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Sample records for extremity power training

  1. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Carolynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome, upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049, regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03. Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03. MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05. Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p p

  2. THE EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN COMBINED WITH VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE CONTROL AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  3. Effects of Resistance Training on Lower-Extremity Muscle Power in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Lindheimer, Jacob B; Brady, Anne O; Dishman, Rodney K; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-03-01

    Resistance training (RT) has been investigated as a potential intervention strategy for improving muscle function, but the effects on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a quantitative estimate of the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults and to examine independent moderators of this relationship. Randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of RT on either leg press (LP) or knee extension (KE) muscle power in adults aged ≥50 years were included. Data were aggregated with meta-analytic techniques, and multi-level modeling was used to adjust for nesting effects. A total of 52 effects from 12 randomized controlled trials were analyzed with a random-effects model to estimate the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power. A multiple-regression analysis was conducted to examine independent moderators of the mean effect. The adjusted aggregated results from all studies indicate that RT has a small-to-moderate effect on lower-extremity muscle power (Hedges' d = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.43), which translated to 54.90 watts (95 % CI 40.37-69.43). Meta-regression analyses indicated that high-velocity RT was superior to traditional RT (Δ = 0.62 vs. 0.20, respectively) for increasing lower-extremity muscle power. In addition, training volume significantly moderated the effect of RT on muscle power. The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that RT is an efficacious intervention strategy for improving LP and KE muscle power in adults aged ≥50 years. Training mode and volume independently moderate the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power, and should be considered when prescribing RT exercise for middle-aged and older adults.

  4. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  5. Effects of a 6-Week Upper Extremity Low-Volume, High Intensity Interval Training on Oxygen Uptake, Peak Power Output and Total Exercise Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nicole; Salassi, James W; Donlin, Ayla; Schroeder, Jan; Rozenek, Ralph

    2017-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of upper extremity (UE) high intensity interval training (HIIT) to UE continuous training (CT) when training at a similar intensity. 20 participants (mean age = 23 ± 3 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT (n = 10) or CT (n = 10) group. Participants completed a graded exercise test utilizing arm cranking prior to and following 6 wks (2 sessions · wk-1) of UE training. During sessions, HIIT performed 10 repetitions of 60 s of work at 92.3 ± 1.0% of the arm HRpeak (%aHRpeak) and 60 s of passive recovery (%aHRpeak = 73.0 ± 4.0%) yielding an average training intensity of 82.6 ± 1.5 %aHRpeak. CT exercised for 20 min. at an average intensity of 81.9 ± 2.2 %aHRpeak. Following training HIIT showed greater improvement in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak compared to CT (Δ = 4.1 ml · min-¹ · kg-¹, 95%CI: 1.3 - 6.9 ml · min-¹ · kg-¹, p = .007). Total exercise time during the post-test GXT was also improved as a result of HIIT (Δ = 1.4 min, 95%CI: 0.4 - 2.3 min, p = .008). Both groups improved peak power output, but no difference was observed between them (Δ = 3.3 W, 95%CI: -3.3 - 9.9 W, p = .305). For a similar time investment, HIIT appeared to improve cardiopulmonary capacity and exercise time to a greater extent than CT and may be a time-efficient alternative for those who incorporate UE aerobic activity into a training program.

  6. Propulsion IVHM Extreme Environment Instrumentation Power IVHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents propulsion and instrumentation power for integrated vehicle health management technologies. The topics include: 1) Propulsion IVHM Capabilities Research; 2) Projects: X-33 Post-Test Diagnostic System; 3) X-34 NITEX; 4) Advanced Health Monitoring Systems; 5) Active Vibration Monitoring System; 6) Smart Self Healing Propulsion Systems; 7) Extreme Environment Sensors; and 8) Systems Engineering and Integration.

  7. Mitochondrial plasticity with exercise training and extreme environments.

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    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Sahlin, Kent

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity, and biochemical coupling efficiency may be regulated differentially with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial upregulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level.

  8. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  9. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  10. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating...

  11. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  12. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extrem

  13. Evaluating the contribution of lower extremity kinetics to whole body power output during the power snatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; DeRosia, Kyle D; Lamie, Landon M

    2017-09-21

    This study evaluated the contribution of lower extremity (hip, knee and ankle) net joint torques (NJT) to whole body power (WBP) output during the power snatch (PS). Ten experienced weightlifters (five males and five females) performed five trials of the PS with 60% of one repetition maximum. Lower extremity NJT and WBP were extracted through a three-dimensional motion analyses and used for data analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained to observe the relationship between lower extremity NJT and WBP. Multiple-regression (stepwise) analyses was also conducted to evaluate the contribution of lower extremity NJT to WBP during the PS with the hip, knee and ankle NJT being the independent variables. Hip NJT was characterised as a significant positive correlation with WBP (r = 0.47, p < 0.01), while knee NJT showed a significant negative correlation with WBP (r = -0.34, p < 0.05). A significant inter-correlation was also observed between hip NJT and knee NJT (r = -0.66, p < 0.01). Hip NJT was identified as a significant contributor to WBP during the PS. Practically, this study suggested that training skills allowing weightlifters to utilise hip extensor muscle action would help to improve WBP during the PS.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of extreme physical training.

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    Hollmann, W; Rost, R; De Meirleir, K; Liesen, H; Heck, H; Mader, A

    1986-01-01

    After a short historical remark the development of athlete's heart in childhood is described. Within 2 years significant differences were observed between endurance-trained (swimming) and untrained girls and boys determined by X-ray and echocardiographical examinations. The limits of the physiological size in relation to body weight were not exceeded within 10 years of longitudinal studies. A second point deals with athlete's heart from physiological and clinical viewpoints. The largest healthy heart ever found in our examinations of athletes had a size of 1,700 ml. Sixteen years after stopping the active career it was reduced to 950 ml without a pathological finding. Questionable and pathological cases are described. A third chapter covers the blood supply of internal organs during exercise combined with air or oxygen breathing. In this connection liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, and brain have been investigated. The reduced blood supply of the liver and kidneys during intense exercise on the cycle ergometer was not influenced significantly by inspiration of oxygen. A significant blood volume increase of the lungs was noticed during incremental rates of work. Exercise augmented also blood flow of the brain in relation to the work rate (at 100 W a 27% increase in grey matter flow of the right hemisphere). A fourth chapter deals with new hormonal and neurohormonal aspects related to the cardiovascular system. Beta-endorphines remained unchanged at work rates below the anaerobic threshold but increased significantly during maximal rate of work. The opiate antagonist naloxone abolished the rise in body temperature seen during ergometer exercise. The serotonin antagonist ketanserin lowered the blood pressure and the arterial lactic acid level during an incremental exercise test, similar to the results with the dopamine agonist pergolide. The hormone cardiodilatin is produced in the atrial appendages, and it is a potent substance in the regulation of the cardiovascular

  15. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected.

  16. POWER ALLOCATION OF DATA DEPENDENT SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi

    2008-01-01

    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  17. Terrestrial Applications of Extreme Environment Stirling Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been developing power systems capable of long-term operation in extreme environments such as the surface of Venus. This technology can use any external heat source to efficiently provide electrical power and cooling; and it is designed to be extremely efficient and reliable for extended space missions. Terrestrial applications include: use in electric hybrid vehicles; distributed home co-generation/cooling; and quiet recreational vehicle power generation. This technology can reduce environmental emissions, petroleum consumption, and noise while eliminating maintenance and environmental damage from automotive fluids such as oil lubricants and air conditioning coolant. This report will provide an overview of this new technology and its applications.

  18. Probabilistic forecasting of wind power generation using extreme learning machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    an extreme learning machine (ELM)-based probabilistic forecasting method for wind power generation. To account for the uncertainties in the forecasting results, several bootstrapmethods have been compared for modeling the regression uncertainty, based on which the pairs bootstrap method is identified...... demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for probabilistic forecasting of wind power generation with a high potential for practical applications in power systems....

  19. Remotely Powered Reconfigurable Receiver for Extreme Environment Sensing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensors connected in a local network offer revolutionary exploration capabilities, but the current solutions do not work in extreme environments of low temperatures (200K) and low to moderate radiation levels (<50 krad). These sensors (temperature, radiation, infrared, etc.) would need to operate outside the spacecraft/ lander and be totally independent of power from the spacecraft/lander. Flash memory field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are being used as the main signal processing and protocol generation platform in a new receiver. Flash-based FPGAs have been shown to have at least 100 reduced standby power and 10 reduction operating power when compared to normal SRAM-based FPGA technology.

  20. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  1. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de Luna, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    This study examined spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) during endurance mountain running in 8 healthy trained subjects. The data showed that during this type of mountain running, all spectral components of HRV may severely decrease, particularly very-low-frequency and low-frequency (LF) power, suggesting extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The physiologic response of the heart in this situation was the downregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors to protect myocardial function, with a subsequent increase in parasympathetic tone, reflected by an increase in high-frequency (HF) power and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio.

  2. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  3. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  4. Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton training: Case studies for complete spinal cord injury walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Edward D; Smith, Andrew J; Herbert-Copley, Andrew; Sreenivasan, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in exoskeleton technology has made lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) a viable treatment tool to restore upright walking mobility to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Evaluate ARKE exoskeleton training within a rehabilitation centre environment. Case studies are presented for two male participants, age 41 and 30, motor complete SCI at T6 (N01) and T12 (N02), respectively, as they progress from new LEPE users to independent walking. The ARKE 2.0 LEPE (Bionik Laboratories Inc., Toronto, Canada) was used for all training (hip and knee powered, forearm crutches, control tablet). Data were collected on session times, activity metrics from ARKE system logs, and qualitative questionnaire feedback. N01 required 18, 30-minute training sessions to achieve independent walking. N01 walked independently within the 12 session target. Foot strikes were frequently before the end of the programmed swing phase, which were handled by the ARKE control system. Subjective ratings of LEPE learning, comfort, pain, fatigue, and overall experience were high for sitting-standing and moderate to high for walking. This reflected the complexity of learning to safely walk. Qualitative feedback supported the continuation of LEPE use in rehabilitation settings based on end-user desire for upright mobility.

  5. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  6. Effects of weight training on power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUKAB AZEEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Harris et al. declared that some researchers claim the use of 80% of 1RM is recommended toimprove power characteristics, while others suggest 50-60% of 1RM and below. Kawamori and Haff agreed withHarris et al., stating that there is inconsistency in the optimal load to produce the highest power. They claimedthat some studies that used untrained subjects, single joint exercises, and upper-body exercises reported 30-45%of 1RM, while others using trained subjects, multi-joint exercises, and lower-body exercises reported 30-70% of1RM.Method: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training in the developing the powerperformance among 20 students between 16 to 18 years of age enrolled for physical education course for theacademic year 2010, were selected as subjects. Pre and post test was conducted for the group on 1RM of squats,bench press and dead lift. 45 minutes weight training program, twice a week, for 12 weeks was given to thesubjects. The statistical tools used were mean, SD, and ‘t’ –test.Results & Discussion: The analysis of the data reveals that the subjects with the training have shownimprovement in the performance of squats from pre to post test with the mean and S.D being (76.00, 26.59 and(93.75, 27.19 respectively. The improvement is quite encouraging and highly significant (p<0.0001.With regard to bench press exercise of the subjects the mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (53.00, 23.14and (70.25, 23.37. The data clearly speaks of an improved performance from pre to post scores of the studentswhich is highly significant at (p<0.0001. The mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (104.00, 28.31 and(135.00, 24.97 respectively with respect to dead lift exercise. There is an increase in the power of the studentswhich is encouraging and highly significant with (p<0.0001.Conclusions: It is concluded from this study, that there was a marked improvement in the performance of thestudents in

  7. Effect of programmed strength training on explosive strength of lower extremities in children aged 11 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Andrija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical jumps are an integral part of many sport activities. There are several factors that affect the athlete's jumping ability: strength, force and acceleration that occur when we jump. The jump is a complex and more articulated activity that requires not only strength, but great power as well. The main types of training to increase explosive strength are plyometric training and myogenic training with weight load on the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of myogenic training with weight load on explosive strength of the lower extremities. The first group is the control group (K, while the second group is an experimental group (E, each consisting of eighteen respondents. By Using the Myotest and performing the squat jump (SJ, the Height, Power, Force and Velocity were determined. The programme of power lasted for six weeks, twice a week for up to 60 minutes. We conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the final and initial measurements in the experimental group, the multivariate level sig = 0.000. Increase in jump height ΔHeight = 3.28 in cm, force ΔForce = 4.68 in N/kg, the strength ΔPower = 6.18 in W/kg, the acceleration ΔVelocity = 21.8 in cm/s. The results of this study show that myogenic training with weight load has a positive impact on the explosive power of the lower extremities. This research was carried out against children aged 11 to 14 years, so we cannot say with certainty that this type of programme can have identical effects on athletes.

  8. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  9. Exercise training and postural correction improve upper extremity symptoms among touchscreen smartphone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Ahmed Abdelhameed

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Postural correction combined with a selected exercise training programme improved the hand grip, key pinch grip strength, and upper extremity disability and symptoms associated with smartphone use among university students.

  10. The Training & Development Function And The Power Of Getting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Training & Development Function And The Power Of Getting Things Done. ... LBS Management Review ... The quality of an organization's human resources is key to success, and much of it is a function of training and development.

  11. An extremely low power voltage reference with high PSRR for power-aware ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihai, Duan; Dongyu, Deng; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei

    2015-09-01

    An extremely low power voltage reference without resistors is presented for power-aware ASICs. In order to reduce the power dissipation, an Oguey current reference source is used to reduce the static current; a cascode current mirror is used to increase the power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and reduce the line sensitivity of the circuit. The voltage reference is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured results for the voltage reference demonstrate that the temperature coefficient of the voltage is 66 ppm/°C in a range from 25 to 100 °C. The line sensitivity is 0.9% in a supply voltage range of 1.8 to 3.3 V, and PSRR is -49 dB at 100 Hz. The power dissipation is 200 nW. The chip area is 0.01 mm2. The circuit can be used as an elementary circuit block for power-aware ASICs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFAA019333).

  12. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  13. Training, simulation, restoration expert system for power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces some technology for training, simulation, restoration expert system of power grid, the structure of the system including function composition, hardware and software composition are discussed, knowledge representation and the method to establish device graphical library for expert system are given, the fault setting and diagnosis for training and simulation as well as restoration technology with deep first searching arithmetic and heuristic inference are presented. The research provides a good base for developing the training, simulation, restoration system of power companies.

  14. Power outages, extreme events and health: a systematic review of the literature from 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-02

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power outages during extreme events published in 2011-2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the extracted information. The Public Health England Extreme Events Bulletins between 01/01/2013 - 31/03/2013 were used to identify extreme events that led to power outages during this three-month period. Results We identified 20 relevant articles. Power outages were found to impact health at many levels within diverse settings. Recurrent themes included the difficulties of accessing healthcare, maintaining frontline services and the challenges of community healthcare. We identified 52 power outages in 19 countries that were the direct consequence of extreme events during the first three months of 2013. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review of the health impacts of power outages. We found the current evidence and knowledge base to be poor. With scientific consensus predicting an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events due to climate change, the gaps in knowledge need to be addressed in order to mitigate the impact of power outages on global health.

  15. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Andrews, Casey R; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Orriola, John J

    2016-09-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked.

  16. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Simulation Training in the Extreme: Simulation-based Training in a Mountain Weather Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Urs; Ney, Ludwig; Kreuzer, Oliver; Berner, Armin; Lischke, Volker

    Mountain rescue operations often confront crews with extreme weather conditions. Extremely cold temperatures make standard treatment sometimes difficult or even impossible. It is well-known that most manual tasks, including those involved in mountain rescue operations, are slowed by extremely cold weather. To lessen and improve the decrement in performance of emergency medical treatment caused by cold-induced manual impairment and inadequate medical equipment and supplies, simulation training in a weather chamber, which can produce wind and temperatures up to -22°C, was developed. It provides a promising tool to train the management of complex multidisciplinary settings, thus reducing the occurrence of fatal human and technical errors and increasing the safety for both the patient and the mountain emergency medical service crew. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential power of robotics for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of research on robots and upper extremity rehabilitation has resulted in recommendations from systematic reviews and guidelines on their use in stroke. Robotics are often cited for their ability to encourage mass practice as a means to enhance recovery of movement. Yet, stroke recovery is a complex process occurring across many aspects of neurologic function beyond movement. As newer devices are developed and enhanced assessments are integrated into treatment protocols, the potential of robotics to advance rehabilitation will continue to grow.

  18. Robot-Assisted Reach Training for Improving Upper Extremity Function of Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Won-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Stroke, as a major risk factor for chronic impairment of upper limb function, can severely restrict the activities of daily living. Recently, robotic devices have been used to enhance the functional upper extremity movement of stroke patients. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether a robot-assisted reach training program using a whole arm manipulator (WAM) could improve upper extremity kinematic performance and functional movement for chronic stroke patients. Using a single-group design, this study followed 10 people with chronic stroke (6 men, 61.5 years; Mini-Mental State Examination score: 27.0; onset duration: 8.9 years). WAM with seven degrees of freedom for the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints was used during robot-assisted reach exercises. Subjects participated in the training program for 40 minutes per day, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks. The main outcome measures were upper extremity kinematic performance (movement velocity) for three directions and functional movement (Action Research Arm Test). Upper extremity kinematic performance and functional movement measures were performed three times: at baseline, during intervention (at 2 weeks), and post intervention. Upper extremity kinematic performance and functional movement showed improvement after two weeks (P robot-assisted reach training on upper extremity kinematic performance as well as functional movement in individuals with chronic stroke. In addition, the findings of the current study may provide valuable information for subsequent randomized controlled trials.

  19. Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of...

  20. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The Vulnerability Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide a close bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a grid to the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes the boundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance in terms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, to the number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulness of this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and present resul...

  1. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, M

    1988-03-01

    More and more athletes are training with plyometric exercises, which involve explosive movements such as jumping. Proponents swear by the drills, but researchers have yet to substantiate the risks and benefits.

  2. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  3. Power Outages, Extreme Events and Health: a Systematic Review of the Literature from 2011-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power ...

  4. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikieiev D.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  5. Upper extremity neuro-rehabilitation through the use of power mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, John; Kean, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Power mobility is typically used as an accommodative form of assistive technology allowing individuals with impaired ambulation to remain mobile. While research has focused on the cognitive development and social benefits of power mobility for individuals with developmental disabilities, research is lacking on using this technology to rehabilitate physical dysfunction. Recent technology, such as robot-mediated neuro-rehabilitation, is proving effective in upper extremity rehabilitation, but lacks the movement feedback of power mobility. This article presents a case study of a client with cerebral palsy who experienced severe neural impairment following a motor vehicle accident. As a previous power mobility user, the client identified returning to using power mobility with the affected upper extremity as a key functional goal. This case study describes the series of steps that returned the client to independent mobility and increased upper extremity function.

  6. Power training-induced increases in muscle activation during gait in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-06-07

    Aging modifies neuromuscular activation of agonist and antagonist muscles during walking. Power training can evoke adaptations in neuromuscular activation that underlie gains in muscle strength and power but it is unknown if these adaptations transfer to dynamic tasks such as walking. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training on neuromuscular activation during level gait in old adults. Twelve community dwelling old adults (age ≥ 65 years) completed a 10-week lower extremity power-training program and thirteen old adults completed a 10-week control period. Before and after the interventions, we measured maximal isometric muscle strength and electromyographic (EMG) activation of the right knee flexor, knee extensor, and plantarflexor muscles on a dynamometer and we measured EMG amplitudes, activation onsets and offsets, and activation duration of the knee flexors, knee extensors, and plantarflexors during gait at habitual, fast, and standardized (1.25±0.6m/s) speeds. Power training-induced increases in EMG amplitude (~41%; 0.47≤d≤1.47; p≤0.05) explained 33% (p=0.049) of increases in isometric muscle strength (~43%; 0.34≤d≤0.80; p≤0.05). Power training-induced gains in plantarflexor activation during push-off (+11%; d=0.38; p=0.045) explained 57% (p=0.004) of the gains in fast gait velocity (+4%; d=0.31; p=0.059). Furthermore, power training increased knee extensor activation (~18%; 0.26≤d≤0.29; p≤0.05) and knee extensor coactivation during the main knee flexor burst (~24%, 0.26≤d≤0.44; p≤0.05) at habitual and fast speed but these adaptations did not correlate with changes in gait velocity Conclusion: Power training increased neuromuscular activation during isometric contractions and level gait in old adults. The power training-induced neuromuscular adaptations were associated with increases in isometric muscle strength and partly with increases in fast gait velocity.

  7. Effect of core strength on the measure of power in the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkle, Justin; Nesser, Thomas W; Demchak, Timothy J; McMannus, David M

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) develop a functional field test to assess the role of the core musculature and its impact on sport performance in an athletic population and (b) develop a functional field test to determine how well the core can transfer forces from the lower to the upper extremities. Twenty-five DI collegiate football players performed medicine ball throws (forward, reverse, right, and left) in static and dynamic positions. The results of the medicine ball throws were compared with several athletic performance measurements: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat, squat kg/bw, 1RM bench press, bench kg/bw, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), 40-yd dash (40 yd), and proagility (PrA). Push press power (PWR) was used to measure the transfer of forces through the body. Several correlations were found in both the static and dynamic medicine ball throws when compared with the performance measures. Static reverse correlated with CMJ (r = 0.44), 40 yd (r = 0.5), and PrA (r = 0.46). Static left correlated with bench kg/bw (0.42), CMJ (0.44), 40 yd (0.62), and PrA (0.59). Static right also correlated with bench kg/bw (0.41), 40 yd (0.44), and PrA (0.65). Dynamic forward (DyFw) correlated with the 1RM squat (r = 0.45) and 1RM bench (0.41). Dynamic left and Dynamic right correlated with CMJ, r = 0.48 and r = 0.40, respectively. Push press power correlated with bench kg/bw (0.50), CMJ (0.48), and PrA (0.48). A stepwise regression for PWR prediction identified 1RM squat as the best predictor. The results indicate that core strength does have a significant effect on an athlete's ability to create and transfer forces to the extremities. Currently, plank exercises are considered an adequate method of training the core for athletes to improve core strength and stability. This is a problem because it puts the athletes in a nonfunctional static position that is very rarely replicated in the demands of sport-related activities. The core is the center of most kinetic

  8. Training-Based SWIPT: Optimal Power Splitting at the Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiangyun

    2014-01-01

    We consider a point-to-point system with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) over a block fading channel. Each transmission block consists of a training phase and a data transmission phase. Pilot symbols are transmitted during the training phase for channel estimation at the receiver. To enable SWIPT, the receiver adopts a power-splitting design, such that a portion of the received signal is used for channel estimation or data detection, while the remaining is used fo...

  9. Effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in post-stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group (n = 10) and the bilateral upper-limb training group (n = 8). The virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group performed bilateral upper-extremity exercises in a virtual reality environment, while the bilateral upper-limb training group performed only bilateral upper-extremity exercise. All training was conducted 30 minutes per day, three times per week for six weeks, followed by brain activity evaluation. [Results] Electroencephalography showed significant increases in concentration in the frontopolar 2 and frontal 4 areas, and significant increases in brain activity in the frontopolar 1 and frontal 3 areas in the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training can improve the brain activity of stroke patients. Thus, virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training is feasible and beneficial for improving brain activation in stroke patients.

  10. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change leads to more extreme meteorological conditions such as icing weather, which have caused great losses to power systems. Comprehensive simulation tools are required to enhance the capability of power system risk assessment under extreme weather conditions. A hybrid...... numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS....../E enabling hybrid simulation of icing event and power system disturbance is developed, based on which a hybrid simulation platform is established. Numerical studies show that the functionality of power system simulation is greatly extended by taking into account the icing weather events....

  11. Feasibility of High-Repetition, Task-Specific Training for Individuals With Upper-Extremity Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kimberly J.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Hornby, T. George

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the feasibility of delivering an individualized, progressive, high-repetition upper-extremity (UE) task-specific training protocol for people with stroke in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. METHOD. Fifteen patients with UE paresis participated in this study. Task-specific UE training was scheduled for 60 min/day, 4 days/wk, during occupational therapy for the duration of a participant’s inpatient stay. During each session, participants were challenged to complete ≥300 repetitions of various tasks. RESULTS. Participants averaged 289 repetitions/session, spending 47 of 60 min in active training. Participants improved on impairment and activity level outcome measures. CONCLUSION. People with stroke in an inpatient setting can achieve hundreds of repetitions of task-specific training in 1-hr sessions. As expected, all participants improved on functional outcome measures. Future studies are needed to determine whether this high-repetition training program results in better outcomes than current UE interventions. PMID:25005508

  12. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Andrews, Casey R.; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Lewis, Katherine L.; Bradley, Rachel C.; Orriola, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked. PMID:28066520

  13. High-power pulse trains excited by modulated continuous waves

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan; Li, Lu; Malomed, Boris A

    2015-01-01

    Pulse trains growing from modulated continuous waves (CWs) are considered, using solutions of the Hirota equation for solitons on a finite background. The results demonstrate that pulses extracted from the maximally compressed trains can propagate preserving their shape and forming robust arrays. The dynamics of double high-power pulse trains produced by modulated CWs in a model of optical fibers, including the Raman effect and other higher-order terms, is considered in detail too. It is demonstrated that the double trains propagate in a robust form, with frequencies shifted by the Raman effect.

  14. A piano training program to improve manual dexterity and upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Penhune, Virginia; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2014-01-01

    Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising supervised sessions (9 × 60 min) and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination, and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 3-week follow-up. Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention.

  15. A piano training program to improve manual dexterity and upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eVilleneuve

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising of supervised sessions (9 x 60min and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up, compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusions: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention.

  16. The Influence of Dynamic Orthosis Training on Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the use of a dynamic orthosis on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients. A case series approach was utilized, with provision of a training program (3x/week, 50 minutes/session for 8 weeks and employment of a dynamic orthosis. Six volunteers with persistent hemiparesis due to a single, unilateral stroke performed task-oriented movements with the aid of a dynamic orthosis. Tests were administered before and after training. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA (Test d'Évaluation des Membres Supérieurs de Personnes Âgées test. The Wilcoxon test was used for pre-training and post-training comparisons of TEMPA scores. The volunteers showed significant improvement of upper extremity function in the performance of a bilateral task (p = 0.01 and three unilateral tasks (p = 0.04. This pilot study suggests that the dynamic orthosis associated with the performance of functional tasks can have positive outcomes regarding the improvement of functional capacity of upper extremity.

  17. Self-organized criticality of power system faults and its application in adaptation to extreme climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Sheng; LI YinHong; DUAN XianZhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistics of faults in a transmission and distribution networks in central China, unveils long-term autocorrelation and power law distribution of power system faults, which indicates that power system fault has self-organized criticality (SOC) feature. The conclusion is consistent with the power systems data in 2008 with ice storm present. Since power systems cover large areas, climate is the key factor to its safety and stability. In-depth analysis shows that the SOC of atmosphere system contributes much to that of power system faults. Extreme climate will be more intense and frequent with global warming, it will have more and more impact upon power systems. The SOC feature of power system faults is utilized to develop approaches to facilitate power systems adaptation to climate varia-tion in an economical and efficient way.

  18. Defining extreme GIC event scenarios: why and how to meet the power engineering needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The latest developments in terms of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission standards process and National Space Weather Action Plan have increased the pressure on the scientific community to develop reasonable extreme GIC event benchmarks and scenarios. At the same time, scientists and power engineerings have established robust communications that now allow passage of actionable information between the two communities. Consequently, it is now possible to describe and tailor the extreme event scenarios to meet the power engineering analysis requirements. Tailoring of the scenarios is critically important for the power engineers to be able to use the information provided by the scientific community. In this presentation, by reviewing the power transmission system impact mechanisms and engineering analyses flow, we present our current understanding of what actually is needed from the power engineering perspective to carry out extreme storm assessments. We hope that this information will help the scientific community to develop extreme event information that is directly actionable on the end-user side. We also review some of our recent work to develop extreme event information that meets the engineering needs. Some of this work was carried out in support of the FERC/NERC GMD standards development process.

  19. The training of operating personnel at Spanish nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Antonio Burgos, E-mail: aburgos@tecnatom.es [TECNATOM S.A.. Escuela de Formacion Almaraz y Trillo, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    An essential condition in order to ensure that nuclear power plants are operated reliably and safely is the availability in the Control Room of duly qualified persons capable both of preventing accidents and of responding to them should they occur. Training of the Control Room operating crews is accomplished in two major stages: a lengthy process of initial training in which the knowledge acquired at high school and university is built upon, leading to the specialisation required to appropriately carry out the tasks to be performed in the Control Room, and a continuous training program aimed at maintaining and improving the knowledge and skills required to operate the plant, with feedback of the lessons learned from the industry's operating experience. The use of full-scope simulators replicating the physical conditions and environment of the Control Room allows the period of initial training to be reduced and is the most appropriate method for the continuous training program of the control room personnel, since these simulators increase the realism of the training scenarios, help to better understand the response of the plant and provide an accurate idea of transient response times. Tecnatom is the Training Centre for Spanish Operators; it is the 'Operator Training Factory' and its mission is to train the nuclear power plant operating personnel in both technological fundamentals and the development of diagnostic skills through practical scenarios on the simulator and on-the-job training. Our training programmes are based on a SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology that has been implemented at both Spanish and overseas plants. (author)

  20. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  1. Prediction of a thermodynamic wave train from the monsoon to the Arctic following extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses numerical prediction of atmospheric wave trains that provide a monsoonal link to the Arctic ice melt. The monsoonal link is one of several ways that heat is conveyed to the Arctic region. This study follows a detailed observational study on thermodynamic wave trains that are initiated by extreme rain events of the northern summer south Asian monsoon. These wave trains carry large values of heat content anomalies, heat transports and convergence of flux of heat. These features seem to be important candidates for the rapid melt scenario. This present study addresses numerical simulation of the extreme rains, over India and Pakistan, and the generation of thermodynamic wave trains, simulations of large heat content anomalies, heat transports along pathways and heat flux convergences, potential vorticity and the diabatic generation of potential vorticity. We compare model based simulation of many features such as precipitation, divergence and the divergent wind with those evaluated from the reanalysis fields. We have also examined the snow and ice cover data sets during and after these events. This modeling study supports our recent observational findings on the monsoonal link to the rapid Arctic ice melt of the Canadian Arctic. This numerical modeling suggests ways to interpret some recent episodes of rapid ice melts that may require a well-coordinated field experiment among atmosphere, ocean, ice and snow cover scientists. Such a well-coordinated study would sharpen our understanding of this one component of the ice melt, i.e. the monsoonal link, which appears to be fairly robust.

  2. Prediction of a thermodynamic wave train from the monsoon to the Arctic following extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kumar, Vinay

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses numerical prediction of atmospheric wave trains that provide a monsoonal link to the Arctic ice melt. The monsoonal link is one of several ways that heat is conveyed to the Arctic region. This study follows a detailed observational study on thermodynamic wave trains that are initiated by extreme rain events of the northern summer south Asian monsoon. These wave trains carry large values of heat content anomalies, heat transports and convergence of flux of heat. These features seem to be important candidates for the rapid melt scenario. This present study addresses numerical simulation of the extreme rains, over India and Pakistan, and the generation of thermodynamic wave trains, simulations of large heat content anomalies, heat transports along pathways and heat flux convergences, potential vorticity and the diabatic generation of potential vorticity. We compare model based simulation of many features such as precipitation, divergence and the divergent wind with those evaluated from the reanalysis fields. We have also examined the snow and ice cover data sets during and after these events. This modeling study supports our recent observational findings on the monsoonal link to the rapid Arctic ice melt of the Canadian Arctic. This numerical modeling suggests ways to interpret some recent episodes of rapid ice melts that may require a well-coordinated field experiment among atmosphere, ocean, ice and snow cover scientists. Such a well-coordinated study would sharpen our understanding of this one component of the ice melt, i.e. the monsoonal link, which appears to be fairly robust.

  3. Stillbirth and residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Yacouba, Soumana; Goneau, Marc; Zayed, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic field exposure and stillbirth has not been evaluated. We assessed associations between residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines and stillbirth across gestational age. Data included singleton live births (N=514,826) and stillbirths (N=2033) for 1998-2007 in metropolitan areas of Québec, Canada. Using power transmission line maps, the distances between lines and residential six-digit postal codes (rule out a possible link.

  4. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Olga E. Aftimichuk; Alexander V. Varvarich

    2013-01-01

    Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into acc...

  5. Body size and walking cadence affect lower extremity joint power in children's gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Hills, Andrew P; Sitler, Michael R; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2010-06-01

    Obese children move less and with greater difficulty than normal-weight counterparts but expend comparable energy. Increased metabolic costs have been attributed to poor biomechanics but few studies have investigated the influence of obesity on mechanical demands of gait. This study sought to assess three-dimensional lower extremity joint powers in two walking cadences in 28 obese and normal-weight children. 3D-motion analysis was conducted for five trials of barefoot walking at self-selected and 30% greater than self-selected cadences. Mechanical power was calculated at the hip, knee, and ankle in sagittal, frontal and transverse planes. Significant group differences were seen for all power phases in the sagittal plane, hip and knee power at weight acceptance and hip power at propulsion in the frontal plane, and knee power during mid-stance in the transverse plane. After adjusting for body weight, group differences existed in hip and knee power phases at weight acceptance in sagittal and frontal planes, respectively. Differences in cadence existed for all hip joint powers in the sagittal plane and frontal plane hip power at propulsion. Frontal plane knee power at weight acceptance and sagittal plane knee power at propulsion were significantly different between cadences. Larger joint powers in obese children contribute to difficulty performing locomotor tasks, potentially decreasing motivation to exercise.

  6. Modern methodic of power cardio training in students’ physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: significant increase of students’ physical condition and health level at the account of application of modern power cardio training methodic. Material: 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls participated in the research. The age of the tested was 19 years. The research took one year. We used methodic of power and functional impact on trainees’ organism (HOT IRON. Such methodic is some systems of physical exercises with weights (mini-barbells, to be fulfilled under accompaniment of specially selected music. Results: we showed advantages of power-cardio and fitness trainings in students’ health improvement and in elimination obesity. Control tests showed experimental group students achieved confidently higher physical indicators. Boys demonstrated increase of physical strength and general endurance indicators. Girls had confidently better indicators of physical strength, flexibility and general endurance. Increase of control group students’ body mass can be explained by students’ insufficient physical activity at trainings, conducted as per traditional program. Conclusions: students’ trainings by power-cardio methodic with application HOT IRON exercises facilitate development the following physical qualities: strength and endurance in boys and strength, flexibility and endurance in girls. Besides, it was found that such systems of exercises facilitate normalization of boys’ body mass and correction of girls’ constitution.

  7. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Sevick

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1 tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8–17 years with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2 determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy.

  8. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-06-07

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8-17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy.

  9. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8–17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy. PMID:27338485

  10. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground.

  11. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving

  12. MHD advanced power train. Phase 1, Final report: Volume 3, Power train system description and specification for 200MWe Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This System Design Description and Specification provides the basis for the design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Train (PT) for a nominal 200 MWe early commercial tiHD/Steam Power Plant. This document has been developed under Task 2, Conceptual Design, of Contract DE-AC22-83PC60575 and is to be used by the project as the controlling and coordinating documentation during future design efforts. Modification and revision of this specification will occur as the design matures, and tiie-Westinghouse MHD Project Manager will be the focal point for maintaining this document and issuing periodic revisions. This document is intended to delineate the power train and-power train components requirements and assumptions that properly reflect the MHD/Steam Power Plant in the PT design. The parameters discussed in this document have been established through system calculations as well as through constraints set by technology and by limitations on materials, cost, physical processes associated with MHD, and the expected operating data for the plant. The specifications listed in this document have precedence over all referenced documents. Where this specification appears to conflict with the requirements of a reference document, such conflicts should be brought to the attention of the Westinghouse MHD Project Manager for resolution.

  13. Core safety of Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Joshi; A K Nayak; M Singhal; D Mukhopadhaya

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear power is currently the fourth largest source of electricity production in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity. Currently, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation and seven other reactors are under construction. Most of these reactors are indigenously designed and built Heavy Water Reactors. In addition, a 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor has already been designed and in the process of deployment in near future for demonstration of power production from Thorium apart from enhanced safety features by passive means. India has ambitious plans to enhance the share of electricity production from nuclear. The recent Fukushima accident has raised concerns of safety of Nuclear Power Plants worldwide. The Fukushima accident was caused by extreme events, i.e., large earthquake followed by gigantic Tsunami which are not expected to hit India’s coast considering the geography of India and historical records. Nevertheless, systematic investigations have been conducted by nuclear scientists in India to evaluate the safety of the current Nuclear Power Plants in case of occurrence of such extreme events in any nuclear site. This paper gives a brief outline of the safety features of Indian Heavy Water Reactors for prevention and mitigation of such extreme events. The probabilistic safety analysis revealed that the risk from Indian Heavy Water Reactors are negligibly small.

  14. Early phase interference between low-intensity running and power training in moderately trained females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Kostas; Methenitis, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    performed after lower-body power training impairs the exercise-induced adaptation in stretch-shortening cycle jumping performance (vertical jump height, peak power), during the first 6 weeks of training, which may be partially linked to inhibited muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle fiber conduction velocity........94 %, p > 0.05). Maximum isometric force, RFD, and half squat 1-RM increased similarly in both groups. Muscle fiber type composition was not altered in either group. Muscle fiber cross sectional area increased only after PT (17.5 ± 17.4, 14.5 ± 10.4, 20.36 ± 11.3 %, in type I, IIA, and IIX fibers...

  15. Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization by Varying N-gram and Hash Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7190 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power...Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents . Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official... SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization by Varying N

  16. Extreme Environment Capable, Modular and Scalable Power Processing Unit for Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gregory A.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Chen, Yuan; Hunter, Don J.; Del Castillo, Linda; Bradley, Arthur T.; Stell, Christopher; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to present a concept of a modular and scalable High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) capable of operating at temperatures beyond the standard military temperature range. The various extreme environments technologies are also described as the fundamental technology path to this concept. The proposed HTB PPU is intended for power processing in the area of space solar electric propulsion, where the reduction of in-space mass and volume are desired, and sometimes even critical, to achieve the goals of future space flight missions. The concept of the HTB PPU can also be applied to other extreme environment applications, such as geothermal and petroleum deep-well drilling, where higher temperature operation is required.

  17. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  18. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Aftimichuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the body of women of second maturity. The indexes, obtained as a result of fitness programs testing, developed within the frameworks of correctional methods.

  19. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  20. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-06-16

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment.

  1. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Pierre K.; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  2. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  3. TRAINING AT THE OPTIMUM POWER ZONE PRODUCES SIMILAR PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS TO TRADITIONAL STRENGTH TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Loturco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12, a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16; and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14. Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%, CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1% and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5% increased significantly (p < 0.05 and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period.

  4. Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon K; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between muscle morphology and jumping, sprinting, and throwing performance in participants with different power training duration experience. Thirty-six power-trained young men were assigned to 3 groups according to the length of their power training: less experienced (muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) with anthropometry. The vastus lateralis architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated with ultrasonography and muscle biopsies, respectively. When all subjects were considered as 1 group (n = 36), jumping performance was correlated with LBM, fascicle length, and type II fiber CSA; sprinting performance was correlated with estimated thigh muscle CSA alone; and shot throwing was correlated with LBM and type I, IIA fiber CSA. In the least experienced group, the LBM of the lower extremities was the most significant contributor for power performance, whereas in the moderately experienced group, the LBM, architectural properties, and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant contributors. For the experienced group, fascicle length and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant factors for power performance. These data suggest that jumping performance is linked with muscle morphology, regardless of strength or power training. The vastus lateralis muscle morphology could only partially explain throwing performance, whereas it cannot predict sprinting performance. Power performance in experienced participants rely more on the quality of the muscle tissue rather than the quantity.

  5. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  6. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Madejski, G M; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z>2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z=3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. They are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars.

  7. Optimized Extreme Learning Machine for Power System Transient Stability Prediction Using Synchrophasors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized extreme learning machine- (ELM- based method for power system transient stability prediction (TSP using synchrophasors is presented in this paper. First, the input features symbolizing the transient stability of power systems are extracted from synchronized measurements. Then, an ELM classifier is employed to build the TSP model. And finally, the optimal parameters of the model are optimized by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The novelty of the proposal is in the fact that it improves the prediction performance of the ELM-based TSP model by using IPSO to optimize the parameters of the model with synchrophasors. And finally, based on the test results on both IEEE 39-bus system and a large-scale real power system, the correctness and validity of the presented approach are verified.

  8. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  9. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  10. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  11. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  12. A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2013-05-01

    During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks.

  13. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  14. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  15. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  16. A Conjecture Regarding the Extremal Values of Graph Entropy Based on Degree Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinkar Chandra Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many graph invariants have been used for the construction of entropy-based measures to characterize the structure of complex networks. The starting point has been always based on assigning a probability distribution to a network when using Shannon’s entropy. In particular, Cao et al. (2014 and 2015 defined special graph entropy measures which are based on degrees powers. In this paper, we obtain some lower and upper bounds for these measures and characterize extremal graphs. Moreover we resolve one part of a conjecture stated by Cao et al.

  17. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH VS. BALLISTIC-POWER TRAINING ON THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Zaras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9 and Power (n = 8 groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ, Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively. Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively, while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05. Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05, while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (% decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations

  18. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  19. Competition and alliances in fuel cell power train development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlecht, L. [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research Centre

    2003-07-01

    For the realisation of the effective application and cost effectiveness of fuel cell power trains, and competitiveness with the current internal combustion engine technology, it will be necessary to either: (a) produce a large number of vehicles, (b) reduce the production costs by permanent production optimisation, or (c) introduce new materials. Learning curves, which have been derived from empirical data of past energy technologies, are initially used to provide a cost prognosis for the market launch of fuel cell power trains. Drawing on game theory the paper then describes a basic model which addresses the issue of the optimal strategy of the automotive industry, in either a monopoly or oligopoly structure. When this model's outputs are combined with the anticipated rate of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), learning curves and network effects, from the first section of the paper we can see that if the successful market launch of FCVs is desired, an alliance structure within the automotive industry is the optimal path. (author)

  20. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, S.; Harada, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Komori, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S. [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

  2. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p training period (≈13 %; p strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  3. To Constrain or Not to Constrain, and Other Stories of Intensive Upper Extremity Training for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired hand function is among the most functionally disabling symptoms of unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based treatment approaches are generally lacking. However, recent approaches providing intensive upper extremity training appear promising. In this review, we first describe two such approaches, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT)…

  4. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this... each holder of a combined license issued under part 52 of this chapter for a nuclear power plant of...

  5. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  6. [Effects of Reactive Jump Training in Handball Players Regarding Jump Height and Power Development in the Triceps Surae Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, N; Westermann, A; Möller, D; von Piekartz, H

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown changes in the technical and physical demands in modern handball. The game has increased considerably in speed, power and dynamics. Jump training has, therefore, become ever more important in the training of the athletes. These developments contribute to the fact that handball is now one of the most injury-prone types of sport, with the lower extremities being most frequently affected. Reactive jump training is not only used in training by now, but also increasingly in injury prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reactive jump training with handball players. 21 regional league handball players were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 9). The intervention group completed a six-week reactive jump training programme while the control group went through a non-specific training programme. Jump height (squat and counter movement jump), isokinetic and isometric maximum power as well as muscle activity served as measuring parameters. A comparison of the intervention and control groups revealed that the reactive jump training led to significant improvements in jump height. The isometric and isokinetic maximum power measurements and the electromyographic activities of the triceps surae muscle demonstrated an improvement in the values within the intervention group. However, this improvement was not significant compared with the control group. Likewise both jumps correlated with the muscle activity of the soleus muscle as shown by electromyography. A moderate correlation was noticed between the isokinetic maximum power measurement and the electromyographic activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. Furthermore, the correlations of the isometric and isokinetic maximum power meas-urements resulted in a strong correlation coefficient. This study revealed a significant increase in jump height after reactive jump training. There was no significant difference in

  7. Extraction and use of historical extreme climate databases for nuclear power plants safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bertin, Xavier; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs) related to natural hazards are a matter of major interest to the nuclear community in France and many European countries. Over the past fewer decades, France has experienced many of these events such as heat waves (2003 and 2006), heavy snowstorms (1958, 1990 and 1992), storms which have given rise to heavy rain and severe floods (1992, 1999, 2010), strong straight-line wind and extreme marine surges (1987, 1999 and 2010) much larger than the other local observations (outliers). These outliers had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme surges calculated with the current statistical methods. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical framework and using more reliable databases for the assessment of hazards to design NPPs to low or extremely low probabilities of failure. These databases can be produced by collecting historical information (HI) about severe climatic events occurred over short and long timescales. As a matter of fact, natural hazards such as heat waves, droughts, floods, severe storms and snowstorms have affected France and many European countries since the dawn of time. These events would have been such horrific experiences that if they really occurred, there would be unmistakable traces of them. They must have left clues. These catastrophic events have been unforgettably engraved in people's minds and many of them have been traced in archives and history textbooks. The oldest events have certainly left clues and traces somewhere in the geological layers of the earth or elsewhere. The construction of the historical databases and developing probabilistic approaches capable of integrating them correctly is highly challenging for the scientific community (Translating these geological clues to historical data to build historical databases that can be used by the statistical models is a different

  8. Undersampling power-law size distributions: effect on the assessment of extreme natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of undersampling on estimating the size of extreme natural hazards from historical data is examined. Tests using synthetic catalogs indicate that the tail of an empirical size distribution sampled from a pure Pareto probability distribution can range from having one-to-several unusually large events to appearing depleted, relative to the parent distribution. Both of these effects are artifacts caused by limited catalog length. It is more difficult to diagnose the artificially depleted empirical distributions, since one expects that a pure Pareto distribution is physically limited in some way. Using maximum likelihood methods and the method of moments, we estimate the power-law exponent and the corner size parameter of tapered Pareto distributions for several natural hazard examples: tsunamis, floods, and earthquakes. Each of these examples has varying catalog lengths and measurement thresholds, relative to the largest event sizes. In many cases where there are only several orders of magnitude between the measurement threshold and the largest events, joint two-parameter estimation techniques are necessary to account for estimation dependence between the power-law scaling exponent and the corner size parameter. Results indicate that whereas the corner size parameter of a tapered Pareto distribution can be estimated, its upper confidence bound cannot be determined and the estimate itself is often unstable with time. Correspondingly, one cannot statistically reject a pure Pareto null hypothesis using natural hazard catalog data. Although physical limits to the hazard source size and by attenuation mechanisms from source to site constrain the maximum hazard size, historical data alone often cannot reliably determine the corner size parameter. Probabilistic assessments incorporating theoretical constraints on source size and propagation effects are preferred over deterministic assessments of extreme natural hazards based on historic data.

  9. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: Reducing impact on public mind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kakodkar; Ram Kumar Singh

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment. A combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches should be evolved further to minimize consequences in public domain through enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitatively predicting accident progression and its management. The paper presents the case studies of the extreme external event such as tsunami and its impact on the coastal nuclear plants in India, the containment integrity assessment under the extreme internal event of over-pressurization and aircraft impact along with hydrogen deflagration

  10. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  11. Effects of the lower extremities muscle activation during muscular strength training on an unstable platform with magneto-rheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, YongJun; Choi, YounJung; Kim, JungJa; Kwan, TaeKyu; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2009-03-01

    Adequate postural balance depends on the spatial and temporal integration of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory information. Especially, the musculoskeletal function (range of joint, flexibility of spine, muscular strength) is essential in maintaining the postural balance. Muscular strength training methods include the use of commercialized devices and repeatable resistance training tools (rubber band, ball, etc). These training systems cost high price and can't control of intensity. Thus we suggest a new training system which can adjust training intensity and indicate the center of pressure of a subject while the training was passively controlled by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto- Rheological damper. And we performed experimental studies on the muscular activities in the lower extremities during maintaining, moving and pushing exercises on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers. A subject executed the maintaining, moving and pushing exercises which were displayed in a monitor. The electromyographic signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in the time and frequency domain: the muscles of interest were rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tensor fasciae latae, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and soleus. The experimental results showed the difference of muscular activities at the four moving exercises and the nine maintaining exercises. The rate of the increase in the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers for the maintaining and moving exercises. The experimental results suggested the choice of different maintaining and moving exercises could selectively train different muscles with varying intensity. Furthermore, the findings also suggested the training using this system can improve the ability of postural balance.

  12. Moderate-intensity physical activity is independently associated with lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle power is a salient determinant of physical function in older adults, but its relationship with habitual physical activity has not been well-characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the association between moderate-intensity physical activity and lower-extremity muscle power in community-dwelling older women. Older women (n = 96, mean age = 73.9 ± 5.6 years, mean body mass index = 26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) underwent assessments for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and lower-extremity muscle power (watts) using the Nottingham power rig. The Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire was used to estimate weekly caloric expenditure in moderate-intensity physical activity (kcals/wk). Linear regression indicated that moderate-intensity physical activity was independently related to muscle power (standardized β = 0.20, p = .03), and this relationship remained following adjustment for covariates. Analysis of covariance revealed that women in the highest tertile of volume of physical activity had significantly greater muscle power than those with the lowest volume (199.0 vs. 170.7 watts, p muscle power in older women. Future intervention trials should determine if increasing habitual physical activity is associated with improvements in lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

  13. Knowledge is power: Issues of measuring training\\ud and performance in cycling.

    OpenAIRE

    Passfield, L; Hopker, J.G.; Jobson, Simon; Friel, D; M Zabala

    2016-01-01

    Mobile power meters provide a valid means of measuring cyclists’ power output in the field. These field measurements can be performed with very good accuracy and reliability making the power meter a useful tool for monitoring and evaluating training and race demands. This study examines power meter data from a Grand Tour cyclist’s training and racing and explores the inherent complications created by its stochastic nature. Simple summary methods cannot reflect a session’s variable distributio...

  14. Effects of high-speed power training on muscle strength and power in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Perez, Carlos; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Murua, Jose-Aldo; Antonio de Paz-Fernandez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a high-speed power training program in peak muscle power and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extensors in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients, 20 women (age 42.8 +/- 10.3 yr) and 20 men (age 44.0 +/- 8.7 yr) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS were randomly assigned, with respect to sex, to either an exercise group or a control group. Participants from the exercise group performed 12 wk of supervised muscle power training of knee extensors. All subjects were tested for MVIC and peak muscle power at baseline and after the training intervention. A strain gauge was used to measure the MVIC, and peak muscle power was assessed with a linear encoder at five relative loads. The training-related effects were assessed using a t-test. The results showed no significant changes in the control group from baseline to postintervention evaluation. In contrast, the exercise group significantly increased MVIC (10.8%; p muscle power at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the MVIC by 21.8, 14.5, 17.3, 19.4, and 22.3%, respectively (p power training improve both MVIC and muscle power at five different loads in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.

  15. Motor And Sensory Effects Of Ipsilesional Upper Extremity Hypothermia And Contralesional Sensory Training For Chronic Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, de, M.; Nubia Maria; Menegatti; Karina Candido; Yu; Erica; Sacomoto; Natalia Yumi; Oberg; Telma Dagmar; Honorato; Donizeti Cesar

    2016-01-01

    As hypothermia by immersion can reduce the sensory nerve conduction velocity, this study hypothesized that the reduction of sensory input to the ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) using cryotherapy would reduce the inhibitory activity of the contralesional hemisphere in chronic stroke subjects. Objective: In this study, hypothermia was applied by immersing the ipsilesional UE in association with sensory training of the contralesional UE of stroke patients to assess the immediate (e.g. sensorim...

  16. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  17. Effects of interactive metronome training on postural stability and upper extremity function in Parkinson’s disease: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arim; Lee, Hye-Sun; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson’s disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson’s disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system. [Results] After training, the patient’s static and dynamic balance, functional activity, and performance time of the upper extremity improved. Interactive metronome therapy improved the manual dexterity of both hands. Interactive metronome therapy also improved the limit of stability of the Parkinson’s disease. [Conclusion] Though a case study, the results of this study suggest that IM therapy is effective at restoring the postural stability and upper extremity function of patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28210066

  18. Power System Electrician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4609

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Power System Electrician apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyman; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) read and interpret drawing,…

  19. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Rajan; Porter, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than stren...

  20. Extreme earthquake response of nuclear power plants isolated using sliding bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar@iitgn.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar 382355 (India); Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of a nuclear power plant (NPP) isolated using sliding bearings. • Two models of the NPP, five friction models and four seismic hazard levels considered. • Isolation system displacement can be obtained using a macro NPP model subjected to only horizontal ground motions. • Temperature dependence of friction should be considered in isolation-system displacement calculations. • The effect of friction model on floor spectral ordinates is rather small, especially near the basemat. - Abstract: Horizontal seismic isolation is a viable approach to mitigate risk to structures, systems and components (SSCs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ground shaking. This paper presents a study on an NPP seismically isolated using single concave Friction Pendulum™ (FP) bearings subjected to ground motions representing seismic hazard at two US sites: Diablo Canyon and Vogtle. Two models of the NPP, five models to describe friction at the sliding surface of the FP bearings, and four levels of ground shaking are considered for response-history analysis, which provide insight into the influence of 1) the required level of detail of an NPP model, 2) the vertical component of ground motion on response of isolated NPPs, and 3) the pressure-, temperature- and/or velocity-dependencies of the coefficient of friction, on the response of an isolated NPP. The isolation-system displacement of an NPP can be estimated using a macro model subjected to only the two orthogonal horizontal components of ground motion. The variation of the coefficient of friction with temperature at the sliding surface during earthquake shaking should be accounted for in the calculation of isolation-system displacements, particularly when the shaking intensity is high; pressure and velocity dependencies are not important. In-structure floor spectra should be computed using a detailed three-dimensional model of an isolated NPP subjected to all three components of

  1. The brightest supernova ever recorded, powered by the death of an extremely massive star

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Foley, R J; Chornock, R; Filippenko, A V; Pooley, D; Quimby, R; Wheeler, J C; Bloom, J S; Hansen, C; Smith, Nathan; Li, Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Pooley, David; Quimby, Robert; Bloom, Joshua S.; Hansen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Supernovae resulting from the deaths of massive stars span a wide range of peak luminosities, usually reached within 30 days after explosion. Their diversity depends on the star's initial mass and rate of mass loss during its lifetime. Stars born with initial masses above 40 times the mass of the Sun are expected to shed their hydrogen envelopes to expose their He core before they die, resulting in supernovae with little or no evidence for hydrogen gas observed in their spectrum. Here we report on our discovery and follow-up observations of SN 2006gy, which reveal that it reached a peak luminosity at least 3 times greater than any other supernova seen to date, and far greater than most others. We find that a large ejected mass of order 100 Solar masses is required to power its enormous total radiated luminosity, indicating a total kinetic energy of more than 10^52 ergs. This suggests that SN 2006gy marked the demise of an extremely massive star that, contrary to expectations, failed to shed its massive hydrog...

  2. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five ...... ramp rates and reserves requirements....

  3. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Young, James D; Whitten, Joseph H D; Reid, Jonathan C; Quigley, Patrick J; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D; Hodgson, Daniel D; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  4. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with

  5. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  6. Comparative effects of extremely high power microwave pulses and a brief CW irradiation on pacemaker function in isolated frog heart slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, A G; Mathur, S P; Doyle, J; Stuck, B E; Kiel, J L; Murphy, M R

    2000-05-01

    The existence of specific bioeffects due to high peak power microwaves and their potential health hazards are among the most debated but least explored problems in microwave biology. The present study attempted to reveal such effects by comparing the bioeffects of short trains of extremely high power microwave pulses (EHPP, 1 micros width, 250-350 kW/g, 9.2 GHz) with those of relatively low power pulses (LPP, 0.5-10 s width, 3-30 W/g, 9.2 GHz). EHPP train duration and average power were made equal to those of an LPP; therefore both exposure modalities produced the same temperature rise. Bioeffects were studied in isolated, spontaneously beating slices of the frog heart. In most cases, a single EHPP train or LPP immediately decreased the inter-beat interval (IBI). The effect was proportional to microwave heating, fully reversible, and easily reproducible. The magnitude and time course of EHPP- and LPP-induced changes always were the same. No delayed or irreversible effects of irradiation were observed. The same effect could be repeated in a single preparation numerous times with no signs of adaptation, sensitization, lasting functional alteration, or damage. A qualitatively different effect, namely, a temporary arrest of preparation beats, could be observed when microwave heating exceeded physiologically tolerable limits. This effect also did not depend on whether the critical temperature rise was produced by LPP or EHPP exposure. Within the studied limits, we found no indications of EHPP-specific bioeffects. EHPP- and LPP-induced changes in the pacemaker rhythm of isolated frog heart preparation were identical and could be entirely attributed to microwave heating.

  7. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  8. Lower-extremity weight-bearing compliance is maintained over time after biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Blizzard, Daniel J; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Leslie, Michael P; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown immediate compliance with weight-bearing instructions to be better after biofeedback training than after verbal or scale training. This study assessed retention of biofeedback training to determine potential clinical applicability. Twelve participants were enrolled in a prospective clinical study at an academic orthopedic center. Participants were trained with a biofeedback device to comply with touch-down weight-bearing instructions (25 lb). Immediately following the training session, weight bearing was assessed for each participant. The retention of this training was then reassessed at 2 to 4, 6 to 8, and 22 to 24 hours. Two control participants were given no biofeedback training (verbal instructions only) and were followed similarly. Following initial biofeedback training at 25 lb, participants bore an average of 20.4±2.12 lb. Retention tests during the 24-hour period showed no significant difference from the original testing, with 2- to 4-hour retention of 19.98±4.75 lb, 6- to 8-hour retention of 25.07±6.60 lb, and 22- to 24-hour retention of 21.75±4.58 lb. Participants who only received verbal instructions consistently bore several-fold greater weight than instructed. Biofeedback training has previously been shown to have a strong immediate effect on partial weight-bearing compliance. This study demonstrated that this effect lasts up to 24 hours. This maintained weight-bearing compliance after biofeedback training suggests that this method may be an effective way to train patients to comply with given instructions for limited weight bearing.

  9. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  10. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  11. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, Pmuscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, S. K.; Andreev, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are considered. The training simulator is constructed using the Kosmotronika-Venets computerized automation system developed by PIK Progress (Moscow). The entire personnel training system, the arrangement of drills, and the concept of structuring the entire personnel education system at the Surgut GRES-2 district power station, a branch of E.ON Rossiya, had to be touched in drawing up the requirements specification for elaborating the training simulator. The article describes how these problems were solved.

  13. Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huei-Ching; Lee, Chia-Ling; Lin, Roxane; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months) were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years) underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks), followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years) underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA), the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4(th) week, and at the end of the 8(th) week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05), 6MWT (p < 0.001), 10MWT (p < 0.001), and MAS (p < 0.001) scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001). The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke.

  14. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than strength training, but that there would be large interindividual differences. Nine older patients (70 to 86 years performed power and strength training of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles using elastic resistance bands. Training sessions were filmed to assess the velocity of training. Power training occurred at faster velocities as compared to strength training (P<0.01 for both muscle groups. However, a wide variation was observed between participants in the training velocities. Older adults attending geriatric rehabilitation do have the potential to develop faster contractions during power training as compared to strength training. Nevertheless, the actual velocities achieved differed between individuals. This could explain some of the mixed findings of studies on power training. Hence, researchers should monitor velocity when comparing different types of resistance training.

  15. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Pavithra; Porter, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than strength training, but that there would be large interindividual differences. Nine older patients (70 to 86 years) performed power and strength training of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles using elastic resistance bands. Training sessions were filmed to assess the velocity of training. Power training occurred at faster velocities as compared to strength training (P muscle groups. However, a wide variation was observed between participants in the training velocities. Older adults attending geriatric rehabilitation do have the potential to develop faster contractions during power training as compared to strength training. Nevertheless, the actual velocities achieved differed between individuals. This could explain some of the mixed findings of studies on power training. Hence, researchers should monitor velocity when comparing different types of resistance training.

  16. Muscle performance and functional capacity retention in older women after high-speed power training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Costa, Aldo M; González-Badillo, Juan José; Marques, Mário C

    2012-08-01

    Power declines more steeply than strength with advancing age and training cessation among older women and is associated with the loss of functional ability. We tested the hypothesis that the impact of 6 weeks of detraining (DT) subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, power performance (counter movement jump and ball throwing) and functional task (sit-to-stand test) would decrease physical performance, and specifically power performance. Thirty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group and a control group [EG, n=20, 65.8 (2.5) years; CG: n=17, 64.8 (2.8) years]. Muscular strength, power and functional testings were conducted before the initiation of training (T1), after 12 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks of DT (T3). During the 12 weeks of training, EG significantly increased their dynamic strength performance (range from 41.9 to 64.1%), muscle power output (range from 18.2 to 33.6%) (pmuscles than in muscle power (2-4.5%) and function (2.8%) (pmuscle strength than in power output and preserved physical independence, mediated in part, by the effectiveness of high-speed power training particularly developed for older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme Environments Development of Decision Processes and Training Programs for Medical Policy Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to survey existing health and safety policies as well as processes and practices for various extreme environments; to identify strengths and shortcomings of these processes; and to recommend parameters for inclusion in a generic approach to policy formulation, applicable to the broadest categories of extreme environments. It was anticipated that two additional workshops would follow. The November 7, 2003 workshop would be devoted to the evaluation of different model(s) and a concluding expert evaluation of the usefulness of the model using a policy formulation example. The final workshop was planned for March 2004.

  18. Effect of concurrent endurance and circuit resistance training sequence on muscular strength and power development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Levin, Gregory T; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the sequence order of high-intensity endurance training and circuit training on changes in muscular strength and anaerobic power. Forty-eight physical education students (ages, 21.4 +/- 1.3 years) were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: no training controls (C, n = 9), endurance training (E, n = 10), circuit training (S, n = 9), endurance before circuit training in the same session, (E+S, n = 10), and circuit before endurance training in the same session (S+E, n = 10). Subjects performed 2 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Resistance-type circuit training targeted strength endurance (weeks 1-6) and explosive strength and power (weeks 7-12). Endurance training sessions included 5 repetitions run at the velocity associated with Vo2max (Vo2max) for a duration equal to 50% of the time to exhaustion at Vo2max; recovery was for an equal period at 60% Vo2max. Maximal strength in the half squat, strength endurance in the 1-leg half squat and hip extension, and explosive strength and power in a 5-jump test and countermovement jump were measured pre- and post-testing. No significant differences were shown following training between the S+E and E+S groups for all exercise tests. However, both S+E and E+S groups improved less than the S group in 1 repetition maximum (p strength and explosive strength and power. Circuit training alone induced strength and power improvements that were significantly greater than when resistance and endurance training were combined, irrespective of the intrasession sequencing.

  19. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1... Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on-site leased workers of... period at the Mack Avenue Engine Plant 2, Detroit, Michigan location of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power...

  20. Assessing emergency planning zone for new nuclear power plant considering risk of extreme external events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzbutas, Robertas

    2015-04-01

    In general, the Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) are defined as well as plant site and arrangement structures are designed to minimize the potential for natural and manmade hazards external to the plant from affecting the plant safety related functions, which can affect nearby population and environment. This may include consideration of extreme winds, fires, flooding, aircraft crash, seismic activity, etc. Thus the design basis for plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. It has been observed that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodologies to deal with EPZ and extreme external events have not reached the same level of maturity as for severe internal events. The design basis for any plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. As a prime example of an advanced reactor and new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with enhanced safety, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) and Site selection for New NPP in Lithuania had been considered in this work. In the used Safety-by-Design™ approach, the PSA played obviously a key role; therefore a Preliminary IRIS PSA had been developed along with the design. For the design and pre-licensing process of IRIS the external events analysis included both qualitative evaluation and quantitative assessment. As a result of preliminary qualitative analyses, the external events that were chosen for more detailed quantitative scoping evaluation were high winds and tornadoes, aircraft crash, and seismic events. For the site selection in Lithuania a detail site evaluation process was performed and related to the EPZ and risk zoning considerations. In general, applying the quantitative assessment, bounding site characteristics could be used in order to

  1. Computerized training program usage at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzic, D.H.; Reed, W.H.; Lawton, R.K.; Fluehr, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increased US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) interest in the nuclear power industry training programs resulted in the Omaha Public Power District staff at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station investigating the potential for computerizing their recently accredited training records, student training requirements, and the process of determining student certification status. Additional areas that were desirable were a computerized question data bank with random test generation, maintaining history of question usage, and tracking of the job task analysis process and course objectives. SCI Software's online personnel training information management system (OPTIM) was selected, subsequent to a bid evaluation, to provide these features while operating on the existing corporate IBM mainframe.

  2. Effects of power training in mechanical stiffness of the lower limbs in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fábrica

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that Kleg can change significantly after a short power training program. Based on our results and previous studies, we suggest that these changes could be mainly associated with adaptions at muscle control level.

  3. A VR Based Anti-accident Training System for Airport’s Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu GuoDong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment of airport’s power supply is very useful for anti-accident training. In this paper, an effective method of anti-accident training for airport’s power supply based on Delta3D VR engine was proposed. The architecture of airport’s power supply training system was introduced. The electric closet’s operating simulation was accomplished based on the device’s operation logic. The model of fault and relay protection was designed according to electrical characteristics. A finite automaton model of diesel engine was presented based on operating conditions for virtual operation. Finally, a VR based airport’s power supply system was built and verified in worker’s training.

  4. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  5. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Jonathan C. Reid; Quigley, Patrick J.; Jonathan Low; Yimeng Li; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Anis Chaouachi; Olaf Prieske; Urs Granacher

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lo...

  6. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  7. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects' upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients.

  8. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  9. Peripheral Nerve Function and Lower Extremity Muscle Power in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Faulkner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men.......To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men....

  10. Robots integrated with virtual reality simulations for customized motor training in a person with upper extremity hemiparesis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G; Merians, Alma S; Qiu, Qinyin; Lafond, Ian; Saleh, Soha; Ruano, Viviana; Delmonico, Andrea R; Adamovich, Sergei V

    2012-06-01

    A majority of studies examining repetitive task practice facilitated by robots for the treatment of upper extremity paresis utilize standardized protocols applied to large groups. Others utilize interventions tailored to patients but do not describe the clinical decision-making process utilized to develop and modify interventions. This case study describes a robot-based intervention customized to match the goals and clinical presentation of person with upper extremity hemiparesis secondary to stroke. The patient, P.M., was an 85-year-old man with left hemiparesis secondary to an intracerebral hemorrhage 5 years prior to examination. Outcomes were measured before and after a 1-month period of home therapy and after a 1-month robotic intervention. The intervention was designed to address specific impairments identified during his physical therapy examination. When necessary, activities were modified on the basis of response to the first week of treatment. P.M. trained in 12 sessions, using six virtually simulated activities. Modifications to original configurations of these activities resulted in performance improvements in five of these activities. P.M. demonstrated a 35-second improvement in Jebsen Test of Hand Function time and a 44-second improvement in Wolf Motor Function Test time subsequent to the robotic training intervention. Reaching kinematics, 24-hour activity measurement, and scores on the Hand and Activities of Daily Living scales of the Stroke Impact Scale all improved as well. A customized program of robotically facilitated rehabilitation was associated with short-term improvements in several measurements of upper extremity function in a patient with chronic hemiparesis.

  11. Robots integrated with virtual reality simulations for customized motor training in a person with upper extremity hemiparesis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G.; Merians, Alma S.; Qiu, Qinyin; Lafond, Ian; Saleh, Soha; Ruano, Viviana; Delmonico, Andrea R.; Adamovich, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A majority of studies examining repetitive task practice facilitated by robots for the treatment of upper extremity paresis utilize standardized protocols applied to large groups. Others utilize interventions tailored to patients but don't describe the clinical decision making process utilized to develop and modify interventions. This case report will describe a robot-based intervention customized to match the goals and clinical presentation of a gentleman with upper extremity hemiparesis secondary to stroke. Methods PM is an 85 year-old man with left hemiparesis secondary to an intracerebral hemorrhage five years prior to examination. Outcomes were measured before and after a one month period of home therapy and after a one month robotic intervention. The intervention was designed to address specific impairments identified during his PT examination. When necessary, activities were modified based on the patient's response to his first week of treatment. Outcomes PM trained twelve sessions using six virtually simulated activities. Modifications to original configurations of these activities resulted in performance improvements in five of these activities. PM demonstrated a 35 second improvement in Jebsen Test of Hand Function time and a 44 second improvement in Wolf Motor Function Test time subsequent to the robotic training intervention. Reaching kinematics, 24 hour activity measurement and the Hand and Activities of Daily Living scales of the Stroke Impact Scale all improved as well. Discussion A customized program of robotically facilitated rehabilitation resulted in large short-term improvements in several measurements of upper extremity function in a patient with chronic hemiparesis. PMID:22592063

  12. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-08-10

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  13. Review of Modelling Techniques for In Vivo Muscle Force Estimation in the Lower Extremities during Strength Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schellenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of the musculoskeletal loading conditions during strength training is essential for performance monitoring, injury prevention, rehabilitation, and training design. However, measuring muscle forces during exercise performance as a primary determinant of training efficacy and safety has remained challenging. Methods. In this paper we review existing computational techniques to determine muscle forces in the lower limbs during strength exercises in vivo and discuss their potential for uptake into sports training and rehabilitation. Results. Muscle forces during exercise performance have almost exclusively been analysed using so-called forward dynamics simulations, inverse dynamics techniques, or alternative methods. Musculoskeletal models based on forward dynamics analyses have led to considerable new insights into muscular coordination, strength, and power during dynamic ballistic movement activities, resulting in, for example, improved techniques for optimal performance of the squat jump, while quasi-static inverse dynamics optimisation and EMG-driven modelling have helped to provide an understanding of low-speed exercises. Conclusion. The present review introduces the different computational techniques and outlines their advantages and disadvantages for the informed usage by nonexperts. With sufficient validation and widespread application, muscle force calculations during strength exercises in vivo are expected to provide biomechanically based evidence for clinicians and therapists to evaluate and improve training guidelines.

  14. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  15. Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninckx, Erwin; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 60 +/- 1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were grouped into the weight training (WT n = 9) or the isokinetic training group (IT n = 9) matched for training background and sprint power (P (max)), assessed from five maximal sprints (5 s) on an isokinetic bicycle ergometer at cadences between 40 and 120 rpm. Crank torque was measured (1 kHz) to determine the torque distribution during pedaling. Endurance performance was evaluated by measuring power, heart rate and lactate during a graded exercise test to exhaustion and a 30-min performance test. All tests were performed on subjects' individual race bicycle. Knee extension torque was evaluated isometrically at 115 degrees knee angle and dynamically at 200 degrees s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. P (max) at 40 rpm increased in both the groups (~15%; P < 0.05). At 120 rpm, no improvement of P (max) was found in the IT training group, which was possibly related to an observed change in crank torque at high cadences (P < 0.05). Both groups improved their power output in the 30-min performance test (P < 0.05). Isometric knee extension torque increased only in WT (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at low cadences, P (max) improved in both training groups. However, in the IT training group, a disturbed pedaling technique compromises an improvement of P (max) at high cadences.

  16. Computer game-based upper extremity training in the home environment in stroke persons: a single subject design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to assess whether computer game-based training in the home setting in the late phase after stroke could improve upper extremity motor function. Methods Twelve subjects with prior stroke were recruited; 11 completed the study. Design The study had a single subject design; there was a baseline test (A1), a during intervention test (B) once a week, a post-test (A2) measured directly after the treatment phase, plus a follow-up (C) 16–18 weeks after the treatment phase. Information on motor function (Fugl-Meyer), grip force (GrippitR) and arm function in activity (ARAT, ABILHAND) was gathered at A1, A2 and C. During B, only Fugl-Meyer and ARAT were measured. The intervention comprised five weeks of game-based computer training in the home environment. All games were designed to be controlled by either the affected arm alone or by both arms. Conventional formulae were used to calculate the mean, median and standard deviations. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test was used for tests of dependent samples. Continuous data were analyzed by methods for repeated measures and ordinal data were analyzed by methods for ordered multinomial data using cumulative logistic models. A p-value of game time and changes in the outcomes investigated in this study. Conclusion The results indicate that computer game-based training could be a promising approach to improve upper extremity function in the late phase after stroke, since in this study, changes were achieved in motor function and activity capacity. PMID:24625289

  17. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  18. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  19. A Comparison of Stride Length and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Barefoot and Shod Running in Well Trained Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Francis, James Ledingham, Sarah Clarke, DJ Collins, Philip Jakeman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m middle distance (800 m – 5,000 m runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s-1 and 4.72 m·s-1 on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle. There was a significant speed*footwear interaction for knee and ankle angles. Compared to shod running at the lower speed (3.05 m·s-1, well trained runners have greater hip, knee and ankle angles when running barefoot. Runners undertake a high volume (~75% of training at lower intensities and therefore knowledge of how barefoot running alters running kinematics at low and high speeds may be useful to the runner.

  20. A Comparison of Stride Length and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Barefoot and Shod Running in Well Trained Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Ledingham, James; Clarke, Sarah; Collins, D J; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m - 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s(-1) and 4.72 m·s(-1) on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle. There was a significant speed*footwear interaction for knee and ankle angles. Compared to shod running at the lower speed (3.05 m·s(-1)), well trained runners have greater hip, knee and ankle angles when running barefoot. Runners undertake a high volume (~75%) of training at lower intensities and therefore knowledge of how barefoot running alters running kinematics at low and high speeds may be useful to the runner.

  1. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  2. Risk assessment of the extreme interplanetary shock of 23 July 2012 on low-latitude power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.; Wang, C.; Sun, T. R.; Liu, Y. D.

    2016-03-01

    Geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs), characterized by a rapid enhancement in the rate of change of the geomagnetic field perturbation (dB/dt), are considered to be an important source of large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in middle- and low-latitude power grids. In this study, the extreme interplanetary shock of 23 July 2012 is simulated under the assumption that it had hit the Earth with the result indicating the shock-caused SC would be 123 nT. Based on statistics, the occurrence frequency of SCs with amplitudes larger than the simulated one is estimated to be approximately 0.2% during the past 147 years on the Earth. During this extreme event, the simulation indicates that dB/dt, which is usually used as a proxy for GICs, at a dayside low-latitude substation would exceed 100 nT/min; this is very large for low-latitude regions. We then assess the GIC threat level based on the simulated geomagnetic perturbations by using the method proposed by Marshall et al. (2011). The results indicate that the risk remains at "low" level for the low-latitude power network on a global perspective. However, the GIC risk may reach "moderate" or even "high" levels for some equatorial power networks due to the influence of the equatorial electrojet. Results of this study feature substantial implications for risk management, planning, and design of low-latitude electric power networks.

  3. Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ching Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks, followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, the 10-meter walk test (10MWT, and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS. All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4th week, and at the end of the 8th week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05, 6MWT (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p < 0.001, and MAS (p < 0.001 scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001. The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke.

  4. Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Christian; Hole, Eirik; Iversen, Erik; Olsson, Monica Charlotte; Seynnes, Olivier; Solberg, Paul Andre; Paulsen, Gøran

    2017-04-01

    This efficacy study investigated the effects of 1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), 2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and 3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power. Thirty-nine young athletes (20 ± 3 yr; ice hockey, volleyball, and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in two to three sessions per week for 8 wk. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, whereas the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions × kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJ (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30-m sprint. Secondary variables were squat one-repetition maximum (1RM), body composition, quadriceps thickness, and architecture. OWL resulted in trivial improvements and inferior gains compared with FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, DJ, and 1RM. MSPT demonstrated small but robust effects on SJ, DJ, loaded CMJ, and 1RM (3%-13%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30-m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4%-7%). MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions.

  5. Democratic extremism in theory and practice: all power to the people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Democracy and extremism are usually considered as opposites. We assume that our system (in the UK, the USA, the Netherlands etc.) is democratic, and extremists try to destroy our system and introduce some kind of dictatorship, if not chaos and anarchy. Yet in many cases, the extremists seem sincere

  6. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunnicutt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER training in young (60 years adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke.

  7. Neuromuscular contributions to the age-related reduction in muscle power: Mechanisms and potential role of high velocity power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Neal B; Connelly, Denise M; Rice, Charles L; Hunter, Susan W; Doherty, Timothy J

    2017-05-01

    Although much of the literature on neuromuscular changes with aging has focused on loss of muscle mass and isometric strength, deficits in muscle power are more pronounced with aging and may be a more sensitive measure of neuromuscular degeneration. This review aims to identify the adaptations to the neuromuscular system with aging, with specific emphasis on changes that result in decreased muscle power. We discuss how these changes in neuromuscular performance can affect mobility, and ultimately contribute to an increased risk for falls in older adults. Finally, we evaluate the literature regarding high-velocity muscle power training (PT), and its potential advantages over conventional strength training for improving functional performance and mitigating fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ageing, Muscle Power and Physical Function: A Systematic Review and Implications for Pragmatic Training Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christopher; Faure, Charles; Keene, David J; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-09-01

    The physiological impairments most strongly associated with functional performance in older people are logically the most efficient therapeutic targets for exercise training interventions aimed at improving function and maintaining independence in later life. The objectives of this review were to (1) systematically review the relationship between muscle power and functional performance in older people; (2) systematically review the effect of power training (PT) interventions on functional performance in older people; and (3) identify components of successful PT interventions relevant to pragmatic trials by scoping the literature. Our approach involved three stages. First, we systematically reviewed evidence on the relationship between muscle power, muscle strength and functional performance and, second, we systematically reviewed PT intervention studies that included both muscle power and at least one index of functional performance as outcome measures. Finally, taking a strong pragmatic perspective, we conducted a scoping review of the PT evidence to identify the successful components of training interventions needed to provide a minimally effective training dose to improve physical function. Evidence from 44 studies revealed a positive association between muscle power and indices of physical function, and that muscle power is a marginally superior predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. Nine studies revealed maximal angular velocity of movement, an important component of muscle power, to be positively associated with functional performance and a better predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. We identified 31 PT studies, characterised by small sample sizes and incomplete reporting of interventions, resulting in less than one-in-five studies judged as having a low risk of bias. Thirteen studies compared traditional resistance training with PT, with ten studies reporting the superiority of PT for either muscle power or functional

  9. The Maximum Power of the Wind Power System Based on Extreme Value Method%基于极值法的风电系统最大功率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆玲黎; 吴雷

    2011-01-01

    针对风力发电系统的最大功率问题,提出以极值法为依据捕获最大功率的方法.分析了风力机的工作原理及功率特性,讨论了影响功率的主要因素.通过对极值搜索法的基本理论及特点的解析,结合其工作原理,得出功率曲线是占空比的凹函数,因此极值搜索法通过控制占空比来提高风能的捕获效率,并通过改进提高了抗干扰能力和稳定性.实验结果证明了该方法的可行性.%In order to overcome the trouble brought by wind power generation system for maximum power,this paper puts forward a method based on extreme value method to capture the maximum power.The working principle of wind turbine and power characteristics are analyzed,the main factors affecting the power is discussed.Through the analysis of extremum search method on the basic theory and characteristics which combined with its working principle, come to a decision that power curve is concave function of duty cycle.Therefore,extreme value search method can control the duty cycle to improve the efficiency of wind capture, and improve anti-interference ability and stability .Through experiments, the final experimental curves obtained prove the feasibility of the method.

  10. Optimal Dynamic Sub-Threshold Technique for Extreme Low Power Consumption for VLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    For miniaturization of electronics systems, power consumption plays a key role in the realm of constraints. Considering the very large scale integration (VLSI) design aspect, as transistor feature size is decreased to 50 nm and below, there is sizable increase in the number of transistors as more functional building blocks are embedded in the same chip. However, the consequent increase in power consumption (dynamic and leakage) will serve as a key constraint to inhibit the advantages of transistor feature size reduction. Power consumption can be reduced by minimizing the voltage supply (for dynamic power consumption) and/or increasing threshold voltage (V(sub th), for reducing leakage power). When the feature size of the transistor is reduced, supply voltage (V(sub dd)) and threshold voltage (V(sub th)) are also reduced accordingly; then, the leakage current becomes a bigger factor of the total power consumption. To maintain low power consumption, operation of electronics at sub-threshold levels can be a potentially strong contender; however, there are two obstacles to be faced: more leakage current per transistor will cause more leakage power consumption, and slow response time when the transistor is operated in weak inversion region. To enable low power consumption and yet obtain high performance, the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistor as a basic element is viewed and controlled as a four-terminal device: source, drain, gate, and body, as differentiated from the traditional approach with three terminals: i.e., source and body, drain, and gate. This technique features multiple voltage sources to supply the dynamic control, and uses dynamic control to enable low-threshold voltage when the channel (N or P) is active, for speed response enhancement and high threshold voltage, and when the transistor channel (N or P) is inactive, to reduce the leakage current for low-leakage power consumption.

  11. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on April 6, 2011, applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on-site leased workers of...

  12. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  13. Squat jump training at maximal power loads vs. heavy loads: effect on sprint ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nigel K; Cronin, John B; Hopkins, Will G; Hansen, Keir T

    2008-11-01

    Training at a load maximizing power output (Pmax) is an intuitively appealing strategy for enhancement of performance that has received little research attention. In this study we identified each subject's Pmax for an isoinertial resistance training exercise used for testing and training, and then we related the changes in strength to changes in sprint performance. The subjects were 18 well-trained rugby league players randomized to two equal-volume training groups for a 7-week period of squat jump training with heavy loads (80% 1RM) or with individually determined Pmax loads (20.0-43.5% 1RM). Performance measures were 1RM strength, maximal power at 55% of pretraining 1RM, and sprint times for 10 and 30 m. Percent changes were standardized to make magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between changes in these variables were expressed as correlations. Sprint times for 10 m showed improvements in the 80% 1RM group (-2.9 +/- 3.2%) and Pmax group (-1.3 +/- 2.2%), and there were similar improvements in 30-m sprint time (-1.9 +/- 2.8 and -1.2 +/- 2.0%, respectively). Differences in the improvements in sprint time between groups were unclear, but improvement in 1RM strength in the 80% 1RM group (15 +/- 9%) was possibly substantially greater than in the Pmax group (11 +/- 8%). Small-moderate negative correlations between change in 1RM and change in sprint time (r approximately -0.30) in the combined groups provided the only evidence of adaptive associations between strength and power outputs, and sprint performance. In conclusion, it seems that training at the load that maximizes individual peak power output for this exercise with a sample of professional team sport athletes was no more effective for improving sprint ability than training at heavy loads, and the changes in power output were not usefully related to changes in sprint ability.

  14. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M; Di Brezzo, R; Fort, I L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this 48-week exercise intervention was designed to examine the effects of power and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD). Premenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a power (N.=8) or resistance (N.=11) training group. The power exercises included jumping rope, skipping, hopping, and other power-type exercises. The resistance training group performed 8-10 whole-body strengthening exercises at 70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Before and after the exercise intervention, BMD was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the total-body, lumbar spine, left femoral neck, and left greater trochanter. Muscular strength was measured by hand grip dynamometer and 1RM of chest press and leg press. Muscular power was assessed by the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. There were no statistical differences between the two training groups for any of the BMD measurements. Chest press strength was different between the two groups, increasing 6.41 and 1.1kg for the resistance and power groups, respectively over the course of the training period (F[1.15]=9.44, P<0.01). There was a significant time effect for leg press 1RM (F[1.15]=6.04, P=0.03). The participants increased by 12.37kg after the 48-week intervention. Hand grip strength also increased after the study intervention (F[1.16]=46.32, P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that power and resistance training are comparable techniques for maintaining bone density.

  15. Ultra-Low Power Extreme Environment Capable Avionics System-on-a-Chip Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop ultra-low-power, wide-temperature (-150° C to +250 ° C), digital System-on-a-Chip (SOC) ASIC technology in a high resolution, inherently rad-hard IBM...

  16. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  17. An analysis of the radiation field characteristics for extremity dose assessment during maintenance periods at nuclear power plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    Workers who maintain the water chambers of steam generators during maintenance periods in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have a higher likelihood of high radiation exposure, even if they are exposed for a short period of time. In particular, it is expected that the hands of workers would receive the highest radiation exposure as a consequence of hand contact with radioactive materials. In this study, a characteristic analysis of inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations was conducted using thermoluminescent dosemeters for the whole body and extremities during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. It was observed that inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations at NPPs were dominated by high-energy photons.

  18. Fast, Simple and Accurate Handwritten Digit Classification by Training Shallow Neural Network Classifiers with the 'Extreme Learning Machine' Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D; Tissera, Migel D; Vladusich, Tony; van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in training deep (multi-layer) architectures have inspired a renaissance in neural network use. For example, deep convolutional networks are becoming the default option for difficult tasks on large datasets, such as image and speech recognition. However, here we show that error rates below 1% on the MNIST handwritten digit benchmark can be replicated with shallow non-convolutional neural networks. This is achieved by training such networks using the 'Extreme Learning Machine' (ELM) approach, which also enables a very rapid training time (∼ 10 minutes). Adding distortions, as is common practise for MNIST, reduces error rates even further. Our methods are also shown to be capable of achieving less than 5.5% error rates on the NORB image database. To achieve these results, we introduce several enhancements to the standard ELM algorithm, which individually and in combination can significantly improve performance. The main innovation is to ensure each hidden-unit operates only on a randomly sized and positioned patch of each image. This form of random 'receptive field' sampling of the input ensures the input weight matrix is sparse, with about 90% of weights equal to zero. Furthermore, combining our methods with a small number of iterations of a single-batch backpropagation method can significantly reduce the number of hidden-units required to achieve a particular performance. Our close to state-of-the-art results for MNIST and NORB suggest that the ease of use and accuracy of the ELM algorithm for designing a single-hidden-layer neural network classifier should cause it to be given greater consideration either as a standalone method for simpler problems, or as the final classification stage in deep neural networks applied to more difficult problems.

  19. Fast, Simple and Accurate Handwritten Digit Classification by Training Shallow Neural Network Classifiers with the 'Extreme Learning Machine' Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D McDonnell

    Full Text Available Recent advances in training deep (multi-layer architectures have inspired a renaissance in neural network use. For example, deep convolutional networks are becoming the default option for difficult tasks on large datasets, such as image and speech recognition. However, here we show that error rates below 1% on the MNIST handwritten digit benchmark can be replicated with shallow non-convolutional neural networks. This is achieved by training such networks using the 'Extreme Learning Machine' (ELM approach, which also enables a very rapid training time (∼ 10 minutes. Adding distortions, as is common practise for MNIST, reduces error rates even further. Our methods are also shown to be capable of achieving less than 5.5% error rates on the NORB image database. To achieve these results, we introduce several enhancements to the standard ELM algorithm, which individually and in combination can significantly improve performance. The main innovation is to ensure each hidden-unit operates only on a randomly sized and positioned patch of each image. This form of random 'receptive field' sampling of the input ensures the input weight matrix is sparse, with about 90% of weights equal to zero. Furthermore, combining our methods with a small number of iterations of a single-batch backpropagation method can significantly reduce the number of hidden-units required to achieve a particular performance. Our close to state-of-the-art results for MNIST and NORB suggest that the ease of use and accuracy of the ELM algorithm for designing a single-hidden-layer neural network classifier should cause it to be given greater consideration either as a standalone method for simpler problems, or as the final classification stage in deep neural networks applied to more difficult problems.

  20. [Changes in the power of cat EEG rhythms during training with acoustic feedback signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, Iu O; Kulichenko, A M; Pavlenko, V B

    2009-01-01

    Dynamics of power relation between beta and theta rhythms and activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmentum were studied in chronic EEG biofeedback experiments in two waking cats. EEG biofeedback training was based on a developed scheme, in which the level of a presented sound signal decreased if the ratio of power of beta and theta rhythms recorded in the frontal area increased (due to the increase in the beta-rhythm power and decrease in the power of the theta rhythm). These changes were accompanied by the increase in the activity of tegmental neurons presumably dopaminergic.

  1. Effect of ski simulator training on kinematic and muscle activation of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Kim, Kitae; Shin, Insik; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jinhae

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an augmented reality-based ski simulator through analyzing the changes in movement patterns as well as the engagement of major muscles of the lower body. [Subjects] Seven subjects participated in the study. All were national team-level athletes studying at "K" Sports University in Korea who exhibited comparable performance levels and had no record of injuries in the preceding 6 months (Age 23.4 ± 3.8 years; Height 172.6 ± 12.1 cm; Weight 72.3 ± 16.2 kg; Experience 12.3 ± 4.8 years). [Methods] A reality-based ski simulator developed by a Korean manufacturer was used for the study. Three digital video cameras and a wireless electromyography system were used to perform 3-dimensional motion analysis and measure muscle activation level. [Results] Left hip angulation was found to increase as the frequency of the turns increased. Electromyography data revealed that the activation level of the quadriceps group's extension muscles and the biceps femoris group's flexing muscles had a crossing pattern. [Conclusion] Sustained training using an augmented reality-based ski simulator resulted in movements that extended the lower body joints, which is thought to contribute to increasing muscle fatigue.

  2. Analysis of the reliabilities of maglev train power system with FTA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiqiang; Lu, Zhiquo; Chen, Huixing; Liu, Shaoke

    2003-09-01

    As to the high safeties and reliabilities of the magnetic suspension train, the most fundamental rule is that under all supposed running disturbances, faults, and other urgent conditions, and at any time, the running train can all stop at any given point, where the passengers can get off the train completely and can all find a safe stopping place. The object studied in this paper is the CMS-3 type electromagnetic suspension sample train developed in the National University of Defense Technology. Based on the method of fault tree analysis, the safeties and the reliabilities of the key part (the power system) of the train are analyzed systematically. And the instructive viewpoints and the improving measures are put forward.

  3. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  4. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin [University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor.

  5. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Chad E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Complex training (CT involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ, kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ, and a control (CON. Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215. The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312, most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.

  6. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen D; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G

    2014-12-19

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI's rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme's catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems.

  7. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels; Larsen, Filip J.; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Willis, Sarah J.; Gelabert-Rebato, Miriam; Perez-Valera, Mario; Boushel, Robert; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4–6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3–11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P < 0.05). Gross efficiency improved for the arms (+8.8%, P < 0.05), but not the legs (−0.6%). Wingate peak and mean power outputs improved similarly for the arms and legs, as did TT performance. After training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52 and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P < 0.001). In the case of the arms, VO2 was higher during the first than second Wingate test (64 vs. 44%, P < 0.05). During the TT, relative exercise intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017). The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms and legs

  8. An experimental study of a PEM fuel cell power train for urban bus application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    An experimental study was carried out on a fuel cell propulsion system for minibus application with the aim to investigate the main issues of energy management within the system in dynamic conditions. The fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 20 kW PEM stack, was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, Pb batteries as energy storage systems and asynchronous electric drive of 30 kW. As reference vehicle a minibus for public transportation in historical centres was adopted. A preliminary experimental analysis was conducted on the FCS connected to a resistive load through a DC-DC converter, in order to verify the stack dynamic performance varying its power acceleration from 0.5 kW s -1 to about 4 kW s -1. The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle parameters and road characteristics on specific driving cycles, in particular the European R40 cycle was adopted as reference. The "soft hybrid" configuration, which permitted the utilization of a minimum size energy storage system and implied the use of FCS mainly in dynamic operation, was compared with the "hard hybrid" solution, characterized by FCS operation at limited power in stationary conditions. Different control strategies of power flows between fuel cells, electric energy storage system and electric drive were adopted in order to verify the two above hybrid approaches during the vehicle mission, in terms of efficiencies of individual components and of the overall power train. The FCS was able to support the dynamic requirements typical of R40 cycle, but an increase of air flow rate during the fastest acceleration phases was necessary, with only a slight reduction of FCS efficiency. The FCS efficiency resulted comprised between 45 and 48%, while the overall power train efficiency reached 30% in conditions of constant stack power during the driving cycle.

  9. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization with Varying Throughput and Payload Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    due to the buffer being full. In addition, battery statistics can be captured. While running, the service records the current running time in seconds ...classification does not use significantly more battery life . However, if the runtime during ELIDe classification is much smaller, this indicates that ELIDe...Fig. 2 Power utilization of ELIDe in the presence of nominal network traffic Figure 2 shows the available battery life versus the runtime. As

  11. Effects of High-Speed Power Training on Muscle Performance and Braking Speed in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM (HSPT: n=25; 3 sets of 12–14 repetitions, slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n=25; 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions, or control (CON: n=22; stretching 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40–90% 1RM; P<0.05 and improved braking speed (P<0.05. Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P<0.05. Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST.

  12. Power-supply-operations group-training programs, ac/dc power systems and micellaneous information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C A

    1978-06-30

    This program introduces the technician to three phase a-c power and its relationship to rectifier power conversion systems. A brief introduction is given as to the engineering significance of various parameters such as, phase rotation, ac power relationships, harmonics, transformer voltage vectors, rectifier parameters, filters, water cooling, phase delayed triggers to SCR's, dielectric stress vs life and other related subjects. The significance of the details as they apply to various diagnostic problems that a technician may be called upon to solve is emphasized. Reference CAPE-2747.

  13. A novel NOLM structure with nonreciprocal phase shift bias for power fluctuation reduction of pulse trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwei Guo; Xue Feng; Yue Liu; Xiaoming Liu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) with a nonreciprocal phase shift bias (NPSB), called power equalization NOLM (PE-NOLM), is proposed for reducing the power fluctuation of pulse trains. NPSB provides part of the nonreciprocal phase difference so that the required input power is reduced, and nonsymmetrical coupling ratio of coupler can adjust the transmission curve to improve the equalization range. It has been shown theoretically that compared with earlier PE-NOLM, about 1.6 dB of equalization power reduction and about 2.2 dB of equalization range enhancement could be achieved. Experiments have demonstrated that the output power fluctuation is reduced to less than 0.4 dB, while the required input peak power range is 4.5 dBm (15.6-20.1 dBm).

  14. An Extremely Low Power Quantum Optical Communication Link for Autonomous Robotic Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Bizon, Tom; Nguyen, Binh; Kojima, Jun

    2007-01-01

    One concept for planetary exploration involves using many small robotic landers that can cover more ground than a single conventional lander. In addressing this vision, NASA has been challenged in the National Nanotechnology Initiative to research the development of miniature robots built from nano-sized components. These robots have very significant challenges, such as mobility and communication, given the small size and limited power generation capability. The research presented here has been focused on developing a communications system that has the potential for providing ultra-low power communications for robots such as these. In this paper an optical communications technique that is based on transmitting recognizable sets of photons is presented. Previously pairs of photons that have an entangled quantum state have been shown to be recognizable in ambient light. The main drawback to utilizing entangled photons is that they can only be generated through a very energy inefficient nonlinear process. In this paper a new technique that generates sets of photons from pulsed sources is described and an experimental system demonstrating this technique is presented. This technique of generating photon sets from pulsed sources has the distinct advantage in that it is much more flexible and energy efficient, and is well suited to take advantage of the very high energy efficiencies that are possible when using nano scale sources. For these reasons the communication system presented in this paper is well suited for use in very small, low power landers and rovers. In this paper a very low power optical communications system for miniature robots, as small as 1 cu cm is addressed. The communication system is a variant of photon counting communications. Instead of counting individual photons the system only counts the arrival of time coincident sets of photons. Using sets of photons significantly decreases the bit error rate because they are highly identifiable in the

  15. Optimum interpulse interval for transcranial electrical train stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials of maximal amplitude in both upper and lower extremity target muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hal, C.; Hoebink, E.; Polak, H. E.; Racz, I.; de Kleuver, M.; Journee, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum interpulse interval (OIPI) for transcranial electrical train stimulation to elicit muscle motor evoked potentials (TES-MEP) with maximal amplitude in upper and lower extremities during intra-operative spinal cord monitoring. Methods: Intr

  16. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  17. TNO-ADVANCE: a modular power train simulation and design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venne, J.W.C. van de; Hendriksen, P.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Verkiel, M.

    1998-01-01

    To support its activities in the field of conventional and hybrid vehicles, TNO has developed ADVANCE, a modular simulation tool for the design and evaluation of advanced power trains. In this paper the various features and the potential of ADVANCE are described and illustrated by means of two case

  18. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power train

  19. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  20. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  1. TNO-ADVANCE: a modular power train simulation and design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venne, J.W.C. van de; Hendriksen, P.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Verkiel, M.

    1998-01-01

    To support its activities in the field of conventional and hybrid vehicles, TNO has developed ADVANCE, a modular simulation tool for the design and evaluation of advanced power trains. In this paper the various features and the potential of ADVANCE are described and illustrated by means of two case

  2. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  3. Combination transcranial direct current stimulation and virtual reality therapy for upper extremity training in patients with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Joung; Chun, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of combination cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and virtual reality (VR) therapy for upper extremity (UE) training in patients with subacute stroke. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group A received cathodal tDCS, group B received VR, and group C received combination therapy (cathodal tDCS was simultaneously applied during VR therapy). University hospital. Patients (N=59) with impaired unilateral UE motor function after stroke. Fifteen sessions of treatment over a 3-week period. The Modified Ashworth Scale, manual muscle test (MMT), Manual Function Test (MFT), Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS), and Box and Block Test were used to assess UE function. To evaluate activities of daily living, the Korean-Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) was used. All outcomes were measured before and immediately after treatment. After treatment, all groups demonstrated significant improvements in MMT, MFT, FMS, and K-MBI scores. The change in MFT and FMS scores was different between the 3 groups. Post hoc analysis revealed that the improvement of MFT and FMS scores in group C was significantly higher than those of the other 2 groups. In the present pilot study, the combination of brain stimulation using tDCS and peripheral arm training using VR could facilitate a stronger beneficial effect on UE impairment than using each intervention alone. This combination therapy might be a helpful method to enhance recovery of the paretic UE in patients with stroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving the training process of power sports athletes based on their biorhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Piven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improved methods of planning the training process for strength sports athletes with regard to their biorhythms. Material and Methods: the study included 16 athletes qualified yaks were members of the team of the Kharkiv region in weightlifting and powerlifting. Results: revealed that the experimental group athletes who used to planned training load calculations biorhythms improved power rates by 7,2% in compare with the control group who exercised without calculating biorhythms improved results on the power – 4,6%. It was also shown that athletes are more or less manifest Biorhythmic dependence. Conclusions: it was established that the planning of the training process, taking into account jet lag has a positive effect on the result of more than planning the same load without jet lag.

  5. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  6. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  7. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10 or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX® (IRT, n = 12. Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM, average (AV and peak velocity (PV, average (AP and peak power (PP, all during bench press (BP and back squat (BS exercises, along with squat jump (SJ height and counter movement jump (CMJ height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05 in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%, CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%, 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%, 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%, AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%, AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%, PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%, PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%, AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%, and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%. Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM, power, movement velocity and jumping ability.

  8. Training- and pilot station Churwalden: Small-scale high-pressure power plant. Lehr- und Demonstrationskraftwerk Churwalden: Hochdruckkraftwerk im Taschenformat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foppa, C. (Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Baden (Switzerland))

    1991-03-20

    The training and demonstration hydroelectric power plant at Churwalden, the only one of its kind, has been operated since October 1990. It is integrated in the local power supply grid; visitors are given illustrative insight into the process of hydroelectric power generation, which accounts for 60% of Switzerland's power supply. (orig.).

  9. Perfection of badminton players’ speed-power fitness with the help of training means’ variable modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatnyk I.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine effectiveness of badminton players’ speed power fitness program’s perfection at stage of specialized basic training with different variants of training means modules’ combination. Material: in experiment badminton players of 15-17 years’ age (from 1st sports grade to master of sports participated. The sportsmen were divided into three experimental groups (10 persons in each. The trainings were being conducted during 24 weeks by different variants of program. Results: we created different complexes of exercises, combined in three modules (every of each lasted eight week micro-cycles. Every module has more expressed meaningful parts (1 - speed, 2 - power, 3 - jumping. All modules were combined in program of badminton players’ speed power fitness perfection. For every experimental group we worked out distinguishing variant of modules’ combination in program (first variant - 1-2-3 modules; second - 2-3-1; third - 3-1-2. General duration of program was 24 week micro-cycles. Conclusions: we recommended some variants of variable modules’ combination for badminton players’ speed-power fitness perfection. With it, we can regard total influence on the following: speed-power endurance, work with support on own body, quick movements of different body links.

  10. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  11. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  12. EXTREME HOST GALAXY GROWTH IN POWERFUL EARLY-EPOCH RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: pdb@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    During the first half of the universe's life, a heyday of star formation must have occurred because many massive galaxies are in place after that epoch in cosmic history. Our observations with the revolutionary Herschel Space Observatory reveal vigorous optically obscured star formation in the ultra-massive hosts of many powerful high-redshift 3C quasars and radio galaxies. This symbiotic occurrence of star formation and black hole driven activity is in marked contrast to recent results dealing with Herschel observations of X-ray-selected active galaxies. Three archetypal radio galaxies at redshifts 1.132, 1.575, and 2.474 are presented here, with inferred star formation rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. A series of spectacular coeval active galactic nucleus/starburst events may have formed these ultra-massive galaxies and their massive central black holes during their relatively short lifetimes.

  13. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Regula; Jaspers, Richard T.; Baggerman, Hein L.; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Lips, Paul; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control), peak power training (PT), or both peak power and endurance training (PET), which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training. PMID:23509812

  14. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Furrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.

  15. Effect of one- vs. two-stair climb training on sprint power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenten B; Brown, Lee E; Statler, Traci A; Noffal, Guillermo J; Bartolini, J Albert

    2014-11-01

    Although running stairs is often used in sport conditioning programs, at present, little research has examined the effect of stair climb training on sprint power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of running stairs either 1 stair (1S) or 2 stairs (2S) at a time on power. Fourteen male college track and field athletes were randomized into 3 groups; 1S, 2S, or control (C). All groups were pre- and posttested for 1S, 2S, and 40-m sprint split times. The 1S and 2S groups trained twice per week, for 4 weeks, performing 10 sets of climbing 68 total stairs with 2.5-minute rest between trials. The greatest power values (W) from pre- and poststairs and sprint splits were used for statistical analyses. There was a significant (p climb. The 1S group increased power for the 1S test (pre-1,492.89 ± 123.76; post-1,647.41 ± 73.65) with no change in the 2S test (pre-2,428.80 ± 414.81; post-2,430.32 ± 154.90), whereas the 2S group increased power for the 2S test (pre-2,343.73 ± 317.50; post-2,646.17 ± 305.43) with no change in the 1S test (pre-1,516.69 ± 210.64; post-1,529.38 ± 236.69). The C group showed no change in either stair test (1S: pre-1,403.35 ± 238.67, post-1,384.38 ± 153.32; 2S: pre-2,285.93 ± 345.03, post-2,261.85 ± 356.88). There were no significant interactions or main effects for any sprint split power (40 m: pre-5,337.13 ± 611.86, post-5,318.68 ± 586.24).Therefore, stair climb training either 1 or 2 at a time did not affect 40-m sprint split power but increased power for the specific stair training type. Coaches should choose the number of stairs that are similar in time and power output to sprint training.

  16. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  17. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  18. How Competency-Based Training Locks the Working Class out of Powerful Knowledge: A Modified Bernsteinian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that competency-based training in vocational education and training in Australia is one mechanism through which the working class is denied access to powerful knowledge represented by the academic disciplines. The paper presents a modified Bernsteinian analysis to argue that vocational education and training students need access…

  19. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING BY HEART RATE OR POWER IN RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR monitors and powermeters (PM. Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT, lactate threshold (LT power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13 completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1 interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16 = 28., p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.63 and 20km TT time (F(1,16 = 4.92, p = 0.04, eta2 = 0.24 at posttest, showing a 17 watt increase (9.8% and a near 3-and-a-half minute improvement (7.8% in 20km TT completion time. There were no significant group (HR vs. PM x time (baseline vs. posttest interactions for 20km TT completion time, LT power, or VO2max ratings. Our results coincide with the literature supporting the effectiveness of interval training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices

  20. Wavelet Entropy Algorithm to Allocate the Extreme Power Peaks in WiMax Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a solution to overcome the effect for one of the main drawbacks of these days’ wireless systems, where Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM combinations has been used. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR arises after the OFDM stage and reduces the performance of the used nonlinear devices. Therefore, a new stage has been imposed between the MIMO and OFDM block. It is based on the entropy meaning of the wavelet transformation to trigger a proposed thresholding criterion and reconstruct the OFDM signal. As a result, the probability of high PAPR appearance will be limited and reduced; a promising result over our recently published work has been conducted; 15-25% extra reduction. This work could be denoted by MIMO-OFDM based on Entropy Wavelet Transform (MO-EWT systems. The MO-EWT validity has been checked based on either numerical analysis or conducted simulation based on MATLAB; where 80% improvement of reducing the high PAPR has been achieved over the literature. These results have been reached using the same environment conditions and at additional cost and complexity of the transceivers structure.

  1. Peak Power Demand and Energy Consumption Reduction Strategies for Trains under Moving Block Signalling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the moving block signalling (MBS system where the tracking target point of the following train is moving forward with its leading train, overload of the substations occurs when a dense queue of trains starts (or restarts in very close distance interval. This is the peak power demand problem. Several methods have been attempted in the literature to deal with this problem through changing train’s operation strategies. However, most existing approaches reduce the service quality. In this paper, two novel approaches—“Service Headway Braking” (SHB and “Extending Stopping Distance Interval” (ESDI—are proposed according to available and unavailable extra station dwell times, respectively. In these two methods, the restarting times of the trains are staggered and traction periods are reduced, which lead to the reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption. Energy efficient control switching points are seen as the decision parameters. Nonlinear programming method is used to model the process. Simulation results indicate that, compared with ARL, peak power demands are reduced by 40% and 20% by applying SHB and ESDI without any arrival time delay, respectively. At the same time, energy consumptions are also reduced by 77% and 50% by applying SHB and ESDI, respectively.

  2. Exposure to ultrafine particles and black carbon in diesel-powered commuter trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Traub, Alison; Evans, Greg J.

    2017-04-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP), black carbon (BC) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations measured during 43 trips on diesel-powered commuter trains revealed elevated exposures under some conditions. When the passenger coaches were pulled by a locomotive, the geometric mean concentrations of UFP, LDSA, and BC were 18, 10, and 6 times higher than the exposure levels when the locomotive pushed the coaches, respectively. In addition, UFP, LDSA, and BC concentrations in pull-trains were 5, 3, and 4 times higher than concentrations measured while walking on city sidewalks, respectively. Exposure to these pollutants was most elevated in the coach located closest to the locomotive: geometric means were 126,000 # cm-3 for UFP, 249 μm2 cm-3 for LDSA, and 17,800 ng m-3 of BC; these concentrations are much higher than those previously reported for other modes of public transportation. Markedly high levels of diesel exhaust are present in passenger trains powered by diesel locomotives operated in pull-mode. Thus, it is recommended that immediate steps be taken to evaluate, and where needed, mitigate exposure in diesel-powered passenger trains, both commuter and inter-city.

  3. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43 years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training, participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04. A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01, whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03. With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

  4. A training method for locomotion mode prediction using powered lower limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aaron J; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-01

    Recently developed lower-limb prostheses are capable of actuating the knee and ankle joints, allowing amputees to perform advanced locomotion modes such as step-over-step stair ascent and walking on sloped surfaces. However, transitions between these locomotion modes and walking are neither automatic nor seamless. This study describes methods for construction and training of a high-level intent recognition system for a lower-limb prosthesis that provides natural transitions between walking, stair ascent, stair descent, ramp ascent, and ramp descent. Using mechanical sensors onboard a powered prosthesis, we collected steady-state and transition data from six transfemoral amputees while the five locomotion modes were performed. An intent recognition system built using only mechanical sensor data was 84.5% accurate using only steady-state training data. Including training data collected while amputees performed seamless transitions between locomotion modes improved the overall accuracy rate to 93.9%. Training using a single analysis window at heel contact and toe off provided higher recognition accuracy than training with multiple analysis windows. This study demonstrates the capability of an intent recognition system to provide automatic, natural, and seamless transitions between five locomotion modes for transfemoral amputees using powered lower limb prostheses.

  5. Existence and uniqueness of extreme point of total power rate functional for hot rolling problem with rigid-plastic SCM model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The total power rate functional for hot rolling problem with the rigid-plastic SCM model is considered.The gradient operator of the plastic deformation power rate functional is deduced.It is strictly monotone mapping.Further,it is proved that the frictional power rate functional is a convex functional and the tensional stress power rate functional is a linear one.Hence,the total power rate functional is a strictly convex functional.By using nonlinear functional analysis methods,the existence and uniqueness of extreme point of the functional is obtained.

  6. The effects of upper extremity task training with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction on trunk stability and balance in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-Hyeok; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of upper extremity task training employing the bracing method on the trunk control and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 46 stroke patients whose strokes had occurred six months or more prior to the study. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group underwent upper extremity task training with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction (bracing) applied. The other group simply underwent upper extremity task training, without bracing. [Results] The experimental group's Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) significantly increased after the intervention, whereas the control group did not see any significant difference. There was significant improvement in balance after the intervention in both the experimental group and the control group. According to the between-group comparisons, the improvements in the experimental group were significantly greater in the control group, except in the Postural Assessment Scale (PASS). [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, upper extremity task exercises with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction, conducted as part of adult hemiplegic patients' trunk stabilization exercises, can be applied to a diverse range of hemiplegic patients and implemented as an exercise program after discharge from hospital.

  7. Low-load Slow Movement Squat Training Increases Muscle Size and Strength but Not Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, S; Maeo, S; Tayashiki, K; Nakatani, M; Kanehisa, H

    2016-04-01

    We tested a hypothesis that low-load squat training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) would increase muscle size and strength but not necessarily power. Healthy young men were assigned to LST [50% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) load, 3 s for lowering/lifting without pause: n=9] or low-load normal speed (LN: 50% 1-RM load, 1 s for lowering/lifting with 1-s pause; n=7) groups. Both groups underwent an 8-week squat training program (10 repetitions/set, 3 sets/day, and 3 days/week) using the assigned methods. Before and after the intervention, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness, maximal torque during isometric hip extension and knee extension, 1-RM squat, lifting power from squatting position and rate of electromyography rise (RER) in knee extensors during the task, leg extension power and vertical jump height were measured. After the intervention, the LN group showed no changes in all the variables. The LST group significantly (Pmuscle thickness (6-10%), isometric hip extension torque (18%) and 1-RM squat (10%), but not isometric knee extension torque, lifting power and RER, leg extension power and vertical jump height. These results suggest that LST can increase muscle size and task-related strength, but has little effect on power production during dynamic explosive movements.

  8. Enhancing quality of life in older adults: A comparison of muscular strength and power training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Anthony P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although progressive resistance strength training (ST has been found to improve various measures of physical functioning in older adults, the benefit to quality of life is unclear. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that high velocity power training (PT may be more beneficial for physical functioning than ST, but it is not known whether this type of training impacts quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in multiple measures of quality of life resulting from ST vs. PT in older adults. A no exercise group was also included as control comparison condition. Methods Forty-five older adults (M age = 74.8 years; SD = 5.7 were randomly assigned to either a PT, b ST, or c control group (no exercise. Measures of self-efficacy (SE, satisfaction with physical function (SPF, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL were assessed at baseline and following training. The resistance training conditions met 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% 1 repetition maximum. Results A series of ANCOVA's comparing between group differences in change and controlling for baseline values revealed significant group differences in all three measures: SE (F(2,31 = 9.77; p (2,32 = 3.36; p = .047; SWL (F(2,31 = 4.76; p = .016. Follow up analyses indicated that the PT group reported significantly more change in SE, SPF, and SWL than the control group whereas the ST group reported greater change than the control group only in SE. Conclusion These pilot data indicate that high velocity power training may influence multiple levels of quality of life over and above the benefits gained through traditional strength training.

  9. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  10. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J; Mercer, R T

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industry programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.

  11. Maximal power output estimates the MLSS before and after aerobic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Franco Wilke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an equation to predict the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS through a VO2peak incremental protocol. Twenty-six physically active men were divided in two groups (G1 and G2. They performed one maximal incremental test to determine their VO2peak and maximal power output (Wpeak, and also several constant intensity tests to determine MLSS intensity (MLSSw on a cycle ergometer. Group G2 underwent six weeks of aerobic training at MLSSw. A regression equation was created using G1 subjects Wpeak and MLSSw to estimate the MLSS intensity (MLSSweq before and after training for G2 (MLSSweq = 0.866 x Wpeak-41.734. The mean values were not different (150±27W vs 148±27W, before training / 171±26W vs 177±24W, after training and significant correlations were found between the measured and the estimated MLSSw before (r²=0.49 and after training (r²=0.62 in G2. The proposed equation was effective to estimate the MLSS intensity before and after aerobic training.

  12. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  13. High power THz source based on coherent radiation of picosecond relativistic electron bunch train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Tunable and compact high power terahertz (THz) radiation based on coherent radiation (CR) of the picosecond relativistic electron bunch train is under development at the Tsinghua accelerator lab. Coherent synchronization radiation (CSR) and coherent transition radiation (CTR) are researched based on an S-band compact electron linac, a bending magnet or a thin foil. The bunch train’s form factors, which are the key factor of THz radiation, are analyzed by the PARMELA simulation. The effects of electron bunch trains under different conditions, such as the bunch number, bunch charges, micro-pulses inter-distance, and accelerating gradient of the gun are investigated separately in this paper. The optimal radiated THz power and spectra should take these factors as a whole into account.

  14. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  15. Hybrid power train for light commercial vehicles; Hybridantriebsstrang fuer leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somschor, B.; Buchhold, O. (ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen)

    2007-07-01

    Light commercial vehicles are a rapidly growing vehicle segment. These vehicles are used for several purposes e.g. supply of different goods, construction areas, special applications. A high number of vehicles are used in cities or in urban arena with a high density of traffic and typical environmental polluting. In the meantime legislation in several industrialized countries around the world have the target to protect environment, e.g., Euro 4 or 5 regulations or Japan 10. In parallel the automotive industries (ACEA) in Europe has given a self obligation to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission until 2008 to a value of 140 g/km. A lot of activities are started by automotive industry and there suppliers in the past to meet these requirements. Beside already well known development activities like weight optimisation, lower driving and air resistance or improved diesel engine the hybrid power train, a combination of electric motor generator and combustion engine seems to be in the future an imported solution to meet these requirements in the future. Several possibilities to realize a hybrid power train for these applications is shown including the possibilities ZF have to show a hybrid power train for these types of applications. Advantages and disadvantages of the several possibilities are discussed from different point of view. The needed basic functions of a hybrid power train are discussed and system is recommended to use for these types of applications. A simulation model is shown and described including the realisation and results for different driving cycles. The influence on fuel consumption and emissions divided by functions are shown. A solution optimised for light commercial application is shown. Further more first results based on practical experiences are described. (orig.)

  16. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  17. Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Jason B; Porter, Jared M; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated kinematic and kinetic variable changes in the power snatch (PS) after 4 weeks of training and the use of summary feedback. Twenty-four collegiate football players participated as subjects in this study. The subjects were pretested for their 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and were separated into feedback (FG; n = 12) and control (CG; n = 12) groups. The FG was provided with augmented feedback (AF) during power snatch training sessions, which took place 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The AF is defined as information that is received in addition to what is naturally available. Variables measured include peak force (PF), peak power (PP), and several kinematic variables at 50, 70, and 90% of the subjects' pre-1RM. The PF was improved at 50% 1RM from 567 +/- 202 to 769 +/- 230 N, at 70% from 725 +/- 186 to 890 +/- 199 N, and at 90% from 822 +/- 197 to 1008 +/- 201 N in the FG (p training and AF. Practitioners wishing to improve weightlifting performance should attempt to use evidence-based AF.

  18. Negative First-Term Outcomes Associated with Lower Extremity Injury During Recruit Training Among Female Marine Corps Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Infantry training and any specialized MOS training before matriculating into the Fleet Marine Force, up to 48 months of service. Failure to complete...Aptitude Battery: word knowledge, paragraph comprehension, arithmetic reason- ing, and mathematics knowledge.’" The raw scores are com- bined, weighted...graduation, and included School of Infantry training and any specialized military occupational (MOS) training before matriculating into the Fleet

  19. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (PHIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; PHIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance.

  20. Effects of a resistance training program and subsequent detraining on muscle strength and muscle power in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Perez, Carlos; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; de Paz-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance training adaptations in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been described, the detraining response in this population is largely unknown. [corrected] This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week detraining period on muscle strength (isometric and endurance) and muscle power of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients that had previously carried out a 12-week resistance training program (RTP). Forty-two MS patients were randomly assigned into two groups: an exercise group (EG) that performed a 12-week RTP for the knee extensors muscles; and a control group (CG), that did not perform any specific training. Knee extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle power and muscle endurance were evaluated before and after the RTP, as well as 12 weeks after training completion. A strain gauge was used to measure the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and muscle power was assessed with a linear encoder. Muscle endurance was interpreted as the number of repetitions that a patient could perform in a single set of knee extension exercise. The EG increased MVIC and muscle power after the training period, although the training did not affect muscle endurance. After 12 weeks of detraining, MVIC returned to pre-training values but muscle power was still greater than pre-training values in the EG. The CG did not present any change in the variables measured during the intervention. A 12-week RTP improved MVIC and muscle power in MS patients. Additionally, 12 weeks of detraining blunted strength training adaptations in MS patients, although muscle power training adaptations were still evident after the detraining period.

  1. Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes; Weterlund, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low - in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment). We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  2. Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This longitudinal study examined the major physiological mechanisms that determine the age related loss of lower extremity muscle power in two distinct groups of older humans. We hypothesized that after ~3 years of follow-up, mobility-limited older adults (mean age: 77.2 +/- 4, n = 22, 12 females) w...

  3. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  4. Significant progression of load on the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using the Anatoly Gravitational System, in a 10-week training period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 David Tran,1 Di Cui,1 Daniel P Burke,2 Samir Al-Adawi,3 Atsu SS Dorvlo41Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Georgia College and State University, GA, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, OmanAbstract: In an age of increasing numbers of lifestyle diseases and plasticity of longevity, exercise and weight training have been increasingly recognized as both preventing and mitigating the severity of many illnesses. This study was designed to determine whether significant weight-lifting gains could be realized through the Anatoly Gravitational System. Specifically, this study sought to determine whether this once-weekly weight-training system could result in significant weekly strength gains during a 10-week training period. A total of 50 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 67 years, completed at least 10 weekly 30-minute training sessions. The results suggest participants could, on average, double their weight-lifting capacity within 10 sessions. This preliminary study, which would require further scrutiny, suggests the Anatoly Gravitational System provides a rather unique opportunity to load the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using only short weekly training sessions. More studies are warranted to scrutinize these findings.Keywords: Anatoly Gravitational System, weight training, musculoskeletal system

  5. The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=-2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=-1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=-1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=-1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers.

  6. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoyo Moisés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  7. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Cadenas-Sánchez, María Monserrat; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5–8 sets with 8 repetitions) and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax)) over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m), countermovement jump height (CMJH), 20 m change of direction ability (COD) and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004) was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s), CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm) and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N) in both groups (p < 0.05). However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance. PMID:26557200

  8. Moderate intensity, but not high intensity, treadmill exercise training alters power output properties in myocardium from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Diffee, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on power output properties in permeablized (skinned) myocytes of old rats. Thirty-month-old rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and groups undergoing 11 weeks of treadmill exercise training at moderate intensity (MI) and at high intensity (HI). Peak power output normalized to maximal force was significantly increased in MI but not in HI compared to C with significant increases in atrial myosin light chain 1 in ventricle. These results suggest that MI exercise training is beneficial as a significant increase was seen in the ability of the myocardium to do work, but this effect was not seen with HI training.

  9. Operator training for the Yacyreta binational hydroelectric power plant; Formacion de operadores para la Central Hidroelectrica de Yacireta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, Francisco; Tachella, Heriberto [Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, Isla Yacireta (Paraguay). Central Hidroelectrica Yacyreta]. E-mail: yacyreta@internet.siscotel.com

    1998-07-01

    This work is oriented to the power plant operators, by exposing the criteria and methods adopted for operators selection, training and incorporation to the Yacyreta Hydroelectric Power Plant. The used criteria considered some aspects, as follows: the operation staff should be consisted of equal numbers of Argentine and Paraguayan nationalities, viewing the both systems operation; experience of the shift supervisors in operating a plant for a minimum of 10 years; the supervisors should participate training the auxiliary operators.

  10. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the

  11. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  12. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Takeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI after game-simulated (80 min. rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 % volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10 or passive rest condition (n = 10 for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05. However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage.

  13. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  14. Maximal power output estimates the MLSS before and after aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Franco Wilke; Guilherme Passos Ramos; André Maia Lima; Christian Emmanuel Torres Cabido; Cristiano Lino Monteiro de Barros; Thiago Teixeira Mendes; Emerson Silami Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an equation to predict the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) through a VO2peak incremental protocol. Twenty-six physically active men were divided in two groups (G1 and G2). They performed one maximal incremental test to determine their VO2peak and maximal power output (Wpeak), and also several constant intensity tests to determine MLSS intensity (MLSSw) on a cycle ergometer. Group G2 underwent six weeks of aerobic training at MLSSw. A regression equa...

  15. Lower extremity muscle activation and function in progressive task-oriented training on the supplementary tilt table during stepping-like movements in patients with acute stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, Junesun; Lee, In-Hak

    2015-06-01

    An effective and standardized method for applying a tilt table as a supplementary treatment in the early rehabilitation of stroke patients is still missing. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table on the improvement in lower extremity (LE) muscle activation and clinical function in subjects with hemiplegia due to stroke. Thirty-nine subjects with acute stroke were randomly allocated to three groups; control group, tilt table group, and task-oriented training group on the tilt table, with 13 patients, respectively. All of the subjects received the routine therapy for half an hour, and subjects in the experimental groups additionally received training on two different tilt table applications for 20min a day, five times a week for three weeks. The effect of tilt table applications was assessed using the surface electromyography (EMG) analysis during stepping-like movements on the tilt table for LE muscle activation and clinical scores for function. Our results showed that there was a significantly greater increase in the EMG patterns of the extensors and flexors of the affected leg muscles during flexion and extension movements of both legs and clinical scores in patients undergoing the progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table can improve LE muscle activation and clinical scores of functional performance for early rehabilitation of subjects with acute stroke.

  16. Observed Rates of Lower Extremity Stress Fractures After Implementation of the Army Physical Readiness Training Program at JBSA Fort Sam Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupa, Robyn L; Aberle, Curtis; Johnson, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    Millions of dollars are lost each year to the US military in medical discharges from injuries sustained in the initial training of recruits. Most medical discharges in recruits are related to musculoskeletal overuse injuries, including stress fractures. Any strategies that can reduce injury rates are also likely to reduce rates of medical discharge. This study evaluated the Army Physical Readiness Training (PRT) program which was established to provide a method of physical fitness training that would reduce the number of preventable injuries. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the number of lower extremity stress fractures that were diagnosed in the 6 months prior to and 6 months following the implementation of the PRT program. Electronic medical records were queried for specific diagnoses of stress fractures to the pelvis, femoral neck, femoral shaft, tibia, fibula, tarsals and metatarsals. The observed number of diagnoses in each time period were compared using the χ² method. Decrease was shown not only in the overall occurrence of stress fractures, but specifically in the occurrence of stress fractures of the femoral neck, femoral shaft, and tarsals. Our study was able to show a correlation between the PRT program and a decrease in the observed occurrence of lower extremity stress fractures.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  18. Features of influence of different modes of training on the dynamics of power performance bodybuilders on stage-specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavityak O.S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study the effect of various features on the structure and orientation of exercise routines on the level of development of force capabilities bodybuilders on stage specialized basic training. Material : studies participated 60 athletes (age 18-19 years, the experience of training - 5 years. The study used a method of determining the index of the training load for the power sports. Level security features athletes determined by control testing. Control of the studied parameters was carried out for 4 months training at intervals of 1 month. Results : it was found that under conditions similar level of fitness athletes and structure your workout performance power load and the nature of their changes depend on the particular mode of training (in this study - from the application of the basic sequence variative and isolation exercises. Conclusions : the use of pilot training in integrated mode with alternating motor activity using the basic priority and isolation exercises for no more than 2 microcycles have the most significant positive impact on the increase in power performance parameters of athletes (on average by 26.5% p <0.05

  19. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Lee; Sleap, Mike; Tolfrey, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Complex training, a combination of resistance training and plyometrics is growing in popularity, despite limited support for its efficacy. In pre- and early pubertal children, the study of complex training has been limited, and to our knowledge an examination of its effect on anaerobic performance characteristics of the upper and lower body has not been undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of detraining after complex training requires clarification. The physical characteristics (mean+/-s) of the 54 male participants in the present study were as follows: age 12.3 +/- 0.3 years, height 1.57 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 50.3 +/- 11.0 kg. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 33) or control group (n = 21). The training, which was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, included a combination of dynamic constant external resistance and plyometrics. After training, participants completed 12 weeks of detraining. At baseline, after training and after detraining, peak and mean anaerobic power, dynamic strength and athletic performance were assessed. Twenty-six participants completed the training and none reported any training-related injury. Complex training was associated with small increases ( 0.05). In the experimental group, dynamic strength was increased by 24.3 - 71.4% (dependent on muscle group; P 0.05). For 40-m sprint running, basketball chest pass and vertical jump test performance, the experimental group saw a small improvement ( 0.05). In conclusion, in pre- and early pubertal boys, upper and lower body complex training is a time-effective and safe training modality that confers small improvements in anaerobic power and jumping, throwing and sprinting performance, and marked improvements in dynamic strength. However, after detraining, the benefits of complex training are lost at similar rates to other training modalities.

  20. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  1. Remote, Real-time Investigations of Extreme Environments Using High Power and Bandwidth Cabled Observatories: The OOI Regional Scale Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate deposits and hydrothermal vents are two of the most extreme environments on Earth. Seismic events and flow of gases from the seafloor support and modulate novel microbial communities within these systems. Although studied intensely for several decades, significant questions remain about the flux of heat, volatiles and microbial material from the subsurface to the hydrosphere in these dynamic environments. Quantification of microbial communities, their structure and abundances, and metabolic activities is in an infant state. To better understand these systems, the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative has installed high power (8 kW), high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) nodes on the seafloor that provide access to active methane seeps at Southern Hydrate Ridge, and at the most magmatically robust volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge - Axial Seamount. The real-time interactive capabilities of the cabled observatory are critical to studying gas-hydrate systems because many of the key processes occur over short time scales. Events such as bubble plume formation, the creation of collapse zones, and increased seepage in response to earthquakes require adaptive response and sampling capabilities. To meet these challenges a suite of instruments will be connected to the cable in 2013. These sensors include full resolution sampling by upward-looking sonars, fluid and gas chemical characterization by mass spectrometers and osmo samplers, long-term duration collection of seep imagery from cameras, and in situ manipulation of chemical sensors coupled with flow meters. In concert, this instrument suite will provide quantification of transient and more stable chemical fluxes. Similarly, at Axial Seamount the high bandwidth and high power fiber optic cables will be used to communicate with and power a diverse array of sensors at the summit of the volcano. Real-time high definition video will provide unprecedented views of macrofaunal and microbial communities

  2. Lower Extremity Disorders among Men and Women in Army Basic Training and Effects of Two Types of Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    27 R.R. Protzman and C.G. Griffis. Stress fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977...was dropped on the rearfoot or the forefoot regions of the boots. de Moya found that the impact cushioning and energy absorption characteristics of the...fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977. 28. K. A. Reinker ane S. A. Ozburne. A

  3. Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, R. L.; Donaldson, M. R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile).

  4. Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular variables in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Lilian França; Tricoli, Valmor; Barroso, Renato; Rodacki A, L F; Russo, Luciano; Aihara, André Yui; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Artur; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.

  5. A Full Scope Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulator: Design and Implementation Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Corcuera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a full scope training simulator for a Spanish nuclear power plant. The simulator is based on a client/server architecture that allows the distributed execution in a network with many users to participate in the same simulation. The interface was designed to support the interaction of the operators with the simulator through virtual panels supported by touch screens with high fidelity graphic displays. The simulation environment is described including the extension added to facilitate an easy operation by instructors. The graphical interface has been developed using component software technology. The appropriate selection of hardware for visualization and interaction, in terms of cost and performance, resulted in a facility much less expensive than the classic hard panels replica simulators and, at the same time, able to fulfill most of the training requirements. The main features of the simulator are the distributed execution control of the models and the flexibility of design and maintenance of the interface. The benefits of virtual panels approach are the automatic switch reposition and tagging, configuration flexibility, low maintenance requirements, or capability to support multiple users distributed across the corporate intranet. After exhaustive validation and testing, the training sessions are being conducted successfully.

  6. PENGARUH SIRKUIT TRAINING AWAL AKHIR LATIHAN TEKNIK TERHADAP KARDIORESPIRASI, POWER, SMASH, PASSING BAWAH ATLET BOLA VOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Permana

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study aims to find out the effects of training circuit exercise at the beginning and the end of technical exercises on the cardiorespiration ability, power, and smash and underhand passing skills of the male volleyball athletes of Yuso club, Sleman. This was an experimental study using the pretest-posttest group design. The research population consisted of male volleyball athletes of Yuso Club, Sleman. The sample consisted of 20 athletes selected by ordinal pairing, and 2 groups were selected each of which was involved to measure the cardiorespiration ability (VO2 max using the multistage. The power test used the vertical jump test, the smash skill used the Stanley test, and the underhand passing skill used the Brumbach forearms pass Wall Volley Test. The data were analized using the t-test to find out the data structure in the high dimesion because of the involvement of more than one variable. The results show that the VO2 max variable of group 1 can increase the cardiorespiration ability of 5.21 % or 2.24 litres of the oxygen volume. Group 2 increase 2.64 or 1.15 litres. The variable power or vertical jump variable in group 1 is about 66.20, increasing about 0.8 cm or 1.21 % becoming 67.00; in group 2 it is about 69.50 cm increasing about 3.60 cm or 5.18 % becoming 73.10 cm. The variable smash in group 1 is about  27.50 times, increasing about 0.20 or 0.73 % becoming 27.70 times. In group 2 it is  27.20 times increasing about 5.8 or 31.32 % becoming 33 times. The underhand passing variable in group 1 is  49.70  times increasing about 0.30 or 0.60 % becoming 50.00 times. In group 2 it is 50.40 times increasing about 2.0 or 3.97 % becoming 52.40 times. Based on the results, it can be concluded that group II whose do circuit training exercises at the end of exercises are better than group I that do circuit training exercises at the beginning of technical exercises. Keywords: circuit training exercise, technical exercise, cardiorespiration

  7. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2017-09-01

    Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional resistance training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance training (power-training) to improve muscle strength and walking capacity of children with CP. Twenty-two children with spastic CP participated (13 bilateral, Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I [n = 10] and II [n = 12], 7.5 years [SD 1.8, range 4-10 years]). Within-subjects changes in a 14-weeks usual care period were compared with changes in a 14-week functional power-training period (in groups, 3×/wk). Outcome measures were the muscle power sprint test (MPST), 1-minute walk test (1MWT), 10-m shuttle run test (SRT), gross motor function (GMFM-66), isometric strength of lower-limb muscles and dynamic ankle plantar flexor strength. Changes during the training period were significantly larger than changes in the usual care period for all outcome measures ( P training period for walking capacity (ΔMPST [mean]: 27.6 W [95%CI 15.84-39.46, 83% increase], Δ1MWT: 9.4 m [95% CI 4.17-14.68, 13%], ΔSRT: 4.2 [95%CI 2.57-5.83, 56%], ΔGMFM-66: 5.5 [95% CI 3.33-7.74, 7%]) and muscle strength (18%-128%), while outcomes remained stable in the usual care period. The results indicate that functional power-training is an effective training for improving walking capacity in young children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Does Training of the Nondominant Upper Extremity Reduce the Surgeon's Muscular Strain During Laparoscopy?: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, T.E.; Massa, M.; Weinans, M.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Kluivers, K.B.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In laparoscopy, suboptimal ergonomics frequently lead to morbidity for surgeons. Physical complaints are more commonly reported on the dominant upper extremity. This may be the consequence of challenging laparoscopic tasks being easier to perform with the dominant side. The authors hyp

  9. Influence of the control system on wind turbine loads during power production in extreme turbulence: Structural reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The wind energy industry is continuously researching better computational models of wind inflow and turbulence to predict extreme loading (the nature of randomness) and their corresponding probability of occurrence. Sophisticated load alleviation control systems are increasingly being designed an...

  10. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kanegusuku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11, ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO2, systolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR, and rate pressure product (RPP were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05. Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO2, HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO2 (absolute load decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05, while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO2 did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  11. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  12. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kanegusuku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11, ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO2, systolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR, and rate pressure product (RPP were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05. Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO2, HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO2 (absolute load decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05, while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO2 did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  13. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Temporal Aspects of the V[o.sub.2] Response at the Power Output Associated with V[o.sub.2]peak in Well Trained Cyclists-Implications for Interval Training Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B.; Shing, Cecilia M.; Jenkins, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The power output achieved at peak oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]peak) and the time this power can be maintained (i.e., Tmax) have been used in prescribing high-intensity interval training. In this context, the present study examined temporal aspects of the V[O.sub.2] response to exercise at the cycling power that output well trained cyclists…

  15. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  16. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  17. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22  ±  3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly.

  18. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  19. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2...

  20. [The influence of the training of the muscular component of the musculo-venous pump in the lower extremities on the clinical course of varicose vein disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, P F; Katorkin, S A; Volkovoy, V V; Sizonenko, Ya V

    Investigations of the influence of the training of the muscular component of the musculo-venous pump in the lower extremities on the clinical course of varicose vein disease and correction of the step cycle are currently underway. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the training of the muscular component of the musculo-venous pump in the lower extremities and of the correction of the step cycle on the quality of life of the patients presenting with varicose vein disease. The study included 22 patients with varicose veins in the lower extremities (CEAP clinical class C3 or C4). All the patients performed, twice daily during a total of 60 days, a specially designed complex of 7 exercise intended to strengthen the posterior muscle group of the lower legs and correct the step cycle. After 60 days, all the patients reported the appearance of the subjective signs suggesting positive dynamics of their condition. The following statistically significant changes were documented: reduction of the malleolar circumference, improvement of integral characteristics of the quality of life as evaluated with the use of the international questionnaire for the patients with chronic lower limb venous insufficiency (CIVIQ), normalization of the frequency and amplitude of modal oscillations in the soleus muscle revealed by electromyography. The correction of foot rolling muscles and the sequence of activation of the muscles involved in the first five phases of the cycle step increases the strength of contraction of the soleus muscle, promotes venous blood flow in the proximal direction, and thereby enhances the efficiency of the venous outflow. The development of adequate gain skills, the correction of the step cycle, and the strengthening of the muscular component of the musculo-venous pump lead to the improvement of the clinical course of varicose vein disease. The proposed complex of physical exercises provides an effective and pathogenetically sound

  1. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarębska Aleksandra, Jastrzębski Zbigniew, Moska Waldemar, Leońska-Duniec Agata, Kaczmarczyk Mariusz, Sawczuk Marek, Maciejewska-Skrendo Agnieszka, Żmijewski Piotr, Ficek Krzysztof, Trybek Grzegorz, Lulińska-Kuklik Ewelina, Ekaterina A. Semenova, Ildus I. Ahmetov, Cięszczyk Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The C allele of the M235T (rs699 polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035. Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training.

  2. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output.

  3. THE EFFECT OF ROPE JUMPING TRAINING OF DIFFERENT SPEEDS ON ANAEROBIC POWER

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Gülşah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of rope jumpingtraining on anaerobic vertical, horizontal, mean and peak power of rope jumpingat different speeds in trained females. The study was comprised of 20 trainedfemales as the low-speed jumping group (n=10, mean age 21.4±2.3 years, body weight54.30±6.03 kg, height 161.30±6.99 cm) and the high-speed jumping group (n=10,mean age 21±1.8 years, body weight: 56.50±5.91 kg, height 163.20±7.02 cm). Thejumping speed was adjusted using a ...

  4. The relationship of maximal alactacid anaerobic power to somatotype in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, E; Sardella, F; Dal Monte, A

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype components and maximal alactacid anaerobic power (MAAP) in trained subjects. The somatotype components (endomorphy: means = 2.66, S.D. = +/- 0.78; mesomorphy: means = 5.45, S.D. = +/- 1.12; ectomorphy: means = 2.46, S.D. = +/- 0.88) and total MAAP were measured in 40 male fencers (aged, means 21.79, S.D. = +/- 3.97) in order to determine the correlations. The results did not show any correlations between the parameters. It can be concluded that the MAAP of an individual does not depend on the somatotype; but it may also be assumed that MAAP show changes with the percentage of fibre type, enzymatic activity in these fibres involved by large muscle groups which are relatively related to musculo-skeletal development (second component of somatotype) and neuro-muscular properties of the subjects, all having a genetic basis.

  5. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-01-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training. Key points Aerobic dance provides sufficient training stimuli for the improvement of explosive power. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism is associated with individual variation in the change of power-related phenotypes in response to aerobic dance training. The C allele carriers of the AGT gene M235T polymorphism show greater improvements of jump

  6. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha H. Rallapalli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N is assumed to: (a reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S and (b introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  7. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING MODALITIES ON POWER, SPEED, SKILL AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN YOUNG MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Balciunas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12, general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11 and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12. The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05. On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05. Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants

  8. Implementation of digital safety related I and C systems at nuclear power plants. A systematic approach to training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Peter; Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the past, refurbishment or modernization projects at nuclear power plants (NPP) dealing with the AREVA product for safety related digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, i.e. TELEPERM {sup registered} XS (TXS), regularly led to the development and implementation of different project specific training courses. They mostly dealt with a basic introduction to TELEPERM {sup registered} XS, as well as project specific engineering of TELEPERM {sup registered} XS and maintenance of the TELEPERM {sup registered} XS system supplied with the project. However, it gradually emerged that diverse training needs of different personnel involved in refurbishment or modernization projects as well as in new build projects had to be considered in more detail. Additionally, each target group, e.g. project managers, project engineers, technical engineers, commissioning engineers, operating and maintenance personnel, will have to work with TELEPERM {sup registered} XS at different phases within a project. Consequently, it became necessary to take into account the diverse training and project needs. According to the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) process as developed and promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a job and task analysis was performed. After identification of related training needs and redesigning as well as modification or development of appropriate training material, a comprehensive, standardized TELEPERM {sup registered} XS training offer is now available at the AREVA Reactor Training Center. This training offer can be easily adapted to project or customer specific requirements. (orig.)

  9. Low-Power Radiation Hardened Delay-Insensitive Asynchronous Microcontroller Technology Capable of Operating on Extreme Temperature Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc. (APEI, Inc.) and the University of Arkansas are partnering to develop a versatile,...

  10. ADAPTIVE CHANGES OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raivo Puhke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC and light chain (MLC isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group. Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001 and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05 in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05. The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061 and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032. The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05. In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05 as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05, and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05. In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown

  11. Sport-Specific Repeated Sprint Training Improves Punching Ability And Upper-Body Aerobic Power In Experienced Amateur Boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Bruzas, Vidas; Mockus, Pranas; Stasiulis, Alvydas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2017-08-09

    High-intensity interval training improves endurance and performance, but it is unclear whether sprint-type upper-body interval training is similarly effective. This study explored the effects of 4-week sport-specific sprint interval training on punch characteristics and endurance capacity in boxers. Experienced male amateur boxers (n = 18) participated in this 4-week training study, and were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (n = 9 per group). Both groups completed standard low-intensity training. The EG also completed 3 rounds (14 sets of 3 s all-out punching with 10 s rest) of a simulated fight using a punching bag with 1 min rest between rounds 3 times per week, while the CG performed the same 3 rounds of a simulated fight at low intensity. Three rounds of 14 sets of 3 s all-out punching of a bag ergometer with 10 s rest were performed to measure punching abilities. Peak oxygen consumption and peak power were measured during progressive arm cranking before and after training. In response to training peak oxygen consumption and peak power in arm cranking test increased in EG; also, punching force increased and maintenance of punching frequency and punch force improved during the simulated fight, which resulted in greater cumulative force throughout the 3 rounds. There were no changes in the CG. The study shows that 1 month of all-out punching training (3 sessions per week with ∼2 min of all-out punching per session) improved both upper-body aerobic power and punching abilities in experienced amateur boxers.

  12. Interdisciplinary challenges in the study of power grid resilience and stability and their relation to extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, J.; Fujiwara, N.; Aihara, K.; Kurths, J.

    2014-10-01

    This topical issue collects contributions to the interdisciplinary study of power grid stability in face of increasing volatility of energy production and consumption due to increasing renewable energy infeed and changing climatic conditions. The individual papers focus on different aspects of this field and bring together modern achievements from various disciplines, in particular complex systems science, nonlinear data analysis, control theory, electrical engineering, and climatology. Main topics considered here are prediction and volatility of renewable infeed, modelling and theoretical analysis of power grid topology, dynamics and stability, relationships between stability and complex network topology, and improvements via topological changes or control. Impacts for the design of smart power grids are discussed in detail.

  13. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  14. Power, Control, and Gender: Training as Catalyst for Dysfunctional Behavior at the United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    I explore the role of training practices at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in perpetuating power and control issues and the potential consequences of those practices. I argue that trainee responses to control deprivation may have resulted in alleged sexual assaults by male cadets and the eating disorders manifested by female cadets.…

  15. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  16. The biomechanical mechanism of how strength and power training improves walking speed in old adults remains unknown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, C. M. I.; Granacher, U.; Vandervoort, A. A.; DeVita, P.; Hortobagyi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining and increasing walking speed in old age is clinically important because this activity of daily living predicts functional and clinical state. We reviewed evidence for the biomechanical mechanisms of how strength and power training increase gait speed in old adults. A systematic search yi

  17. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  18. Evaluation of elastic bands for lower extremity resistance training in adults with and without musculo-skeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, C H; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K; Zebis, M K; Andersen, L L

    2014-10-01

    Therapists commonly use elastic bands in resistance exercises during rehabilitation of smaller muscles, such as in the shoulder. However, the effectiveness has not yet been investigated for larger muscle groups. This study investigates muscle activity during lower extremity exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 10 muscles was measured in 24 women and 18 men during lunges with elastic resistance, lunges with dumbbells, and unilateral leg press in machine using 10 repetition maximum loadings, and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG. Lunges with dumbbells and leg press showed higher activity than lunges with elastic resistance for the vasti and rectus femoris (P < 0.01), whereas lunges with elastic resistance showed higher activity of gluteus maximus, hamstrings, and erector spinae (P < 0.01). Gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip did not influence these findings. However, pain in the lower back decreased muscular activity of the gluteus maximus and vastus medialis (P < 0.01). Lunges with elastic resistance induce high levels of muscle activity in all the large muscle groups at the hip, knee, and back. Importantly, the efficiency of these exercises was equally high regardless of gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip, whereas pain in the lower back led to altered activation strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...

  20. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  1. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z = 3.36...

  2. Comparison of Lower Extremity Strength, Power and Muscle Area between Healthy Subjects and Mobility-Limited Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared muscle strength, power and cross sectional area (CSA) in healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.3 +/- 5 yrs, n = 26), healthy older adults (73.8 +/- 4 yrs, n = 21), and older adults with mobility impairments (77.1 +/- 5 yrs, n = 21). One repetition maximum strength (1RM) and pe...

  3. Sports Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.

  4. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism.Key word: Electroencephalography, Neurofeedback, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Gamma activity, EEG bands’ ratios

  5. Systematic Approach to Training for System Engineers in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jeong-keun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In my paper, comprehensive preparations, tangible applications, and final establishments of training for system engineers are described using practical materials in KHNP. The purpose of this paper is to formulate SAT based training in KHNP, especially for system engineers. Hence, to achieve this goal, over one year study was performed considering voluminous materials and working experiences. Through the process, SAT based training package for system engineers was finished, in the end. In terms of training in NPPs, SAT methodology is the unwavering trend in South Korea since NPPs export to UAE. Therefore, materialization of SAT based training for system engineers from the origin of SAT to the finalization of SAT should not be overlooked. A variety of accident preventive approaches have been adopted since the first commercial NPP operation in Calder Hall, United Kingdom. Among diverse event preventive ways, training has played an important role for the improvement of NPPs reliability and safety. This is reason why nuclear industry in every country has established and maintained own training institutes and methods. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recommended many betterment plans to US nuclear industry for the elevation of NPPs safety. In the suggested considerations, systematic approach to training, so called SAT appeared in the world. Basically, SAT is composed of five stages, what is called ADDIE. Hence, through ADDIE process, holistic and trustworthy training could be realized in the actual NPPs operation and maintenance. For this reason, SAT is the representative training methodology in the US nuclear business.

  6. Evaluation of the JACO robotic arm: clinico-economic study for powered wheelchair users with upper-extremity disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Veronique; Frappier, Julie; Archambault, Philippe S; Routhier, François

    2011-01-01

    Many activities of daily living, such as picking up glasses, holding a fork or opening a door, which most people do without thinking, can become insurmountable for people who have upper extremity disabilities. The alternative to asking for human help is to use some assistive devices to compensate their loss of mobility; however, many of those devices are limited in terms of functionality. Robotics may provide a better approach for the development of assistive devices, by allowing greater functionality. In this paper, we present results of a study (n=31) which objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of a new joystick-controlled seven-degree of freedom robotic manipulator and assess its potential economic benefits. Results show that JACO is easy to use as the majority of the participants were able to accomplish the testing tasks on their first attempt. The economic model results inferred that the use of the JACO arm system could potentially reduce caregiving time by 41%. These study results are expected to provide valuable data for interested parties, such as individuals with disabilities, their family or caregivers. © 2011 IEEE

  7. Prior sprint cycling did not enhance training adaptation, but resting salivary hormones were related to workout power and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the effect of cycle sprints as a potentiating stimulus for power and strength adaptation in semi-elite athletes. Eighteen rugby players were assigned into training groups that completed either a 40-s cycle sprint (T(SPRINT)) or rested (T(CONTROL)) before each workout (n = 6-8) of a 4-week programme. Squat jump (SJ) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP), and box squat (BS) one repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed every workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The T(SPRINT) and T(CONTROL) groups both showed significant improvements in SJ PP (8.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 11.9 +/- 3.6%), SJ MP (11.8 +/- 2.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 4.8%) and BS 1RM (20.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 23.2 +/- 1.3%), respectively. However, there were no group differences in training adaptation, workout performance or the workout hormonal responses. As a combined group (all players), significant relationships were demonstrated between resting Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations and absolute SJ power (r = 0.20-0.30) and BS strength (r = 0.36-0.44) across all workouts. For individual players, the respective relationships with SJ power (r = 0.22-0.42) and BS strength (r = 0.41-0.49) were, on average, found to be stronger. In conclusion, leg workouts performed with or without prior cycle sprints can produce similar power and strength improvements in semi-elite rugby players. Resting salivary hormone concentrations appear important for workout performance, especially for individuals, thereby potentially moderating training adaptation.

  8. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  9. Changes in power and force generation during coupled eccentric-concentric versus concentric muscle contraction with training and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-01-01

    center of mass were measured in two standardised vertical jumps (squatting jump, SQJ; countermovement jump, CMJ). Pre-stretch enhancement during CMJ did not improve performance [i.e., no enhanced maximal muscle power (P (peak)) and jump height (JH)] compared to concentric-alone muscle contraction (SQJ......-alone and coupled eccentric-concentric contraction and selected functional motor performances before and after 36-week multicomponent training including aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility and coordination components in elderly males. Vertical force, excursion, velocity, power and acceleration of the body...

  10. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  11. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  12. Driving to learn: a new concept for training children with profound cognitive disabilities in a powered wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth M; Nyberg, Per J

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the case studies of two preschool children with profound cognitive disabilities indicates that training in a powered wheelchair can increase wakefulness and alertness, stimulate a limited use of the arms and hands, and promote the understanding of very simple cause-and-effect relationships. The enhanced activity level had a positive influence on the children's ability to react to external stimuli and invitations to interact. These effects in turn promoted the development of initiative and exploratory behavior. Because of their profound cognitive disabilities, neither of the children was able to reach the normative training goal-to be able to drive purposefully and safely. In this paper the target group is defined according to criteria for the prescription of powered wheelchairs and the resulting new concept of 'driving to learn' is described and discussed from different aspects.

  13. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  14. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  15. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.

  16. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mag@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; adino@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Varela, Thiago F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: phillips.rj@terra.com.br; Cunha, Gerson G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)]. E-mail: gerson@lance.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  17. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eDummer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, J. Comp. Neurosci. 2000 and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  18. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  19. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  20. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  1. 双侧上肢训练在脑卒中患者康复中的应用%Preliminary application of bilateral upper extremities training in rehabilitation of stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅丹; 胡昔权; 李奎; 陈颖蓓; 解东风

    2011-01-01

    目的:初步观察双侧上肢训练对上肢功能中度到重度残损的恢复期脑卒中患者的疗效.方法:48例上肢功能中度到重度残损的恢复期脑卒中患者随机分为双侧训练组(n=24)、对照组(n=24),前者接受双侧(患侧、健侧)上肢同向、节律运动的重复练习,后者接受常规上肢训练,即以患侧上肢为主的单侧训练.两组患者上肢训练的时间均为1h/d,5d/周,持续4周,其余康复治疗如运动疗法和日常生活活动训练等两组均相同.两组患者分别于治疗前、治疗后予以FMA上肢部分(FMA-UE)、MAS上肢部分和MBI评定.结果:两组患者治疗后FMA-UE、FMA上肢的近端部分(FMA-PUE)和远端部分(FMA-DUE)、MAS-UE及MBI的评分均较治疗前提高,治疗前、后各量表的评分差异具有显著性(P<0.05=;与对照组相比,双侧训练组患者FMA-UE、FMA-PUE的评分提高幅度更大(P<0.05).结论:对于上肢功能中度到重度残损的恢复期脑卒中患者,采用双侧上肢训练可以更好地改善其患侧上肢,尤其是上肢近端的运动功能.%Objective: To observe the effect of bilateral upper extremities training on upper extremities function of stroke patient in convalescent phase with moderate to severe upper extremity impairment.Method: Forty-eight subjects participated in the randomized, single-blind training study. Subjects in the bilateral training group (n=24) practiced bilateral upper extremities(affected and unaffected sides) symmetrical thythmic repetitive activities, and the control group (n=24) performed conventional upper extremities training, mainly affected upper extremity unilateral training. The program of upper extremities training for both groups were 1h per day, 5d per week for 4 weeks. Physical therapy and training of activities of daily living were the same in both groups.Fugl-Meyer assessment of upper extremity (FMA-UE), motor assessment scale of upper extremity (MAS-UE) and modified Barthel index

  2. The KWS training power plant Zwentendorf. Optimal conditions for practical training in the sectors of maintenance and dismantling of nuclear power plants; Das KWS-Schulungskraftwerk Zwentendorf. Die ideale Voraussetzung fuer praktische Schulungen in den Bereichen Instandhaltung und Rueckbau von kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Herbert [KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V., Essen (Germany). Weiterbildung Instandhaltung fuer konventionelle-/kerntechnische Anlagen und erneuerbare Energien

    2014-06-15

    In consequence of several years of interbranch staff reduction, started middle of the 1990th, at producers of power plant installation engineering, at plant service companies as well as at the operators of power plants and nuclear power plants themselves, an area-wide decline in know-how took place, which put the safe performance of maintenance activities in nuclear power plants more and more into question. The search for adequate training possibilities to cover these deficits lead to the reorganization of the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf at the year 2002, which was changed into a training facility for maintenance trainings, particularly for the sectors of reactor service, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and other types of power plant specific training measures. For this purpose Zwentendorf was upgraded and transformed within a long-time process, and its combination may be considered as unique throughout the world. The Kraftwerksschule e.V. (KWS) owns the exclusive rights for the performance of training measures at Zwentendorf. During the last 10 years the KWS has made almost all sectors of this nuclear power plant accessible for trainings and inspections and offers a large training program. It is the aim of the training measures to ensure the operational reliability of the mechanical and installation engineering of nuclear power plants as well as fossil fired power plants in the long term through optimized maintenance planning and performance and therefore to operate the plants safely. Because of the direct practical reference to the original mechanical and installation engineering in the real atmosphere of a power plant, the nuclear power plant of Zwentendorf is highly suitable as a training centre for staff training in theory and practice. (orig.)

  3. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  4. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  5. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities.

  6. Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Billich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the maximum mechanic muscle output during a bench press exercise. This information could be beneficial to sporting coaches and recreational sportsmen alike in helping them improve the effectiveness of fast strength training. Fifteen football players of the FK Třinec football club participated in the experiment. The measurements were made with the use of 3D cinematic and dynamic analysis, both experimental methods. The research subjects participated in a strength test, in which the mechanic muscle output of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% and one repetition maximum (1RM was measured. The acquired result values and other required data were modified using Qualisys Track Manager and Visual 3D software (C-motion, Rockville, MD, USA. During the bench press exercise the maximum mechanic muscle output of the set of research subjects was reached at 75% of maximum exercise motion velocity. Optimální rychlost pohybu pro dosažení maxima výstupního výkonu – bench press u trénovaných fotbalistů Dnešní svět silového tréninku přináší řadu mýtů o tom, jak cvičit efektivně a zároveň s co nejmenším negativním vlivem na zdraví člověka. V tomto experimentu se zabýváme nalezením vztahu mezi maximálním výkonem, použitou zátěží a rychlostí. Hlavním úkolem je nalezení optimální rychlosti pohybu pro dosažení maximálního mechanického svalového výkonu při cvičení bench press, což pomůže nejenom trenérům, ale i rekreačním sportovc

  7. The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Resistance training (RT) enhances muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy while increasing strength and power. Some multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have been shown to augment the physiological improvements associated with RT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific pre- and post-workout MIPS on anabolic hormones, body composition, muscle strength, and power in resistance-trained men participating in a periodized RT program. Meth...

  8. 差动轮系中的循环功率分析%Cycle Power Analysis in Differential Gear Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺亮; 叶斯伦; 张庆春; 张浩; 李星晨

    2015-01-01

    通过分析典型的差动轮系中齿轮受力与转速的关系,推导出差动轮系中当2个不同构件作主动件时的2种典型工况下,轮系产生循环功率的条件和原因,并采用某液压机械无级变速箱中的双排差动轮系的工作实例进行了分析和验证.研究结果表明,差动轮系中是否产生循环功率取决于2个主动构件的转动方向.该结论可以为采用差动轮系传递动力的系统提供理论参考依据,使系统避免工作在产生循环功率的工况下,提高系统的工作效率.%The relation between gears' stress and rotating speed were analyzed when use two different parts as power input member,and condition when cycle power produced in differential gear train system were ob-tained in two typical working conditions.A kind of hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission(HM-CVT)with double row differential gear train was analyzed to verify the conclusions.The results showed that whether recycle power was produced depends on the two active members' relative rotating directions.The conclusion provided theoretical reference for a system with a differential gear train to avoid producing cy-cle power and improving the work efficiency.

  9. Ancient peat and apple extracts supplementation may improve strength and power adaptations in resistance trained men

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Jordan M; Vogel, Roxanne M.; Moon, Jordan R; Falcone, Paul H; Matt M Mosman; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes, Tania; Michael P. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased cellular ATP levels have the potential to enhance athletic performance. A proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been supposed to increase ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on athletic performance when used during 12 weeks of supervised, periodized resistance training. Methods Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects completed this study. Subjects supplemented once d...

  10. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted.

  11. 基于核函数极限学习机的分布式光伏短期功率预测%Distributed photovoltaic short-term power output forecasting based on extreme learning machine with kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘念; 张清鑫; 李小芳

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of rural power network in our country, the power demand increases and creates the environment for distributed energy access to the agricultural power network. Taking integration application program with the distributed photovoltaic power output systems through the rural power network and other application forms is a realization and effective method for the new clean energy can be absorbed at local, reducing carbon emissions and environmental pollution. In our country, the national government had developed and introduced relevant policies, and making plans toward to the rapid and healthy development of distributed photovoltaic power output systems for a period of time in the near future. In addition to the national planning, the State Grid Corporation of China also proposed their policies about macro planning and access technologies, that making convenience to the legal proceedings for the personal property distributed photovoltaic access, and offering the related technical support for the distributed photovoltaic power output system access. In order to make sure the operation stability and economy of micro-grid and distribution network with the distributed photovoltaic power output systems access at rural power network, the distributed photovoltaic power output forecasting technology need to be deeply researched combining with the forecasting system application environment characteristics of the rural power network. For the distributed photovoltaic power output system at user side, a short-term PV power output forecasting method based on the algorithm that extreme learning machine with kernel (ELM_k) is proposed. This method considers the operation cost constraints of short-term power output forecasting system, such as does not depending on the high cost of numerical weather prediction. This forecasting system also considers the application characteristics of rural power network, such as the lack of professional maintenance for the

  12. Transmit Power Minimization and Base Station Planning for High-Speed Trains with Multiple Moving Relays in OFDMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-03-15

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology. In this work, we first focus on minimizing the total downlink power consumption of the base station (BS) and the moving relays while respecting specific quality of service (QoS) constraints. We first derive the optimal resource allocation solution in terms of OFDMA subcarriers and power allocation using the dual decomposition method. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method in order to find a suboptimal but low complexity solution. Moreover, we propose an OFDMA planning solution for high-speed train by finding the maximal inter-BS distance given the required user data rates in order to perform seamless handover. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed resource allocation schemes in the case of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and compare them with previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. Our results also highlight the significant planning gain obtained thanks to the use of multiple relays instead of the conventional single relay scenario.

  13. Comparative Effect of Power Training and High-Speed Yoga on Motor Function in Older Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Signorile, Joseph F; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Potiaumpai, Melanie; Luca, Corneliu; Moore, James G; Kuenze, Christopher M; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Perry, Arlette C

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of power training (PWT) and a high-speed yoga program on physical performances in older patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to test the hypothesis that both training interventions would attenuate PD symptoms and improve physical performance. Randomized controlled trial. A laboratory of neuromuscular research and active aging. Patients with PD (N=41; mean age ± SD, 72.2 ± 6.5y). Two high-speed exercise interventions (specifically designed yoga program and PWT) were given for 12 weeks (twice a week), and 1 nonexercise control group. Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRSMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), Timed Up and Go, functional reach, single leg stance (SLS), postural sway test, 10-m usual and maximal walking speed tests, 1 repetition maximum (RM), and peak power (PPW) for leg press. For the posttests, both training groups showed significant improvements (Pyoga program and PWT. Both the specially designed yoga program and PWT programs can significantly improve physical performance in older persons with PD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of 4 months of training on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration in two under-19 soccer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Palao Andrés, José M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the training executed by 2 under-19 teams from the first Spanish division on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration capacity. Two under-19 soccer teams that competed in the same league were evaluated on 2 occasions. The first evaluation (E₁) was done at the beginning of the competitive period, and the second evaluation (E₂) was done 16 weeks later, coinciding with the end of the first half of the regular season. The following were evaluated: lower-body strength through jump height with countermovement with and without load (CMJ/CMJ₂₀), speed of the Smith machine bar movement in a progressive load test of full squats (FSL), acceleration capacity in 10, 20, and 30 m (T₁₀, T₂₀, T₃₀, T₁₀₋₂₀, T₁₀₋₃₀, T₂₀₋₃₀), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Team A executed complementary strength training, and training loads were determined with regard to the speed with which each player moved the bar in FSL. Between the evaluations, the training sessions of each team were recorded to assess their influence on the changes in E2. Team A significantly improved its MAS (p speed of movement, without the need to determine maximum repetitions is a methodology that is adequate for the improvement of the application of strength in under-19 soccer players.

  15. The Effect of Concurrent Plyometric Training Versus Submaximal Aerobic Cycling on Rowing Economy, Peak Power, and Performance in Male High School Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan-Shuttler, Julian D; Edmonds, Rohan; Eddy, Cassandra; O'Neill, Veronica; Ives, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or performance. The purpose was to determine if plyometric training, in conjunction with training on the water, would lead to improved rowing economy and performance. Eighteen male high school rowers were assigned to perform 4 weeks of either plyometric training (PLYO, n = 9) or steady-state cycling below ventilatory threshold (endurance, E, n = 9), for 30 min prior to practice on the water (matched for training volume) 3 days per week. Rowing performance was assessed through a 500-m rowing time trial (TT) and peak rowing power (RP), while rowing economy (RE) was assessed by measuring the oxygen cost over four work rates (90, 120, 150, and 180 W). Rowing economy was improved in both PLYO and E (p  0.05). Finally, RP was moderately higher in the PLYO group post-training (E 569 ± 75 W, PLYO 629 ± 51 W, ES = 0.66) CONCLUSIONS: In a season when the athletes performed no rowing sprint training, 4 weeks of plyometric training improved the 500-m rowing performance and moderately improved peak power. This increase in performance may have been mediated by moderate improvements in rowing power, but not economy, and warrants further investigation.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults....

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Fluid Power Drive-trains for Variable Speed Wind Turbines: a Parameter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the pursuit of making wind energy technology more economically attractive, the application of fluid power technology for the transmission of wind energy is being developed by several parties all over the world. This paper presents a dynamic model of a fluid power transmission for variable speed w

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Fluid Power Drive-trains for Variable Speed Wind Turbines: a Parameter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the pursuit of making wind energy technology more economically attractive, the application of fluid power technology for the transmission of wind energy is being developed by several parties all over the world. This paper presents a dynamic model of a fluid power transmission for variable speed w

  19. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  20. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.K.J.; van den Berg, B.R.; Denissen, A.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography

  1. The Power of ROFO Principle Together with Companywide Training in Executing Lean Production Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Ah Bee; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the case study conducted at Schaffner Thailand (ST) factory regarding the application of the ROFO principle coupled with companywide training on the execution of Lean Production (LP) strategy. The case study was motivated by 3 main objectives: 1) to examine the effectiveness of the ROFO principle and companywide…

  2. The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Teams for Developing First Responder Training in TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…

  3. The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Teams for Developing First Responder Training in TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…

  4. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouros, I; Kambas, A; Katrabasas, I; Nikolaidis, K; Chatzinikolaou, A; Leontsini, D; Taxildaris, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although strength training (ST) enhances physical function in the elderly, little is known about the effect of training intensity on training and detraining adaptations in musculoskeletal fitness.

  5. Effectiveness of dual-task functional power training for preventing falls in older people: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Duckham, Rachel L; Tait, Jamie L; Rantalainen, Timo; Nowson, Caryl A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Sanders, Kerrie; Hill, Keith D; Kidgell, Dawson J; Busija, Lucy

    2015-03-27

    Falls are a major public health concern with at least one third of people aged 65 years and over falling at least once per year, and half of these will fall repeatedly, which can lead to injury, pain, loss of function and independence, reduced quality of life and even death. Although the causes of falls are varied and complex, the age-related loss in muscle power has emerged as a useful predictor of disability and falls in older people. In this population, the requirements to produce explosive and rapid movements often occurs whilst simultaneously performing other attention-demanding cognitive or motor tasks, such as walking while talking or carrying an object. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether dual-task functional power training (DT-FPT) can reduce the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. The study design is an 18-month cluster randomised controlled trial in which 280 adults aged ≥65 years residing in retirement villages, who are at increased risk of falling, will be randomly allocated to: 1) an exercise programme involving DT-FPT, or 2) a usual care control group. The intervention is divided into 3 distinct phases: 6 months of supervised DT-FPT, a 6-month 'step down' maintenance programme, and a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be the number of falls after 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes will include: lower extremity muscle power and strength, grip strength, functional assessments of gait, reaction time and dynamic balance under single- and dual-task conditions, activities of daily living, quality of life, cognitive function and falls-related self-efficacy. We will also evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the programme for preventing falls. The study offers a novel approach that may guide the development and implementation of future community-based falls prevention programmes that specifically focus on optimising muscle power and dual-task performance to reduce falls risk under 'real life' conditions in older

  6. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  7. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  8. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  9. Development, analysis, and evaluation of a commercial software framework for the study of Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) events at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) participated in a Pilot Study to examine the process and requirements to create a software system to assess the extremely low probability of pipe rupture (xLPR) in nuclear power plants. This project was tasked to develop a prototype xLPR model leveraging existing fracture mechanics models and codes coupled with a commercial software framework to determine the framework, model, and architecture requirements appropriate for building a modular-based code. The xLPR pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed developmental process and framework for a probabilistic code to address degradation mechanisms in piping system safety assessments. The pilot study includes a demonstration problem to assess the probability of rupture of DM pressurizer surge nozzle welds degraded by primary water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The pilot study was designed to define and develop the framework and model; then construct a prototype software system based on the proposed model. The second phase of the project will be a longer term program and code development effort focusing on the generic, primary piping integrity issues (xLPR code). The results and recommendations presented in this report will be used to help the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) define the requirements for the longer term program.

  10. Resistance training priming activity improves upper body power output in rugby players: Implications for game day performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick

    2016-07-05

    'Priming' or pre-activation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20 kg counter-movement jump (CMJ), 20 kg bench throw) were completed prior to either a control (rest) or priming activity (four sets of three banded back squats and banded bench press). Following a one hour and 45 minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre and post intervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; ppriming activity when compared to the control trial. CMJ peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p>0.05) had a small decrease following the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity one hour and 45 minutes prior to competition is recommended to improve upper body power output. However, further research into lower body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower body priming activity prior to competition.

  11. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  12. Health benefits of seated speed, resistance, and power training for an individual with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Fuchs, Robyn Kimberly; Roberts, Dawn E; Hobbs, Nedda; Cannon, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy are at risk for low bone mass for chronological age, which compounds risk in adulthood for progressive deformity and chronic pain. Physical activity and exercise can be a key component to optimizing bone health. In this case report we present a young adult male with non-ambulatory, spastic quadriplegia CP whom began a seated speed, resistance, and power training exercise program at age 14.5 years. Exercise program continued into adulthood as part of an active lifestyle. The individual had a history of failure to thrive, bowel and bladder incontinence, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) for age, and spinal deformity at the time exercise was initiated. Participation in the exercise program began once a week for 1.5-2 hours/session, and progressed to 3-5 times per week after two years. This exercise program is now a component of his habitual lifestyle. Over the 6 years he was followed, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores did not worsen, which may be viewed as a positive outcome given his level of gross motor impairment. Additionally, the individual reported less back pain, improved bowel and bladder control, increased energy level, and never sustained an exercise related injury. Findings from this case report suggest a regular program of seated speed, resistance, power training may promote overall well-being, are safe, and should be considered as a mechanism for optimizing bone health.

  13. Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, Gevorg; Muradyan, Atom Zh.

    2009-09-01

    We present a method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation traveling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the pump field’s generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: nonsaturating dependence of refractive index on dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation term contribution in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO2 laser) or larger.

  14. Solar Collector Thermal Power System. Volume 3. Basic Study and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Train Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    the long- lifetime compatibility of sodium and high nickel- chrome alloys (such as Inconel 600) for the thermal train subsystem, an experimental effo...close wound Nichrome V Inconel sheathed resistance heaters were vacuum furnace brazed to the evaporator sections at 1850°F using 82 Au - 18 1. ASTM B...260-BAU-4). Four Inconel sheathed chromel-alumel thermocouples were attached by resistance spot welded Inconel tabs to 40 TABLE VII SOLAR COLLECTOR

  15. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  16. Effects of low and high cadence interval training on power output in flat and uphill cycling time-trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmerichter, Alfred; Eston, Roger; Bachl, Norbert; Williams, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of low-cadence (60 rev min(-1)) uphill (Int(60)) or high-cadence (100 rev min(-1)) level-ground (Int(100)) interval training on power output (PO) during 20-min uphill (TT(up)) and flat (TT(flat)) time-trials. Eighteen male cyclists ([Formula: see text]: 58.6 ± 5.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) were randomly assigned to Int(60), Int(100) or a control group (Con). The interval training comprised two training sessions per week over 4 weeks, which consisted of six bouts of 5 min at the PO corresponding to the respiratory compensation point (RCP). For the control group, no interval training was conducted. A two-factor ANOVA revealed significant increases on performance measures obtained from a laboratory-graded exercise test (GXT) (P (max): 2.8 ± 3.0%; p < 0.01; PO and [Formula: see text] at RCP: 3.6 ± 6.3% and 4.7 ± 8.2%, respectively; p < 0.05; and [Formula: see text] at ventilatory threshold: 4.9 ± 5.6%; p < 0.01), with no significant group effects. Significant interactions between group and uphill and flat time-trial, pre- versus post-training on PO were observed (p < 0.05). Int(60) increased PO during both TT(up) (4.4 ± 5.3%) and TT(flat) (1.5 ± 4.5%). The changes were -1.3 ± 3.6, 2.6 ± 6.0% for Int(100) and 4.0 ± 4.6%, -3.5 ± 5.4% for Con during TT(up) and TT(flat), respectively. PO was significantly higher during TT(up) than TT(flat) (4.4 ± 6.0; 6.3 ± 5.6%; pre and post-training, respectively; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that higher forces during the low-cadence intervals are potentially beneficial to improve performance. In contrast to the GXT, the time-trials are ecologically valid to detect specific performance adaptations.

  17. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power

  18. Quest3D在电力系统仿真培训中的应用%Application of Quest3D in Power System Simulation Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 方琪; 平原; 张召亮

    2013-01-01

    With the application of computer multimedia technology in power system training, power system training tends to digitize and diversification. Taking power system live line work training for an example, as an important design tool, Quest3D is introduced to power system simulation training. Quest3D is used to build a complete simulation training system. It achieves 10 kV live line replacing the pin insulator simulation training by reasonable combination of scenes, models, action figures and constraint rules.%随着计算机多媒体技术在电力系统培训中的应用,电力系统培训方式趋于数字化和多样化.以电力系统带电作业培训为例,将Quest3D作为重要设计工具引入电力系统仿真培训中,采用Quest3D搭建了一套完整的仿真培训系统,将场景、模型、人物动作和约束规则进行合理组合,实现了10 kV带电更换针式绝缘子仿真的培训.

  19. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  20. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  1. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  2. Entrenamiento de las extremidades superiores en el paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica Upper extremity exercise training in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL DE LA PRIDA C

    2011-06-01

    pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. The technical characteristics of this exercise training were also reviewed. Exercise training of upper extremities was recommended in respiratory rehabilitation of COPD patients as it improves exercise capacity, reducing ventilation and oxygen consumption (quality evidence B, moderate strength recommendation. Exercise training of upper extremities can be associated with lower limb muscle training to obtain every better result for patients. Upper extremities exercises can be done without support, with incremental or constant load.

  3. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  4. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  5. LACTATE AND VENTILATORY THRESHOLDS REFLECT THE TRAINING STATUS OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS WHERE MAXIMUM AEROBIC POWER IS UNCHANGED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Clark

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate maximum aerobic power (VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT as determinants of training status among professional soccer players. Twelve professional 1st team British male soccer players (age: 26.2 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 79.3 ± 9.4 kg agreed to participate in the study and provided informed consent. All subjects completed a combined test of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximum aerobic power on two occasions: Test 1 following 5 weeks of low level activity at the end of the off-season and Test 2 immediately following conclusion of the competitive season. AT was assessed as both lactate threshold (LT and ventilatory threshold (VT. There was no change in VO2 max between Test 1 and Test 2 (63.3 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 62.1 ± 4.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively, however, the duration of exercise tolerance (ET at VO2 max was significantly extended from Test 1 to Test 2 (204 ± 54 vs. 228 ± 68 s respectively (P<0.01. LT oxygen consumption was significantly improved in Test 2 versus Test 1 (P<0.01 VT was also improved (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1 corresponding to LT and VT. The results of this study show that VO2 max is a less sensitive indicator to changes in training status in professional soccer players than either LT or VT.

  6. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  7. Temporal Shaping of High Peak Power Pulse Trains from a Burst-Mode Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Körner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in the past that pulsed laser systems operating in the so-called “burst mode” are a beneficial approach to generate high peak power laser pulses at high repetition rates suitable for various applications. So far, most high-energy burst-mode laser systems put great effort into generating a homogeneous energy distribution across the burst duration, e.g., by shaping the pump pulse. In this work, we present a new shaping technique, which is able to produce arbitrary energy distributions within the burst by pre-shaping the seed pulse burst with a Pockels cell. Furthermore, this technique allows for the precompensation of any static modulations across the burst, which may be introduced during the subsequent amplification process. Therefore, a pulse burst with a uniform energy distribution can also be generated. The method is tested with an ultra-short pulse burst mode laser amplifier system producing bursts of a 1 ms duration with a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and a maximum output power of 800 W during the burst. Furthermore, a method to predict the influence of the amplifier on a non-uniformly shaped burst is presented and successfully tested to produce a pre-defined pulse shape after amplification.

  8. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  9. Features power ectomorphs athletes are engaged in bodybuilding in transition training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dzhym

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and study the diet of athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs in transition training considering the restoration of lean body mass and functional state of an athlete Material and Methods: the study involved 18 athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs included in the national team in the Kharkiv region bodybuilding. Methods were used: the theoretical method and summarize the literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: comparative characteristics of the diet have been developed for athletes ectomorphs engaged on bodybuilding to increase muscle weight. It was divided the athletes into two experimental groups: the first EG used a balanced diet that made protein 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight and carbohydrates 4–5 g•kg–1 in the second EG was protein 3 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrate 6 grams kg. Second EG diet consists of 6 single meal and is about 2800–3500 calories per day. Conclusions: on the basis of research by the author offered the optimal diet for athletes ektomorfiv second experimental group engaged in bodybuilding.

  10. Effects of specific resistance training program on force-velocity relationship, power consumption and work production of quadrics muscle during eccentric actions in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONSTANTINOS FLESSAS, MARIA KOUMPOULA, DESPINA TSOPANI, CHRALAMBOS OIKONOMOU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Resistance training is the most famous method for the prevention, rehabilitation of myotendinous injuries and especially for the development of muscle’s ability in competitive and recreational sports. The purpose of the present study was to examine the average exerted force ( , the mean power consumption (Pmean and the work production on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle of elite athletes, in accordance with joint’s knee movement velocity, during eccentric contractions, before and after the application of a specific resistance training program. Methods: 14 elite athletes participated in this study. Seven of them (training group performed isometric and eccentric contractions on isokinetic dynamometer before and after the application of specific resistance training program. The other seven athletes (control group followed the training program of their team and they have participated only to the procedure of measurements. Results: The results showed, that after the application of the specific training program, the subjects improved significantly (P<.05 , Pmean (P<.05 at high angular velocities of joint’s knee movement and maximal isometric exerted force ( , P<.05. Conlusion: This study suggests that the application of the specific training program creates adaptations to the subject muscles’ which concerns the power consumption ability and the maximal effort activation.

  11. Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures (-180C to +450C)and radiation (>250 Krad TID) are not met with the current...

  12. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relationship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, K; Ahmaidi, S; Fabre, C; Massé-Biron, J; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the anaerobic peak power output (Pan, peak) declines more than the peak aerobic power (Paer, peak) with increasing age. In addition, the force-velocity (F-v) relationship was studied to determine which of these two factors is primarily responsible for the expected alterations in anaerobic power. The Pan, peak, the maximal F when v is equal to zero (F0) and the maximal v when F is equal to zero (v0) were assessed by F-v test i.e. a brief intense intermittent exercise test using incremental braking forces. The Paer, peak was measured by a maximal increment exercise test. A group of 12 young athletes (YA) and 12 master athletes (MA) mean age 24.8 (SEM 1.3) and 65.1 (SEM 1.2) years, respectively, participated in this study. The YA and MA had similar body masses, heights and endurance training schedules. The results showed that Pan, peak was 42.7% lower in the older subjects, corresponding to mean values of 1089 (SEM 40) compared to 624 (SEM 33) W (t = 8.9, P Paer, peak was 35% lower with mean values of 323 (SEM 12) W for YA compared to 210 (SEM 6) W for MA (t = 8.3, P < 0.001). The mean maximal oxygen uptake was 34.7% lower with 4240 (SEM 160) ml.min-1 for YA compared to 2770 (SEM 120) ml.min-1 for MA (t = 7.2, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  14. The effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Çekok, Kübra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. 42 adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.04 (16.56) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = (55.2 ± 22.02 days (∼8 weeks)) were included in the study. Participants were enrolled from the rehabilitation department of a medical center (a single inpatient rehabilitation facility). Participants were randomly assigned to Nintendo Wii group (n = 20) or Bobath neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) (n = 22). The treatments were applied for 10 weeks (45-60 minutes/day, 3 days/week) for both of two groups. Nintendo Wii group used five games selected from the Wii sports and Wii Fit packages for upper limb and balance training, respectively. The patients in Bobath NDT group were applied a therapy program included upper extremity activites, strength, balance gait and functional training. The functional independence in daily life activities and health-related quality of life was assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), respectively. Participant's treatment satisfaction was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. A second evaluation (FIM and NHP) occurred after 10 weeks at the end of rehabilitative treatment (post-training). Treatment satisfaction was measured after 10 sessions. There were significant difference between FIM and NHP values in NDT and Nintendo Wii group (p 0.05). The patients in Nintendo Wii group were detected to be better satisfied from the therapy (p Bobath NDT on daily living functions and quality of life in subacute stroke patients.

  15. Dynamic characteristics and sensitivities analysis of a power turret gear train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lijiao; Chen Nan

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic transmission characteristics and the sensitivities of the three stage idler gear system of the new NC power turret are studied in the paper. Considering the strongly nonlinear factors such as the periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, the nonlinear tooth backlash, the lump-parameter model of the gear system is developed with one rotational and two translational freedoms of each gear. The eigen-values and eigenvectors are derived and analyzed on the basis of the real modal theory. The sensitivities of natural frequencies to design parameters including supporting and meshing stiffnesses, gear masses, and moments of inertia by the direct differential method are also calculated. The results show the quantitative and qualitative impact of the parameters to the natural characteristics of the gear system. Furthermore, the periodic steady state solutions are obtained by the numerical approach based on the nonlinear model. These results are employed to gain insights into the primary controlling parameters, to forecast the severity of the dynamic response, and to assess the acceptability of the gear design.

  16. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  17. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  18. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5±6.7 years underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice, and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0±6.7 years received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P=0.007 in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9% differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P=0.033. For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P=0.002. Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  19. Extreme precipitation event over North China in August 2010: observations, monthly forecasting, and link to intra-seasonal variability of the Silk-Road wave-train across Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Yvan; Zhang, Ling; Peters, Dieter; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Forecast of regional precipitation events at the sub-seasonal timescale remains a big challenge for operational global prediction systems. Over the Far East in summer, climate and precipitation are strongly influenced by the fluctuating western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and strong precipitation is often associated with southeasterly low-level wind that brings moist-laden air from the southern China seas. The WPSH variability is partly influenced by quasi-stationary wave-trains propagating eastwards from Europe across Asia along the two westerly jets: the Silk-Road wave-train along the Asian jet at mid-latitudes and, on a more northern route, the polar wave-train along the sub-polar jet. While the Silk-Road wave-train appears as a robust, internal mode of variability in seasonal predictions models, its predictability is very low on the sub-seasonal to seasonal time scale. A case in point is the unusual summer of 2010, when China experienced its worst seasonal flooding for a decade, triggered by unusually prolonged and severe monsoonal rains. In addition that summer was also characterized by record-breaking heat wave over Eastern Europe and Russia as well as catastrophic monsoonal floods in Pakistan 2010. The impact of the latter circulation anomalies on the precipitation further east over China, has been little explored. Here, we examine the role and the actual predictability of the Silk-Road wave-train, and its impact on precipitation over Northeastern China throughout August 2010, using the high-resolution IFS forecast model of ECMWF, realistic initialized and run in an ensemble mode. We demonstrate that the forecast failure with regard to flooding and extreme precipitation over Northeastern China in August 2010 is linked to the failure to represent intra-seasonal variations of the Silk-Road wave-train and the associated intensification of the WPSH.

  20. Simulation Training System Construction of Thermal Power Station%火电机组仿真培训体系的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉文; 聂玉强

    2016-01-01

    随着火电机组自动化程度的不断提高,对集控运行人员的操控能力提出了更高、更新的要求。仿真培训由于它独特的培训方式,越来越受到火电企业的青睐。完善的仿真培训体系确保了仿真培训的实施和培训效果。本文阐述,仿真培训体系的建设可以从两方面入手,一方面是要确保开发一套与现场高逼真度仿真系统,来满足仿真培训的硬件需求;另一方面是要加强仿真培训教练员的培养和仿真培训管理制度的建设,才能确保仿真培训的效果,按质按量地培训工作。%With the automation development of thermal power station , the requirements of centralized con-trol operators are updated .More thermal power companies are interested in simulation training system due to its unique training methods .The complete simulation training system can ensure the simulation training application and performance .This paper proposes that simulation training system construction can start with two fields.First, a high fidelity simulation system shall be developed to ensure the training hardware requirements .Secondly , the training of simulation trainers and the systems of simulation training manage -ments shall be enhanced to ensure the simulation training performance with necessary quality and quantity .

  1. Motion functional training on upper extremity of stroke%脑卒中患者上肢运动功能训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红瑛

    2000-01-01

    本文评价了目前常用的偏瘫上肢运动功能训练方法(包括Bobath方法、Brunnstrom方法、PNF方法、Rood方法、MRP方法等)的训练要点,以供临床康复工作者在对偏瘫患者运动功能训练中借鉴和应用。%They discussed common motion functional training therapies in the paper. There are Bobath therapy, Brunnstrom therapy, PNF therapy, Rood therapy, MRP therapy and so on. They discussed training key point about each therapy and hope to have a discussion about the paper to promote rehabilitation training technology.

  2. Effectiveness of Functional Power Training on Walking Ability in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy : Study Protocol of a Double-Baseline Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training to improve walking ability of young children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty-two children with bi- or unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II, aged 4 to

  3. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  4. Power-Knowledge and Tour Guide Training: Capitalistic Domination, Utopian Visions and the Creation and Negotiation of UNESCO’s Homo Turismos in Macao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ryan, C.; McIntosh, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers insights into the power-knowledge situations within tour guide training in Macao and queries the associated embedded capitalistic domination and utopian pressures. Drawing upon a tour guide trainer’s autoethnography, ethnography within the classroom, life and work history interview

  5. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  6. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  7. Extreme-Teaching-2 (XT [superscript]2): Evaluation of an Innovative Semester-Long Intensive GTA Training Program Based on Microteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santandreu Calonge, David; Mark, Kai-Pan; Chiu, P. H. Patrio; Thadani, Dimple R.; Pun, Cecilia F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Microteaching techniques have been used for teacher training since the mid 1960s. Despite its usefulness, as affirmed by pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), there are numerous criticisms on the shortcomings of microteaching activities. Specifically, it (a) oversimplifies the classroom learning and…

  8. A Low-Cost Video Game Applied for Training of Upper Extremity Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; van der Wilden, Gelske J.; Navis, D.W.; Visser, Gerben; Gussinklo, Jeanine; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the user satisfaction of the EyeToy for the training of the upper limb in children with cerebral palsy (CP). User satisfaction was measured in 12 children with CP, using a postexperience questionnaire, primarily based on a presence questionnaire. In

  9. Entrenamiento muscular de las extremidades inferiores en el paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica Lower extremity exercise training in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO VARGAS B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han demostrado que la pobre tolerancia al ejercicio de los pacientes con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC es de origen multifactorial. Sin embargo, un importante factor limitante del ejercicio en los pacientes con EPOC es la disfunción muscular periférica, sobre todo de los músculos de las extremidades inferiores, que se caracteriza por atrofia muscular y reducida resistencia a la fatiga dado por alteraciones morfológicas y metabólicas de los músculos periféricos. En este capitulo se evaluó la evidencia científica que existe en cuanto a los beneficios del entrenamiento muscular de extremidades inferiores (EEII en la rehabilitación respiratoria en pacientes con EPOC. También se revisan las características técnicas de dicho entrenamiento. Se recomienda la realización de entrenamiento muscular de EEII en rehabilitación respiratoria de pacientes con EPOC. El entrenamiento muscular de extremidades inferiores otorga significativos beneficios a los pacientes con EPOC en cuanto a disminuir la disnea, mejorar la capacidad de ejercicio y la calidad de vida (calidad de la evidencia A, recomendación fuerte. El entrenamiento de EEII de alta intensidad y con intervalos produce significativos beneficios fisiológicos.Several studies have shown that poor exercise tolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients is multifactorial in origin. However, a major exercise-limiting factor in COPD is peripheral muscle dysfunction, particularly the muscles of the lower extremities, characterized by atrophic muscles and reduced fatigue resistance due to morphological and metabolic alterations of peripheral muscles. This chapter therefore evaluated the scientific evidence regarding the beneficial effect of lower extremities exercise in the pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. The technical characteristics of this exercise training were also reviewed. Exercise training of lower limbs was recommended in

  10. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who continuously train at high levels such as elite athletes or military personnel.

  11. Power training and postmenopausal hormone therapy affect transcriptional control of specific co-regulated gene clusters in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Vidal; Törmäkangas, Timo; Ronkainen, Paula H. A.; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Takala, Timo; Koskinen, Satu; Cheng, Sulin; Puolakka, Jukka; Kujala, Urho M.; Suominen, Harri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2010-01-01

    At the moment, there is no clear molecular explanation for the steeper decline in muscle performance after menopause or the mechanisms of counteractive treatments. The goal of this genome-wide study was to identify the genes and gene clusters through which power training (PT) comprising jumping activities or estrogen containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may affect skeletal muscle properties after menopause. We used musculus vastus lateralis samples from early stage postmenopausal (50–57 years old) women participating in a yearlong randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with PT and HRT interventions. Using microarray platform with over 24,000 probes, we identified 665 differentially expressed genes. The hierarchical clustering method was used to assort the genes. Additionally, enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways was carried out to clarify whether assorted gene clusters are enriched with particular functional categories. The analysis revealed transcriptional regulation of 49 GO/KEGG categories. PT upregulated transcription in “response to contraction”—category revealing novel candidate genes for contraction-related regulation of muscle function while HRT upregulated gene expression related to functionality of mitochondria. Moreover, several functional categories tightly related to muscle energy metabolism, development, and function were affected regardless of the treatment. Our results emphasize that during the early stages of the postmenopause, muscle properties are under transcriptional modulation, which both PT and HRT partially counteract leading to preservation of muscle power and potentially reducing the risk for aging-related muscle weakness. More specifically, PT and HRT may function through improving energy metabolism, response to contraction as well as by preserving functionality of the mitochondria. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  12. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator; Mesa de controle virtual para treinamento de operadores: um estudo de caso para um simulador de usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-15

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  13. A system-level mathematical model for evaluation of power train performance of load-leveled electric-vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, G. P.; Leising, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The power train performance of load leveled electric vehicles can be compared with that of nonload leveled systems by use of a simple mathematical model. This method of measurement involves a number of parameters including the degree of load leveling and regeneration, the flywheel mechanical to electrical energy fraction, and efficiencies of the motor, generator, flywheel, and transmission. Basic efficiency terms are defined and representative comparisons of a variety of systems are presented. Results of the study indicate that mechanical transfer of energy into and out of the flywheel is more advantageous than electrical transfer. An optimum degree of load leveling may be achieved in terms of the driving cycle, battery characteristics, mode of mechanization, and the efficiency of the components. For state of the art mechanically coupled flyheel systems, load leveling losses can be held to a reasonable 10%; electrically coupled systems can have losses that are up to six times larger. Propulsion system efficiencies for mechanically coupled flywheel systems are predicted to be approximately the 60% achieved on conventional nonload leveled systems.

  14. Improving the performance of extreme learning machine for hyperspectral image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Du, Qian; Li, Wei; Li, Yunsong

    2015-05-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) and kernel ELM (KELM) can offer comparable performance as the standard powerful classifier―support vector machine (SVM), but with much lower computational cost due to extremely simple training step. However, their performance may be sensitive to several parameters, such as the number of hidden neurons. An empirical linear relationship between the number of training samples and the number of hidden neurons is proposed. Such a relationship can be easily estimated with two small training sets and extended to large training sets so as to greatly reduce computational cost. Other parameters, such as the steepness parameter in the sigmodal activation function and regularization parameter in the KELM, are also investigated. The experimental results show that classification performance is sensitive to these parameters; fortunately, simple selections will result in suboptimal performance.

  15. Game Changing Usage of High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems as Extremely Large Antennas for Space Physical and Geophysical Remote Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geomagnetic storms drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in high-voltage power transmission systems worldwide. GIC distribution in the transmission system is...

  16. Randomized Trial on the Effects of Attentional Focus on Motor Training of the Upper Extremity Using Robotics With Individuals After Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Hinojosa, Jim; Rao, Ashwini K; Batavia, Mitchell; O'Dell, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    To compare the long-term effects of external focus (EF) and internal focus (IF) of attention after 4 weeks of arm training. Randomized, repeated-measures, mixed analysis of variance. Outpatient clinic. Individuals with stroke and moderate-to-severe arm impairment living in the community (N=33; withdrawals: n=3). Four-week arm training protocol on a robotic device (12 sessions). Joint independence, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and Wolf Motor Function Test measured at baseline, discharge, and 4-week follow-up. There were no between-group effects for attentional focus. Participants in both groups improved significantly on all outcome measures from baseline to discharge and maintained those changes at 4-week follow-up regardless of group assignment (joint independence EF condition: F1.6,45.4=17.74; P<.0005; partial η(2)=.39; joint independence IF condition: F2,56=18.66; P<.0005; partial η(2)=.40; Fugl-Meyer Assessment: F2,56=27.83; P<.0005; partial η(2)=.50; Wolf Motor Function Test: F2,56=14.05; P<.0005; partial η(2)=.35). There were no differences in retention of motor skills between EF and IF participants 4 weeks after arm training, suggesting that individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment may not experience the advantages of an EF found in healthy individuals. Attentional focus is most likely not an active ingredient for retention of trained motor skills for individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment, whereas dosage and intensity of practice appear to be pivotal. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of attentional focus for individuals with mild arm impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D gait analysis of lower extremity muscle group power in healthy subjects and subacute stroke patients, and task-specific gait interventions in early stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    2010-01-01

    Denne ph.d. afhandling omhandler 3D ganganalyse af raske og apopleksipatienter. Formålet med afhandlingen var at estimere referenceværdier for power i et udvalg af underekstremitetens muskelgrupper, samt at estimere ændringer i muskelgruppers power, når ganghastigheden øges blandt raske og apople...

  18. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  19. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Timothy J; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO-OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO-OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial.

  20. Structural elements of mechanical engineering 2. Power train elements. 6. ed.; Konstruktionselemente des Maschinenbaus 2. Grundlagen von Maschinenelementen fuer Antriebsaufgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilper, W. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Maschinenelemente und Getriebetechnik; Sauer, B. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Maschinenelemente und Getriebetechnik

    2008-07-01

    The Steinhilper/Roeper textbooks have become standard textbooks of German technical universities. This is the 6th edition, published under the new name 'Structural elements of mechanical engineering' by Steinhilper/Sauer, a renowned team of expert authors, has been completely revised and re-edited. In Vol. 2, the standard chapters on friction, wear, lubrication, bearings, sliding bearings, rolling bearings, and seals, have been completely updated. There are new chapters on: Power train systems, transmission systems and brakes, toothed gears and toothed gear drives, traction drives, friction transmission, sensors and actuators. The two-volume textbook covers the whole spectrum of typical elements of mechanical engineering. The information, much of which goes deeper than just basic knowledge, addresses students of universities and technical universities. This makes the book also a useful reference manual for the daily work of practical engineers. (orig.) [German] Die Baende der Maschinen- und Konstruktionselemente von Steinhilper/Roeper haben sich als Standard-Lehrbuecher an Technischen Hochschulen durchgesetzt. Unter dem Titel Steinhilper/Sauer: Konstruktionselemente des Maschinenbaus wurde das Werk von einem ausgewiesenen Autorenteam aktualisiert und grundlegend ueberarbeitet. Im vorliegenden Band 2 sind die bisherigen Kapitel Reibung, Verschleiss und Schmierung, Lagerungen, Gleitlager und Waelzlager sowie Dichtungen komplett ueberarbeitet. Neu hinzu gekommen sind: Einfuehrung in Antriebssysteme, Kupplungen und Bremsen, Zahnraeder und Zahnradgetriebe, Zugmittelgetriebe, Reibradgetriebe sowie Sensoren und Aktoren. Die 6. Auflage stellt eine aktualisierte und berichtigte Fassung dar. Die beiden Baende des Lehrwerks umfassen das gesamte Spektrum der typischen Konstruktions- und Maschinenelemente. Die Inhalte sind auf die Ausbildung an Universitaeten und Technischen Hochschulen abgestimmt und gehen teilweise ueber das Grundlagenwissen hinaus. So stellen die

  1. The acute effect of upper-body complex training on power output of martial art athletes as measured by the bench press throw exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liossis, Loudovikos Dimitrios; Forsyth, Jacky; Liossis, Ceorge; Tsolakis, Charilaos

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of upper body complex training on power output, as well as to determine the requisite preload intensity and intra-complex recovery interval needed to induce power output increases. Nine amateur-level combat/martial art athletes completed four distinct experimental protocols, which consisted of 5 bench press repetitions at either: 65% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) with a 4 min rest interval; 65% of 1RM with an 8 min rest; 85% of 1RM with a 4 min rest; or 85% of 1RM with an 8 min rest interval, performed on different days. Before (pre-conditioning) and after (post-conditioning) each experimental protocol, three bench press throws at 30% of 1RM were performed. Significant differences in power output pre-post conditioning were observed across all experimental protocols (F=26.489, partial eta2=0.768, p=0.001). Mean power output significantly increased when the preload stimulus of 65% 1RM was matched with 4 min of rest (p=0.001), and when the 85% 1RM preload stimulus was matched with 8 min of rest (p=0.001). Moreover, a statistically significant difference in power output was observed between the four conditioning protocols (F= 21.101, partial eta(2)=0.913, p=0.001). It was concluded that, in complex training, matching a heavy preload stimulus with a longer rest interval, and a lighter preload stimulus with a shorter rest interval is important for athletes wishing to increase their power production before training or competition.

  2. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  3. CRH2型动车组辅助电源系统故障分析%Fault analysis of auxiliary power system in CRH2 bullet train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向超; 王亦军

    2013-01-01

    探讨了300 km速度级CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的供电电压、工作原理以及内部构成。针对CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的常见故障,分析了故障发生的原因,并提出了有效的应急处理措施。%The supply voltage, working principle and internal structure of auxiliary power supply system in 300 km/h grade CRH2C bullet train are discussed. The common fault causes of auxiliary power supply system in CRH2C bullet train are analyzed. The effective emergent measures for the fault treatment are put forward.

  4. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  5. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  6. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO–OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO–OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO–OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial. PMID:26943113

  7. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS pe

  8. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players.Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kgwere divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL. Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM. In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press, power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw were assessed pre- and post-training intervention.Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals. Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7% and jumping (5.3% throw (p > 0.05.The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  9. Strength, power, fiber types, and mRNA expression in trained men and women with different ACTN3 R577X genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Barbara; Esbjörnsson, Mona; Rundqvist, Håkan; Osterlund, Ted; von Walden, Ferdinand; Tesch, Per A

    2009-03-01

    Alpha-actinins are structural proteins of the Z-line. Human skeletal muscle expresses two alpha-actinin isoforms, alpha-actinin-2 and alpha-actinin-3, encoded by their respective genes ACTN2 and ACTN3. ACTN2 is expressed in all muscle fiber types, while only type II fibers, and particularly the type IIb fibers, express ACTN3. ACTN3 (R577X) polymorphism results in loss of alpha-actinin-3 and has been suggested to influence skeletal muscle function. The X allele is less common in elite sprint and power athletes than in the general population and has been suggested to be detrimental for performance requiring high power. The present study investigated the association of ACTN3 genotype with muscle power during 30-s Wingate cycling in 120 moderately to well-trained men and women and with knee extensor strength and fatigability in a subset of 21 men performing isokinetic exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle to determine fiber-type composition and ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA levels. Peak and mean power and the torque-velocity relationship and fatigability output showed no difference across ACTN3 genotypes. Thus this study suggests that R577X polymorphism in ACTN3 is not associated with differences in power output, fatigability, or force-velocity characteristics in moderately trained individuals. However, repeated exercise bouts prompted an increase in peak torque in RR but not in XX genotypes, suggesting that ACTN3 genotype may modulate responsiveness to training. Our data further suggest that alpha-actinins do not play a significant role in determining muscle fiber-type composition. Finally, we show that ACTN2 expression is affected by the content of alpha-actinin-3, which implies that alpha-actinin-2 may compensate for the lack of alpha-actinin-3 and hence counteract the phenotypic consequences of the deficiency.

  10. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  11. On extreme field limits in high power laser matter interactions: radiation dominant regimes in high intensity electromagnetic wave interaction with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kato, Yoshiaki; Korn, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the key important regimes of electromagnetic field interaction with charged particles. Main attention is paid to the nonlinear Thomson/Compton scattering regime with the radiation friction and quantum electrodynamics effects taken into account. This process opens a channel of high efficiency electromagnetic energy conversion into hard electromagnetic radiation in the form of ultra short high power gamma ray flashes.

  12. Adherence to Commonly Prescribed, Home-Based Strength Training Exercises for the Lower Extremity Can Be Objectively Monitored Using the Bandcizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Thorborg, Kristian; Rode, Line A;

    2015-01-01

    , total and single repetition, and contraction phase-specific time under tension (TUT). Files from the elastic band sensor contained identical dates, time of day, and number of repetitions for each exercise set compared with those for the gold standard. Total TUT and total single repetition TUT were...... highly correlated with the stretch sensor (r = 0.83-0.96) but lower for contraction phase-specific TUTs (r = 0.45-0.94). There were systematic differences between the methods ranging from 0.0 to 2.2 seconds (0.0-6.3%) for total TUT and total single repetition TUT, and between 0.0 and 3.3 seconds (0.......0-33.3%) for contraction phase-specific TUTs. The elastic band sensor is a valid measure of date, time of day, number of repetitions and sets, total TUT, and total single repetition TUT during commonly used home-based strength training exercises. However, the elastic band sensor seems unable to validly measure TUT...

  13. Introduction of leadership training based on PM theory at a nuclear power plant. An analysis of leadership, morale and self-efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yoshiyama, Naohiro; Misumi, Emiko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Misumi, Jyuji; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro

    1997-09-01

    PM leadership training(PMT) course was introduced into three nuclear power plants for the purpose of accident prevention. PMT is a six-month training course consisting of three parts, i.e., lecture, PM survey, and participants` practice at their workplace. The major aim of PMT is to change participants` leadership behavior into PM-type that is the most desirable for group effectiveness. In this study, we examined the effects of PMT on participants` leadership, subordinates` morale and participants` self-efficacy. Participants were fifty-six supervisors working in operation or maintenance in each nuclear power plant. The supervisors have eight hundred forty five subordinates in all. The major results were as follows: (1) Not only participants` leadership Performance(P) and Maintenance(M) behavior was strengthened, but also their subordinates` morale increased during PMT`s 6-month course. (2) Strengthening both P and M behavior was the most effective in building up subordinates` morale, especially in teamwork, meeting satisfaction, and communication. (3) Participants` self-efficacy was related with the strength of their P behavior and subordinates` group morale. These results show that PMT course is effective in accident prevention in nuclear power plants. Finally, we discuss some future problems of the development of PMT in nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Training Methods and Ways of Internal Trainer in Power Enterprise%论电力企业内训师培训方法与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦美宁

    2012-01-01

      Power refers to the commander of an advance unit or vanguard of national economy. Internal trainer is the key to improve the whole quality of power enterprise’s staff. As an internal trainer in a power enterprise, he or she must explore training methods and ways that adapt to all staff from every level in the new situation, strive to do a good job in training work and provide strong support and guarantee for the development of power enterprises.%  电力是国民经济的先行官,电力企业员工整体素质的提升,内训师是关键。作为电力企业内训师,应不断地探索新形势下适应各个层面职工的培训方法与途径,努力把培训工作做好、做扎实,为推进电力企业的发展提供强有力的支撑与保障。

  15. Explore the Power of Education and Training Issues and Solutions%探讨电力教育培训工作问题及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏毅

    2014-01-01

    Power companies are technology-intensive enterprises, healthy and stable development of enterprises need to have sufficient human resources to sustain it. Human resources are the core competitiveness of the power companies, and conduct education and training is an effective way to increase the power of enterprise human capital, is an effective means to enhance the core competitiveness of electricity. Analysis to explore the power of education and training in the problems put forward the corresponding solutions.%电力企业属于技术密集型企业,企业的健康、稳定发展需要有足够的人力资源作为支撑。人力资源是电力企业的核心竞争力,而开展教育培训工作则是提高电力企业人力资本的有效途径,是增强电力企业核心竞争力的有效手段。分析、探讨了电力教育培训工作中存在的问题,提出了相应的解决措施。

  16. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to a significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)

  17. The Fight Against Extremism in the Trans-Sahel: The Utilization of Soft Power by the Department of State to Establish, Develop, and Strengthen Potential Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    the long term benefits of soft power, specifically when pertaining to cooperation and assistance. While assigned to the Embassy in Malaysia , the...during their own travels to visit those relatives, greatly influenced their outlook and led to their greater understanding of “who we are,” and more...Western way of life, our core values and ideas was instrumental when conducting official business with them in Pakistan. In almost all of the cases were

  18. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This study has been focused to evaluate the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric exercises in improving hamstring muscle strength and power among futsal players. Method: Thirty recreational futsal players were recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received either hamstring curl exercise (concentric or Nordic hamstring exercise (eccentric twice a week for 4 weeks. The manual muscle test (MMT and 40-yard dash test was used to evaluate the muscle strength and power respectively by comparing the pretest and posttest values for both groups. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between pre and post test values of MMT (Concentric (right side, z=.317; left side, z=.157, Eccentric (right side, z=.157; left side, z=.317 in both groups. Based on paired 't' test there is a significant difference between the pre and post test on improving muscle power [Concentric group, P=.020; Eccentric Group, P=.000]. Mann–Whitney U test and unpaired 't' test showed that there is no significant difference between both groups of MMT (z=.775 and 40-yard dash test (P=.707 respectively. Conclusion: The concentric strength training and eccentric strength training have a similar effect in improving hamstring muscle power in futsal players.

  19. 浅析国电大武口热电有限公司的员工培训%On the Staff Training of State Power Dawukou Thermal Power Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤

    2015-01-01

    Training is not only the main way to improve the quality of the staff and develop staff ability, but also become an effective way to attract, motivate and retain talent. This paper analyzes the problems existing in the staff training of State Power Dawukou Thermal Power Co., Ltd., and then puts forward the reform countermeasures, and stresses the significance of the training work for enterprise development.%培训不仅是提高职工素质发展职工能力的主要通道,也成为企业吸引、激励、留住人才的有效方法。本文分析了国电大武口热电有限公司培训中存在的问题,然后对如何让加强国电大武口热电有限公司职工培训工作提出了整改措施,多方面强调了培训工作对于企业发展的重要意义。

  20. Operation Training Quality Analysis and Improvement of the Marine Power Equipment%船舶动力设备操作训练质量分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷胜; 肖海瑞

    2014-01-01

    The operation training quality and situation of motive power equipment was analyzed .According to the operation training traits and flaws , some practiced training ideas were set forth from respects of system improvement , personnel training , in-novations of training model , which can be referenced for improve the operation training quality of motive power equipment .%针对当前动力设备操作训练的质量和形势,结合动力设备操作训练特点和存在的不足,从机制健全、人才培养、创新训练模式探讨等方面提出实践性训练改进思路,为有效提高动力设备操作训练提供参考。

  1. The effects of a customized over-the-counter mouth guard on neuromuscular force and power production in trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Watts, Ashley M; Putney, Brendan J; Hydren, Jay R; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2012-04-01

    Although mouth guards were originally designed for injury prevention, even elite athletes are now using performance mouth guards to improve athletic success. Both expensive custom models and over-the-counter models are available, but the efficacy is not well known. Some athletes remain wary of the perceived potential for detriments using a mouth guard to their performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine various physical performance tests when using a mouth guard including a customized over-the-counter mouth guard. Twenty-six trained men (25 ± 4 years; 1.78 ± 0.07 m; 83.3 ± 11.4 kg) and 24 trained women (23 ± 3 years; 1.65 ± 0.08 m; 62.6 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for the investigation. The subjects completed a familiarization period and then balanced and randomized treatment conditions that included: (a) a customized Power Balance performance mouth guard (PB MG); (b) a regular over the counter boil-and-bite mouth guard (Reg MG); and (c) a no mouth guard (No MG) treatment condition. At each visit, the subjects completed a testing protocol that was sequenced in the following order: sit-and-reach flexibility, medial-lateral balance, visual reaction time, vertical jump, 10-m sprint, bench throw, and plyo press power quotient (3PQ). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded around the 3PQ. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Expected significant sex differences existed for all power, strength, and speed variables. Bench throw power (watts) and force (newtons) were significantly higher under PB MG than either Reg MG or No MG or in both men and women. The 3PQ power and force production were higher than that for the other 2 treatments for the PB MG for men only. There were no significant differences for treatment conditions in the heart rate or RPE after the 3PQ test. Men were better able to maintain significantly higher 3PQ power production under PB MG treatment condition compared with the other 2 treatment conditions. Rate of power

  2. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias; Magnussen, Line V; Andersen, Marianne; Caserotti, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed of analysis: n=16 in the training group (TG: 12weeks of progressive high-load power training, 2 sessions per week; age: 82.3±1.3years, 56% women) and n=21 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age: 81.6±1.1years, 67% women). Knee extensor muscle thickness (ultrasonography), strength (isokinetic dynamometry), voluntary activation (interpolated twitch technique), and gait speed (2-min maximal walking test) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, TG and CG were comparable for all measures. Post-intervention, significant between-group changes (TG vs. CG; pgait speed (+0.12m/s), whereas the between-group change in muscle thickness was non-significant (+0.08cm). Improvements in voluntary muscle activation were associated with improvements in gait speed in TG (r=0.67, ppower training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms influencing muscle mechanical function and gait speed in older adults.

  3. Extreme Gas Kinematics in the z=2.2 Powerful Radio Galaxy MRC1138-262: Evidence for Efficient AGN Feedback in the Early Universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvadba, N H; Lehnert, M D; Eisenhauer, F; Gilbert, A M; Tecza, M; Abuter, R

    2007-06-26

    To explain the properties of the most massive low-redshift galaxies and the shape of their mass function, recent models of galaxy evolution include strong AGN feedback to complement starburst-driven feedback in massive galaxies. Using the near-infrared integral-field spectrograph SPIFFI on the VLT, we searched for direct evidence for such a feedback in the optical emission line gas around the z = 2.16 powerful radio galaxy MRC1138-262, likely a massive galaxy in formation. The kpc-scale kinematics, with FWHMs and relative velocities {approx}< 2400 km s{sup -1} and nearly spherical spatial distribution, do not resemble large-scale gravitational motion or starburst-driven winds. Order-of-magnitude timescale and energy arguments favor the AGN as the only plausible candidate to accelerate the gas, with a total energy injection of {approx} few x 10{sup 60} ergs or more, necessary to power the outflow, and relatively efficient coupling between radio jet and ISM. Observed outflow properties are in gross agreement with the models, and suggest that AGN winds might have a similar, or perhaps larger, cosmological significance than starburst-driven winds, if MRC1138-262 is indeed archetypal. Moreover, the outflow has the potential to remove significant gas fractions ({approx}< 50%) from a > L* galaxy within a few 10 to 100 Myrs, fast enough to preserve the observed [{alpha}/Fe] overabundance in massive galaxies at low redshift. Using simple arguments, it appears that feedback like that observed in MRC1138-262 may have sufficient energy to inhibit material from infalling into the dark matter halo and thus regulate galaxy growth as required in some recent models of hierarchical structure formation.

  4. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gee Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors (MVC, static-squat jumps (SSJ, counter-movement jumps (CMJ, maximal rowing power strokes (PS and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01. However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05, and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086. In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected.

  5. 供电企业全员培训机制建设研究%Research on the construction of full training mechanism for power supply enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓龙

    2016-01-01

    In the process of modern enterprise management,human resources management is a very important part of the.At present,the power supply enterprise human resources management is in traditional mode to the modern mode of strategic improvement process,has established a preliminary mechanism of human resource management,but in personnel training and development strategy in the process still exist many problems,making human resources training effect is not ideal. Along with our country to the power supply enterprise's gradual attention,the power supply enterprise needs to carry on the reform unceasingly,so as to consummate the enterprise human resources training mechanism,promotes the staff's comprehensive quality, promotes the enterprise's progress and the development.%在现代的企业管理过程中,人力资源管理是十分重要的组成部分。目前,供电企业人力资源管理正处在传统模式到现代模式的战略改进过程中,已经建立了初步的人力资源管理机制,但是在进行人员培训和战略开发过程中还存在着许多问题,使得人力资源培训的效果并不理想。随着我国对供电企业的逐渐重视,供电企业需要不断的进行改革,从而完善企业人力资源的培训机制,提升员工的综合素质,促进企业的进步和发展。

  6. Using Experiential Activities to Prepare Counselors-in-Training to Understand the Power of Cravings when Addressing Clients with Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; McClure, Cristen C.; Nelson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Providing skilled treatment options for clients experiencing addiction is imperative to positive client treatment outcomes. As a prerequisite to providing efficacious addiction treatment, counselors-in-training are charged with the responsibility of understanding the affect of cravings on addiction relapse. This article presents 3 experiential,…

  7. Using Experiential Activities to Prepare Counselors-in-Training to Understand the Power of Cravings when Addressing Clients with Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; McClure, Cristen C.; Nelson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Providing skilled treatment options for clients experiencing addiction is imperative to positive client treatment outcomes. As a prerequisite to providing efficacious addiction treatment, counselors-in-training are charged with the responsibility of understanding the affect of cravings on addiction relapse. This article presents 3 experiential,…

  8. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Klaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001, while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001. The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  9. Hematocrit estimation using online sequential extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Jinsul

    2015-01-01

    Hematocrit is a blood test that is defined as the volume percentage of red blood cells in the whole blood. It is one of the important indicators for clinical decision making and the most effective factor in glucose measurement using handheld devices. In this paper, a method for hematocrit estimation that is based upon the transduced current curve and the neural network is presented. The salient points of this method are that (1) the neural network is trained by the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) in which the devices can be still trained with new samples during the using process and (2) the extended features are used to reduce the number of current points which can save the battery power of devices and speed up the measurement process.

  10. The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance training (RT enhances muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy while increasing strength and power. Some multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS have been shown to augment the physiological improvements associated with RT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific pre- and post-workout MIPS on anabolic hormones, body composition, muscle strength, and power in resistance-trained men participating in a periodized RT program. Methods Twenty-four ( mean ± SE; 24.0 ± 0.9 years; 180.5 ± 5.8 cm; 83.7 ± 0.5 kg resistance-trained men completed 6 wks of periodized RT (3x/wk. Participants were assigned to one of two groups based upon maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps (Biodex to lean mass (LM ratio. Group 1 (n = 13; MIPS consumed one serving of NO-Shotgun® (whey protein, casein protein, branched-chain amino acids, creatine, beta alanine, and caffeine before each workout and one serving of NO-Synthesize® (whey protein, casein protein, branched-chain amino acids, creatine, and beta alanine; Vital Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Davie, FL immediately after each workout and on non-RT days. Group 2 (n = 11; Placebo; PLA consumed a flavor-matched isocaloric maltodextrin placebo. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1, human growth hormone, testosterone, body composition (DXA, circumferences, 1-repetition maximal strength (1RM of the upper (chest press and lower body (leg press, and anaerobic power (Wingate test were assessed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis included a 2 × 2 (group x time ANOVA with repeated measures. Tukey LSD post hoc tests were used to examine pairwise differences. Significance was set at p  Results There was a main time effect (p = 0.035 for testosterone to increase, but no differences between groups were observed. There were no differences in the other blood hormones. Group x time interactions were observed for LM

  11. On the Motivation Mechanism of Training Higher VocationalStudents’Soft Power%略论高职学生软实力培养的动力机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宝志

    2016-01-01

    培养高职生软实力是当前高职教育的重要使命。高职院校不仅要构建高职生软实力培养的内部动力系统,充分发挥目标引导力、制度激励力、实践推动力和环境渗透力,而且要利用政府、企业、社会和家庭的力量,完善高职生软实力培养的外部动力系统,为高职生软实力培育提供政策支持、企业助力、社会影响和家庭教育。%Training the soft power of higher vocational students is the important mission of higher vocational e-ducation . Higher vocational colleges should not only build the inner power system of training the soft power of higher vocational students,giving full play to the target guidance,system motivation,practical impetus and environment penetration,but also make good use of the power of the government,enterprises,society and family to improve the external power system of training the soft power of higher vocational students,which can provide policy support, corporate power,social influence and family education for training the soft power of higher vocational students.

  12. ScottishPower learning's school-to-work education and training programs[Empowering socially excluded youth and building future managers' leadership, communication and social skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, K.; Watt, D.; Yachnin, R.

    2001-08-01

    Serving approximately 7 million homes and businesses across the United Kingdom and the northwest United States, ScottishPower and its subsidiaries are one of the 12 largest electricity groups in the world. Following deregulation in the electricity industry in the United Kingdom in 1990, ScottishPower found it had to change quickly to capture emerging opportunities. It recognized the need to support employee development and set up an Open Learning Centre to be used by staff for their own personal development. Investment was made in occupational health and wellness services. The following three-step training process was established for ScottishPower: (1) conduct employability assessments; (2) design and deliver a learning activity so that the individual will be successful in the workplace; and (3) engage learners. ScottishPower has implemented several training programs to empower employees, their families and their communities: education transition programs for 15-18 year olds; pre-vocational training for 16-25 year olds; and, vocational training for 16-25 year olds. The keys to success include people, processes, infrastructure, resources committed, challenges, and innovation. In cooperation with trade unions, government bodies, economic development agencies and education and training agencies, ScottishPower has developed a wide spectrum of training and development programs aimed at unemployed young people in socially deprived areas of the United Kingdom.

  13. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-02-01

    Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P sedentary ageing men.

  14. The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreider Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is a leguminous, annual plant originating in India and North Africa. In recent years Fenugreek has been touted as an ergogenic aid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Fenugreek supplementation on strength and body composition. Methods 49 Resistance trained men were matched according to body weight and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner capsules containing 500 mg of a placebo (N = 23, 20 ± 1.9 years, 178 ± 6.3 cm, 85 ± 12.7 kg, 17 ± 5.6 %BF or Fenugreek (N = 26, 21 ± 2.8 years, 178 ± 6 cm, 90 ± 18.2 kg, 19.3 ± 8.4 %BF. Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week periodized resistance-training program split into two upper and two lower extremity workouts per week for a total of 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects underwent hydrodensiometery body composition, 1-RM strength, muscle endurance, and anaerobic capacity testing. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 60-days. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 between groups were noted for training volume. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in body fat (FEN: -2.3 ± 1.4%BF; PL: -0.39 ± 1.6 %BF, p 0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that 500 mg of this proprietary Fenugreek extraction had a significant impact on both upper- and lower-body strength and body composition in comparison to placebo in a double blind controlled trial. These changes were obtained with no clinical side effects.

  15. 基于样本熵和极端学习机的超短期风电功率组合预测模型%Combined Model for Ultra Short-term Wind Power Prediction Based on Sample Entropy and Extreme Learning Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学清; 梁军; 张熙; 张峰; 张利; 徐兵

    2013-01-01

    该文提出一种经验模态分解(empirical mode 该文提出一种经验模态分解(empirical mode decomposition,EMD)-样本熵(sample entropy,SE)和极端学习机(extreme learning machine,ELM)相结合的风电功率超短期预测方法。该方法首先利用 EMD-SE 将风电功率时间序列分解为一系列复杂度差异明显的风电子序列;其次利用最小二乘支持向量机(least squares support vector machine, LSSVM)、极端学习机和经原始岭回归(primal ridge regression,PRR)改进的极端学习机(PRR-ELM)对各子序列建立组合预测模型,并采用交叉验证法和重构相空间法确定各模型的参数和输入向量维数,以提高各组合模型的预测精度;最后以某一风电场实际采集的数据为算例,结果表明基于EMD-SE理论的ELM和PRR-ELM组合预测模型在预测精度和训练速度上都明显优于 EMD-SE 理论和 LSSVM 的组合模型,且其预测结果更接近于真实值,为实现风电功率在线的较高精度超短期预测提供了可能。%An ultra short-term wind power combined prediction approach based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-sample entropy (SE) and extreme learning machine (ELM) was proposed. Firstly, the wind power time series was decomposed into a series of wind power subsequences with obvious differences in complex degree by using EMD-SE. Secondly, the prediction models of each subsequence were constructed with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), extreme learning machine (ELM) and ELM improved by primal ridge regression (PRR-ELM), of which the parameters and the input vector dimensions were determined by cross validation and chaotic phase space theory to improve the forecasting accuracy of each prediction model. Finally, taking the actual collecting data of certain a wind farm for an example, the simulation results illustrate that ELM and PRR-ELM prediction model based on EMD-SE are much better than the combined LSSVM model

  16. Dethrombosis of the lower extremity arteries using the power-pulse spray technique in patients with recent onset thrombotic occlusions: results of the DETHROMBOSIS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Dippel, Eric J; Shammas, Gail; Gayton, Laura; Coiner, Denise; Jerin, Mike

    2008-10-01

    To assess the presence of thrombus using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and evaluate the feasibility of combined thrombolysis [power-pulse spray (P-PS)] and rheolytic thrombectomy (RT) in patients with recent-onset limb ischemia (<6 months) due to total occlusion of at least 1 infrainguinal vessel. Seventeen patients (12 women; mean age 68.3+/-10.7 years) enrolled in a prospective registry underwent IVUS imaging at baseline, after treatment with P-PS using tissue plasminogen activator and RT (AngioJet), and prior to definitive treatment of the vessel. The primary safety endpoints were major bleeding, distal embolization, vascular access complications, and renal failure. Effectiveness outcomes were (1) procedural success with a residual stenosis <30%, (2) IVUS-documented resolution of the thrombus, and (3) the combined clinical endpoint of procedure-related death, stroke, unplanned amputation, and unplanned urgent revascularization of the treated limb. At baseline, the majority of patients (16, 94.1%) had a definite thrombus identified by IVUS; in the remaining patient (6.3%), thrombus was likely to be present according to the IVUS scan. By angiography, 2 (11.8%) patients had a definite grade 3 thrombus and 5 (29.4%) patients had a grade 1 thrombus (modified TIMI scale) at baseline. IVUS data were available pre and post P-PS/RT in 16 (94.1%) patients. In 10 (62.5%), the thrombus was partially resolved; in 5 (31.25%), there was no apparent change. The thrombus appeared to have completely resolved in only 1 (6.3%) patient. Embolization occurred in 3 (17.6%) patients with no adverse clinical sequelae. The combined clinical endpoint was met in 1 (5.9%) of 17 patients. After final definitive treatment of the vessel, acute procedural success was 100%, with no angiographic filling defects seen. Thrombus is present in most if not all patients with a recent history of limb ischemia who are found to have an occluded culprit vessel. The application of the P-PS/RT led to

  17. Design of Suspension Power Supply for Mid-Low Speed Maglev Train%中低速磁浮列车悬浮电源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏培华; 黄芳军; 孙立辉; 唐海燕; 刘长清

    2012-01-01

    A DC/DC converter is used in suspension power supply for mid-low speed maglev train, which can provide DC 330 V power for suspension controller and charge DC 330 V battery. It's one of the key equipments of mid-low speed maglev train for normal operating. Its main circuit topology, basic control method and current sharing technology are presented, and the structural design and engineering applications are also introduced.%中低速磁浮列车的悬浮电源采用DC/DC变换器,主要为悬浮控制器提供DC330V电源和为DC330V蓄电池充电,是中低速磁浮列车正常运行的关键部件之一。文章主要介绍了中低速磁浮列车悬浮电源主电路拓扑结构、基本控制方法、均流控制等关键技术,并介绍了其结构设计及应用。

  18. Human Resource Training in Power Plants%浅析电力企业人力资源培训的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周焱

    2012-01-01

    Competition of companies refers to talents competition. Human resource training means an important way of raising staff comprehensive quality as well as basic abilities. The paper analyzes current situation for training in power plants and proposes that a new way of improving training system.%企业的竞争归根结底是人才的竞争。电力企业人力资源培训是提高员工综合素质和基本技能的重要手段。本文在深入分析电力企业人力资源培训的重要性和特点的基础上,总结归纳了目前电力企业培训现状,有针对性地提出了树立全新的培训理念,建立完善的培训规划,打造一流的培训团队,科学优化培训的内容,强化培训效果的评估,建立完善的生涯规划等对策建议。

  19. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H.; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  20. Integrated analysis of DFIG drive-train and power electronics dynamics during electrical AC faults and wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Anaya-Lara, Olimpo

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a 2 MW DFIG wind turbine are studied during electrical AC faults, and wind disturbances. A simulation platform that couples HAWC2, and Matlab/Simulink was used. High frequencies of the gear box, and power electronics are neglected. It was shown that the dynamics of the dc-link are......The dynamics of a 2 MW DFIG wind turbine are studied during electrical AC faults, and wind disturbances. A simulation platform that couples HAWC2, and Matlab/Simulink was used. High frequencies of the gear box, and power electronics are neglected. It was shown that the dynamics of the dc...

  1. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  2. Demonstration system for renewable power supply in the Bernburg/Roschwitz vocational training schools. Final report; Demonstrationsanlage von regenerativen Energien fuer die Berufsbildenden Schulen Bernburg/Roschwitz. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerich; Strauss

    2002-03-01

    The vocational schools of the district of Bernburg, which have about 1000 students, have become a training center for renewable energy and environmental protection. The project 'SOLARIUS' is used especially for training heating systems experts, technical facilities experts and electrical engineering experts. Other schools are interested in using the systems for demonstration and teaching purposes, too. The system comprises a 12 m{sup 2} solar collector system for space and water heating; an 1.4 kWp PV system for electric power generation and power supply to the public grid; a 0.6 kW wind power system to support the PV system on cloudy but windy days; 5 kW air-to-water heat pumps for demonstration and also for auxiliary heating. [German] Die Berufsbildenden Schulen des Landkreises Bernburg, seit 1999 verantwortlich fuer die zentrale Ausbildung von zirka 1000 Lehrlingen der verschiedensten Berufsgruppen, haben sich zu einem Berufsschulzentrum fuer regenerative Energie und Umweltschutz entwickelt. Fachlehrer riefen das Projekt 'SOLARIUS' ins Leben, das vor allem in der Ausbildung von Heizungs- und Sanitaermonteuren sowie Elektrotechnikern genutzt wird. Verschiedene Gymnasien und Sekundarschulen haben ihr Interesse bekundet, die Demonstrationsanlage als Anschauungsobjekt zu nutzen. Folgende Anlagenkomponenten sollen bei der Demoanlage zum Einsatz gelangen: - 12 m{sup 2} Solarkollektoren zur Warmwasserbereitung und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. - 1,4 kWp Photovoltaikanlage zur Energieerzeugung fuer elektrische Verbraucher in der Demoanlage bzw. zur Einspeisung in das oeffentliche Netz. - 0,6 kW Windkraftanlage zusaetzliche Unterstuetzung der Photovoltaikanlage bei sonnenschwachen, aber windstarken Tagen. - 5 kW Luft-/Wasser-Waermepumpen fuer demonstrativen Zweck und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. Zur Zeit werden Heizung und Warmwasserbereitung der Berufsschule aus dem Fernwaermenetz der Stadtwerke Bernburg ueber eine Hausanschlussstation gespeist. Durch

  3. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...

  4. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and

  5. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  6. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Orlov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Explicit dyonic dilaton black holes of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for two particular values of the dilaton coupling constant $a =1,\\sqrt{3}$, while for other $a$ numerical evidence was presented earlier about existence of extremal dyons in theories with the discrete sequence of dilaton couplings $a=\\sqrt{n(n+1)/2}$ with integer $n$. Apart from the lower members $n=1,\\,2$, this family of theories does not have motivation from supersymmetry or higher dimensions, and so far the above quantization rule has not been derived analytically. We fill this gap showing that this rule follows from analyticity of the dilaton at the $AdS_2\\times S^2$ event horizon with $n$ being the leading dilaton power in the series expansion. We also present generalization for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  7. Neovascularity in patellar tendinopathy and the response to eccentric training: a case report using Power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Karen M; Riley, Sara J; Crotty, James M

    2013-12-01

    This report describes the case of an amateur soccer player with chronic patellar tendinopathy who underwent ultrasound imaging before and after engaging in an 8-week programme of eccentric exercise. On initial assessment, greyscale ultrasound imaging demonstrated tendon thickening and reduced echogenicity, while Power Doppler imaging demonstrated a large amount of neovascularity. After 8 weeks of an eccentric loading programme, the patient reported significantly improved symptoms and functional scores, while follow-up imaging demonstrated improvement in the echo appearance of the tendon and complete resolution of the neovascularity. The association between neovascularity and symptoms in tendinopathy research is conflicting, with a paucity of research in the area of patellar tendinopathy. While further research is needed to clarify the significance of greyscale and Power Doppler ultrasound changes in relation to symptoms in patellar tendinopathy, ultrasound imaging was shown to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and outcome assessment in this case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on lower extremity trauma fracture prevention of postoperative knee stiffness functional training%下肢创伤骨折术后预防膝关节僵硬的功能训练研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英霞; 罗新; 吕坤芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and assess the systemic functional training in the prevention of lower limb trauma fracture surgery knee stiffness effect. Methods: Select General Hospital of PLA (301 Hospital) traumatic lower extremity Department of orthopedics from 2009 since April admissions of fractures in patients with 126 cases, according to the nursing methods of postoperative patients were divided into experimental group 63 cases and control group 63 cases, control group was given routine nursing after traumatic fracture of lower limb, the experimental group received training rehabilitation care plan and patient in the control group. Postoperative follow-up, the time of 5 months-2 years, two groups of patients were muscle strength, extension and flexion degree and the patients with complications were analyzed statistically, and the comprehensive evaluation of knee joint function recovery of patients. Results:The postoperative knee flexion strength and degree than the control group;experimental group, the complication rate was 15.9%in the control group of patients swelling after seven cases, the complication rate was 28.6%; comprehensive evaluation knee function two groups of patients in the experimental group was 82.5% excellent (52/63), good rate of the control group was 65.1% (41/63);said comparison items were statistically significant differences (x2=12.6, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lower limb trauma fracture surgery rehabilitation for patients with systemic functional training rehabilitation care, joint function recovery is remarkable, scientifically valid methods, should be further promoted.%目的:观察、评估系统性功能训练在下肢创伤骨折术后对预防膝关节僵硬的作用。方法:选取下肢创伤性骨折患者126例,根据患者术后的护理方式分成实验组和对照组各63例。对照组给予下肢创伤性骨折术后的常规护理;实验组在对照组的基础上给予有计划耐心细致的功能训练康复护理。

  9. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  10. Effects of Strength Training Using Unstable Surfaces on Strength, Power and Balance Performance Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Kibele, Armin; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of strength training on unstable surfaces (STU) versus stable surfaces (STS) or a control condition (CON; i.e., no training or regular training only) for strength, power and balance performance across the lifespan has not yet been investigated in a systematic review and meta-analysis. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the general effects of STU versus STS or CON on muscle strength, power and balance in healthy individuals across the lifespan and to investigate whether performance changes following STU are age specific. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science from January 1984 up to February 2015. Initially, 209 articles were identified for review. Only controlled trials were included if they investigated STU in healthy individuals and tested at least one measure of maximal strength, strength endurance, muscle power, or static/dynamic balance. In total, 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age, sex, training status, training modality, exercise and test modality. Effect size measures included within-subject standardized mean differences (SMDw) and weighted between-subject standardized mean differences (SMDb). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using I2 and χ2 statistics. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Our search failed to identify studies that examined the effects of STU versus STS or CON in children and middle-aged adults. However, four studies were identified that investigated the effects of STU versus CON or STS in adolescents, 15 studies were identified in young adults and three studies were identified in old adults. Compared with CON, STU produced medium effects on maximal strength in young adults and no effects to medium effects in old adults. In addition, large effects were detected on

  11. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  12. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  13. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  14. Extremes in Oxidizing Power, Acidity, and Basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    for the iodination of CB11H12! salts was greatly simplified and HCB11I11! is now easily available on a 10 g scale. The hope that its fluorination ...for the iodination of CB11H12! salts was greatly simplified and HCB11I11! is now easily available on a 10 g scale. The hope that its fluorination may...to the starting anion to yield an iodonium salt carrying two carborane cages on an iodine atom. Report In the following, the salient results of our

  15. Schwinger limit attainability with extreme power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Stepan S; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Thomas, Alexander G R; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2010-11-26

    High intensity colliding laser pulses can create abundant electron-positron pair plasma [A. R. Bell and J. G. Kirk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 200403 (2008)], which can scatter the incoming electromagnetic waves. This process can prevent one from reaching the critical field of quantum electrodynamics at which vacuum breakdown and polarization occur. Considering the pairs are seeded by the Schwinger mechanism, it is shown that the effects of radiation friction and the electron-positron avalanche development in vacuum depend on the electromagnetic wave polarization. For circularly polarized colliding pulses, these effects dominate not only the particle motion but also the evolution of the pulses. For linearly polarized pulses, these effects are not as strong. There is an apparent analogy of these cases with circular and linear electron accelerators to the corresponding constraining and reduced roles of synchrotron radiation losses.

  16. The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jacob M; Ryan P. Lowery; Joy, Jordan M; Andersen, J. C.; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Duncan, Nevine; Fuller, John C; Baier, Shawn M.; Naimo, Marshall A.; Rathmacher, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Studies utilizing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in trained populations are limited. No long-term studies utilizing HMB free acid (HMB-FA) have been conducted. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, body composition, strength, and power in trained individuals. We also determined the effects of HMB-FA on muscle damage and performance during an overreaching cycle. Methods A three-phase dou...

  17. ''Rueckbau 2014''. KWS Congress regarding decommissioning and dismantling at Zwentendorf nuclear training power plant; ''Rueckbau 2014''. KWS-Rueckbau-Fachtagung im Schulungskernkraftwerk Zwentendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Herbert [KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (KWS), Essen (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    From September 24 to 25, 2014, KRAFTWERKS-SCHULE E.V. (KWS) held the congress ''Rueckbau 2014''.This first congress about nuclear power plant decommissioning was combined with an exhibition in the fully equipped Zwentendorf nuclear training power plant. The exhibitors had the opportunity to present and test their products in the ambience of a real nuclear power plant, close to original plant components. The visitors got a general overview of the on-site conditions. During the lectures the process of decommissioning and dismantling of a nuclear power plant were described, problems within this process were discussed, and possible solutions were recommended.

  18. Adaptive Virtual Torque Control of Powered Lower Extremity Exoskeleton on the Basis of Wavelet Neural Network%携行外骨骼自适应虚拟力矩控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀霞; 刘迪; 赵国荣

    2015-01-01

    在深入分析人的行为特征以及携行系统虚拟力矩控制机理的基础上,设计了非线性自适应控制器来克服摩擦及系统不确定性等非线性因素的影响。基于李亚普诺夫稳定性原理设计了自适应虚拟力矩控制器,并将其应用于下肢外骨骼的运动控制,理论分析及仿真结果证明了此控制方案的可行性及有效性。%Based on the analysis of the human behavior characteristics and the control mechanism of powered exoskeleton system virtual joint torque control, The nonlinear adaptive controller is designed to overcome the effect of the confriction and the uncertain. Based on Lyapunov stability principle, the adaptive controller is designed, which is used to control lower extremity exoskeleton. Theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the feasibility and validity of this control method.

  19. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies

  20. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies

  1. Extreme Arctic cyclones in CMIP5 historical simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavrus, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    .... This study addresses whether such powerful storms are an emerging expression of anthropogenic climate change by investigating simulated extreme Arctic cyclones during the historical period (1850–2005...

  2. «KILLOLOGY» – THE SCIENCE OF MURDER – IN PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL TRAINING IN POWER STRUCTURES OF THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Jurevich Efremov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article considers the psychological-pedagogical bases of preparation of employees of power structures of the USA to the use of weapons in a combat situation.Methodology. The article is based on an analysis of the views of foreign military psychologists on the nature of psychological mechanisms to overcome the fear to kill and to be killed on the battlefield.Results. It is noted that the «science of murder» helps to better understand the psychology of the American military and police personnel and their activities in situations of risk to life.Practical implications. In educational work with the Russian military personnel are encouraged to focus attention on an impartial study and rational use of the experience of military psychologists in the USA.

  3. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  4. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  5. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg-1 · min-1) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. Results The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p HIIT group. Both PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT treatment groups demonstrated significant (p HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Conclusions Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. Study registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368). PMID:24782684

  6. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  7. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  8. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  9. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  10. Thinking On strengthening the electric power enterprise staff education training%关于加强电力企业职工教育培训工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淼

    2014-01-01

    电力是我国社会经济发展的主要能源,电力企业职工的整体素质直接影响到电力企业的运行安全和效率,所以加强电力企业职工教育培训工作十分必要。%Electricity is the main energy in the development of our social economy, the electric power enterprise staffs' overall quality directly affects the operation of the electric power enterprises safety and efficiency, so it is necessary to strengthen the electric power enterprise staff education training work.

  11. The effects of modified exponential tapering technique on perceived exertion, heart rate, time trial performance, VO2max and power output among highly trained junior cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Asmadi; Hashim, Hairul A; Krasilshchikov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 2-week modified exponential taper on physiological adaptation and time trial performance among junior cyclists. Participants (N.=27) with the mean age of 16.95±0.8 years, height of 165.6±6.1 cm and weight of 54.19±8.1 kg were matched into either modified exponential taper (N.=7), normal exponential taper (N.=7), or control (N.=7) groups using their initial VO2max values. Both experimental groups followed a 12-week progressive endurance training program and subsequently, a 2-week tapering phase. A simulated 20-km time trial performance along with VO2max, power output, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were measured at baseline, pre and post-taper. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the difference between groups before the start of the intervention while mixed factorial ANOVA was used to analyze the difference between groups across measurement sessions. When homogeneity assumption was violated, the Greenhouse-Geisser Value was used for the corrected values of the degrees of freedom for the within subject factor the analysis. Significant interactions between experimental groups and testing sessions were found in VO2max (F=6.67, df=4, P<0.05), power output (F=5.02, df=4, P<0.05), heart rate (F=10.87, df=2.51, P<0.05) rating of perceived exertion (F=13.04, df=4, P<0.05) and 20KM time trial (F=4.64, df=2.63, P<0.05). Post-hoc analysis revealed that both types of taper exhibited positive effects compared to the non-taper condition in the measured performance markers at post-taper while no different were found between the two taper groups. It was concluded that both taper protocols successfully inducing physiological adaptations among the junior cyclists by reducing the volume and maintaining the intensity of training.

  12. The effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on the blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and power in trained men: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arazi H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probably L-Carnitine can induce increasing of Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, decreasing of lactic acid production and performance improvements due to the reinforcement of long chain fatty acid oxidation and stabilize of Coenzyme A (CoASH to free Coenzyme A (COA. Based on this, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and anaerobic power in trained men.Methods: Sixteen trained men (aged 19-23 volunteers from University of Guilan, facul-ty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences participated as subjects in this investiga-tion. Subjects divided to aerobic (A and anaerobic (An group randomly. In a double blind design, subjects participated in two separated tests by one week. Subjects ingested 3 grams of L-Carnitine supplementation or placebo (maltodextrin 90 minute before aerobic and anaerobic exercise. For aerobic activity used shuttle run 20 meter and for anaerobic activity used RAST test. Blood samples were collected 5 minute prior at rest and 4 minute post tests. Participants were asked in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and perform tests. A t-test was used to detect differences between supplementa-tion and placebo groups in each exercise.Results: L-Carnitine group ((A 141.25±20.62 and (An 145.38±55.47 significantly had lower lactate concentration than placebo ((A 151.00±20.85 and (An 152.50±28.59 after tests (P≤0.05. L-Carnitine group ((A 136.00±19.74 and (An 115.50±13.64 had significa-ntly higher blood glucose compared to placebo ((A 121.62±15.65 and (An 110.12±12.63 too (P≤0.05. Also, VO2max, mean and maximum anaerobic power in L-Carnitine group were significantly more than ones in placebo (P<0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that acute oral supplementation of L-Carnitine can induce fatigue decreasing and improvement of aerobic and anaerobic performance.

  13. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  14. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  15. 三门核电辐射防护模拟培训设计%The Design of Simulation-Training for Radiation Protection in Sanmen Nuclear Power Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云飞

    2015-01-01

    结合三门核电开展辐射防护模拟培训的经验 ,探讨核电厂辐射防护培训的开展模式 ,分析辐射防护模拟培训开展的必要性与可行性.按模块化、标准化、多样化的设计理念 ,构建了核电厂辐射防护模拟培训设计模型.%When discussing the Radiation Protection (RP ) training models ,it's impossible to ignore the nec-essary and practicability of Simulation-Training .Basing on the experience of RP Simulation-Training in Sanmen Nuclear Power Company ,a brand new training model was proposed ,with a designing idea of being modular , standardized and diversified .

  16. Reduction of forced strengths generated by wagging and snaking of the rotor in the power strain of wind power plants. With the help of newly developed components the sensitive components of power trains of the wind power plants are decoupled from forced movements and forced strengths of the machine support. This contributes to the reduction of damages in bearings and transmission.; Reduzierung der durch Nick- und Gierschwingung des Rotors erzeugten Zwangskraefte im Triebstrang von Windkraftanlagen. Mit Hilfe neu entwickelter Komponenten werden die sensiblen Triebstrangkomponenten der Windkraftanlagen von Zwangsbewegungen und entsprechenden Zwangskraeften des Maschinentraegers entkoppelt. Dies traegt zur Verringerung von Lager- und Getriebeschaeden bei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, Franz [ESM GmbH, Rimbach (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the last years, the performance of wind power plants has increased enormously. Thus, within the last 15 years the average performance of wind power plants increased by a factor of nearly 10 and actually amounts more than 2 MW. The tendency still is rising. Due to the enhanced performance and thus due to the smaller frequencies, the moments and forces at the rotor blade and in power train increase extra proportionally. Due to economic and technical reasons, the supporting structure of the power train of large plants cannot be built infinitely rigid. Larger deformations of the supporting structure must be accepted. At the same time, too high additional loads shall not be transferred to the rotating mechanical engineering parts such as generator, transmission, bearings and clutches. The contribution under consideration describes new elastomeric construction units which minimize the additional forces due to deformations of the machine support and power train.

  17. Effects of training programs for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillard, X; Rimaud, D; Roche, F; Calmels, P

    2007-07-01

    Endurance exercise training programs in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) were largely studied to determine different types of adaptations. The aim of specific rehabilitation is to obtain maximal gains in quality-of-life (QoL) after SCI. To review the literature on the efficiency of training programs for SCI. We searched the MEDline database with the keywords SCI, paraplegia and quadriplegia and synonyms, then combined them with one of the following terms: rehabilitation, training, exercise conditioning, physical fitness, exercise prescription, adaptation, effect, or benefit. We found 65 articles related to the physiological and psychological effects of training programmes on patients with SCI. Training programs after SCI offer reconditioning cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular, cardiac, metabolic, bone, biomechanical, muscle adaptation, and QoL benefits. Reconditioning training increases VO2 max, reverses leg vascular resistance in the paralyzed legs and has possible cardiac and neural adaptations, favorable catecholamine responses and effects on platelet aggregation. Reconditioning can also modify lipid profile, reduce risk for cardiovascular diseases, prevent osteoporosis and increase maximal upper-extremity muscle strength, sprint power output and maximal power output. This effect allows for considerable improvement in mechanical efficiency and wheelchair propulsion technique. Reconditioning training programs after SCI have a direct impact on function and QoL, permitting participation in physical activities in addition to daily living activities in subjects with SCI.

  18. 下肢肌肉链训练与股四头肌训练治疗膝骨关节炎的疗效对比研究%Comparative Studies on Lower Extremity Muscle Chains and Quadriceps Femoris Training for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓林; 林坚; 黄雄昂; 蒋天武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical effects of the lower extremity muscle chains training and quadriceps femoris training on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis ( KOA ) . Methods From March 2011 to Septemper 2012, 70 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly and evenly divided into control group and research group according to visiting sequence. Patients in the control group were given routine quadriceps femoris training, and the research group were given lower extremity muscle chains training based on muscle chains theory. Before and after eight weeks treatment, the clinical effect was evaluated using Lysholm score and JOA score as index. Results Comparisons of Lysholm score and JOA score between two groups before treatment were not significantly different ( P > 0. 05 ); After treatment, the Lysholm score and JOA score in research group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The effect of lower extremity muscle chains training is better than the quadriceps femoris training in improving joint function for the treatment of KOA.%目的 探讨下肢肌肉链训练与股四头肌训练在膝骨关节炎(KOA)康复治疗中的临床疗效.方法 选取2011年3月-2012年9月我院收治的70例KOA患者,按就诊先后顺序随机分为对照组35例和研究组35例.对照组采用传统股四头肌训练,研究组采用基于肌肉链理论的下肢肌肉链训练,治疗前和治疗8周后使用Lysholm评分、治疗效果判定标准(JOA)评分对临床疗效进行.结果 研究组治疗前Lysholm评分、JOA评分与对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);研究组治疗后Lysholm评分、JOA评分较对照组明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 肌肉链训练疗效优于单纯股四头肌训练,对KOA功能恢复具有明显作用.

  19. Study on the measures to enhance the training effect of electric power enterprises%关于提升电力企业培训效果的措施探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伶

    2014-01-01

    如今社会,电力行业迅猛发展,但电力企业的面临着良好发展机会的同时也面临激烈的竞争。为了促进电力企业的健康稳定发展,提高电力企业的竞争实力,电力企业就要重视电力企业员工专业素质和技能。人才素质是决定企业发展能否长远的主要标准之一,提升电力企业培训效果要求电力企业从自身的发展实际出发,结合企业员工的发展需要,积极探索提升电力企业培训效果的举措,最大程度地发挥电力企业人才的作用。%Nowadays, the electric power industry is developing rapidly, but the power companies are faced with good opportunities and also faces intense competition. In order to promote the healthy and stable development of the electric power enterprises, improve the electric power enterprise's competition strength, power enterprises should pay attention to the electric power enterprise employee professional qualities and skills. The quality of talents is one of the main criteria determine whether long-term development of enterprises. To enhance the training effect of electric power enterprise requirements of power enterprise own development from the reality, combined with the needs of the development of enterprises, and actively explore to enhance the training effect of electric power enterprise initiatives, to maximize the role of electric power enterprise talent.

  20. Method of bond graph for distinguishing power flow of closed planetary gear train%封闭式行星轮系功率流判别的键合图法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆凯; 唐德威; 姜生元; 邓宗全

    2012-01-01

    为更简单清晰地对封闭式行星轮系的功率流情况进行判别,利用键合图能量守恒和功率流动的特点,将键合图理论应用于该类轮系的功率流分析中.以功率汇流型、回流型2种形式的封闭式行星轮系为例,根据轮系的传动关系,利用绝对速度法建立轮系的键合图模型,根据提出的功率流向判别依据对轮系进行功率流向判别,得到整个轮系及其转换机构的功率流情况,为轮系的效率计算提供了基础.该方法适用于其它复杂轮系的功率流判别中,比传统方法更具直观性、系统性.%In order to distinguish the power flow of the closed planetary gear train more simply and clearly,the theory of bond graph was applied for the analysis of power flow of the gear train utilizing the characteristic of conversation of energy and power fluxion of bond graph.Taking the power regurgitant and confluence style of the gear trains for examples,the bond graph model of the gear trains was established according to the transmission relationships and the method of absolute speed.And then the power flow of the gear trains,as well as the conversion mechanism,was got after distinguishing the power flow basing on the discriminant,which provides the foundation for the efficiency computing.This method which is more intuitionistic and systematic than the traditional methods could be applied in the power flow judgement of other complex gear trains.

  1. Preconditioned iterations to calculate extreme eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, C.W.; Petrova, S. [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Leoben (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    Common iterative algorithms to calculate a few extreme eigenvalues of a large, sparse matrix are Lanczos methods or power iterations. They converge at a rate proportional to the separation of the extreme eigenvalues from the rest of the spectrum. Appropriate preconditioning improves the separation of the eigenvalues. Davidson`s method and its generalizations exploit this fact. The authors examine a preconditioned iteration that resembles a truncated version of Davidson`s method with a different preconditioning strategy.

  2. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  3. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  4. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  5. The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Guillermo; Alencar, Michelle; Haddock, Bryan; Harvey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3. Eighteen healthy strength-trained males were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed MT (n = 8, 22.0 +/- 2.5 years; 175.8 +/- 11.5 cm; 80.3 +/- 15.1 kg) or a placebo (PLA) (n = 10, 25.6 +/- 4.2 years; 174.8 +/- 9.0 cm; 88.6 +/- 16.6 kg) as part of a double-blind, placebo controlled pre/post experimental design. All participants volunteered to complete the three day per week resistance training protocol for the eight week study duration. To determine the effects of MT, participants were tested on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press strength (LP), 1RM bench press strength (BP), push-ups to failure (PU), vertical jump (VJ), pro-agility shuttle time (AG), peak power output (P), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and thigh muscle mass (TMM). Subjects were placed and monitored on an isocaloric diet consisting of 25 protein, 50 carbohydrates, and 25 % fat by a registered dietitian. Separate two-way mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVA's (time [Pre, Post] x group [MT and PLA] were used to investigate strength, body composition, and other performance changes. Post-hoc tests were applied as appropriate. Analysis were performed via SPSS with significance at (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant main effect (F(1,16) = 33.30, p < 0.001) for LBM where MT significantly increased LBM when compared to the PLA group (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant main effect for LP (F(1,16) = 666.74, p < 0.001) and BP (F(1,16) = 126.36, p < 0.001) where both increased significantly more in MT than PLA group (p < 0.001). No

  6. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  7. ''Rueckbau 2014''. KWS congress regarding decommissioning and dismantling at nuclear training power plant Zwentendorf; ''Rueckbau 2014''. KWS-Rueckbau-Fachtagung im Schulungskernkraftwerk Zwentendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Herbert [KRAFTWERKSSCHULE e.V. (KWS), Essen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    From September 24th to 25th, 2014 the KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (KWS) held the congress ''Rueckbau 2014''. This first congress about the deconstruction of nuclear power plants was combined with an exhibition in the fully equipped nuclear training power plant Zwentendorf. The exhibitors had the opportunity to present and test their products in the ambience of a real nuclear power plant, close to original plant components. The visitors got a general overview of the on-site conditions. During the lectures the process of decommissioning and dismantling of a nuclear power plant was described, problems within this process were discussed, and possible solutions were recommended. The congress influenced significantly the dialogue of all parties involved and contributed to an extensive exchange of knowledge and experience.

  8. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  9. Ballistic resistance training in the power development for baseball pitchers%弹震式阻力训练在发展棒球投手爆发力上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕

    2012-01-01

    通过对弹震式阻力训练的生理机制进行分析,发现棒球投手的投掷动作具备弹震式动作的特性.进而提出弹震式阻力训练是一种发展棒球投手爆发力及提升球速的优势训练方式.%An analysis is conducted of physiological mechanisms involved in the ballistic resistance training, it is pointed out that the pitch movement of a baseball pitcher has the characteristics of ballistic movement, and that ballistic resistance training is an ideal training targeted for developing baseball pitchers' power and speed.

  10. Low Oxygen Environment Training Effects on Muscle Power Parameters%低氧环境下的训练对肌肉爆发力参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁林涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析低氧环境下的训练对肌肉爆发力参数的影响。方法:随机选取某市某高校志愿者30名,将其随机分为低氧运动组和常氧运动组,低氧训练组的15位受试者在模拟青海地区海拔环境下进行训练。常氧训练组受试者进行常氧测试。两组受试者均进行相同强度的训练,对最大摄氧量、低氧通气速率、肌肉收缩产生某个运动关节屈伸扭转力矩、对抗肌比、相对平均功率等指标进行测试。结果:低氧训练组受试者最大摄氧量显著低于常氧训练组(P<0.05),同时随着运动负荷的逐渐增加,最大摄氧量逐渐降低;两组受试者通气反应速率均随运动负荷的增大而显著增加。低氧训练组和常氧训练组相比,具有非常显著性差异(P<0.01)。两组膝关节屈伸肌快速相对峰值力矩实验后均有非常显著性提高;伸肌快速相对峰值力矩增长量低氧训练组非常显著性高于常氧训练组,P<0.01;屈肌组间相比,无显著性差异。结论:低氧环境下训练能够有效增强肌肉爆发力,对肌肉爆发力参数有积极的影响。%Objective: to analyse the low oxygen environment training effects on muscle power parameters. Methods: randomly selected 30 volunteers, a university city, and it were randomly divided into hypoxia exercise group and the aerobic exercise group, hypoxic training group of 15 subjects in a simulated altitude training environment in qinghai area. Often tested often oxygen oxygen training subjects. All of the same strength training, the two groups of vo2 Max, low oxygen aeration rate, muscle contraction produce a certain movement joint flexion torque, antagonist ratio, relative indexes of average power for testing. Results: the hypoxia training group were often have lower vo2max aerobic training group (P <0.05), with the gradual increase of sports load at the same time, the vo2max gradually reduce;Two groups of

  11. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 7: PEP logistics and training plan requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for logistics activities and logistics planning are presented based on the assumption that a system prime contractor will perform logistics functions to support all program hardware and will implement a logistics system to include the planning and provision of products and services to assure cost effective coverage of the following: maintainability; maintenance; spares and supply support; fuels; pressurants and fluids; operations and maintenance documentation training; preservation, packaging and packing; transportation and handling; storage; and logistics management information reporting. The training courses, manpower, materials, and training aids required will be identified and implemented in a training program.

  12. 从安全风险管理中梳理供电培训需求的探讨%Carding the Training Needs of Power Supply from Safety Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏健祥

    2011-01-01

    培训需求作为企业开展各种培训的重要依据,是企业人才培养目标的重要体现.长期以来员工的培训需求往往与基层班组的实际情况结合不足,不能引起基层员工的共鸣.员工虽然参加了很多培训,但更多的是被动接受,缺乏引导员工主动学习,也达不到电力企业的发展对人员素质不断提升的要求.本文重点探讨了佛山三水供电局从安全风险体系建设中根据关键风险预控措施反向推出员工的培训需要.%As an important basis for carrying out a variety of training in enterprises, the training need is an important manifestation of personnel training goals of enterprises. Staff training needs of employees do not adapt to the actual situation of grass-roots team for a long time, and can not arouse the employees. Although employees have participated in many training, most of them are passive acceptor. They are lack of initiative to encourage their employees to learn, but also can not reach the requirements of development of electric power enterprises to improving the quality of personnel. This article focuses on Foshan Sanshui Power Supply Bureau reverse its employees training needs from the security risks system, based on key the risk pre-control measures.

  13. A型肉毒毒素注射配合康复功能训练对痉挛型偏瘫脑瘫患儿上肢运动功能疗效观察%Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Rehabilitation Functional Training on Upper Extremity Motor Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜华; 张惠佳; 阳伟红; 王益梅; 郭春光; 胡继红; 周平秋; 何金华; 段华林

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察A型肉毒