conditions on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extrusion conditions (moisture content 20% and 30%, screw speed 200 and 250 rpm, barrel temperature 115℃ and 130℃) on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng (KRG). Extruded KRGs showed relatively higher amounts of acidic polysaccharide (6.80% to 9.34%) than nonextruded KRG (4.34%). Increased barrel temperature and screw speed significantly increased the content of acidic polysaccharide. The major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2s, Rg3s, Rh1, and Rg3r) of KRG increased through extrusion, while the ginsenoside (Rg1) decreased. The EX8 (moisture 30%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃) had more total phenolics and had a better scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals than those of extruded KRG samples. The extrusion cooking showed a significant increase (6.8% to 20.9%) in reducing power. Increased barrel temperature significantly increased the values of reducing power, the highest value was 1.152 obtained from EX4 (feed moisture 20%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃). These results suggest that extrusion conditions can be optimized to retain the health promoting compounds in KRG products. PMID:23717175

  14. Enhanced Homogeneities of Microstructure and Property in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Extruded Product by Cooling Rate After Homogenization Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Xue, Jie; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-07-01

    A method to improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu extruded product, which changes cooling rate after homogenization treatment to obtain the different distribution characteristics of the precipitates, was proposed and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The results show that the precipitates in the water-quenched billet are of mainly coarse particles with the content of about 2.0%, while a large number of needle-shaped precipitates are dispersively distributed in the furnace-cooled billet with the content of about 9.8%. Numerous precipitates distributed dispersively can improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property of the alloy during extrusion. For example, when the water-quenched billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.4 and 8.1 μm, and the elongations to failure are 7.0 and 9.2%, respectively. When the furnace-cooled billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.1 and 3.5 μm, respectively, and the elongations are basically the same, indicating the better microstructure homogeneity and mechanical properties.

  15. Effects of extrusion conditions on physical and nutritional properties of extruded whole grain red sorghum (sorghum spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Emilce Elina; Drago, Silvina Rosa; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Torres, Roberto Luis; González, Rolando José

    2014-02-01

    In order to analyze the effects of extrusion temperature (T: 164, 182, 200 °C) and grits moisture content (g/100 g sample) (%M: 14, 16.5, 19) on textural and physicochemical properties of red sorghum extrudates, whole grain flour was extruded according to a factorial experimental design. The higher values for specific mechanical energy consumption (1006.98 J/g) and expansion (3.36) were obtained at 164 °C-14%M and for sensorial hardness at 164 °C-19%M. While for specific volume, the highest value (10.41 cm³/g) was obtained at 200 °C-14%M. Water solubility and water absorption were directly related with T and inversely with M. Microscopic observation of the samples indicates that the greatest cooking degree was obtained at 200 °C-4%M and the lowest at 164 °C-19%M. Extrusion at 182 °C-14%M allows obtaining an expanded product with good properties. Proximal composition did not show statistically significant differences with raw sample. Extruded sample showed a 25.4% reduction of available lysine and a 31% increase in protein digestibility.

  16. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties.

  17. Effect of binders on the release rates of direct molded verapamil tablets using twin-screw extruder in melt granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Chin, William Wei Lim; Tan, En Hui; Hong, Shiqi; Gu, Wei; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2014-03-10

    Conventional manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets often involves single processes such as blending, granulation, milling and direct compression. A process that minimizes and incorporates all these in a single continuous step is desirable. The concept of omitting milling step followed by direct-molding of tablets utilizing a twin-screw extruder in a melt granulation process using thermoplastic binders was explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of combining hydrophilic binder (HPMC K4M, PEO 1M), and hydrophobic binder (Compritol® ATO 888, Precirol® ATO 5) on the release profiles of direct-molded tablets and direct-compressed tablets from milled extrudates using a quality-by-design approach. It was identified that hydrophilic binder type and process significantly affects (p=0.005) the release profiles of verapamil. Moreover, two-way interaction analysis demonstrated that the combination of process with type of hydrophilic polymer (p=0.028) and the type of hydrophilic polymer with polymer ratio (p=0.033) significantly affected the release profiles. The formulation release kinetics correlated to Higuchi release model and the mechanism correlated to a non-Fickian release mechanism. The results of the present study indicated that direct-molded tablets with different release profiles can be manufactured without milling process and through a continuous melt granulation using twin-screw extruder with appropriate thermoplastic binder ratio.

  18. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  19. Comparison of apically extruded debris associated with several nickel-titanium systems after determining working length by apex locator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Çiçek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To compare apically extruded debris using ProTaper Universal (PTU, ProTaper Next (PTN, WaveOne (WO, Twisted File (TF, M-Two (MT, and Revo-S (RS after determining the working length (WL with root ZX. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were selected. The WL determination was performed with root ZX. The teeth were divided into six experimental groups, randomly. In groups, root canals were prepared with PTU to size F4/0.06, with PTN to size X4/0.06, with WO to size 40/0.08, with TF to size 40/0.04, with MT to size 40/0.06, and with RS to size AS40/0.06. After preparations were completed, final irrigation was performed with 2 mL distilled water, and a total of 10 mL of distilled water was used in each tooth. Tubes were stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water before weighing the dry debris. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The RS group led to the highest amount of extruded debris, however, WO led to the least amount of extruded debris. There was no statistically difference among the groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the results obtained might depend on the apex locator used to determine the WL.

  20. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  1. Using geographical information system for spatial evaluation of canine extruded disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daraban

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disc herniation is one of the most common pathologies of the vertebral column in dogs. The aim of this study was to develop a geographical information system (GIS-based vertebral canal (VC map useful for spatial evaluation of extruded disc herniation (EDH in dogs. ArcGIS® was used to create two-dimensional and three-dimensional maps, in which the VC surface is divided into polygons by lines representing latitude and longitude. Actual locations and directions of the herniated disc material were assessed by a series of 142 computer tomographies of dogs collected between 2005 and 2013. Most EDHs were located on the cervical and transitional regions (thoraco-lumbar and lumbo-sacral and shown at the level of the ven- tro-cranial and ventro-central polygons created. Choropleth maps, highlighting the distribution and the location/direction patterns of the EDHs throughout the VC, were produced based on the frequency of the ailment. GIS proved to be a valuable tool in analysing EDH in dogs. Further studies are required for biomechanical analysis of EDH patterns.

  2. Physicochemical properties of extrudates from white yam and bambara nut blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, O. B.; Olapade, A. A.; Awonorin, S. O.; Henshaw, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of extrusion conditions on physicochemical properties of blend of yam and bambara nut flours. A blend of white yam grit (750 μm) and Bambara nut flour (500 μm) in a ratio of 4:1, respectively was extrusion cooked at varying screw speeds 50-70 r.p.m., feed moisture 12.5-17.5% (dry basis) and barrel temperatures 130-150°C. The extrusion variables employed included barrel temperature, screw speed, and feed moisture content, while the physicochemical properties of the extrudates investigated were the expansion ratio, bulk density, and trypsin inhibition activity. The results revealed that all the extrusion variables had significant effects (p<0.05) on the product properties considered in this study. The expansion ratio values ranged 1.55-2.06, bulk density values ranged 0.76-0.94 g cm-3, while trypsin inhibition activities were 1.01-8.08 mg 100 g-1 sample.

  3. A materials compatibility study in FM-1, a liquid component of a paste extrudable explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H.; Shepodd, T.J.; Mills, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States). Pantex Plant

    1993-09-01

    The chemical compatibility of various metallic and organic containment materials with a constituent of a paste extrudable explosive (PEX) has been examined through a series of long-term exposures. Corrosion coupons and mechanical test specimens (polymers only) were exposed to FM-1, a principal liquid component of PEX, at 74{degree}C. RX-08-FK is the LLNL designator for this formulation. Compatibility was determined by measuring changes in weight, physical dimensions, and mechanical properties, by examining the coupons for discoloration, surface attack, and corrosion products, and by analyzing for dissolved metals in the FM-1. Of the metals and alloys examined, none of the 300 series stainless steels exhibited adequate corrosion resistance after 74 days of exposure. Copper showed evidence of severe uniform surface attack. Monel 400 also exhibited signs of chemical attack. Nickel and tantalum showed less evidence of attack, although neither, was immune to the liquid. Gold coupons developed a ``tarnish`` film. The gold along with an aluminum alloy, 6061 (in the T6 condition) performed the most satisfactorily. A wide range of polymers were tested for 61 days at 74{degree}C. The materials that exhibited the most favorable response in terms of weight change, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties were Kalrez, PTFE Teflon, and polyethylene.

  4. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's.

  5. Aqueous film coating to reduce recrystallization of guaifenesin from hot-melt extruded acrylic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Caroline D; Fegely, Kurt A; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; McGinity, James W

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous film coating on the recrystallization of guaifenesin from acrylic, hot-melt extruded matrix tablets. After hot-melt extrusion, matrix tablets were film-coated with either hypromellose or ethylcellulose. The effects of the coating polymer, curing and storage conditions, polymer weight gain, and core guaifenesin concentration on guaifenesin recrystallization were investigated. The presence of either film coating on the guaifenesin-containing tablets was found to prolong the onset time of drug crystallization. The coating polymer was the most important factor determining the delay in the onset of crystallization, with the more hydrophilic polymer, hypromellose, having a higher solubilization potential for the guaifenesin and delaying crystallization for longer period (3 or 6 months in tablets stored at 40 degrees C or 25 degrees C, respectively) than the more hydrophobic ethylcellulose, which displayed a lower solubilization potential for guaifenesin (crystal growth on tablets cured for 2 hours at 60 degrees C occurred within 3 weeks, whereas uncoated tablets displayed surface crystal growth after 30 minutes). Crystal morphology was also affected by the film coating. Elevated temperatures during both curing and storage, incomplete film coalescence, and high core drug concentrations all contributed to an earlier onset of crystal growth.

  6. Use of ground and extruded canola seeds in feed for 15-30 kg piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the nutritional values of ground (SCI or extruded (SCE canola seed and evaluate its use in the performance of piglets from 15 to 30 kg. Materials and methods. Two experimental diets with canola seed were evaluated in a digestibility trial. We used 15 barrows with an initial weight of 19.79±1.43kg, distributed in a completely randomized design. In the performance, four experimental diets were evaluated consisting of a diet with soybean oil added (RAS, one with the of addition of canola oil (RAC and two oil-free; one with 11% SCI included and one with 6% SCE (RSCE included. 40 commercial hybrid piglets were used that had 15.25±1.5kg initial body weight, randomly distributed, in four treatments and five replicates; two animals per experimental unit. Results. The digestible energy values for SCI and SCE were 4.197 kcal/kg and 5.234 kcal/kg, respectively. The extrusion process improved the digestibility coefficients. Piglets fed with RSCI showed less daily weight gain (DWG and F:G ratio. Conclusion. Results suggest that SCE can be included in diets of piglets from 15 to 30 kg until 6% without negatively affecting performance.

  7. Nutritional value of raw and extruded chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for growing chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes, A.; Viveros, A.; Centeno, C.; Arija, I.; Marzo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1) of raw and extruded chickpeas on performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein and fat digestibilities were studied in one experiment with growing broiler chickens (0 to 21 days of age). Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of chickpea with or without extrusion. A corn-soybean based diet was used as a positive control. Increasing chickpea content in the diet did not affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratio. Relative pancreas and liver weights, and relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum and ceca were significantly (P<0.05) increased in response to increasing chickpea concentration in the diet. The inclusion of graded concentrations of chickpea increased (P<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and apparent excreta digestibility (AED) of crude fat (CF) only in the case of the intermediate level of chickpea used (200 g kg-1). Extrusion improved weight gain and lowered relative pancreas weight (P< 0.05) respect to birds fed raw chickpea-based diets. AID of CP and AED of CF were improved (P<0.001) by extrusion. We concluded that the inclusion of up to 300 g kg-1 chickpea in chicken diets did not affect performance, and caused a negative effect on the relative weight of some digestive organs. (Author) 45 refs.

  8. Pre-conceptual Development and characterization of an extruded graphite composite fuel for the TREAT Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik; Rooyen, Isabella van; Leckie, Rafael; Papin, Pallas; Nelson, Andrew; Hunter, James

    2015-03-01

    In an effort to explore fuel systems that are more robust under accident scenarios, the DOE-NE has identified the need to resume transient testing. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility has been identified as the preferred option for the resumption of transient testing of nuclear fuel in the United States. In parallel, NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert program is exploring the needs to replace the existing highly enriched uranium (HEU) core with low enriched uranium (LEU) core. In order to construct a new LEU core, materials and fabrication processes similar to those used in the initial core fabrication must be identified, developed and characterized. In this research, graphite matrix fuel blocks were extruded and materials properties of were measured. Initially the extrusion process followed the historic route; however, the project was expanded to explore methods to increase the graphite content of the fuel blocks and explore modern resins. Materials properties relevant to fuel performance including density, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity were measured. The relationship between process defects and materials properties will be discussed.

  9. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  10. Flow Behavior and Hot Workability of Pre-Extruded AZ80 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Luo, Alan A.; Wang, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoqin

    The hot deformation behavior of pre-extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy has been studied using the processing map technique. Compression tests using Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator were performed in the temperature range of 250-450°C and the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s-1. The flow stress data were used to develop processing maps at true strains of -0.1 to -0.8 according to the well-known dynamic material model and instability criterion. A single dynamic recrystallization (DRX) domain occurs in the range of 420-450°C and 0.1-1.0 s-1, which are the optimum forming conditions for the hot working of this alloy. There are two flow instability regimes occurring at 250-450°C and 0.004-10 s-1 and 433-450°C and 0.002-0.014 s-1. The former occurs at low temperatures and/or high strain rates and is associated with adiabatic shear bands or cracks, flow localization, and deformation twinning, while the latter at higher temperatures and lower strain rates is due to abnormal grain growth and wedge cracking.

  11. Parameters affecting enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded sunflower meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kerry A; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Glatz, Charles E; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that emulsification of oil and alteration of the geometry of the confining cellular matrix were important mechanisms for improving yields. Protease and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction mixture did not have significant effects, indicating key differences with previously established soy oil extraction mechanisms. Maximum yields attained for oil and protein extraction were 39% and 90%, respectively, with the aid of a surfactant.

  12. Effect of storage time on the retrogradation of banana starch extrudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Ottenhof, M-A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Farhat, I A

    2005-02-23

    Starch was isolated from banana starch and the retrogradation phenomenon was studied using diverse techniques, including an enzymatic measurement. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) showed that the sample stored for 7 h presented small peaks and when the storage time increased the peaks increased in intensity. The type of diffraction pattern found in banana extrudates is typical of the A-type crystal polymorph. The crystallinity index from the diffractograms, showed a plateau after approximately 20 h of storage. The short-range order measurement with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that banana starch retrogradation reached a maximum value at approximately 11 h of storage, a value that agrees with the results obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), because the maximum enthalpy value (approximately 5 J/g) was calculated in the stored sample for 8 h, without changes in the stored samples for more time. Retrograded resistant starch values did not change after 12 h of storage, obtaining the maximum starch retrogradation level. FTIR, DSC, and the enzymatic technique showed the changes at the molecular level in starch during storage; in the case of WAXS, they determine the long-range order that explains the differences found in the starch retrogradation pattern measurement in banana starch.

  13. Using geographical information system for spatial evaluation of canine extruded disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Constantin; Murino, Carla; Marzatico, Giuseppe; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Fatone, Gerardo; Auletta, Luigi; Miceli, Fabiana; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Disc herniation is one of the most common pathologies of the vertebral column in dogs. The aim of this study was to develop a geographical information system (GIS)-based vertebral canal (VC) map useful for spatial evaluation of extruded disc herniation (EDH) in dogs. ArcGIS® was used to create two-dimensional and three-dimensional maps, in which the VC surface is divided into polygons by lines representing latitude and longitude. Actual locations and directions of the herniated disc material were assessed by a series of 142 computer tomographies of dogs collected between 2005 and 2013. Most EDHs were located on the cervical and transitional regions (thoraco-lumbar and lumbo-sacral) and shown at the level of the ventro- cranial and ventro-central polygons created. Choropleth maps, highlighting the distribution and the location/direction patterns of the EDHs throughout the VC, were produced based on the frequency of the ailment. GIS proved to be a valuable tool in analysing EDH in dogs. Further studies are required for biomechanical analysis of EDH patterns.

  14. Thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, S; Forster, J; Clive, S; Schley, D; Zuber, S; Schaaff, J; Corley, D

    2016-12-01

    The risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. This study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. If extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for FMDV-endemic countries. The authors found that there was no detectable virus following: i) treatment of FMDVspiked meat slurry at 68°C for 300 s; ii) treatment of FMDV-spiked slurry and meal mix at 79°C for 10 or 30 s, or iii) treatment of homogenised bovine tongue epithelium, taken from an FMDV-infected animal, at 79°C for 10 s. This corresponds to an estimated 8 log10 reduction in titre (95% credible interval: 6 log10 -13 log10). Furthermore, the authors found that the pH of the slurry and meal mix was sufficient to inactivate FMDV in the absence of heat treatment. This demonstrates that heat treatments used in commercial pet food manufacture are able to substantially reduce the titre of FMDV in infected raw materials. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  15. Microstructural development of the hot extruded magnesium alloy AZ31 under cyclic testing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, Michael; Stark, Sebastian; Reimers, Walter [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. Metallic Materials

    2010-11-15

    A study of the internal strain (stress) evolution during uni-axial cyclic deformation along the prior extrusion axis with fully reversed total constant strain amplitudes {epsilon}{sub A} (0.5% < {epsilon}{sub A} < 5%) was investigated by using in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The deformation is dominated by {l_brace}10 anti 12{r_brace} left angle 10 anti 11 right angle twinning and detwinning mechanisms within the textured hot extruded magnesium alloy AZ31. The results show a strong load partitioning between the internal stresses of (10 anti 10) and (11 anti 20) parent grains and of the (0002) twinned daughter grains that are relaxed. Following the evolution of the twinning/detwinning behavior and the hkil dependent microstresses as a function of cycling numbers, two different regimes were observed whereby it was found that the transition between these regimes is marked by an applied strain amplitude of {epsilon}{sub A} = 0.625%. (orig.)

  16. Mechanistic modeling of modular co-rotating twin-screw extruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Koscher, Gerold; Reynolds, Gavin; Huang, Zhenyu; Booth, Jonathan; Shering, Philip; Khinast, Johannes

    2014-10-20

    In this study, we present a one-dimensional (1D) model of the metering zone of a modular, co-rotating twin-screw extruder for pharmaceutical hot melt extrusion (HME). The model accounts for filling ratio, pressure, melt temperature in screw channels and gaps, driving power, torque and the residence time distribution (RTD). It requires two empirical parameters for each screw element to be determined experimentally or numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The required Nusselt correlation for the heat transfer to the barrel was determined from experimental data. We present results for a fluid with a constant viscosity in comparison to literature data obtained from CFD simulations. Moreover, we show how to incorporate the rheology of a typical, non-Newtonian polymer melt, and present results in comparison to measurements. For both cases, we achieved excellent agreement. Furthermore, we present results for the RTD, based on experimental data from the literature, and found good agreement with simulations, in which the entire HME process was approximated with the metering model, assuming a constant viscosity for the polymer melt.

  17. Artificial neural network modelling of continuous wet granulation using a twin-screw extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazian, Saeed; Kuhs, Manuel; Darwish, Shaza; Croker, Denise; Walker, Gavin M

    2017-04-15

    Computational modelling of twin-screw granulation was conducted by using an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. Various ANN configurations were considered with changing hidden layers, nodes and activation functions to determine the optimum model for the prediction of the process. The neural networks were trained using experimental data obtained for granulation of pure microcrystalline cellulose using a 12mm twin-screw extruder. The experimental data were obtained for various liquid binder (water) to solid ratios, screw speeds, material throughputs, and screw configurations. The granulate particle size distribution, represented by d-values (d10, d50, d90) were considered the response in the experiments and the ANN model. Linear and non-linear activation functions were taken into account in the simulations and more accurate results were obtained for non-linear function in terms of prediction. Moreover, 2 hidden layers with 2 nodes per layer and 3-Fold cross-validation method gave the most accurate simulation. The results revealed that the developed ANN model is capable of predicting granule size distribution in high-shear twin-screw granulation with a high accuracy in different conditions, and can be used for implementation of model predictive control in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  18. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Setup of Extruded Cementitious Hollow Tubes as Containing/Releasing Devices in Self-Healing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formia, Alessandra; Terranova, Salvatore; Antonaci, Paola; Pugno, Nicola Maria; Tulliani, Jean Marc

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT) having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm) were produced by extrusion and used as containers and releasing devices for cement paste/mortar healing agents. Based on the results of preliminary mechanical tests, sodium silicate was selected as the healing agent. The morphological features of several mix designs used to manufacture the extruded hollow tubes, as well as the coatings applied to increase the durability of both core and shell materials are discussed. Three-point bending tests were performed on samples produced with the addition of the above-mentioned cementitious hollow tubes to verify the self-healing effectiveness of the proposed solution. Promising results were achieved, in particular when tubes with a bigger diameter were used. In this case, a substantial strength and stiffness recovery was observed, even in specimens presenting large cracks (>1 mm). The method is inexpensive and simple to scale up; however, further research is needed in view of a final optimization.

  20. Setup of Extruded Cementitious Hollow Tubes as Containing/Releasing Devices in Self-Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Formia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm were produced by extrusion and used as containers and releasing devices for cement paste/mortar healing agents. Based on the results of preliminary mechanical tests, sodium silicate was selected as the healing agent. The morphological features of several mix designs used to manufacture the extruded hollow tubes, as well as the coatings applied to increase the durability of both core and shell materials are discussed. Three-point bending tests were performed on samples produced with the addition of the above-mentioned cementitious hollow tubes to verify the self-healing effectiveness of the proposed solution. Promising results were achieved, in particular when tubes with a bigger diameter were used. In this case, a substantial strength and stiffness recovery was observed, even in specimens presenting large cracks (>1 mm. The method is inexpensive and simple to scale up; however, further research is needed in view of a final optimization.

  1. Carpathian Shear Corridor - A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, František; Andriessen, Paul A. M.; Tomek, Čestmír; Bezák, Vladimír; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, Marián; Piovarči, Milan; Reichwalder, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Carpathian Shear Corridor (CSC), a morphostructurally distinctive ENE-WSW brittle shear zone, is a prominent dynamic interface of crustal fragments shifted during an oblique collision process combined with lateral extrusions in the Late stages of the Western Carpathians tectonic evolution. This tectonics was due to convection in the upper mantle, driven mainly by slab-pull forces related to a subductional process in front of prograding Carpathians. The CSC separates the marginal segment of the Western Carpathians, already firmly attached to the European plate, from the southern still eastwardly moving block. This process led to structural transpositions, anomalous rotation of small blocks and tilting and uplift/subsidence events, resulting in a tectonic style of horst and intramountaine basin alternations within the corridor. Preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate anomalous CCW block rotations within this corridor, and AFT ages indicate Early and Late Miocene (ca 24-22 Ma and ca 10-7 Ma) fault controlled exhumation events triggered by increased shear zone activity. Deep seismic sections, magnetotelluric and gravity data show that CSC follows a frontal ramp of the Western Carpathians thrust over the foreland. The CSC remains an active strike-slip shear zone, and therefore the most important earthquake risk-zone in the Slovakian portion of the Western Carpathians. It presents a lateral ramp transform boundary of eastwardly extruding crustal segment during the Miocene and up to the recent time.

  2. Physical-mechanical, moisture absorption and bioadhesive properties of hydroxypropylcellulose hot-melt extruded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, M A; McGinity, J W

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the moisture absorption, physical-mechanical and bioadhesive properties of hot-melt extruded hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) films containing polymer additives. These additives included polyethylene glycol (PEG) 5%, polycarbophil 5%, carbomer 5%, Eudragit E-100 5%, and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) 5%. Relative humidity (RH) and temperature parameters of the films studied included 25 degree C at 0, 50, 80 and 100% RH, and 40 degrees C at 0 and 100% RH, stored for 2 weeks. Tensile strength and percent elongation were determined on an Instron according to the ASTM standards. The bioadhesive properties of the HPC/PEG 3350 5% film and the polycarbophil 5% containing films, with and without PEG, were investigated in vivo on the human epidermis. Although all films studied exhibited an increase in percent water content as the percent RH increased, the SSG containing film exhibited an almost three-fold increase in percent water content compared to that of the HPC/PEG film. The temperature storage condition of 40 degrees C/100% RH (versus 25 degrees C/100% RH) increased the percent water content of the SSG containing film. Percent elongation was highest for films containing polycarbophil 5% (without PEG). In addition, the HPC film containing polycarbophil 5% exhibited a greater force of adhesion and elongation at adhesive failure in vivo, and a lower modulus of adhesion when compared to the HPC/PEG film. A novel approach to determine bioadhesion of films to the human epidermis is presented.

  3. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of hot extruded Mg–2.5Zn–1Ca alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dexue, E-mail: dexeliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Guo, Chenggong; Chai, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Sherman, Vincent R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Qin, Xiaoqiong; Ding, Yutian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Meyers, Marc A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • MgZnCa alloy was extruded into precise microtube for resorbable stent applications. • Interconnection between micro-structure and corrosion properties was revealed. • Both strength and ductility were simultaneously improved by processing sequence. • Better corrosion resistance in PBS solution was achieved after grain refining. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Mg–2.5 wt%Zn–1 wt%Ca alloy are enhanced by the microstructural changes imparted by hot extrusion. A processing procedure is developed to form hollow tubes with an outer diameter of ∼2.0 mm and wall thickness of ∼0.1 mm, which is well suited for subsequent stent manufacturing. The influence of thermal and mechanical processing on corrosion and plasticity was found to be associated with grain-size reduction and the redistribution of intermetallic particles within the microstructure, providing significant improvement of performance over the cast alloy. Observation of the fracture surfaces reveals a mode transition from brittle (cast) to ductile (processed). Enhanced mechanical properties and decreased resorption rate represent significantly improved performance of this alloy after the novel processing sequence. Based on the improved properties, the produced Mg alloy is more suitable for practical in vivo applications.

  4. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    for integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural......This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providing...... identification of the land parcels and a framework for security of tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate cadastral systems support a wider land administration infrastructure within the areas of land tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate land administration systems then form the basic for sound land...

  5. Intracellular Acid-extruding regulators and the effect of lipopolysaccharide in cultured human renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hurng Loh

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of the intracellular pH (pHi in mammalian cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell function. Thus far, the housekeeping Na(+-H(+ exchanger (NHE and the Na(+-HCO3(- co-transporter (NBC have been confirmed in many mammalian cells as major acid extruders. However, the role of acid-extruding regulators in human renal artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMCs remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced vascular occlusion is associated with the apoptosis, activating calpain and increased [Ca(2+]i that are related to NHE1 activity in endothelia cells. This study determines the acid-extruding mechanisms and the effect of LPS on the resting pHi and active acid extruders in cultured HRASMCs. The mechanism of pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis (induced by NH4Cl-prepulse is determined using BCECF-fluorescence in cultured HRASMCs. It is seen that (a the resting pHi is 7.19 ± 0.03 and 7.10 ± 0.02 for HEPES- and CO2/HCO3(-- buffered solution, respectively; (b apart from the housekeeping NHE1, another Na(+-coupled HCO3(- transporter i.e. NBC, functionally co-exists to achieve acid-equivalent extrusion; (c three different isoforms of NBC: NBCn1 (SLC4A7; electroneutral, NBCe1 (SLC4A4; electrogenic and NBCe2 (SLC4A5, are detected in protein/mRNA level; and (d pHi and NHE protein expression/activity are significantly increased by LPS, in both a dose- and time- dependent manner, but NBCs protein expression is not. In conclusion, it is demonstrated, for the first time, that four pHi acid-extruding regulators: NHE1, NBCn1, NBCe1 and NBCe2, co-exist in cultured HRASMCs. LPS also increases cellular growth, pHi and NHE in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  6. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  7. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  8. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  9. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-12-16

    a critical thickness (0.0005 in.). A diffusion barrier that exceeded this thickness would likely fail. The joint fabrication method must therefore mechanically bond the two materials causing little or no interdiffusion upon formation. Co-extrusion fits this description since it forms a mechanical joint between two materials by using heat and pressure. The two materials to be extruded are first assembled and sealed within a co-extrusion billet which is subsequently heated and then extruded through a die. For a production application, once the joint is formed, it is dejacketed to remove the outer canister. The remaining piece consists of two materials bonded together with a thin diffusion barrier. Therefore, the long-term stability of the joint is determined primarily by the kinetics of interdiffusion reaction between the two materials. An experimental design for co-extrusion of refractory metals and nickel-based superalloys was developed to evaluate this joining process and determine the long-term stability of the joints.

  10. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  11. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, Lauren; Gueceri, Selcuk; Chang, Robert; Sun Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gordon, Jennifer; Kang Qian; Hartsock, Langdon; An Yuehuei [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)], E-mail: st963bya@drexel.edu, E-mail: guceri@drexel.edu, E-mail: rcc34@drexel.edu, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: kangqk@musc.edu, E-mail: hartsock@musc.edu, E-mail: any@musc.edu

    2009-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Recent advances have allowed scientists and engineers to develop scaffolds for guided bone growth. However, success requires scaffolds to have specific macroscopic geometries and internal architectures conducive to biological and biophysical functions. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture three-dimensional porous scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. A novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique was developed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. It was possible to manufacture scaffolds with a controlled pore size of 350 {mu}m with designed structural orientations using this method. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. An in vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. Specifically, the cell proliferation and differentiation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay for cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast production of calcium. An in vivo study was performed on nude mice to determine the capability of osteoblast-seeded PCL to induce osteogenesis. Each scaffold was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and, following sacrifice, was explanted at one of a series of time intervals. The explants were then evaluated histologically for possible areas of osseointegration. Microscopy and radiological examination showed multiple areas of osseous ingrowth suggesting that the osteoblast-seeded PCL scaffolds evoke osteogenesis in vivo. These studies demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having the necessary mechanical properties, structural integrity, and controlled pore size and interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–Sn–Yb alloy sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–2Sn–0.5Yb alloy (at.% sheet were investigated in uniaxial tensile test at temperatures of 25–250 °C and strain rates of 1 × 10−3 s−1–0.1 s−1. The data fit with the Kocks–Mecking type plots were used to show different stages of strain hardening. Besides III-stage and IV-stage, the absence of the II-stage strain hardening at room temperature should be related to the sufficient dynamic recrystallization during extrusion. The decrease of strain hardening ability of the alloy after yielding was attributed to the reduction of dislocation density with increasing testing temperature. Strain rate sensitivity (SRS was significantly enhanced with increasing temperature, and the corresponding m-value was calculated as 0.07–0.12, which indicated that the deformation mechanism was dominated by the climb-controlled dislocation creep at 200 °C. Furthermore, the grain boundary sliding (GBS was activated at 250 °C, which contributed to the higher SRS. The activation energy was calculated as 213.67 kJ mol−1, which was higher than that of lattice diffusion or grain boundary self-diffusion. In addition, the alloy exhibited a quasi superplasticity at 250 °C with a strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1, which was mainly related to the fine microstructure and the presence of the Mg2Sn and Mg2(Sn,Yb particles.

  13. Enhanced superplasticity in an extruded high strength Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Ag addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahedi-Rad, A. [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wu, G.H.; Jafari Nodooshan, H.R. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Addition of 2% Ag to the base alloy refined the microstructure and increased m-value. • Volume fractions of both high angle grain boundaries and particles increased after Ag addition. • Ag-containing alloy had an m-value of 0.51, typical of superplastic materials. • Grain boundary sliding accommodated by lattice diffusion was the dominant deformation mechanism. - Abstract: The effect of 2 wt% Ag addition on the superplastic behavior of an extruded Mg–8.5Gd–2.5Y–0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by impression testing in the temperature range of 523–598 K. The average sizes of the dynamically recrystallized grains of the Ag-free and Ag-containing alloys were about 8 and 3 μm, respectively. Analysis of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data confirmed the higher fractions of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) in the Ag-containing alloy. The deformation response of this alloy in proper temperature range conforms to regions I, II and III, typical of superplastic deformation behavior. The addition of Ag to the base alloys led to enhanced superplasticity in region II by increasing the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) indices (m-values) from 0.25 to 0.51 and 0.36 to 0.46 at 573 and 598 K, respectively. These high m-values together with the activation energy of 181 kJ/mol suggest that the major mechanism involved in superplastic deformation is grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by lattice diffusion at temperatures above 573 K.

  14. Comparison of clinical parameters in captive Cracidae fed traditional and extruded diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Louise C C; Moura, Joelma; Bona, Tania D M M; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Santin, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    The Cracidae family of neotropical birds is regarded as one of the most severely threatened in the world. They traditionally have been extensively hunted, and, thus, ex situ efforts for their conservation are recommended and involve the optimization of their care in captivity. Nutrition is a fundamental aspect of husbandry, which influences survival and reproduction in captivity. In this study, a total of 29 animals, including 3 species (Penelope obscura, Penelope superciliaris, and Aburria jacutinga), were subjected to monthly physical examination and blood sampling before and after dietary conversion from the traditional diet of broiler feed, fruits, and vegetables to a nutritionally balanced commercial diet specifically designed for wild Galliformes. The diet change produced differences in several parameters tested, including an increase (P cell volume, and body weight were observed in P. obscura, with a concomitant decrease in the standard deviation for such parameters that show improved uniformity. Globulins and lipase also were reduced (P < 0.05) in P. obscura. Although leukocyte count was lowered and eosinophils were increased in all 3 species after dietary conversion, only these 2 changes were significant (P < 0.05) in P. superciliaris. A. jacutinga had higher (P < 0.05) blood glucose concentrations than the other species, but diet had no effect on this parameter. Blood uric acid concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) after conversion to the commercial diet in P superciliaris. The provision of a commercial extruded diet as a single food source was beneficial, which led to a general improvement in clinical aspects and group uniformity in these 3 species of Cracidae.

  15. Soybean oil and beef tallow in dry extruded diets for adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Fábio Ritter; Trevizan, Luciano; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of two different fat sources (soybean oil (SO) and beef tallow (BT)) in dry extruded dog diets on the intake of food and metabolizable energy (ME), on faecal characteristics and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Ten adult dogs of different breeds were used in a Latin square design. Five experimental diets were designed from a basal diet. A Control diet was coated with 1% SO and four other diets were obtained by coating the basal diet with 6.5% and 13% of SO or BT. The Control, 6.5% and 13% coated diets contained approximately 8.5%, 15% and 20% fat, respectively. The dogs had similar dry matter (DM) intakes and, consequently, higher ME intakes with an increased fat content for both sources (p < 0.05). Fat digestibility was highest for Diet SO13% (p < 0.05). The ATTD of DM and organic matter was highest (p < 0.05) for Diets SO13% and BT13%. Fat coating improved the faecal score, especially for Diet BT13%. The dietary ratios of protein:fat:carbohydrate [% of ME] were close to AAFCO's estimates. For SO a higher ATTD (99.1%) and ME content (38.88 MJ/kg) was estimated than for BT (ATTD 92.9% and 36.37 MJ ME/kg). Both SO and BT can comprise up to 13% of the diet. However, SO was more susceptible to leaking from the kibbles with the coating method applied.

  16. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Twin-Screw Extruded Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karippal, Jeena Jose; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Rai, K. S.; Krishna, M.; Sreejith, M.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of dispersing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into epoxy (space grade structural adhesive) nanocomposites using co-rotating twin screw extrusion process. Two sets of specimens were prepared; set 1 with ultrasonication for predispersing MWNT before extrusion and set 2 direct dispersion of MWNT in the extruder. MWNT was loaded up to 8 vol.% in both the sets. The specimens were characterized for room temperature volume and surface resistivities as per ASTM D257 using Keithley Model 6517 and for thermal conductivity in the temperature range -50 to 150 °C as per ASTM E 1530 using Thermal Conductivity Instrument (TCI) 2022 SX211. The volume resistivity of sets 1 and 2 decreased to an extent of 1011 and 109 respectively. The surface resistivity drop was of the order of 109 for both the sets. These drops corresponded to the maximum MWNT loading of 8 vol.%. Electrical conductivity values of the specimens were fitted into the Power Law Model to evaluate the critical exponent. Both sets 1 and 2 showed increase in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature in the testing range. Thermal conductivity increased with increase in filler loading and the maximum increase was 60% at 150 °C in case of 8 vol.% MWNT nanocomposites for set 1. The corresponding value for the set 2 was 25%. Thermal conductivity values were predicted using Lewis Nielson model. DSC of the specimens showed increase in glass transition temperature with increase in filler loading. The dispersion of the nanofillers was studied using SEM and the surface morphology using AFM.

  17. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  18. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just to make sure of formation prevention and emission control of PBDD/DFs. The concentrations and congener patterns of PCDD/DFs and dl-PCBs in the samples during the three experiments were not affected by an addition of HBCDs.

  19. Twin Screw Extruders as Continuous Mixers for Thermal Processing: a Technical and Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlie

    2016-02-01

    Developed approximately 100 years ago for natural rubber/plastics applications, processes via twin screw extrusion (TSE) now generate some of the most cutting-edge drug delivery systems available. After 25 or so years of usage in pharmaceutical environments, it has become evident why TSE processing offers significant advantages as compared to other manufacturing techniques. The well-characterized nature of the TSE process lends itself to ease of scale-up and process optimization while also affording the benefits of continuous manufacturing. Interestingly, the evolution of twin screw extrusion for pharmaceutical products has followed a similar path as previously trodden by plastics processing pioneers. Almost every plastic has been processed at some stage in the manufacturing train on a twin screw extruder, which is utilized to mix materials together to impart desired properties into a final part. The evolution of processing via TSEs since the early/mid 1900s is recounted for plastics and also for pharmaceuticals from the late 1980s until today. The similarities are apparent. The basic theory and development of continuous mixing via corotating and counterrotating TSEs for plastics and drug is also described. The similarities between plastics and pharmaceutical applications are striking. The superior mixing characteristics inherent with a TSE have allowed this device to dominate other continuous mixers and spurred intensive development efforts and experimentation that spawned highly engineered formulations for the commodity and high-tech plastic products we use every day. Today, twin screw extrusion is a battle hardened, well-proven, manufacturing process that has been validated in 24-h/day industrial settings. The same thing is happening today with new extrusion technologies being applied to advanced drug delivery systems to facilitate commodity, targeted, and alternative delivery systems. It seems that the "extrusion evolution" will continue for wide

  20. 操作参数对双螺杆挤压机挤压效果影响的研究%Study on Operation Parameters of Extruding Grain Mixes by a Twin-Screw Extruder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绮云; 李德溥; 徐克非

    2001-01-01

    通过实验研究了荞麦、黑米、薏米三种谷物的混合物料为原料时,双螺杆挤压机的螺杆转速、物料湿度、机筒温度三种操作参数对双螺杆挤压机的挤压膨化效果(以糊化度衡量)的影响。依据可旋转中心组合实验设计及实验数据建立了相关的统计模型,通过对响应面和等高线的分析,得出了三种操作参数的最佳取值范围。本实验研究对于开发谷物膨化食品、探索双螺杆挤压机加工谷物原料的挤压机理具有重要的现实意义。%Abstract The effects of varying screw speed, barrel temperatureand moisture content on extrusion quality(expressed as degree of dextrinization)of materials comprised of buckwheat, melan-rice and coix were studied by using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The statistical model was established by using a rotate central composite design and response surface methodology. The operation parameters were conducted by triaxial contour map and isohypsic analysis. The experiment results showed great significance of exploitation of grist extrudate and the mechanism of the twin-screw extruder.

  1. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  2. Effects of different cooling rates during two casting processes on the microstructures and mechanical properties of extruded Mg-Al-Ca-Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.W., E-mail: xushiwei@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Oh-ishi, K.; Kamado, S.; Takahashi, H.; Homma, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered monolayer GP zone was formed by increasing cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer extruded microstructure was obtained by increasing cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher number density precipitates was obtained by increasing cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile 0.2% proof stress was increased by 105 MPa by increasing cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extruded DC-cast alloy shows higher tensile 0.2% proof stress of 409 MPa. - Abstract: In this study, Mg-3.6Al-3.4Ca-0.3Mn (wt.%) (which is denoted AXM4303) alloy ingots were prepared by two casting processes with different cooling rates: permanent mold (PM) casting, which has a lower cooling rate of 10-20 Degree-Sign C/s and direct chill (DC) casting, which has a higher cooling rate of 100-110 Degree-Sign C/s. Then, these two types of AXM4303 alloy ingots were hot extruded at 400 Degree-Sign C under the same conditions. The microstructures of the as-cast and extruded alloy samples were systematically investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) systems. The effects of the different cooling rates during the casting process on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the extruded AXM4303 alloy samples were evaluated. The results show that the strength of the extruded Mg-Al-Ca-Mn alloy can be substantially increased by microstructural control during the casting process. Because the cooling rate of the DC casting process is much faster than the cooling rate of PM casting, the DC-cast AXM4303 has the following properties: (i) the lamellar eutectic structure and dendrite cell size are significantly refined, (ii) the ordered monolayer GP zones enriched with Al and Ca nucleate with no growth, and (iii) most of the Mn remains in solution in the matrix. Thus, after hot extrusion, the DC-cast AXM4303 has finer

  3. Feasibility of Continuous Frying System to Improve the Quality Indices of Palm Olein for the Production of Extruded Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Ahmad, Karimah

    2015-01-01

    Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems, i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C - the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions--only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.

  4. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  5. Preparation of sustained release co-extrudates by hot-melt extrusion and mathematical modelling of in vitro/in vivo drug release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, U; Voinovich, D; Perissutti, B; Serdoz, F; Grassi, G; Dal Col, A; Grassi, M

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work was to develop a cylindrical co-extrudate characterised by an in vivo sustained release profile by means of a hot-melt extrusion process. Co-extrudate was made up of two concentric extruded matrices: an inner one having a hydrophilic character, based on polyethylene glycol, and an outer one with lipophilic character, based on microcrystalline wax. Both segments contained theophylline as a model drug. A screening between several devices differing for dimensions (diameter and length) and relative proportions of the inner and outer part was carried out on the basis of their in vitro drug release and the release mechanism was studied by means of a mathematical model. The co-extrudate exhibiting the desired sustained release was selected for in vivo bioavailability studies. In vivo studies confirmed the achievement of the purpose of the research, demonstrating the desired release of theophylline on four healthy volunteers. Accordingly, hot-melt extrusion process is a viable method to produce in a single step co-extrudates showing a sustained release. In addition, the developed mathematical model proved to be a reliable descriptor of the both in vitro and in vivo experimental data.

  6. Iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/Zea mays blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa; Armada, Margarita; José, Rolando González

    2013-06-01

    Amaranth is a Native American grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of Fe, Zn and Ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. Mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. The contents of Fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), Ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and Zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize products (6.2, 19.1, 9.7 mg/kg, respectively). Mineral availability was in the range of (2.0-3.6%), (3.3-11.1%) and (1.6-11.4%) for Fe, Ca and Zn, respectively. Extruded amaranth and amaranth/maize products provide higher amount of Fe and Ca than extruded maize. Extruded amaranth products and amaranth addition to maize could be an interesting way to increase nutritional value of extruded products.

  7. Effect of Dynamic Center Region on the Flow and Mixing Efficiency in a New Tri-Screw Extruder Using 3D Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional finite element modeling of polymer melt flowing in a new co-rotating tri-screw extruder was established with mesh superposition technique. Based on the particle tracking technology, three typical particle trajectories in the tri-screw extruder were calculated using a 4th-order-Runge-Kutta method to study the dynamic motions of the particles. Then the flow visualizations in the local center region were carried out. Moreover, the dispersive, distributive and stretching mixing efficiencies of the tri-screw and twin-screw extruders were compared, respectively. The results show that when the particles move from one screw to another, there are great abrupt changes in the velocities and displacements, which induce the abrupt change in the stress magnitude. Most of particles, which are initially distributed in the inlet plane of the center region, fast flow out the outlet and don’t pass through any screw. This special phenomenon induces a series of new characteristics in the residence time distribution (RTD, flow number, segregation scale and time averaged efficiency. In comparison with the twin-screw extruder, the tri-screw extruder has better mixing efficiency.

  8. Supplementing enzymes to extruded, soybean based diet improves breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Verlhac, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    presumably by assisting in the breakdown of NSP. This study examined the effects on NSP degradation when supplementing β-glucanase, xylanase, protease or a mix of the three enzymes to an extruded, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet containing 344 g kg−1 de-hulled, solvent-extracted soybean...... meal (SBM). The NSP content in the non-supplemented control diet and in faecal samples from the dietary treatment groups was analysed to determine the recovery/apparent digestibility of cellulose and total non-cellulosic polysaccharide (T-NCP) sugar monomers. The enzymes had significant, positive...

  9. Stages in spheronisation: evolution of pellet size and shape during spheronisation of microcrystalline cellulose-based paste extrudates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2014.10.014 The stages of extrudate breakup and rounding to form spheroidal pellets was investigated for MCC/water pastes and some MCC/water/calcium carbonate pastes using the interrupted technique reported by Lau et al. (2014). A new quantitative parameter, named ‘dumb-bellity’, was developed to monitor the formation and disappearance of ‘dumb-bell’ shaped pellets in...

  10. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  11. Study of New FNAL-NICADD Extruded Scintillator as Active Media of Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Grachov, Oleg A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.; Rykalin, V.

    2006-01-01

    The current conceptual design of proposed Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC is based largely on the scintillating mega-tile/fiber technology implemented in CDF Endplug upgrade project and in both barrel and endcap electromagnetic calorimeters of the STAR. The cost of scintillating material leads us to the choice of extruded polystyrene based scintillator, which is available in new FNAL-NICADD facility. Result of optical measurements, such as light yield and light yield variation, show that it is possible to use this material as active media of Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC.

  12. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  13. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Logani Ajay; Shah Naseem

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water wer...

  14. Interaction between plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane and extruded polystyrene board, in the inverted flat roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverted flat roof is a constructive system widely used in flat roof construction. In this constructive solution, the insulation is placed over the waterproofing material as a protection. It is believed that this solution provides a longer life cycle; given the fact that it limits the thermal variation the waterproofing material bears up to the end of its life cycle. Consequently, the result will be providing a longer life to the waterproofing membrane. This constructive solution always incorporates polymers or other materials with a thermoplastic addition in their composition. Some polymers show interactions between them that can affect their integrity, and, at the same time, the bulk of the polymeric materials are incompatible. The extruded polystyrene board is always present in the inverted flat roof, and although it is an unbeatable product for this use, it presents incompatibilities and interactions with other materials, and these can affect their properties and therefore the durability of them.La cubierta plana invertida es un sistema constructivo muy utilizado en las cubiertas planas. En esta solución constructiva, el aislamiento se coloca sobre el material impermeabilizante a modo de protección. Se cree que esta solución proporciona un ciclo de vida más largo; dado que se limita la variación térmica de la impermeabilización hasta el final de su ciclo de vida. En consecuencia, el resultado proporciona una vida más larga a la membrana impermeable. Esta solución constructiva siempre incorpora polímeros u otros materiales con adición termoplástica en su composición. Algunos polímeros muestran interacciones entre ellos que pueden afectar a su integridad, además, la mayor parte de los materiales poliméricos son incompatibles. La plancha de poliestireno extrusionado está siempre presente en la cubierta plana invertida, y aunque es un producto inmejorable para este uso, presenta incompatibilidades e interacciones con otros

  15. Physiological and pharmacological characterization of transmembrane acid extruders in cultured human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunng-Shinng Chen

    2015-01-01

    responsible for acid-extruding in HUASMCs.

  16. Optimization of light yield by injection of the optical filler into the co extruded hole of plastic scintillation bar with WLS fiber in it

    CERN Document Server

    Artikov, A; Budagov, Yu; Chokheli, D; Davydov, Yu; Glagolev, V; Kharzheev, Yu; Kolomoetz, V; Shalugin, A; Simonenko, A; Tereshchenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Results of the measurements with cosmic muons for the light yield of 2-meter long extruded scintillation bar (strip) as a function of distance for different options for light collection technique are presented. Scintillation strip cross section geometry was a triangle made on polystyrene plastic scintillator with dopants of 2% PTP and 0.03% POPOP, extruded with 2.6 mm diameter hole and produced at ISMA (Kharkov, Ukraine). It was shown that the insertion of the optical transparent resin (BC 600 or CKTN MED(E)) by special technique into the co-extruded hole with 1.0 mm or 1.2 mm wave-length shifter (WLS) fiber Kuraray Y11 (200) MC in it significantly improves light collection by factor of 1.6...1.9 against of the 'dry' case.

  17. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities.

  18. Effects of Zn addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of hot-extruded Al–16 wt% Al{sub 4}Sr in-situ composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavighi, K. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamy, M., E-mail: emamy@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tanhaee, Z. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaziri Yeganeh, S.E. [Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    In current research, the effects of Zn addition (3–15 wt%) on the microstructure and tensile properties of hot-extruded Al–16 wt% Al{sub 4}Sr composite have been investigated. Microstructural examinations were assessed by the use of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that Zn addition improves tensile properties and the mechanism responsible for this progress is solid solution strengthening. Tensile testing of the hot-extruded Al–16%Al{sub 4}Sr composite revealed that the addition of 15 wt% Zn to the composite improves ultimate tensile strength (UTS) from 179 MPa to 220 MPa, but reduces elongation percent. Moreover, hot extrusion was found to be powerful in refining coarse intermetallics and achieving microstructural uniformity apart from reducing porosities, which all result in toughness enhancement. The study of fracture surfaces of all hot-extruded MMCs revealed that the ductile mode of fracture is dominant.

  19. A Simple-to-Implement Simulator for the Reactive Extrusion of Poly(Lactic Acid in a Corotating Uniform Twin-Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René O. Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the poly(lactic acid (PLA reactive processing simulation in a uniform corotating twin-screw extruder that can be readily turned into practical applications in pilot and industrial equipment. The simulator provides a cause-effect guide that can be useful for starting an experimental setup in a reactive screw extruder for a biopolymer in a growing industry. The proposed model considers a free radical ring-opening mechanism involving the main characteristic flows inside the extruder and the non-Newtonian behavior of PLA. The characteristic behavior relating reaction rate, average molecular weights, and polydispersity against chamber number are described by S-shaped and monotonically decreasing curves, for the equipment. Numerical predictions show that this simple and easy to implement model accurately reproduces previously reported data and that the impurity concentration exhibits a marked effect over all the variables, except conversion.

  20. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing.

  1. Effect of heat treatment on elevated temperature tensile and creep properties of the extruded Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lin, E-mail: yuanlin@hit.edu.cn; Shi, Wenchao; Jiang, WenMao; Zhao, Zhe; Shan, Debin

    2016-03-21

    The light and heavy rare earth elements are added to the magnesium alloys to improve the strengths and the creep resistance. The age hardening behaviors of the extruded Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr alloy aged at 200, 225 and 250 °C were investigated. Tensile tests and creep tests of the extruded and extruded-T5 Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr were carried out at 150–300 °C. The relationship between the microstructure and the properties of the extruded-T5 Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr alloy was studied. The result shows that the extruded Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr (contained less than 10 wt% Gd) peak aged at 225 °C for 72 h has the excellent creep resistance and high strengths with the UTS more than 350 MPa from room temperature to 200 °C, which are correlative with the precipitates. The high dense and uniform distribution of β′ phase with good heat stability precipitates inhibiting the dislocation motion contributes to age hardening, accelerates the ageing hardening response and increases the creep resistance. The artificially aged (T5) at low temperature further creep tested and tensile tested at higher temperatures decreases the resistance to the dislocation motion and the grain boundary sliding, resulting in the reduction in creep properties and strengths of the extruded-T5 Mg–6Gd–4Y–Nd–0.7Zr alloy above 225 °C.

  2. Hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion of posaconazole with improved bioavailability: investigating drug-polymer miscibility with advanced characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fule, Ritesh; Amin, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD) with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol) as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal) fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0-72) and C(max) of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0-72) and C(max) higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  3. Dry sliding wear behavior of an extruded Mg–Dy–Zn alloy with long period stacking ordered phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Bi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behavior of extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn alloy (at.% was investigated using a pin-on-disk configuration. The friction coefficient and wear rate were measured within a load range 20–760 N at a sliding velocity of 0.785 m/s. Microstructure and wear surface of alloy were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of alloy were tested at room and elevated temperatures. Five wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, oxidation, delamination, thermal softening and melting dominated the whole wear behavior with increasing applied load. The extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn alloy exhibited the better wear resistance as compared with as-cast Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy under the given conditions through contact surface temperature analysis. The improved wear resistance was mainly related to fine grain size, good thermal stability of long period stacking order (LPSO phase and excellent higher-temperature mechanical properties.

  4. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO{sub 2} as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddo, V.; Marci, G. [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Palmisano, G., E-mail: giovanni_palmisano@yahoo.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Yurdakal, S. [Kimya Boeluemue, Fen-Edebiyat Fakueltesi, Afyon Kocatepe Ueniversitesi - Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampuesue - 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L. [Sirap-Gema S.p.A. - Via Industriale, 1/3 - 25028 Verolanuova (Brescia) (Italy); Palmisano, L., E-mail: leonardo.palmisano@unipa.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO{sub 2} sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO{sub 2} as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO{sub 2} with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  5. Fabrication of 3D Printed Metal Structures by Use of High-Viscosity Cu Paste and a Screw Extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongik; Sanchez, Cesar; Du, Hanuel; Kim, Namsoo

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an important, rapidly growing industry. However, traditional 3D printing technology has problems with some materials. To solve the problem of the limited number of 3D-printable materials, high-viscosity materials and a new method for 3D printing were investigated. As an example of a high-viscosity material, Cu paste was synthesized and a screw extruder printer was developed to print the paste. As a fundamental part of the research, the viscosity of the Cu paste was measured for different Cu content. The viscosity of the paste increased with increasing Cu content. To print high-viscosity Cu paste, printing conditions were optimized. 3D structures were printed, by use of an extruder and high-viscosity metal paste with appropriate printing conditions, and then heat treated. After sintering, however, approximately 75% shrinkage of the final product was observed. To achieve less shrinkage, the packing factor of the Cu paste was increased by adding more Cu particles. The shrinkage factor decreased as the packing factor increased, and the size of final product was 77% of that expected.

  6. Hot Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Posaconazole with Improved Bioavailability: Investigating Drug-Polymer Miscibility with Advanced Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Fule

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72 and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72 and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil. Molecular dynamic (MD simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  7. Effects of formulation, extrusion cooking conditions, and CO₂ injection on the formation of acrylamide in corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masatcioglu, Mustafa Tugrul; Gokmen, Vural; Ng, Perry K W; Koksel, Hamit

    2014-09-01

    Acrylamide is a possible carcinogen and known to form in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different ingredients (reducing sugars, chemical leavening agents, citric acid), processing conditions (feed moisture content: 22, 24 or 26%, exit die temperature: 110, 150 °C), and extrusion cooking methods (with or without CO2 injection) on acrylamide formation. The type of reducing sugar did not have a considerable effect on acrylamide formation, while increased exit die temperature had a promoting effect. Addition of chemical leavening agents (sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate) into formulations increased acrylamide formation levels. The addition of citric acid prevented acrylamide formation, but its effect on textural properties was detrimental. Acrylamide levels of extrudates decreased gradually with increasing feed moisture in all formulations. Acrylamide content of extrudates produced with 22% feed moisture decreased by 61% in the CO2 injection method compared to conventional extrusion. Furthermore, an 82% decrease in acrylamide content was observed with the combined effect of CO2 injection and increasing feed moisture content from 22 to 24% and decreased below the limit of quantification with a further increase in feed moisture. A substantial decrease in final acrylamide level is probably due to restriction of two major steps of acrylamide formation: dehydration and decarboxylation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and MWCNT nanocomposite thin films by spin coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Singh; Vineeta D Deshpande

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was basic understanding of the formation of thin film morphology by spin coating using reorganized polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers in PET. A study of the correlation between physical properties of the PET films and its surface morphology was carried out using atomic force microscopy-based power spectral density (PSD) analysis. No significant work of surface analysis, using PSD of thin films of PET has been reported till date. Dilute solution of PET, PET with 3 wt% (r-PET) and PET with 3 wt% (2 wt% r-PET + 1 wt% MWCNT) filler were prepared using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a solvent and thin films were fabricated on glass substrate by the optimized spin coating technique. Preparation of r-PET and r-PET+ MWCNT fillers was obtained by the precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone as an antisolvent. The samples before spin coating were extruded and for comparison, a film of non-extruded PET was also prepared. Structural studies by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction show higher degree of crystallinity in r-PET and decrease in chain entanglements. Owing to the crystallizing behaviour of r-PET, it allows better dispersion of MWCNT in the polymer matrix as compared with PET. The samples with fillers of MWCNT show more compact and unique mesh-like globular structure, indicating application for electromagnetic shielding foams and fibres.

  9. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41 with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased. An increase in the contents of fiber and in the barrel temperature resulted in a decrease in the expansion index values and an increase in the water absorption index values; whereas in blends with intermediate fiber contents the effects in these parameters were found to be the opposite. High fiber contents increased penetration force but decreased luminosity, water solubility index values and the adhesive force in gels. The extrusion process improved the functional properties of sugarcane fiber bagasse enabling its addition to diverse alimentary systems.

  10. The synergistic effect of Li addition on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of extruded Al–Mg–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ud Din, Shamas; Kamran, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan); Tariq, N.H., E-mail: naeem421@hotmail.com [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan); Hasan, B.A. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan); Petrov, R.H.; Bliznuk, V. [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Gent (Belgium); Uz Zuha, Shamas [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan)

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, 0, 1, 2 and 3 wt.% Li was added to conventional Al-0.9Mg-0.5Si alloy. The samples were extruded and aged to investigate the effect of Li addition on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties. The density of conventional alloy was reduced up to 7.8% while the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased by 62% with 3% Li addition. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed that Li addition effectively refined the grain size of the modified alloys. TEM/EDX and XRD analysis revealed the synergistic effect of Li addition which promoted the formation of nano-sized δ′(Al{sub 3}Li) precipitates when Li content is higher then 1%. The ageing trend first decreased for 1 wt.% Li addition and then increased with increasing Li content from 2 to 3 wt.% at the expense of ductility. The intensity of texture increased with the gradual increase in Li content from alloy-1 to 4. - Highlights: • Study of 0, 1, 2 and 3 wt.% Li on Al–Mg–Si alloys in extruded and T6 condition. • Density reduced to 7.8% with UTS increased by 62% for 3% Li addition. • Texture intensity increased with increase in Li content from alloy-1 to 4. • Property enhancement attributed to a refinement of δ′ (Al{sub 3}Li) precipitates.

  11. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity in Extruded Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Wires from Modified Coagulation Parameters and Mechanical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucossi, Andrew R; Cress, Cory D; Schauerman, Christopher M; Rossi, Jamie E; Puchades, Ivan; Landi, Brian J

    2015-12-16

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) synthesized via laser vaporization have been dispersed using chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and extruded under varying coagulation conditions to fabricate multifunctional wires. The use of high purity SWCNT material based upon established purification methods yields wires with highly aligned nanoscale morphology and an over 4× improvement in electrical conductivity over as-produced SWCNT material. A series of eight liquids have been evaluated for use as a coagulant bath, and each coagulant yielded unique wire morphology based on its interaction with the SWCNT-CSA dispersion. In particular, dimethylacetamide as a coagulant bath is shown to fabricate highly uniform SWCNT wires, and acetone coagulant baths result in the highest specific conductivity and tensile strength. A 2× improvement in specific conductivity has been measured for SWCNT wires following tensioning induced both during extrusion via increased coagulant bath depth and during solvent evaporation via mechanical strain, over that of as-extruded wires from shallower coagulant baths. Overall, combination of the optimized coagulation parameters has yielded acid-doped wires with the highest reported room temperature electrical conductivities to date of 4.1-5.0 MS/m and tensile strengths of 210-250 MPa. Such improvements in bulk electrical conductivity can impact the adoption of metal-free, multifunctional SWCNT materials for advanced cabling architectures.

  12. Preparation, melting behavior and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends processed by vane extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wei, E-mail: zw55624@163.com; Chen, Rongyuan; Zhang, Haichen; Qu, Jinping, E-mail: jpqu@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-03-09

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends were prepared by vane extruder which is a type of novel polymer processing extruder based on elongation force field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) were used respectively to analyze the compatibility, the melting behavior and thermal stability properties of PLA/PPC blends affected by the different content of PPC. The results showed that with the increase of the PPC content, the glass transition temperature of PLA was reduced, and the glass transition temperature of PPC was increased, which indicated that PLA and PPC had partial compatibility. The cold crystallization temperature of PLA increased with the increase of the PPC content, which showed that PPC hindered the cold crystallization process of PLA. The addition of PPC had little impact on the melting process of PLA, and the melting temperature of PLA was almost kept the same value. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of PPC was worse than that of PLA, the addition of PPC reduced the thermal stability of PLA.

  13. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part I; Isothermal Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This two-part paper is the first published report on the long term, low temperature creep of hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted on hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi at 300, 373 and 473 K under initial applied stresses varying between 200 and 350 MPa as long as 15 months. These temperatures corresponded to the martensitic, two-phase and austenitic phase regions, respectively. Normal primary creep lasting several months was observed under all conditions indicating dislocation activity. Although steady-state creep was not observed under these conditions, the estimated creep rates varied between 10(exp -10) and 10(exp -9)/s. The creep behavior of the two phases showed significant differences. The martensitic phase exhibited a large strain on loading followed by a primary creep region accumulating a small amount of strain over a period of several months. The loading strain was attributed to the detwinning of the martensitic phase whereas the subsequent strain accumulation was attributed to dislocation glide-controlled creep. An "incubation period" was observed before the occurrence of detwinning. In contrast, the austenitic phase exhibited a relatively smaller loading strain followed by a primary creep region, where the creep strain continued to increase over several months. It is concluded that the creep of the austenitic phase occurs by a dislocation glide-controlled creep mechanism as well as by the nucleation and growth of deformation twins.

  14. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... tasks and serving specific needs in society. The paper analyzes the function and the basic elements of the systems and looks at the interaction between the four key areas: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. Basically such systems are embedded in the historical, cultural...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  15. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  16. Influence of rare earth on the microstructure and age hardening response of indirect-extruded Mg-5Sn-4Zn alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟丽; PARK; S; S; 唐伟能; KOO; B; H

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ce addition on the microstructure, age hardening response and mechanical properties of an indirect-extruded Mg-5wt.%Sn-4Zn (TZ54) alloy were investigated. Addition of Ce accelerated the aging response with the peak aging time moving from 300 h in TZ54 to 30 h in Mg-5wt.%Sn-4Zn-1Ce (TZE541), while the peak harness was similar to each other. The addition of Ce also caused an increase in the precipitation stability during overageing. Though the tensile strength of extruded TZ54 was improved by t...

  17. The relative absorption of fatty acids in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fed a commercial extruded pellet coated with different lipid sources

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Valfré; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Sara Panseri; Ivan Giani; Tiziana Mentasti; Giovanni Mario Turchini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid absorption capabilities of brown trout (Salmo trut- ta) fed commercial extruded diets. Five commercial extruded pellets, different only in the lipid sources used for fat coat- ing, were tested on juvenile brown trout for 45 days. The trout were reared in fresh water at 14.6 ± 0.4° C and 7.7 ± 0.3 mg/l, temperature and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The tested lipid sources were fish oil, canola oil, oleine...

  18. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  19. Aligning land use with land potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current agricultural land use is dominated by an emphasis on provisioning services by applying energy-intensive inputs through relatively uniform production systems across variable landscapes. This approach to agricultural land use is not sustainable. Integrated agricultural systems (IAS) are uphe...

  20. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  1. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  2. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  3. Mechanism of Plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (3). Investigation of Extruding Characteristics and Particle Packing Structure of the Dough; Seramikku rendo no kasosei hatsugen mekanizumu (3). rendo juten kozo to oshidashi tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan), Space Design Research Center; Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The extruding characteristics and the packing structure of clay dough, and alumina dough mixed with water-soluble and water-insoluble plasticizers were investigated. The extrudability of the doughs, which were evaluated by the extruding pressure as a function of the packing ratio, became higher at higher volume of larger-sized pores reaching micrometed size. In the clay dough and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizers such as methylcellulose, the aggregates deformed into the larger-sized pores around each aggregate during extruding. In the dough mixed with water-insoluble plasticizers such as curdlan, the largersized pores based on curdlan gel, its deformation provided the fluidity of the particle. It was understood that the dough could be extruded by deformation of the aggregates or the gel acted as a buffer. (author)

  4. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  5. Land Type Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the number of acres of various land types found at Kenai National Moose Range. Forestlands are the predominant land type, followed by tundra,...

  6. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  7. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land in support of sustainable development. The model is designed for developed economies but allows incremental adoption of the model by countries at transitional stages of economic development. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology...

  8. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  9. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  10. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  11. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  12. Microstructure and property development in spray formed and extruded Al-Mg-Li-Zr alloys for aerospace and autosport applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S. [Department of Materials, Oxford University (United Kingdom); Nilsen, K.E.; Liotti, E. [BOAL UK Ltd. Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hogg, S.C.

    2010-07-15

    Low density Al-4Mg-1.3Li-0.4Zr and Al-6Mg-1.6Li-0.4Zr alloys were spray formed and the billets extruded under a range of conditions. The alloy compositions were selected to provide an attractive balance of tensile strength and elongation, without relying on complex post-processing and heat treatments - and are therefore suitable for complex cross section extrusions and free from quench distortion. The as-spray formed microstructures showed fine homogeneous, equiaxed grains with an average size of 10-15 {mu}m. Firstly, a laboratory scale extrusion was carried out to extrude 30 mm diameter billets into 7.5 mm diameter cross-section and to investigate the effects of temperature and ram speeds on microstructural development. The microstructure after extrusion at 400 C was partially dynamically recrystallised with a {proportional_to}0.5 area fraction of {proportional_to}1 {mu}m grains and the remainder were unrecrystallised elongated grains. Electron backscatter diffraction showed a mixed <111> + <100> double fibre texture. After peak age hardening at 150 C for 96 h, the Al-6Mg-1.6Li-0.4Zr alloy showed a 0.2% proof strength of 495 MPa, a tensile strength of 553 MPa and elongation to failure of 8.5%; Al-4Mg-1.3Li-0.4Zr showed a 0.2% proof strength of 392 MPa, a tensile strength of 476 MPa and an elongation of 10%. Subsequently, large-scale complex cross-section were extruded at {proportional_to}400 C. Due to the complexity of the cross-sections and the non-axisymetric deformation, the fibre texture was distorted to FCC rolled Copper and Brass orientations. After a dual-step age hardening treatment of 130 C for 8h followed by 160 C for 8h, the proof strength, ultimate strength and elongations were 340 MPa, 470 MPa and 16% respectively. The combination of relatively simple process steps, high strength and ductility/formability, and low distortion in complex sections demonstrated the strong potential for these low density alloys in aerospace and autosport applications

  13. Microstructures and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–2Sn–xYb (x=0, 0.1, 0.5 at.% sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–2Sn–xYb (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5 at.% sheets were investigated. The grain size of as-cast Mg–2Sn alloy is significantly reduced with increasing Yb concentration. In addition to α-Mg and Mg2Sn phase, some fine Mg2(Sn,Yb particles are observed in as-cast Mg–2Sn–0.5Yb alloy, but these fine particles are not observed in as-cast Mg–2Sn–0.1Yb alloy due to a high solubility of Yb in Mg matrix. Tensile tests demonstrated that extruded Mg–2Sn–0.5Yb sheet exhibited the highest tensile strength and available elongation to failure at room temperature, while extruded Mg–2Sn–0.1Yb alloy exhibited the highest tensile properties at 100 °C and 200 °C. The difference in the tensile properties of extruded sheets mainly arises from the different strengthening roles of grain refinement, solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening of particles.

  14. Controlled peroxide-induced degradation of polypropylene in a twin-screw extruder: change of molecular weight distribution under conditions controlled by micromixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iedema, P.D.; Remerie, K.; van der Ham, M.; Biemond, E.; Tacx, J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled degradation of polypropylene (PP) by peroxide was carried out in a laboratory twin-screw extruder ZSK 18 and the change in Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) was measured using Size Exclusion Chromatography-Differential Viscosimetry (SEC-DV). The MWD results were compared to MWD predicti

  15. Lupine and rapeseed protein concentrate in fish feed: a comparative assessment of the techno-functional properties using a shear cell device and an extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The techno-functional properties of soy, lupine and rapeseed protein concentrates (SPC, LPC and RPC, respectively) in fish feed were evaluated relative to fish meal (FM). The effects were studied using a shear cell device and an extruder with emphasis on the added moisture content. Six diets were

  16. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  17. Viability loss of Escherichia coli cell populations in whey and corn meal snack treated at different temperatures with a twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies on the development of new and/ or value added nutritional meals for the US consumer have been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on microbial safety of foods extruded below 100 deg C is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of extrusion tre...

  18. Microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy with different extrusion ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Yuan, Guangyin; Niu, Jialin; Fu, Penghuai; Ding, Wenjiang

    2012-05-01

    Recently, commercial magnesium (Mg) alloys containing Al (such as AZ31 and AZ91) or Y (such as WE43) have been studied extensively for biomedical applications. However, these Mg alloys were developed as structural materials, not as biomaterials. In this study, a patented Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (denoted as JDBM) alloy was investigated as a biomedical material. The microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of the alloy extruded at 320 °C with extrusion ratios of 8 and 25 were studied. The results show that the lower extrusion ratio results in finer grains and higher strength, but lower elongation, while the higher extrusion ratio results in coarser grains and lower strength, but higher elongation. The biocorrosion behavior of the alloy was investigated by hydrogen evolution and mass loss tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the alloy extruded with lower extrusion ratio exhibits better corrosion resistance. The corrosion mode of the alloy is uniform corrosion, which is favorable for biomedical applications. Aging treatment on the as-extruded alloy improves the strength and decreases the elongation at room temperature, and has a small positive influence on the corrosion resistance in SBF. The cytotoxicity test indicates that the as-extruded JDBM alloy meets the requirement of cell toxicity.

  19. Influence of Molecular Weight of Carriers and Processing Parameters on the Extrudability, Drug Release, and Stability of Fenofibrate Formulations Processed by Hot-Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulays, Bader B; Park, Jun-Bom; Alshehri, Sultan M; Morott, Joseph T; Alshahrani, Saad M; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Langley, Nigel; Kolter, Karl; Gryczke, Andreas; Repka, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extrudability, drug release, and stability of fenofibrate (FF) formulations utilizing various hot-melt extrusion processing parameters and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymers of various molecular weights. The different PVP grades selected for this study were Kollidon(®) 12 PF (K12), Kollidon(®) 30 (K30), and Kollidon(®) 90 F (K90). FF was extruded with these polymers at three drug loadings (15%, 25%, and 35% w/w). Additionally, for FF combined with each of the successfully extruded PVP grades (K12 and K30), the effects of two levels of processing parameters for screw design, screw speed, and barrel temperature were assessed. It was found that the FF with (K90) was not extrudable up to 35% drug loading. With low drug loading, the polymer viscosity significantly influenced the release of FF. The crystallinity remaining was vital in the highest drug-loaded formulation dissolution profile, and the glass transition temperature of the polymer significantly affected its stability. Modifying the screw configuration resulted in more than 95% post-extrusion drug content of the FF-K30 formulations. In contrast to FF-K30 formulations, FF release and stability with K12 were significantly influenced by the extrusion temperature and screw speed.

  20. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  1. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  2. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Ryue, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Müller, A. D.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found.

  3. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO2 as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, V.; Marcì, G.; Palmisano, G.; Yurdakal, S.; Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L.; Palmisano, L.

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO2 sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO2 as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO2 with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO2 particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  4. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry.

  5. Relaxation of residual stresses in 20%SiCw/6061Al composite as-extruded at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The residual stress in a 20%SiCw/6061Al composite as-extruded was investigated by using X-ray stress measurement method. It was found that, high residual stress existed in the composite and residual stress distribution in each direction are not uniform. Relaxation process of residual stress in the composite was dynamically measured during annealing at high temperature. It is verified that the relaxation of residual stress obeys the power law at high temperature. With the creep mechanism, the relaxation behavior of residual stresses at high temperature was analyzed. The results show that, the stress exponent and activation energy for stress relaxation of the composite are obviously higher than those of the matrix alloy.

  6. The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

    2015-06-15

    This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (Pfood and extruded products, GI and GL. Samples containing 80% of Jerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL.

  7. Melt-Mixing by Novel Pitched-Tip Kneading Disks in a co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruder

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yasuya; Shigeishi, Takashi; Tomiyama, Hideki; Kajiwara, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Melt-mixing in twin-screw extruders is a key process for development of polymer composites, and quantification of mixing performance of kneading elements based on the physical process in them is a challenging problem. We discuss melt-mixing by novel kneading elements, called "pitched-tip kneading disk (ptKD)". Disk-stagger angle and tip angle are the main geometrical parameters of the ptKDs. We investigated four typical arrangements of the ptKDs, which are forwarding and backwarding disk-staggers combined with forwarding and backwarding tips, respectively. Numerical simulations under a certain feed rate and screw revolution speed were performed and mixing process was investigated by using Lagrangian statistics. It is found that the four types had different mixing characteristics, and their mixing processes were explained by a coupling effect of drag flow by disk staggering and pitched-tip and pressure flow, which is controlled by operational conditions.

  8. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  9. Thermal expansion behavior of co-extruded wood-plastic composites with glass-fiber reinforced shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhou Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coextruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs with glass-fiber (GF filled shells were manufactured, and their thermal expansion behavior was studied. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM considering differential properties of both shell and core layers was developed to predict the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE of the material. It was shown that the LCTE values varied with composite structure and composition (i.e., core-shell thicknesses and materials. The use of GF-filled shells helped lower overall composite LCTE values. The imbalance of shell and core LCTE, and their moduli led to complex stress fields within a given composite system. The FEM predicted a trend of LCTE change with varying composite structures, which was in good agreement with the experimental data. This study provides for the first time a finite element modeling technique to optimize raw material composition and composite structure for optimizing thermal expansion behavior of co-extruded WPCs.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Extruded Composites Based on Polypropylene and Chitosan Compatibilized with Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Carrasco-Guigón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films.

  11. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  12. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  13. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  14. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local....... Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade...

  15. The influence of guaifenesin and ketoprofen on the properties of hot-melt extruded polyethylene oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Michael M; Fredersdorf, Anke; Schroeder, Britta; Kucera, Shawn; Prodduturi, Suneela; Repka, Michael A; McGinity, James W

    2004-08-01

    Films containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a model drug, either guaifenesin (GFN) or ketoprofen (KTP), were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. The thermal properties of the hot-melt extruded films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the polymer, drugs and physical mixtures as well as the solid state structure of the films. The stability of the polymer was studied using gel permeation chromatography. The mechanical properties, including percent elongation and tensile strength of the films, were determined on an Instron according to American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) procedures. The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using the Hoftyzer or van Krevelen method to estimate the likelihood of drug--polymer miscibility. Both GFN and KTP were stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not observed in the films. Crystallization of GFN on the surface of the film was observed at all concentrations studied, however KTP crystallization did not occur until reaching the 15% level. Guaifenesin and ketoprofen were found to decrease drive load, increase PEO stability and plasticize the polymer during extrusion. The Hansen solubility parameters predicted miscibility between PEO and KTP and poor miscibility between PEO and GFN. The predictions of the solubility parameters were in agreement with the XRD and SEM results. The percent elongation decreased with increasing GFN concentrations and significantly increased with increasing levels of KTP. Both GFN and KTP decreased the tensile strength of the extruded film.

  16. CHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF STARCHES FROM LEGUMES AND APPLICATION OF THE EXTRACTION RESIDUES IN EXPANDED EXTRUDED SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Eduardo FERREIRA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Starches from legumes (carioca bean, white bean and chickpea were extracted, aiming at their chemical and morphological characterization, as well as evaluating the use ofthe extraction residues to elaborate expanded extruded snacks. The analyses carried out for the starches and their respective residues were moisture, proteins, lipids, ash, dietary fiber and carbohydrates. The starches were also evaluated with respect to their morphological characteristics, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The residues were used in formulations containing corn flour to produce expanded extruded snacks. These snacks were evaluated as to their expansion index (EI, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI. WAI and WSI analyses were also performed for the residues. The results demonstrated that the starches presented similar composition regarding moisture and carbohydrates, with a high carbohydrate content (close to 91%. The starch granules presented sizes between 15 and 25μm and a flat oval shape, with the chickpea starch granules being the smallest with a tendency to form agglomerates. The residues presented significant amounts ofcarbohydrates (between 70 and 75%, apart from expressive quantities ofdietary fibers (between 25 and 39%. In the evaluation ofWAI and WSI ofthe residues, IAA values were close for the sources studied (close to 11g/g, WSI was greater for carioca bean (close to 15.6%. The snacks containing the carioca bean residues had the highest EI value (6.3, while the highest values for WAI and WSI (respectively, 14.4g/g and 31.1% were found for the snacks with white bean residues.

  17. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  18. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  19. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  20. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  1. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  2. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  3. A study of concentrated acid hydrolysis conversion of lignocellulosic materials to sugars using a co-rotating twin-screw reactor extruder and plug flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William Scott

    Concerns about the ability of petroleum to continue supplying ever increasing global energy demands, at a price capable of generating continued economic growth, have spurred innovative research in the field of alternative energy. One alternative energy option that has the ability to provide long-term sustainable energy supplies for the global energy market is the conversion of lignocellulosic materials, via acid hydrolysis, to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel grade ethanol. This research demonstrates the ability of a co-rotating twin-screw reactor extruder and plug flow reactor to continuously convert lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars using high temperature concentrated acid hydrolysis. In addition to demonstrating continuous operation of the two-stage concentrated acid hydrolysis system, a number of design of experiments were conducted to model the twin-screw performance and maximize its ability to effectively solubilize lignocellulosic feedstocks in the high shear, elevated temperature, concentrated acid environment. These studies produced a base case twin-screw operating condition used to generate a standard extrudate composition for an extensive high temperature acid hydrolysis batch reactor kinetic modeling study. In this study a number of nonlinear and linear regression analyses were undertaken so that the concentration of less resistant cellulose, or the amount of solublilized extrudate cellulose, resistant cellulose, or non-solubilized extrudate cellulose, glucose, and decomposition products could be obtained as a function of time, temperature, and acid concentration. This study demonstrated that the theoretical cellulose conversion of 51% was limited by the amount of solubilized polysaccharides that could be produced in the twin-screw pretreatment. Further experimentation, showing twin-screw pretreatment lignocellulosic versatility, produced nearly identical results as the southern yellow pine sawdust experiments that were

  4. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  5. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  6. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  7. Functional extruded snacks with lycopene and soy protein Snacks extrusados funcionais com licopeno e proteína de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Pinto da Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of thermoplastic extrusion process parameters (raw material moisture content and temperature and the addition of functional ingredients (lycopene and soy protein on quality characteristics of a base-formulation for extruded corn snacks were studied, with the objective of developing an easy-to-eat functional product. A single-screw Labor PQ 30 model Inbramaq extruder was used for extrusion and a central composite rotational design (CCRD was followed. The independent variables were: i percentage of soy protein isolate (0-30%; ii percentage of lycopene preparation (0-0.1%; iii raw material moisture content (20-30%; and iv 5th zone temperature (100-150 °C. The expansion index reached maximum values with the lowest raw material moisture content (20% and intermediate temperatures (approximately 125 °C. Instrumental hardness was higher with high moisture and low temperature; however, increasing the percentage of soy protein was beneficial for the texture of the product, reducing hardness. The red color intensity increased with the increase in lycopene content and moisture, and with the reduction of temperature. Sensory acceptance tests were carried out for two products, with maximum percentages of the functional ingredients, 20% moisture and temperatures of 125 and 137 °C, with greater acceptance for the product extruded at 125 °C.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a influência de parâmetros do processo de extrusão termoplástica (umidade da matéria-prima e temperatura e da adição de ingredientes funcionais (licopeno e proteína de soja sobre características de qualidade de uma formulação-base para snacks extrusados de milho, com o objetivo de desenvolver um alimento funcional de fácil consumo. Utilizou-se um extrusor monorrosca Inbramaq, modelo Labor PQ 30, e seguiu-se um planejamento experimental com as seguintes variáveis independentes: i teor de isolado proteico de soja (0 a 30%; ii teor de preparado de licopeno (0

  8. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa...

  9. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  10. Coming into Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experts say economic restructuring is essential to avoid a possible hard landing IN economic terms,the "lost decade" refers to Japan’s economic stagnation throughout the 1990s after its strong growth in the 1980s. Against the backdrop of a shaky global recovery, concerns have recently grown over a possible hard landing for the Chinese economy,caused by monetary tightening

  11. Optimization of the Extruding Operating Parameters for Chicken Mixture with Twin-Screw Extruder%双螺杆挤压鸡肉混合物工艺参数的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石彦国; 李可; 叶暾昊; 张光

    2012-01-01

    The soybean-rice-chieken-whole milk powder mixture is used as raw materials. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface metho-dology was employed to study the twin-screw extrusion process parameter conditions, including material moisture content、 feeding speed、 screw speed、 the fifth district of barrel temperature on gelatinization degree. The best extruding condition is obtained: the moisture content is 23.32%, the fifth district of barrel temperature is 105℃, the screw speed is 160r/min, the feeding speed is 30r/min.%以大豆、大米、鸡肉、全脂乳粉为原料,按一定比例混合,采用Box-Behnken中心组合试验研究双螺杆挤压工艺参数.综合考察物科含水率、喂料速度、螺杆转速、温度对糊化度的影响,在此基础上对变量进行响应面分析,得出最佳挤压参数是:物料含水率23.32%,五区温度105℃,螺杆转速160 r/min,喂料速度30 r/min.

  12. Research on the Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of the Extruded Polystyrene and Fire Retardant Extruded Polystyrene in Air Environment%非阻燃型和阻燃型XPS在空气中的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍孝永; 陈春晓; 徐强; 绪广东

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation properties of two extruded polystyrene temperature holding materials were investigated using TG-DSC-MS-IR simultaneous analysis method. The research showed that the additive in the fire retardant XPS can extend the time in reaching the maximum heat release rate, reduce the variety and amounts of the products, and improve the activation energy of the reaction. Though residual fire retardant materials reacted and gave off heat after 491 ℃.%运用热重-差热-红外-质谱(TG-DSC-IR-MS)联用技术对非阻燃型和阻燃型挤出聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料(XPS)保温材料在空气中的热解特性进行研究.结果表明,阻燃添加剂延长了阻燃型XPS到达最大热释放速率所需要的时间,减少了热解产物的种类和数量,以及提高了反应的活化能;而且,材料中残留的阻燃剂在491℃以后会继续热解并放出热量.

  13. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    . In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Research on Extruded Products of Mgalzn Alloys – Microstructure and Mechanical Properties / Badania Wyrobów Wyciskanych Ze Stopów Mgalzn – Mikrostruktura I Właściwości Mechaniczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test and assess products extruded from the magnesium alloys type MgAlZn: AZ31, AZ61 and AZ80A alloys in the form of Ø35mm round bars and 80x15mm flat bars. The test material was extruded in a direct system with the ram feed speed of 1 mm/s and the extrusion ratio λ = 7 ÷ 9. The extruded bars were examined in as-extruded state and after heat treatment to the T5 temper and T6 temper. The strength properties were tested and microstructure was examined with calculation of the average grain size.

  16. Monitoring system for raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber of extruder%挤出机真空室泥料量的监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张夏

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一种真空挤泥机真空室泥料量监控系统.采用该系统,一延长轴承使用寿命;二监测泥料量的减少和增多,准确掌控真空室内的总泥料量,使挤出机的操作稳定.%This paper introduces a monitoring system for raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber of ex?truder. This system can prolong the bearing life, monitor the raw material quantity, accurately control the total raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber, and stadily operate of the extruder.

  17. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...... of protein and AA bioavailability in growing mink. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) was used to measure protein and AA bioavailability in adult dogs (Canis familiaris). The mink study (3 × 3 Latin square design) included 12 kits aged 8 to 11 wk. The dog study included 12 dogs divided in 3 groups...

  18. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  19. Determining the residence time distribution of various screw elements in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder by means of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschi, Alexander; Gerstorfer, Gregor; Miethlinger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The Residence Time Distribution (RTD) is key to optimizing the mixing ability of an extruder. For both sensitive and reactive materials, it is important to know how long particles remain in the barrel and how long the polymer remains, for instance, in a kneading element. To assess the influence of different screw configurations on the RTD, a low-concentration tracer particle was injected into the feeding section and measured inline by fluorescence spectroscopy1 both inside the barrel and at the extruder exit. The measurements were conducted using polypropylene with different amounts of organic peroxide. Measuring the residence time at various positions along the screw allows the RTD to be determined for just one screw element. Furthermore, we show the influence of different screw configurations on the polydispersity of polypropylene.

  20. In-line solid state prediction during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion in a 12 mm twin screw extruder using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, Lien; Ghanam, Dima; Raemdonck, Cedric; Francois, Kjell; Manz, Jürgen; Krüger, Rainer; Krüger, Susan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to use Raman spectroscopy for the in-line monitoring of the solid state of materials during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion in the die head of a 12 mm (development scale) twin-screw extruder during formulation development. A full factorial (mixed) design was generated to determine the influence of variations in concentration of Celecoxib (CEL) in Eudragit® E PO, three different screw configurations and varying barrel temperature profiles on the solid state, 'melt temperature' and die pressure of continuously produced extrudates in real-time. Off-line XRD and DSC analysis were used to evaluate the suitability of Raman spectroscopy for solid state predictions. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on all in-line collected Raman spectra from the experimental design. The resulting PC 1 versus PC 2 scores plot showed clustering according to solid state of the extrudates, and two classes, one class where crystalline CEL is still present and a second class where no crystalline CEL was detected, were found. Then, a soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed, by modelling these two classes separately by disjoint PCA models. These two separate PCA models were then used for the classification of new produced extrudates and allowed distinction between glassy solid solutions of CEL and crystalline dispersions of CEL. All extrudates were classified similarly by Raman spectroscopy, XRD and DSC measurements, with exception of the extrudates with a 30% CEL concentration extruded at 130 °C. The Raman spectra of these experiments showed bands which were sharper than the amorphous spectra, but broader than the crystalline spectra, indicating the presence of CEL that has dissolved into the matrix and CEL in its crystalline state. XRD and DSC measurements did not detect this. Modifications in the screw configuration did not affect the solid state and did not have an effect on the solid state prediction of

  1. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  2. LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by...

  3. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p fiber content and overall AUC following a standardized in vitro digestion method (r = -0.910). Starch content, WAI, and WSI were positively correlated to AUC of extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  4. INFLUENCE OF WHEAT BRAN ADDITION AND OF THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION PROCESS PARAMETERS ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CORN-BASED EXPANDED EXTRUDED SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Eduardo FERREIRA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn-based expanded extruded snacks containing wheat bran as dietary fiber source were evaluated with respect to instrumental hardness, expansion index and color (L* - lightness. Internal cell structure was observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Snacks were produced following a 23 complete factorial design, in a single screw extruder (model GNF 1014/2, BRABENDER, Germany. The three independent variables studied were: moisture (from 16.3 to 29.7%; temperature of the 2nd and 3rd extruder zones (from 104.8 to 155.2ºC; and wheat bran content (from 0 to 24.6%. An increase in temperature resulted in lower extrudate hardness values, which varied from 1.6 to 4.8kgf. Higher moisture and lower wheat bran contents resulted in snacks with greater hardness. Expansion index, that varied from 1.7 to 3.7, was mainly influenced by moisture and temperature, being that higher moisture values combined to higher temperatures resulted in lower expansion indexes. The snacks presented lightness (L* values between 42.77 and 64.41, being the temperature the variable that most influenced the values, because higher values of temperature resulted in higher L* values. Observing the snacks through Scanning Electron Microscopy, the influence of wheat bran could be observed, as higher contents of wheat bran contributed to the formation of cells with reduced sizes. During the sensory analysis, snacks with and without wheat bran, optimum and control, respectively, produced under the same temperature (130°C and moisture (23% were compared. Snacks were evaluated by 40 judges through an acceptance test, using a 9-point hedonic scale (mixed structured, in relation to color, appearance, texture (hardness, taste and global evaluation. Optimum and control snacks differed significantly at 95% significance, with the best acceptance for all attributes being obtained for the control.

  5. Short communication: Concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in preovulatory follicles and the correlation with intrafollicular estradiol in dairy cows fed extruded flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of lignans that can be metabolized to the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL), which may elicit weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feeding an extruded flaxseed supplement to dairy cows on concentrations of EL in plasma and preovulatory follicles and the association with intrafollicular estradiol (E2). Twenty-four multiparous 256-d-pregnant Israeli Holstein cows were fed either a standard diet both pre- and postpartum (control; n=12) or provided with an extruded flaxseed supplement (n=12), at 7.9 and 9.2% of dry matter, pre- and postpartum, respectively. Follicular fluid (FF) aspirations were conducted at 84±16 d in lactation as follows: 7 to 8 d following behavioral estrus, cows were injected with prostaglandin F2α and 48h later follicles >7mm were aspirated. Follicles were regarded as preovulatory when the E2-to-progesterone ratio was >1. Plasma EL concentrations were not different between treatment groups; however, concentrations of EL in FF of preovulatory follicles were 1.7 times higher in extruded flaxseed-supplemented cows than in control. Across-treatment analysis revealed a positive correlation between concentrations of EL in plasma and in FF. In addition, intrafollicular EL concentrations were positively correlated with E2 concentrations (r=0.50), and with the intrafollicular E2-to-progesterone ratio. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with extruded flaxseed increased EL concentrations in preovulatory follicles. Intrafollicular EL was correlated with E2 concentrations; therefore, the possible effects of EL from flaxseed on follicular steroidogenesis should be considered.

  6. 单螺杆挤出机高速挤出技术研究进展%Technological Progress in High Speed Extrusion of Single-screw Extruders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘龙; 张玉霞; 金志明; 薛平

    2009-01-01

    The technology of high speed single-screw extrusion was briefly reviewed. The extrusion, heating and cooling, and drive systems on regular and high speed extruders were compared, the innovation in screw parameter and placement, barrel cooling, flow channel layout, and drive mode of the high speed extruders were summarized. The shortcomings in current high speed extruders were pointed out, the developing trends in materials adaptability and analog control were discussed, The latest extruders supplied by the top manufacturers were listed.%回顾了单螺杆挤出机高速挤出技术的发展史,通过将普通挤出机和高速挤出机进行对比,分别从挤压系统结构、加热冷却系统和驱动系统3个角度详细分析了单螺杆高速挤出机在螺杆参数及螺杆布局、机筒冷却方式及流道布置和驱动方式3个方面的创新之处.并对当今世界一些顶级挤出机生产商的最新产品进行了列表概括总结.最后,在指出现有高速挤出机不足之处的同时,也提出了未来在对物料适应性及模拟控制方面的最新研究发展方向.

  7. The Principle of Materials Conveying in the Single Screw Extruder%单螺杆膨化机的物料输送机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灿军

    2012-01-01

    A mathematic model of materials conveying in the single-screw extruder was establish based on the analysis of density fluctuation and forces acting differential element in the schraubenbahn. The calculation formula about the distribution of on-way pressure and velocity in the single-screw extruder was inferred from this mode. It provided a computational model in the design and use of single-screw extruder.%为了建立一种有效的单螺杆膨化机内物料输送计算模型,首先从分析螺槽中物料密度变化及物料微元体的受力入手,建立单螺杆膨化机内物料输送的连续方程与运动方程,进一步推导出单螺杆膨化机内的沿程压力和速度分布公式,以及物料质量流率计算公式,以期为单螺杆膨化机的设计和应用提供理论上的支持.

  8. Modeling the Hot Deformation Behaviors of As-Extruded 7075 Aluminum Alloy by an Artificial Neural Network with Back-Propagation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Zou, Zhen-yu; Wang, Tong; Liu, Bo; Li, Jun-chao

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the hot deformation behaviors of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy, the isothermal compressive tests were conducted at the temperatures of 573, 623, 673 and 723 K and the strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The flow behaviors showing complex characteristics are sensitive to strain, strain rate and temperature. The effects of strain, temperature and strain rate on flow stress were analyzed and dynamic recrystallization (DRX)-type softening characteristics of the flow behaviors with single peak were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) with back-propagation (BP) algorithm was developed to deal with the complex deformation behavior characteristics based on the experimental data. The performance of ANN model has been evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). A comparative study on Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and ANN model for as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy was conducted. Finally, the ANN model was successfully applied to the development of processing map and implanted into finite element simulation. The results have sufficiently articulated that the well-trained ANN model with BP algorithm has excellent capability to deal with the complex flow behaviors of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy and has great application potentiality in hot deformation processes.

  9. Effect of different calcium sources on the antioxidant stability of tortilla chips from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn (Zea mays L. flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Madrigal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop tortilla chips (TC high in antioxidants from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn flours prepared with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 and calcium lactate C6H10O6Ca. Tortilla chips were made with extruded flours [0.1% Ca(OH2; 0.9% C6H10O6Ca; without calcium] and nixtamalized flours [1% Ca(OH2; 2.95% C6H10O6Ca] using the frying process. Total anthocyanin, total phenolics content, antioxidant activity, color, texture, and oil content were determined. The color of tortilla chips from extruded flours (TCEF showed high values of the parameters a* and b* indicating a reduction in the blue color. These color parameters were significantly different from those observed in tortilla chips from nixtamalized flours (TCNF, which tended to be more blue. The TCEF retained 15% anthocyanins, 34% phenolics, and 54% antioxidant activity. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that anthocyanins and phenolics correlated significantly with antioxidant activity and color. TCEF with both calcium sources showed higher fracturability compared with that of TCNF. Oil absorption showed an opposite effect, with lower oil content in TCEF. Nixtamalization and extrusion with C6H10O6Ca resulted in flours and TC high in anthocyanins and antioxidant activity, representing an alternative production process for corn snack high in antioxidants.

  10. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 莲子双螺杆挤压膨化工艺的研究%Study on Extrusion Conditions of Lotus Seeds by Twin Screw Extruder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学玲; 关健; 梅新; 何建军

    2012-01-01

    以莲子为原料,采用双螺杆挤压膨化技术开发莲子膨化食品.研究了原料颗粒大小、原料含水量、进料速度、挤压膨化温度及螺杆转速等因素对莲子膨化的影响.结果表明:当莲子目数大于或等于40目时,莲子膨化较优工艺为:进料速度17~19 r/min,原料含水量14%~16%,膨化温度155~165℃,螺杆转速135~145 r/min.%Twin screw extruder was used to prepare extrusion-puffed food from Lotus seeds. The effects of material particle size and moisture content, feeding speed, extruded-cooking temperature and screw speed were studied. Through the single factor analysis, the optimal parameters of extrusion were obtained as the following: feeding speed 17 - 19 r/min, moisture content 14% - 16% , extruded-cooking temperature 155 - 165 ℃ , screw speed 135 - 145 r/min, and material particle size more than or equal to 40 mesh.

  12. Evaluating the effects of amylose and Concord grape extract powder substitution on physicochemical properties of wheat flour extrudates produced at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Boyacioglu, M Hikmet; Ng, Perry K W

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the effects of Concord grape extract powder (CGEP), high-amylose starch, and their combinations on quality parameters of extruded products were investigated by substituting wheat flour with those ingredients in the formulations. Physical quality parameters such as water absorption, bulk density, diametric expansion and hardness of extrudates were evaluated in addition to thermal properties, pasting properties and resistant starch contents. Average values obtained for 90, 120 and 150 °C extrusion temperatures changed respectively as follows: 0.916, 0.987 and 0.467 N for hardness; 2.12, 4.07 and 5.12 ml water/g sample for water absorption; 1.35, 2.09 and 2.51 for diametric expansions and 1286.6, 723.6 and 311.1 kg/m(3) for bulk densities. Extrusion temperature was found to have more distinct effect on physical quality parameters of extrudates than the substitution level of ingredients. Both CGEP and amylose additions negatively affected pasting properties, slightly affected resistant starch content and prevented gelatinization. However retardation of retrogradation was more evident when substitution was with CGEP alone rather than its combination with amylose.

  13. Comparative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using, Protaper retreatment file, K3 file and H-file with solvent in endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris comparing 2 engine driven systems and hand instrumentation technique during root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty five human permanent mandibular premolars were prepared using the step-back technique, obturated with gutta-percha/zinc oxide eugenol sealer and cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group A: Protaper retreatment file, Group B: K3, file Group C: H-file with tetrachloroethylene. All the canals were irrigated with 20ml distilled water during instrumentation. Debris extruded along with the irrigating solution during retreatment procedure was carefully collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were stored in an incubator for 5 days, placed in a desiccator and then re-weighed. Weight of dry debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the tube before instrumentation and from the weight of the tube after instrumentation. Data was analyzed using Two Way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results : There was statistically significant difference in the apical extrusion of debris between hand instrumentation and protaper retreatment file and K3 file. The amount of extruded debris caused by protaper retreatment file and K3 file instrumentation technique was not statistically significant. All the three instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris and irrigant. Conclusion: The best way to minimize the extrusion of debris is by adapting crown down technique therefore the use of rotary technique (Protaper retreatment file, K3 file is recommended.

  14. Influence of extruder temperature and screw speed on pretreatment of corn stover while varying enzymes and their ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithy, Chinnadurai; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2010-09-01

    Pretreatment is being the first and most expensive step, it has pervasive impacts on all other steps in overall conversion process. There are several pretreatment methods using physical, chemical, and biological principles which are under various stages of investigation. Extrusion can be used as one of the physical pretreatment methods towards biofuel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of barrel temperature and screw speed on sugar recovery from corn stover, to select a suitable enzyme combination and its ratio. Corn stover was pretreated in a single screw extruder with five screw speeds (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 rpm) and five barrel temperatures (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 degrees C). In order to select a suitable enzyme combination and ratio, different levels of cellulase and beta-glucosidase, multienzyme complex and beta-glucosidase were used during saccharification of pretreated corn stover. From the statistical analysis, it was found that screw speed and temperature had a significant effect on sugar recovery from corn stover. Higher glucose, xylose, and combined sugar recovery of 75, 49, and 61%, respectively, were recorded at 75 rpm and 125 degrees C. This pretreatment condition resulted in 2.0, 1.7, and 2.0 times higher than the control sample using 1:4 cellulase and beta-glucosidase combination.

  15. Effects of processing on physical properties of extruded snacks with blends of sour cassava starch and flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila De Barros Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to supplement common cassava biscuits with a product of higher nutritional value meets consumer expectations. In this work it was studied the effects of process parameters and flaxseed addition on physical properties of expanded snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single screw extruder in a factorial central composite rotatable design with four factors: flaxseed flour percentage (0-20%, moisture (12-20%, extrusion temperature (90-130 °C and screw speed (190-270. The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color parameters (L*, a* ,b* and hardness. The data analysis showed that variable parameters of the extrusion process and flaxseed flour affected physical properties of puffed snacks. Among the experimental conditions used in the present study, expanded snack products with good physical properties can be obtained under the conditions of 10% flaxseed flour, 230 rpm screw speed, temperature of 90 °C and moisture of 12%.

  16. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Rouel, J; Jouany, J P; Doreau, M; Chilliard, Y

    2008-10-01

    This experiment studied the effect of 3 forms of presentation of linseed fatty acids (FA) on methane output using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, total tract digestibility, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (initial milk yield 23.4 +/- 2.2 kg/d) were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design: a control diet (C) consisting of corn silage (59%), grass hay (6%), and concentrate (35%) and the same diet with crude linseed (CLS), extruded linseed (ELS), or linseed oil (LSO) at the same FA level (5.7% of dietary DM). Each experimental period lasted 4 wk. All the forms of linseed FA significantly decreased daily CH(4) emissions (P 0.05) but was decreased with ELS and LSO (-3.1 and -5.1 kg/d, respectively; P Linseed FA offer a promising dietary means to depress ruminal methanogenesis. The form of presentation of linseed FA greatly influences methane output from dairy cows. The negative effects of linseed on milk production will need to be overcome if it is to be considered as a methane mitigation agent. Optimal conditions for the utilization of linseed FA in ruminant diets need to be determined before recommending its use for the dairy industry.

  17. Effect of the homogenisation conditions on the extrudability and high temperature fracture resistance of AA6063 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassance, D.; Pardoen, T.; Ryelandt, L.; Delannay, F. [Univ. catholique de Louvain, Dept. des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, PCIM, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Dille, J.; Delplancke, J.L. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Service Science des Materiaux et Electrochimie, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys International Services, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Homogenisation is an essential step in the preparation of aluminium billets for extrusion. It is designed to produce an homogeneous solid solution and to transform the {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi particles to the more equiaxed and thus more acceptable cubic {alpha}-Al{sub 12}(Fe{sub x},Mn{sub 1-x}){sub 3}Si variety. The effect of the homogenisation conditions on high temperature surface damage and fracture is investigated through full scale industrial extrusion experiments on AlMgSi alloy. The transformation of AlFeSi intermetallic particles from the {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi thin plate like shape to the more rounded {alpha}-Al{sub 12}(Fe,Mn){sub 3}Si form, quantified by EDS measurements, is shown to postpone the formation of surface defects. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of extruded samples close to the location of extrusion defects, reveals that damage initiates by microcracks within the brittle {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi particles or due to incipient melting caused by the eutectic transformation Al+{beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi+Si{yields}Liquid at 578 C. These microcracks open by plastic deformation around the cracked brittle phase and, after sufficient growth, coalesce into a large crack. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Low Feed Rate FSP on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Extruded Cast 2285 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP), a variation of FSW (friction stir welding) is an emerging surface engineering technology that can locally eliminate casting defects and refine microstructures, thereby improving the mechanical properties of material. FSP can also produce fine grained microstructures through the thickness to impart superplasticity. The technology involves plunging a rapidly rotating, non consumable tool, comprising a profiled pin and larger diameter shoulder, into the surface and then traversing the tool across the surface. The pin and the shoulder friction heat the surface which alters the grain structure in the processed area thereby improving the mechanical properties. This paper presents the effects of FSP on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded cast 2285 aluminum alloy at three different feed rates viz. 10, 12 and 15 mm/min. With the increase in the feed speed the material was observed to have increased impact strength. FSP also increased the tensile and yield strengths with increases in hardness and ductility values also. The observation has been listed in detail and pictorially represented.

  19. Tailor-made release triggering from hot-melt extruded complexes of basic polyelectrolyte and poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Christoph; Matthée, Karin; Strohmeyer, Jutta; Sievert, Frank; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was the formulation of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of poorly water-soluble acid drugs and basic polymethacrylates by hot-melt extrusion enabling a tailor-made release pattern by the addition of inorganic salts. The influence of different electrolytes was analyzed at varying conditions in order to control drug delivery from the complexes. Poorly water-soluble model drugs naproxen and furosemide were applied in their non-ionic form. After hot-melt extrusion of the naproxen-polymethacrylate powder blend, XRPD and DSC measurements indicated the formation of a single-phase amorphous system. Milled extrudates were stable under storage at long-term and intermediate conditions. Polyelectrolyte complex formation by an acid-base reaction during hot-melt extrusion could be proven by the lack of vibrations of dimethylamino and carboxylic groups by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The complexes did not dissolve in demineralized water. Drug release could be immediately induced by addition of neutral electrolytes. Tailor-made dissolution profiles were realized by controlled electrolyte triggering. Maximal effects were achieved by concentrations of 0.05-0.15 M NaCl. Different anions of alkali halogenides revealed variant magnitudes of the effect depending on the anion radius. Polyelectrolyte complex formation and dissolution principles were also confirmed for furosemide.

  20. Microstructure and properties of hot extruded Mg-3Zn-Y-xCu (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Kuang, Ya-fei; Fang, Da-qing; Chai, Yue-sheng [Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys of Shanxi Province; Zhang, Yue-zhong [Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys of Shanxi Province; Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). College of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2017-04-15

    In petroleum drilling engineering, materials with high strength and rapid degradation are required for degradable fracturing ball applications. In this work, the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of extruded Mg-3Zn-Y-xCu (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 weight percent) alloys are investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy, compression tests, electrochemical measurements, and hydrogen evolution tests, to explore their potential as excellent candidate alloys for degradable fracturing ball applications. It is found that the Mg-3Zn-Y alloy is mainly composed of α-Mg, Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 3}Y{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 6}Y phases. After Cu addition, a new MgZnCu phase is formed, while the Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 3}Y{sub 2} phase disappears. The Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu alloy shows the highest compressive strength (473 MPa) and yield strength (402 MPa), mainly attributed to the combined effect of the fine-grain and dispersed precipitation of Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 6}Y and MgZnCu. The corrosion rate of Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu reaches 0.41 mm day{sup -1} in 3.5 wt.% KCl solution. Consequently, Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu alloy is a suitable degradable fracturing ball-seat material.

  1. Processing effects on four prebiotic carbohydrates supplemented in an extruded cereal and a low pH drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebbeca M. Duar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic carbohydrates are added as functional ingredients to a variety of processed foods. Data on the stability of prebiotics during food processing in complex matrices remain limited. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS, and resistant starch (RS2, when added as ingredients (1% w/w to an extruded cereal and a low pH drink. The cereal was prepared using different screw speeds and barrel temperatures. GOS was not affected by any of the extrusion conditions, whereas inulin decreased significantly at 140 and 170°C. FOS levels decreased in all extrusion conditions, while resistant starch (RS unexpectedly increased for each of the parameters. The low pH drink was prepared with different sucrose to corn syrup solids (S:CSS ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 at pH 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The 1:1 S:CSS drink at pH 3.0, negatively impacted FOS and inulin. Moreover, FOS levels decreased when exposed to 1:2 S:CSS (pH 3.5 and 4.0 and 1:1 S:CSS (pH 3.0. GOS and RS were unaffected by any drink formulations. As different conditions impact the stability of prebiotics differently, this study addresses the importance of developing product specific processes for each prebiotic when supplemented into a processed food.

  2. Hot-melt extruded filaments based on pharmaceutical grade polymers for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melocchi, Alice; Parietti, Federico; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2016-07-25

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique based on the deposition of successive layers of thermoplastic materials following their softening/melting. Such a technique holds huge potential for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and is currently under extensive investigation. Challenges in this field are mainly related to the paucity of adequate filaments composed of pharmaceutical grade materials, which are needed for feeding the FDM equipment. Accordingly, a number of polymers of common use in pharmaceutical formulation were evaluated as starting materials for fabrication via hot melt extrusion of filaments suitable for FDM processes. By using a twin-screw extruder, filaments based on insoluble (ethylcellulose, Eudragit(®) RL), promptly soluble (polyethylene oxide, Kollicoat(®) IR), enteric soluble (Eudragit(®) L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate) and swellable/erodible (hydrophilic cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, Soluplus(®)) polymers were successfully produced, and the possibility of employing them for printing 600μm thick disks was demonstrated. The behavior of disks as barriers when in contact with aqueous fluids was shown consistent with the functional application of the relevant polymeric components. The produced filaments were thus considered potentially suitable for printing capsules and coating layers for immediate or modified release, and, when loaded with active ingredients, any type of dosage forms.

  3. Crystallization behavior and thermal stability of poly(butylene succinate)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends prepared by novel vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongyuan; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Haichen; Zhang, Guizhen; Qu, Jinping

    2016-03-01

    This work focused on the study of crystallization behavior and thermal stability of degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends prepared by vane extruder based on elongation force field, which is novel equipment for polymer processing. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was applied in this work as compatibilizer for PBS/PPC blend. Crystallization behavior and melting behavior of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) testing. Thermal stability of the blends was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) testing. Furthermore, the melt flow indices (MFI) of the blends were examined by a MFI instrument. The results showed that the crystallization temperature of PBS decreased with the addition of PPC and DCP. The glass transition temperature of PPC increased and the melting temperature of the blend increased with the addition of PPC and DCP, which indicated that the entanglement between the molecular chains of PBS and PPC was enhanced. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a two-step decomposition process of the blend occurred due to the different thermal resistance of PBS and PPC, and the addition of PBS reduced the decomposition rate of PPC. Moreover, the addition of PBS improved the melt flow property of PPC.

  4. Preparation of Microporous Polypropylene/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membranes with Enhanced Electrolyte Uptake Capability via Melt Extruding and Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a blending strategy based on compounding the hydrophilic titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles with the host polypropylene (PP pellets, followed by the common membrane manufacture process of melt extruding/annealing/stretching, was used to improve the polarity and thus electrolyte uptake capability of the PP-based microporous membranes. The influence of the TiO2 particles on the crystallinity and crystalline orientation of the PP matrix was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and infrared dichroic methods. The results showed that the TiO2 incorporation has little influence on the oriented lamellar structure of the PP-based composite films. Investigations of the deformation behavior indicated that both the lamellar separation and interfacial debonding occurred when the PP/TiO2 composite films were subjected to uniaxial tensile stress. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations verified that two forms of micropores were generated in the stretched PP/TiO2 composite membranes. Compared to the virgin PP membrane, the PP/TiO2 composite membranes especially at high TiO2 loadings showed significant improvements in terms of water vapor permeability, polarity, and electrolyte uptake capability. The electrolyte uptake of the PP/TiO2 composite membrane with 40 wt % TiO2 was 104%, which had almost doubled compared with that of the virgin PP membrane.

  5. The effect of heat treatment and orientation on the mechanical behavior of extruded Mg-Al-Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Kim, K.H. [Materials Technology Dept., Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, KyungNam (Korea); Kang, M.C. [Central R and D Center, Seungwoo Metal Co., KyungNam (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    The effect of elevated temperature deformation, artificial aging, prestrain prior to aging, and crystal orientation on the strength and ductility of extruded AZ31 alloy has been investigated. The room temperature strength of AZ31 increased in proportion to the amount of elevated temperature deformation while the ductility drastically decreased even though the deformation is carried out at 400 C. The ductility initially decreased with the amount of the hot deformation, and then saturated after 40%RA. The reason for the saturation in elongation is due to the formation of fine grains by dynamic recrystallization occurred during hot swaging process. Prestrain did not increase the hardness of AZ31 during aging at 150 C. AZ31 alloy aged without prestrain after solution treatment showed peak hardness after 6 hours. However, the hardness of AZ31 with prestrain prior to aging by 18.4%RA did not show remarkable increase and gradually decreased with aging time. The elevated temperature strength of AZ31 was significantly influenced by the orientation of the specimen. UTS and YS were highest at longitudinal direction (0 ) and lowest at 45 to extrusion axis at all temperatures. The ductility of AZ31 was highest at 45 - orientation at all temperatures, which is considered due to the redistribution of basal planes occurring during extrusion process. (orig.)

  6. Hot-melt granulation in a twin screw extruder: effects of processing on formulations with caffeine and Ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherley, Sharleen; Mu, Bo; Thompson, Michael R; Sheskey, Paul J; O'Donnell, Kevin P

    2013-12-01

    Hot-melt granulation (HMG) by twin screw extrusion is a novel technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals but confidence must still be gained regarding whether the environment affects drug properties. In this preliminary study, granulation was studied for a model product containing lactose monohydrate and active ingredients of differing water solubility, namely ibuprofen versus caffeine. The formulations were granulated at 220 rpm and 100°C with polyethylene glycol binders of differing molecular weights and at concentrations between 6.5% and 20%. In terms of granule properties, the low melting point of ibuprofen had a dominant influence by producing larger, stronger granules, whereas the caffeine products were more comparable to a blank containing no active ingredient. Drug degradation was study by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The only detected change was the dehydration of lactose monohydrate for the caffeine and blank products, whereas the lubricating influence of the ibuprofen protected its granules. The short residence time (∼60 s) was consider to be influential in minimizing damage of the drug despite the high temperature and shear attributed to HMG inside a twin screw extruder.

  7. The optimization of Blister Disk geometry for mixing performance in co-rotating twin-screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koki; Kayamori, Natsuki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko

    2015-05-01

    Extensional flow has been taken notice as the more efficient solution for improving the dispersion of nanocomposites than shear flow. One of the production processes of nanocomposites is melt extrusion with co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE) which is superior in terms of productivity and mixing performance. Then, we focused on "Blister Disk" which had many small holes for generating the extensional flow. However, the influences on the mixing performance by changing the geometry of Blister Disk have not been investigated as far as we know. Therefore, the objective of this study is the optimization of Blister Disk geometry (e.g. hole numbers, hole diameter and disk length) for improving the dispersion of nanocomposites. Primary, the extensional flow state was investigated at the Blister Disk with FEM analysis. Secondly, to validate the simulation results experimentally, the polypropylene reinforced multi-walled carbon nanotube (PP/CNT nanocomposite) was used as the model of nanocomposite, and the dispersion state of CNT was investigated by morphological observation. As the result of these experiments, the better dispersion state of CNT was obtained as total permeation area and shorter hole length of Blister Disk was smaller because extensional and shear stress were increased.

  8. The Possible Improving Effects of γ-Irradiated and/or Extruded Soy Flour on Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat G. HAMZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is serious conditions that can cause fatal complications without careful management. Among the dietary supplementation with functional food, soybeans possess variety of antioxidant compounds that may lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia and degenerative cardiovascular disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gammairradiated and/or extruded soy flour on hypercholesterolemic rats. Processing of soy flour by γ-irradiation and/or extrusion reduced the amount of antinutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitor and resulted in different changes in the total amino acids and fatty acid contents. The animals maintained on the HCD showed remarkable decrease in the level of HDL-C associated with significant increase in the values of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, vLDL-C and the risk ratio in addition to serum concentration of urea, creatinine and uric acid in comparison with those of the control group. However, dietary supplementation of raw and treated soy flour resulted in reduction in the bad changes induced by HCD in the above mentioned parameters. In conclusion, treated soy flour supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to its hypocholesterolemic effect and its ability to improve lipid profile and kidney function of hypercholesterolemic rats.

  9. Solid state polymerization of pet/pc extruded blend: effect of reaction temperature on thermal, morphological and viscosity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Mendes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of solid state polymerization (SSP, concerning the melt extruded blend of poly(ethylene terephthalate/polycarbonate (catalyzed PET/PC, 80/20 wt %, as a function of temperature range (180-190°C for a fixed time (6 h is presented. The materials obtained were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG, optical microscopy (OM and intrinsic viscosity (IV analysis. After SSP, at all reaction temperatures, PET glass transition and heating crystallization temperatures slightly decreased, melting temperature slightly increased, while degree of crystallinity was practically invariable. The DTG curves indicated that, at least, three phases remained. The OM images revealed that the morphology is constituted of a PET matrix and a PC dispersed phase. In the interfacial region we noticed the appearance of structures like bridges linking the matrix and the dispersed domains. These bridges were correlated to the PET/PC block copolymer obtained during blending in the molten state. IV increased for all polymerization temperatures, due to the occurrence of PET chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. The IV range for bottle grade PET was achieved.

  10. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and l

  11. Numerical Simulation of Viscoelastic Extrudate Swell Through Elliptical Ring Die%数值模拟黏弹流体通过椭圆环模具的挤出胀大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许星明; 赵国群; 秦升学; 王威

    2011-01-01

    The numerical simulation of extrudate swell is significant in extrusion processing. Precise prediction of extrudate swell is propitious to the control of melt flow and the quality of final products. A mathematical model of three-dimensional (3D) viscoelastic flow through elliptical ring die for polymer extrusion was investigated. The penalty function formulation of viscoelastic incompressible fluid was introduced to the finite element model to analyze 3D extrusion problem. The discrete elastic viscous split stress (DEVSS) and streamline-upwind PetrovGalerkin (SUPG) technology were used to obtain stable simulation results. Free surface was updated by updating the streamlines which needs less memory space. According to numerical simulation results, the effect of zero-shear viscosity and elongation parameter on extrudate swell was slight, but with the increase of volumetric flow rate and relax time the extrudate swell ratio increased markedly. Finally, the numerical simulation of extrudate swell flow for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts was investigated and the results agreed well with others' work. These conclusions provided quantitative basis for the forecasting extrudate swell ratio and the controlling of extrusion productivity shape.

  12. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  13. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  14. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  15. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    are the rights inherent to all human beings without discrimination. The “constitution” of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) stating the universal rights of human beings based on the principle of respect for the individual – rights that can be enjoyed by everyone simple because...... and that every country and jurisdiction needs to ensure that efficient and effective land administration mechanisms are in place to pursue this interaction. Land administration systems should embed a human rights perspective when managing rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. This, in turn, imposes...

  16. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  17. Saving Our Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    If the amount of cultivated land continues to shrink, food security and social stability may be at stake, experts say Latest statistics released by the Ministry of Land and Resources show that in the last five years, due to rapid economic development and the frequent adjustment of the agricultural structure, cultivated land declined by 6 million hectares on the Chinese mainland, from 128.27 million hectares in October 2000 to 122.08 million hectares in October 2005, a net annual decrease of 1.23 million ...

  18. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  19. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  20. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  1. Land Use Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses the main types of land use at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Information about geology and water, groundwater, climatic conditions,...

  2. Land value 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Cardillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to test the information collected through the Italian FADN survey to analyze the characteristics of Italian land market and was referred to accounting year 2009. The value of land is estimated according to the criterion of the most probable market value and is related to an administrative area and a quality culture. Given the similarity of information obtained, the results have been compared with data of  the INEA survey on Land Market published on the website Institute. The data recorded by the FADN are therefore suitable for the analysis of the characteristics of the Italian agricultural land market and the good quality of the information collected, regardless of the checks carried out, is also an evidence of the rigor with which FADN data collections are performed.

  3. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  4. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  5. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  6. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  7. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  8. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  9. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  10. Land evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  11. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  12. Evaluation of anti-fatigue property of the extruded product of cereal grains mixed with Cordyceps militaris on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lei; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Fangmei; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a biological phenomenon that involves a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness that could potentially cause some severe chronic diseases. Recently, diet therapy has provided a new alternative to alleviate physical fatigue. In our previous study, addition of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) into an extruded product was shown to provide high nutrition and unique flavors; however, little is known whether this product has some scientific evidence regarding anti-fatigue property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of extruded products of cereal grains (EC) and EC mixed with C. militaris (ECC). The mice were divided into seven groups: one group received distilled water (Control group, n = 20), and the other groups received different dosages of EC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n = 20 per group) or of ECC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n = 20 per group) solution in water. All of the mice were administered with distilled water, EC or ECC continuously for 30 days by gavage and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with assessments of fatigue-related indicators. The mode of fighting fatigue was investigated by determining changes in exercise endurance and biochemical markers, including exhaustive swimming time, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood lactic acid (BLA), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and hepatic and muscle glycogen levels. EC and ECC prolonged the swimming endurance time of mice compared to the control. The content of BLA at high dose of ECC group (20 g/kg) was significantly lower than that in the negative control group. CK, BUN and MDA levels were significantly reduced by treatment with EC and ECC compared to the negative control, while the low and middle dose of EC had no significant effect on MDA levels. Additionally, only the

  13. Physical characteristics of extruded cassava starch Características físicas de amido de mandioca extrusado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of cassava starch for Brazilian industries, the current work aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics, mainly viscosity properties of extruded cassava starch. A factorial central composite design (2³ with three independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color and paste properties, according to the variations in the moisture content, barrel temperature and screw speed. Results indicated that barrel temperature influenced the expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, all the color parameters, the initial viscosity, peak and final viscosity. Feed moisture influenced the specific volume, color parameters, final viscosity and retrogradation. The screw speed had effects on water absorption index, color components as well as on the final viscosity and retrogradation of extruded starch. High moisture, low screw speed and intermediate temperature provided lower starch degradation, which is desirable for pre-cooked starch.Considerando a importância do amido de mandioca para as indústrias brasileiras, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as características físicas e propriedades de pasta do amido de mandioca extrusado. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com três variáveis independentes (2³ e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados de índice de expansão, volume específico, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água, cor e propriedades de pasta, de acordo com as variações de umidade, temperatura de extrusão e rotação da rosca. A temperatura de extrusão influenciou o índice de expansão, volume específico, índice de absorção de água, todos os parâmetros de cor e a viscosidade

  14. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  15. Stability-enhanced hot-melt extruded amorphous solid dispersions via combinations of Soluplus® and HPMCAS-HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad M; Lu, Wenli; Park, Jun-Bom; Morott, Joseph T; Alsulays, Bader B; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Langley, Nigel; Kolter, Karl; Gryczke, Andreas; Repka, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel combination of Soluplus® and hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-HF) polymers for solubility enhancement as well as enhanced physicochemical stability of the produced amorphous solid dispersions. This was accomplished by converting the poorly water-soluble crystalline form of carbamazepine into a more soluble amorphous form within the polymeric blends. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with multiple polymorphs, was utilized as a model drug. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing was used to prepare solid dispersions utilizing blends of polymers. Drug loading showed a significant effect on the dissolution rate of CBZ in all of the tested ratios of Soluplus® and HPMCAS-HF. CBZ was completely miscible in the polymeric blends of Soluplus® and HPMCAS-HF up to 40% drug loading. The extrudates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dissolution studies. DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of amorphous solid dispersions of CBZ in the polymeric blends of Soluplus® and HPMCAS-HF. Drug loading and release of CBZ was increased with Soluplus® (when used as the primary matrix polymer) when formulations contained Soluplus® with 7-21% (w/w) HPMCAS-HF. In addition, this blend of polymers was found to be physically and chemically stable at 40°C, 75% RH over 12 months without any dissolution rate changes.

  16. Design, manufacture, test and delivery of a 230 kV extruded irradiated crosslinked polyethylene cable. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop a 230 kV solid dielectric cable for use in underground transmission. The dielectric is to be polyethylene, crosslinked by electron bombardment. Compared to the more conventional chemically crosslinked polyethylene, the irradiated cable is expected to contain less sensitive defects and thus be more suitable for a 230 kV rating. A toroidally shaped diode was developed to provide a uniform radiation dose to a thick-walled coaxial cable. The diode is to receive an output wave form obtained by ringing a Marx generator into a peaking capacitor. Initial evaluation of the toroidal diode was performed on thin plaques and tapes of insulating and semi-conducting polyethylene polymers. Additionally, some miscellaneous ethylene plastics were briefly investigated. Using a 4.8 MV Van de Graaff pulse generator in conjunction with several diode configurations, 15 to 35 kV extruded HMW-PE cables were irradiated. Dose rate, temperature, and pressure effects were evaluated. It was found that with limited dose rate it was possible to produce excellent crosslink density and uniformity at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A subsequent 60 Hz voltage endurance test on an irradiated cable sample indicated it had long term, high stress capability. An engineering study conducted to determine an acceptable irradiator system design is reported. It was estimated that a 7 MV peak voltage at a rate of 2 to 3 pulse/sec can be provided by a Marx generator/peaking capacitor and should be capable of crosslinking a polyethylene wall thickness of approximately 2.5 cm. Based on the accumulated test results and on the performance of the 7 MV irradiator predicted, it appears feasible to continue the work effort into the next scheduled phase.

  17. Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

  18. Retrieval of extensive gutta-percha extruded into the maxillary sinus: use of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Kleinman, Justin W

    2013-09-01

    Close proximity of the maxillary sinus to the roots of maxillary teeth can predispose to the inadvertent deposition of endodontic products into the maxillary sinus. One such material is thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha, which has gained popularity of late. As a consequence of overfilling, some patients warrant surgical retrieval. A case report of extreme overextension of gutta-percha within the maxillary sinus after endodontic retreatment on tooth #14 was provided. The distobuccal and palatal canals had been obturated with gutta-percha master cones and backfilled with thermoplasticized injectable warm gutta-percha. The mesiobuccal canal had only been filled with thermoplasticized injectable warm gutta-percha, the origin of the extrusion. Imagery with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography was performed for localization of the gutta-percha. The patient underwent a Caldwell-Luc approach for removal of the extruded material. The gutta-percha was successfully removed intact, and the patient had an unremarkable postoperative course. However, the patient continues to have mild tenderness in the sinus region. The featured case exemplified the consequence of overinstrumentation and ensuing inadequate apical stop. In these situations, the obturation of a maxillary tooth with thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha, without master cones, can potentially result in overfilling and deposition into the antrum. Use of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography could enhance endodontic diagnosis, serve as an aid for visualization of foreign materials within the sinus and contiguous soft tissue structures, and improve clinical outcome. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  20. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th