WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremity performance measures

  1. Comparison of a combination of upper extremity performance measures and usual gait speed alone for discriminating upper extremity functional limitation and disability in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Yabushita, Noriko; Kim, Mi-ji; Nemoto, Miyuki; Jung, Songee; Osuka, Yosuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    Although usual gait speed (UGS) is considered an indicator of overall well-being, it is unclear whether upper extremity performance (UEP) measures provide a similar, additive contribution to functional status. We aimed to identify whether combining UEP measures can more accurately discriminate upper extremity functional limitation (UE limitation) and disability compared to UGS. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on data from 322 community-dwelling older women, aged 65-96 years. Trained testers assessed UGS, and hand-grip strength (GRIP), functional reach (FR), back scratch, manipulating pegs (PEG), and moving beans with chopsticks as UEP measures. We assessed three functional statuses: UE limitation, activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) disabilities using self-reported questionnaires. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used to compare the discriminating power of UGS, with the individual and combined UEP measures for each status. Among UEP measures, only GRIP (AUC=0.68 for UE limitation, 0.81 for IADLs disability, and 0.84 for ADLs disability) could accurately discriminate each status as well as UGS (AUC=0.65, 0.83, and 0.91, respectively). Furthermore, UGS alone could discriminate UE limitation almost as well as the combination of GRIP, PEG, and FR (AUC=0.70). Combining other UEP measures did not help discriminate further. There were few advantages to combining UEP measures, and UGS or GRIP alone may suffice for assessing UE limitation and disability. However, the UGS should be the test of first choice, certainly more than GRIP, in routine assessment of functional limitation and disability, including UE limitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of trotting speed on kinematic variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units in nonlame horses performing controlled treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Vidondo, Beatriz; Ramseyer, Alessandra A; Maninchedda, Ugo E

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of speed on kinematic variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses performing controlled exercise on a treadmill. ANIMALS 10 nonlame horses. PROCEDURES 6 IMUs were attached at predetermined locations on 10 nonlame Franches Montagnes horses. Data were collected in triplicate during trotting at 3.33 and 3.88 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Thirty-three selected kinematic variables were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of speed. RESULTS Significant differences between the 2 speeds were detected for most temporal (11/14) and spatial (12/19) variables. The observed spatial and temporal changes would translate into a gait for the higher speed characterized by increased stride length, protraction and retraction, flexion and extension, mediolateral movement of the tibia, and symmetry, but with similar temporal variables and a reduction in stride duration. However, even though the tibia coronal range of motion was significantly different between speeds, the high degree of variability raised concerns about whether these changes were clinically relevant. For some variables, the lower trotting speed apparently was associated with more variability than was the higher trotting speed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At a higher trotting speed, horses moved in the same manner (eg, the temporal events investigated occurred at the same relative time within the stride). However, from a spatial perspective, horses moved with greater action of the segments evaluated. The detected changes in kinematic variables indicated that trotting speed should be controlled or kept constant during gait evaluation.

  3. New algorithm for extreme temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damean, N.

    2000-01-01

    A new algorithm for measurement of extreme temperature is presented. This algorithm reduces the measurement of the unknown temperature to the solving of an optimal control problem, using a numerical computer. Based on this method, a new device for extreme temperature measurements is projected. It

  4. Window Performance in Extreme Cold,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Casement windows-windows with sashes hinged on ATID difference between the indoor ambient and the side. indoor dewpoint temperatures ATIo difference...did. Installed casement windows (at 0.23 ft 3/ PREVIOUS WORK IN COLD min ft) were the only type of window with airtight- WEATHER WINDOW PERFORMANCE...to calculate air leakage hung sash unit to a casement or possibly adding another with no wind and with double the mean wind as latch to the casement

  5. Betavoltaic performance under extreme temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Tom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity of sensors and portable devices is severely limited by temperature, chemical instability, and electrolyte leakage issues associated with conventional electrochemical batteries. Betavoltaics, which operate similar to photo voltaics, can operate in a wide temperature range safely without permanent degradation. Though not a new concept, which began in the 1950's and peaked in the mid 1970's, research has been minimal and sporadic until recent advancements in ultra-low power electronics and materialization of low power applications. The technology is rapidly maturing, generating research, and development in increasing the beta emitting source and semiconductor efficiencies. This study presents an update on betavoltaic technology, results from temperature evaluation on commercially available General Licensed betavoltaic cells, development of a hybrid system for latent and burst power, modeling and simulation techniques and results, and current and proposed research and development. Betavoltaic performance was successfully demonstrated for a wide temperature range (-30°C to 70°C. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage were used to compare electrical performance. Results indicate that the open-circuit voltage and maximum power decreased as temperature increased due to increases in the semiconductor's intrinsic carrier concentration.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  7. Influences of 12-Week Physical Activity Interventions on TMS Measures of Cortical Network Inhibition and Upper Extremity Motor Performance in Older Adults—A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. McGregor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Data from previous cross-sectional studies have shown that an increased level of physical fitness is associated with improved motor dexterity across the lifespan. In addition, physical fitness is positively associated with increased laterality of cortical function during unimanual tasks; indicating that sedentary aging is associated with a loss of interhemispheric inhibition affecting motor performance. The present study employed exercise interventions in previously sedentary older adults to compare motor dexterity and measure of interhemispheric inhibition using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS after the interventions.Methods: Twenty-one community-dwelling, reportedly sedentary older adults were recruited, randomized and enrolled to a 12-week aerobic exercise group or a 12-week non-aerobic exercise balance condition. The aerobic condition was comprised of an interval-based cycling “spin” activity, while the non-aerobic “balance” exercise condition involved balance and stretching activities. Participants completed upper extremity dexterity batteries and estimates of VO2max in addition to undergoing single (ipsilateral silent period—iSP and paired-pulse interhemispheric inhibition (ppIHI in separate assessment sessions before and after study interventions. After each intervention during which heart rate was continuously recorded to measure exertion level (load, participants crossed over into the alternate arm of the study for an additional 12-week intervention period in an AB/BA design with no washout period.Results: After the interventions, regardless of intervention order, participants in the aerobic spin condition showed higher estimated VO2max levels after the 12-week intervention as compared to estimated VO2max in the non-aerobic balance intervention. After controlling for carryover effects due to the study design, participants in the spin condition showed longer iSP duration than the balance condition. Heart rate

  8. Extreme Low Frequency Acoustic Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  9. How good are remote sensors at measuring extreme winds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.; Courtney, M.; Mann, J.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some preliminary efforts within the SafeWind project, aimed to identify the possible added value of using wind lidars to detect extreme wind events. Exceptionally good performance is now regularly reported in the measurement of the mean wind speed with some wind lidars in flat

  10. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  11. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and

  12. Measuring risk of crude oil at extreme quantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of VaR models at measuring risk for WTI oil one-month futures returns. Risk models, ranging from industry standards such as RiskMetrics and historical simulation to conditional extreme value model, are used to calculate commodity market risk at extreme quantiles: 0.95, 0.99, 0.995 and 0.999 for both long and short trading positions. Our results show that out of the tested fat tailed distributions, generalised Pareto distribution provides the best fit to both tails of oil returns although tails differ significantly, with the right tail having a higher tail index, indicative of more extreme events. The main conclusion is that, in the analysed period, only extreme value theory based models provide a reasonable degree of safety while widespread VaR models do not provide adequate risk coverage and their performance is especially weak for short position in oil.

  13. Measures of serial extremal dependence and their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Richard A.; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Zhao, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is two-fold: (1) We review classical and recent measures of serial extremal dependence in a strictly stationary time series as well as their estimation. (2) We discuss recent concepts of heavy-tailed time series, including regular variation and max-stable processes. Serial...... extremal dependence is typically characterized by clusters of exceedances of high thresholds in the series. We start by discussing the notion of extremal index of a univariate sequence, i.e. the reciprocal of the expected cluster size, which has attracted major attention in the extremal value literature...

  14. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES MEASUREMENT TOOLS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-01-01

    ... of objectives in line with the strategic policies of the entity. Measuring the financial performance without considering the strategic, tactical and operational objectives does not provide a real situation...

  15. Measures of rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T Brett; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-04-01

    Accurate measures of performance are important for assessing competitive athletes in practi~al and research settings. We present here a review of rowing performance measures, focusing on the errors in these measures and the implications for testing rowers. The yardstick for assessing error in a performance measure is the random variation (typical or standard error of measurement) in an elite athlete's competitive performance from race to race: ∼1.0% for time in 2000 m rowing events. There has been little research interest in on-water time trials for assessing rowing performance, owing to logistic difficulties and environmental perturbations in performance time with such tests. Mobile ergometry via instrumented oars or rowlocks should reduce these problems, but the associated errors have not yet been reported. Measurement of boat speed to monitor on-water training performance is common; one device based on global positioning system (GPS) technology contributes negligible extra random error (0.2%) in speed measured over 2000 m, but extra error is substantial (1-10%) with other GPS devices or with an impeller, especially over shorter distances. The problems with on-water testing have led to widespread use of the Concept II rowing ergometer. The standard error of the estimate of on-water 2000 m time predicted by 2000 m ergometer performance was 2.6% and 7.2% in two studies, reflecting different effects of skill, body mass and environment in on-water versus ergometer performance. However, well trained rowers have a typical error in performance time of only ∼0.5% between repeated 2000 m time trials on this ergometer, so such trials are suitable for tracking changes in physiological performance and factors affecting it. Many researchers have used the 2000 m ergometer performance time as a criterion to identify other predictors of rowing performance. Standard errors of the estimate vary widely between studies even for the same predictor, but the lowest

  16. Extremism in survey measures of ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Jordan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on mass political behavior relies extensively on ideology scales. The majority of political science surveys use a unique, and potentially problematic, word to anchor the endpoints of these scales (“extremely”. However, political science has surprisingly little evidence on the effects of using this anchor over others. We utilize an older, but ignored, survey experiment on the 1989 American National Election Study (ANES Pilot Study to analyze the consequences of the choice between using “very” or “extremely” endpoint labels. Theoretically, our results illustrate how a seemingly negative question anchor helps optimally measure a key concept (ideology that is fundamental to understanding phenomena such as mass polarization.

  17. Developing Human Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  18. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J. P.; Reinhard, S

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to cont...

  19. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  20. Nuclear Enterprise Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Transportation Process Efficiency X Supportability X Reliability X System Performance X Maintainability X Logistics IT Supply Chain Mangement X Operations...measurement system design: A literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Operations and Production Mangement , 15(4), 80-116

  1. Performance of Portable Ventilators Following Storage at Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    In the current theater of operation, medical devices are often shipped and stored at ambient conditions. The effect of storage at hot and cold temperature extremes on ventilator performance is unknown. We evaluated three portable ventilators currently in use or being evaluated for use by the Department of Defense (731, Impact Instrumentation; T1, Hamilton Medical; and Revel, CareFusion) at temperature extremes in a laboratory setting. The ventilators were stored at temperatures of 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours and were allowed to acclimate to room temperature for 30 minutes before evaluation. The T1 required an extra 15 to 30 minutes of acclimation to room temperature before the ventilator would deliver breaths. All delivered tidal volumes at room temperature and after storage at temperature extremes were less than the ±10% American Society for Testing and Materials standard with the Revel. Delivered tidal volumes at the pediatric settings were less than the ±10% threshold after storage at both temperatures and at room temperature with the 731. Storage at extreme temperature affected the performance of the portable ventilators tested. This study showed that portable ventilators may need an hour or more of acclimation time at room temperature after storage at temperature extremes to operate as intended. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...... and legitimation forms the basis for proposing four steps of investigation. The suggested mixed-methods approach comprises the following: first, thematic analysis can serve as a tool to evaluate the legitimacy discourse as initiated by official SET affirmative documents by government, university, and students...... of bureaucracy and critical responses to this concept, we discuss how contemporary SET are used as an instrument of organizational control at Danish universities. A discussion of the current state of performance measurement within the frame of new public management (NPM) and its impact on knowledge creation...

  3. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.

  5. Extreme rainfall events: evaluation with different instruments and measurement reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, Helmi; Ciampittiello, Marzia; Dresti, Claudia; Turconi, Laura

    2012-01-01

    With regard to extreme events, it is known that an intensity of about 1 mm/min already represents an extreme intensity. Under alpine conditions, a precipitation event with intensity about 3 mm/min has occurred. Therefore the rain gauges in this region have to be able to measure in this and even in higher intensity ranges. This study deals with basically automated Tipping Bucket Rain (TBR) gauge, and Bulk precipitation samplers, which allows to hold back more than 95% of the cumulative rainfal...

  6. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...... and productivity results depending on whether bad outputs are or are not included in the model. The differences reflect the resource cost to society and the potential cost to an airport if such externalities were internalized. Finally, the paper provides measures of shadow prices for the bad output, in our case...... airport delay, and discusses the results in terms of several interesting trends affecting US airports....

  7. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot

    OpenAIRE

    Bolliger Marc; Banz Raphael; Dietz Volker; Lünenburger Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD) because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO) Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measureme...

  8. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  9. Classification of the Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Radiation Measurement from the Laptop Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodić Darko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the level of the extremely low-frequency magnetic field, which is produced by laptop computers. The magnetic field, which is characterized by extremely low frequencies up to 300 Hz is measured due to its hazardous effects to the laptop user's health. The experiment consists of testing 13 different laptop computers in normal operation conditions. The measuring of the magnetic field is performed in the adjacent neighborhood of the laptop computers. The measured data are presented and then classified. The classification is performed by the K-Medians method in order to determine the critical positions of the laptop. At the end, the measured magnetic field values are compared with the critical values suggested by different safety standards. It is shown that some of the laptop computers emit a very strong magnetic field. Hence, they must be used with extreme caution.

  10. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J

    1998-09-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  11. Calibration of windowless photodiode for extreme ultraviolet pulse energy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2015-12-10

    For energy measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses, no universal commercially available device is available. Therefore, a co-axial setup of a vacuum photodiode was developed and tested. First its unsuccessful calibration at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) is mentioned. Then our own single-wavelength (46.9 nm) calibration procedure is described in detail. It is based on tabulated photoemission efficiency and on measured (1) anode collection efficiency, (2) attenuation of Al filters, and (3) attenuation of measuring cables. Some other relevant attenuating factors are also taken into account.

  12. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  13. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  14. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Powell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to continue occurring at historically high levels for farming locations throughout the Netherlands, the effects of those events on wheat yields are estimated while controlling for the other major input factors affecting yields. Econometric techniques are applied to an unbalanced panel data set of 334 farms for a period of up to 12 years. Analyzes show that the number of days with extreme high temperatures in Dutch wheat growing regions has significantly increased since the early 1900s, while the number of extreme low temperature events has fallen over that same period. The effects of weather events on wheat yields were found to be time specific in that the week in which an event occurred determined its effect on yields. High temperature events and precipitation events were found to significantly decrease yields.

  15. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  16. The Effect of Extreme Response and Non-extreme Response Styles on Testing Measurement Invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extreme and non-extreme response styles (RSs are prevalent in survey research using Likert-type scales. Their effects on measurement invariance (MI in the context of confirmatory factor analysis are systematically investigated here via a Monte Carlo simulation study. Using the parameter estimates obtained from analyzing a 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data set, a population model was constructed. Original and contaminated data with one of two RSs were generated and analyzed via multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with different constraints of MI. The results indicated that the detrimental effects of response style on MI have been underestimated. More specifically, these two RSs had a substantially negative impact on both model fit and parameter recovery, suggesting that the lack of MI between groups may have been caused by the RSs, not the measured factors of focal interest. Practical implications are provided to help practitioners to detect RSs and determine whether RSs are a serious threat to MI.

  17. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measurement method, inter- and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Methods Reliability was assessed in subjects with and without NMD. Subjects were tested twice on the same day by two different therapists to test inter-rater reliability and on two separate days by the same therapist to test intra-rater reliability. Results Results showed fair to good reliability for the new measurement method to assess isometric muscle force of lower extremities. In subjects without NMD, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.97 and intra-rater reliability from 0.71 to 0.90. In subjects with NMD, ICC ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 for inter-rater and from 0.50 to 0.96 for intra-rater reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra- rater reliability of an assessment method for measuring maximal voluntary isometric muscle force of lower extremities was demonstrated. We suggest that this method is a valuable tool for documentation and controlling of the rehabilitation process in patients using a DGO.

  18. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  19. Improving the Performance of the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices is an important component of HPC hardware/software co-design. The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a simulation-based toolkit for investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale. xSim scales to millions of simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes. The overhead introduced by a simulation tool is an important performance and productivity aspect. This paper documents two improvements to xSim: (1) a new deadlock resolution protocol to reduce the parallel discrete event simulation management overhead and (2) a new simulated MPI message matching algorithm to reduce the oversubscription management overhead. The results clearly show a significant performance improvement, such as by reducing the simulation overhead for running the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite inside the simulator from 1,020\\% to 238% for the conjugate gradient (CG) benchmark and from 102% to 0% for the embarrassingly parallel (EP) and benchmark, as well as, from 37,511% to 13,808% for CG and from 3,332% to 204% for EP with accurate process failure simulation.

  20. An Electrostatics Approach to the Determination of Extremal Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinguet, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut Mathematique, Chemin du Cyclotron 2 (Belgium)], E-mail: meinguet@anma.ucl.ac.be

    2000-12-15

    One of the most important aspects of the minimal energy (or induced equilibrium) problem in the presence of an external field - sometimes referred to as the Gauss variation problem - is the determination of the support of its solution (the so-called extremal measure associated with the field). A simple electrostatic interpretation is presented here, which is apparently new and anyway suggests a novel, rather systematic approach to the solution. By way of illustration, the classical results for Jacobi, Laguerre and Freud weights are explicitly recovered by this alternative method.

  1. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  2. The Politics of Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature...... on the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a retroactive...

  3. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    imprecise when compared to quantitative measures. Document development  Plan completed  Research completed  Draft complete  Draft peer -reviewed... tutoring resources and internship placements Additional Information: The “young veterans” were interviewed about the proposed intervention. Two concerns

  4. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  5. THE MEASURABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Laval

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The urge to increase the performance of company processes is ongoing. Surveys indicate however, that many companies do not measure the controlling performance with a defined set of key performance indicators. This paper will analyze three categories of controlling key performance indicators based on their degree of measurability and their impact on the financial performance of a company. Potential measures to optimize the performance of the controlling department will be outlined and put in a logical order. The aligning of the controlling activity with the respective management expectation will be discussed as a key success factor of this improvement project.

  6. Evaluation of TRMM 3B42V7 product on extreme precipitation measurements over peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paska, Jacquoelyne; Lau, Alvin M. S.; Tan, Mou Leong; Tan, Kok Chooi

    2017-10-01

    Climate variability has become a matter worth our attention as this issue has unveiled to the extreme water-related disasters such as flood and drought. Increments in heavy precipitation have happened over the past century and future climate scenarios show that it may alter the recurrence, timing, force, and length of these occasions. Satellite precipitation products (SPPs) could be used as representation of precipitation over a large region. This could be useful for the monitoring of the precipitation pattern as well as extreme events. Nevertheless, application of these products in monitoring extreme precipitation is still limited because insufficiency of quality assessment. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42V7 product in capturing the behavior of extreme precipitation events over Peninsular Malaysia from 2000 to 2015. Four extreme precipitation indices, in two general categories of absolute threshold (R10mm, R20mm and R50mm) and maximum (Rx1d) indices that recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were used. General evaluation has shown that the TRMM 3B42V7 product performed good on the measurements of monthly and annual precipitation. In the respect of extreme precipitation measurements, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the TRMM 3B42 product and rain gauges over Peninsular Malaysia. The TRMM 3B42V7 product overestimated the R10mm and R20mm indices, while an underestimation was found for the R50mm and Rx1d indices.

  7. Measuring Business Real Property Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh O. Nourse

    1994-01-01

    A cross-case comparison of eleven firms was undertaken to learn how real estate property performance is measured and monitored for managerial feedback to make real estate decisions that will cause property performance to support overall corporate strategic goals. Firms with tight links between real estate operations and corporate strategy usually have a facility committee of operating, finance, and real estate managers measuring and monitoring performance, using different measures for differe...

  8. Objective measurement of lower extremity function and quality of life after surgical revascularization for critical lower extremity ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory J; Esmonde, Nick O; Lewis, Jason R; Azarbal, Amir F; Liem, Timothy K; Mitchell, Erica L; Moneta, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Outcomes of revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI) have historically been patency, limb salvage, and survival. Functional status and quality of life have not been well described. This study used functional and quality of life assessments to measure patient-centered outcomes after revascularization for CLI. The study observed 18 patients (age, 65 ± 11 years) prospectively before and after lower extremity bypass for CLI. Patients completed the Short Physical Performance Battery, which measures walking speed, leg strength, and balance, as well as performed a 6-minute walk, and calorie expenditure was measured by an accelerometer. Isometric muscle strength was assessed with the Muscle Function Evaluation chair (Metitur, Helsinki, Finland). Quality of life instruments included the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the Vascular Quality of Life questionnaire. Patients' preoperative status was compared with 4-month postoperative status. Muscle Function Evaluation chair measurements of ipsilateral leg strength demonstrated a significant increase in knee flexion from 64 ± 62 N to 135 ± 133 N (P = .038) and nearly significant increase in knee extension from 120 ± 110 N to 186 ± 85 N (P = .062) and ankle plantar flexion from 178 ± 126 N to 267 ± 252 N (P = .078). In the contralateral leg, knee flexion increased from 71 ± 96 N to 149 ± 162 N (P = .028) and knee extension from 162 ± 112 N to 239 ± 158 N (P = .036). Absolute improvements were noted in 6-minute walk distance, daily calorie expenditure, and individual domains and overall Short Physical Performance Battery scores, and upper extremity strength decreased, although none were significant. The Vascular Quality of Life questionnaire captured significant improvement in all individual domains and overall score (P test results, revascularization for CLI results in improved patient-perceived leg function. Significant improvements in isometric muscle strength may explain

  9. Performance Measurement and Incentive Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Bayo-Moriones, Alberto; Galdon-Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Martinez-de-Morentin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the factors that determine the intensity of pay for performance schemes. The results indicate that the use of individual and group incentives boost intensity, whereas plant or firm pay for performance do not seem to affect the variable of interest. In addition, the adoption of measures of results, such as productivity or quality, has a significant positive effect on intensity. On the contrary, measures of human resource management outcomes, subjective measures and financi...

  10. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT.

  11. Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Ramakrishnan, H K; Wootten, M E

    1990-05-01

    A simple external marker system and algorithms for computing lower extremity joint angle motion during level walking were developed and implemented on a computer-aided video motion analysis system (VICON). The concept of embedded axes and Euler rotation angles was used to define the three-dimensional joint angle motion based on a set of body surface markers. Gait analysis was performed on 40 normal young adults three times on three different test days at least 1 week apart using the marker system. Angular motion of the hip, knee, and ankle joints and of the pelvis were obtained throughout a gait cycle utilizing the three-dimensional trajectories of markers. The effect of uncertainties in defining the embedded axis on joint angles was demonstrated using sensitivity analysis. The errors in the estimation of joint angle motion were quantified with respect to the degree of error in the construction of embedded axes. The limitations of the model and the marker system in evaluating pathologic gait are discussed. The relatively small number of body surface markers used in the system render it easy to implement for use in routine clinical gait evaluations. Additionally, data presented in this paper should be a useful reference for describing and comparing pathologic gait patterns.

  12. MOOD DISTURBANCE DURING CYCLING PERFORMANCE AT EXTREME CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Wilson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of extreme environments on mood state changes in hypoxic conditions and cold conditions in comparison to baseline conditions. The research design involved participants completing a two-hour stationary cycle ergometer ride at a simulated altitude of 2,500 metres, O°C, and normal laboratory conditions at a pace equivalent of lactate threshold. Eight male elite cyclists (Age: M = 26.23 yrs., SD = 6.74 completed the hypoxia- normal cycling trials. Ten male highly trained cyclists (Age: M = 23.34 yrs., SD = 5.45 participated in the cold-normal trials. Mood was assessed before, after one hour, and after two hours using the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale. MANOVA results indicated no significant interaction effect for mood changes over time by environment condition (Wilks' Lambda = .73, p = .32, Eta2 = .05, a significant main effect for mood changes over time (Wilks' Lambda = .61. p < .001, Partial Eta2 = .15 and a significant main effect for differences in mood by condition (Wilks' Lambda = .72, p < .000, Partial Eta2 = .15. Results indicated that increased anger, depression and fatigue were associated with performing at altitude, particularly after two hours of exercise. Collectively, results lend support to the notion that altitude is associated with negative mood states, although it should be noted that environment conditions did not affect the change in mood states over time. We suggest that further research is needed to explore mechanisms that individuals use to regulate negative mood during strenuous exercise.

  13. Tribological performance of ashless antiwear additives under extreme pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohoon

    Zinc diakyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used in engine oil for several decades as an antiwear additive. However, ZDDP is the primary source of P, S and Zn in the exhaust, which results in frequent maintenance or replacement of exhaust gas treatment systems. The use of ashless additives is more desirable because of recent environmental regulations. The main goal of this research was to develop a fundamental understanding of how ashless compounds protect the tribological surface in comparison to ZDDP. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) has been performed on tribo and thermal films in order to investigate the chemical properties of films generated from ashless antiwear additives like chemical structure as well as chemical composition. In order to achieve this objective, three approaches were used. First, the relationships between ashless thiophosphates and wear properties under extreme pressure were examined. Ashless antiwear additives properly form their tribofilms on the sliding steel surface, reacting with iron (Fe) which is originated from the substrate. The tribofilms consist of iron phosphates, iron sulfides, and iron sulfates that have lower reduced modulus and hardness compared to tribofilms from ZDDP. However, they are still sufficiently stiff to prevent asperity contact and provide antiwear behavior. In addition, the thickness of protective tribofilms formed with ashless thiophosphates was found to be thicker than the ones formed when ZDDP was used under identical tribological conditions. Secondly, in order to understand the mechanism of tribofilm generation of metal free additives, a fundamental understanding of thermal decomposition of ashless antiwear chemistries and their influence on thermal film formation was derived. The decomposed P- and S- containing products of ZDDP reacted with the metal surface and their own metal cations forming thermal films. In case of metal free dithiophosphates, sulfur species initially formed on

  14. Quantitative assessment based on kinematic measures of functional impairments during upper extremity movements: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Iris; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Torricelli, Diego; Gil-Agudo, Angel

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative measures of human movement quality are important for discriminating healthy and pathological conditions and for expressing the outcomes and clinically important changes in subjects' functional state. However the most frequently used instruments for the upper extremity functional assessment are clinical scales, that previously have been standardized and validated, but have a high subjective component depending on the observer who scores the test. But they are not enough to assess motor strategies used during movements, and their use in combination with other more objective measures is necessary. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview on objective metrics found in literature with the aim of quantifying the upper extremity performance during functional tasks, regardless of the equipment or system used for registering kinematic data. A search in Medline, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore databases was performed following a combination of a series of keywords. The full scientific papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the review. A set of kinematic metrics was found in literature in relation to joint displacements, analysis of hand trajectories and velocity profiles. These metrics were classified into different categories according to the movement characteristic that was being measured. These kinematic metrics provide the starting point for a proposed objective metrics for the functional assessment of the upper extremity in people with movement disorders as a consequence of neurological injuries. Potential areas of future and further research are presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CAUL's Interest in Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alex

    1997-01-01

    The Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL) has extended its commitment to academic library performance measurement with the publication of the first three CAUL Performance Indicators, focusing on library/clientele congruence, document delivery quality, and the proportion of sought material obtained. All have been applied effectively in…

  16. Performance Measures for Student Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Jane McGurn; Kathman, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that performance measures for student employees in academic libraries should set expectations for their performance and become management tools to motivate, evaluate, and reward them. Management literature on full-time employees is modified to fit students' needs, i.e., that they are part-time and not necessarily motivated by the work…

  17. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...

  18. Methodology of Pilot Performance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kalavsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the methodology of measuring pilot performance under real flight conditions. It provides the basic information on a research project realized to obtain new information regarding training and education of pilots. The introduction is focused on the analytical part of the project and the outputs in terms of the current state of the art. Detailed view is cast on the issue of measuring pilot performance under specific conditions of the cockpit or the flight simulator. The article is zooming in on the two selected and developed methods of pilot performance in terms of the defined indicators evaluated, conditions of compliance for conducting research and procedures of the methodology of pilot performance measurements.

  19. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  20. Lower extremity angle measurement with accelerometers - error and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, A.T.M.; Willemsen, Antoon Th.M.; Frigo, Carlo; Boom, H.B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of accelerometers for angle assessment of the lower extremities is investigated. This method is evaluated by an error-and-sensitivity analysis using healthy subject data. Of three potential error sources (the reference system, the accelerometers, and the model assumptions) the last is found

  1. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, J.P.; Reinhard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects

  2. Photosynthetic performance of phototrophic biofilms in extreme acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano, María; Amils, Ricardo; Aguilera, Angeles

    2011-08-01

    Photosynthesis versus irradiance curves and their associated photosynthetic parameters from different phototrophic biofilms isolated from an extreme acidic environment (Río Tinto, SW, Spain) were studied in order to relate them to their species composition and the physicochemical characteristics of their respective sampling locations. The results indicated that the biofilms are low light acclimated showing a photoinhibition model; only floating communities of filamentous algae showed a light saturation model. Thus, all the biofilms analysed showed photoinhibition over 60 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1) except in the case of Zygnemopsis sp. sample, which showed a light-saturated photosynthesis model under irradiations higher that 200 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1). The highest values of compensation light intensity (I(c)) were showed also by Zygnemosis sp. biofilm (c. 40 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1)), followed by Euglena mutabilis and Chlorella sp. samples (c. 20 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1)). The diatom sample showed the lowest I(c) values (c. 5 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1)). As far as we know this is the first attempt to determine the photosynthetic activity of low pH and heavy metal tolerant phototrophic biofilms, which may give light in the understanding of the ecological importance of these biofilms for the maintenance of the primary production of these extreme and unique ecosystems. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  4. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung; Yoo, Chanuk

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects that task-oriented training has on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Task-oriented training was applied to two chronic hemiplegic patients in this research. The training was provided to each patient for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for two weeks. The treatment program included six different types of training that could be performed by the patients themselves. Evaluation was performed four times, that is, once a week for three weeks before the intervention and once after the intervention. The change in upper extremity function was measured with the Manual Function Test, and the change in performance of daily activity was measured with the Functional Independence Measure. [Results] The upper extremity function of both subjects was improved after application of task-oriented training. However, in the performance of daily activities, subject one showed improvement compared to with before the intervention, whereas subject two showed the same results. [Conclusion] This research confirmed that two weeks of task-oriented training for chronic stroke patients is effective for improvement of upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients.

  5. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength

  6. Connecting Performance Analysis and Visualization to Advance Extreme Scale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohr, Bernd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schulz, Martin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pasccci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brunst, Holger [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2015-07-29

    The characterization, modeling, analysis, and tuning of software performance has been a central topic in High Performance Computing (HPC) since its early beginnings. The overall goal is to make HPC software run faster on particular hardware, either through better scheduling, on-node resource utilization, or more efficient distributed communication.

  7. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ≈ 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports and performing arts medicine: 2. Lower extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrast, Mark A; Storm, Seneca A; Finnoff, Jonathan T; Willick, Stuart; Akau, Cedric K

    2009-03-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights lower limb sports and performing arts injuries. It is part of the study guide on sports and performing arts medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Using a case vignette format, this article specifically focuses on hip, knee and ankle pain in athletes and performing artists. The goal of this article is to influence the learner's existing practice techniques for evaluating and managing common lower limb injuries in these populations.

  9. Effect of a Lower Extremity Preventive Training Program on Physical Performance Scores in Military Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Karen Y; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Marshall, Stephen W; Padua, Darin A; Beutler, Anthony I; de la Motte, Sarah J; Frank, Barnett S; Martinez, Jessica C; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2017-11-01

    Peck, KY, DiStefano, LJ, Marshall, SW, Padua, DA, Beutler, AI, de la Motte, SJ, Frank, BS, Martinez, JC, and Cameron, KL. Effect of a lower extremity preventive training program on physical performance scores in military recruits. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3146-3157, 2017-Exercise-based preventive training programs are designed to improve movement patterns associated with lower extremity injury risk; however, the impact of these programs on general physical fitness has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare fitness scores between participants in a preventive training program and a control group. One thousand sixty-eight freshmen from a U.S. Service Academy were cluster-randomized into either the intervention or control group during 6 weeks of summer training. The intervention group performed a preventive training program, specifically the Dynamic Integrated Movement Enhancement (DIME), which is designed to improve lower extremity movement patterns. The control group performed the Army Preparation Drill (PD), a warm-up designed to prepare soldiers for training. Main outcome measures were the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) raw and scaled (for age and sex) scores. Independent t tests were used to assess between-group differences. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to control for the influence of confounding variables. Dynamic Integrated Movement Enhancement group participants completed the APFT 2-mile run 20 seconds faster compared with the PD group (p APFT sit-up scores. The DIME group had significantly higher total APFT scores compared with the PD group (p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable models after controlling for sex and body mass index (BMI). Committing time to the implementation of a preventive training program does not appear to negatively affect fitness test scores.

  10. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sports and performing arts medicine: 1. Upper extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akau, Cedric K; Harrast, Mark A; Storm, Seneca A; Finnoff, Jonathan T; Willick, Stuart

    2009-03-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights upper limb sports and performing arts injuries. It is part of the study guide on sports and performing arts medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Using a case vignette format, this article specifically focuses on shoulder, elbow and finger pain in athletes and wrist pain in musicians. The goal of this article is to enhance the learner's understanding on how to approach common upper limb pain conditions and injuries in these populations.

  12. Effects of Standard Extremity on Mixed Standard Scale Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    standard rating scale: An) evaluation. Organizational B~ehavior and Human Performance, 1977, 18, 19-35. Thorndike , R. M. Correliationalprocedures for...Department of Psychiatry and Chapel Hill, NC 27514 " B(-havioral Science * Baltimore, MD 21205 [r. Edward E, Lawlr Un v’rsity of Southern Californi

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  14. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L; Walkup, Robert E

    2013-10-29

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  15. Biomechanics, energetics and coordination during extreme swimming intensity: effect of performance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Morais, Sara; Alves, Francisco; Toussaint, Huub; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine how high- and low-speed swimmers organise biomechanical, energetic and coordinative factors throughout extreme intensity swim. Sixteen swimmers (eight high- and eight low-speed) performed, in free condition, 100-m front crawl at maximal intensity and 25, 50 and 75-m bouts (at same pace as the previous 100-m), and 100-m maximal front crawl on the measuring active drag system (MAD-system). A 3D dual-media optoelectronic system was used to assess speed, stroke frequency, stroke length, propelling efficiency and index of coordination (IdC), with power assessed by MAD-system and energy cost by quantifying oxygen consumption plus blood lactate. Both groups presented a similar profile in speed, power output, stroke frequency, stroke length, propelling efficiency and energy cost along the effort, while a distinct coordination profile was observed (F (3, 42)  = 3.59, P = 0.04). Speed, power, stroke frequency and propelling efficiency (not significant, only a tendency) were higher in high-speed swimmers, while stroke length and energy cost were similar between groups. Performing at extreme intensity led better level swimmers to achieve superior speed due to higher power and propelling efficiency, with consequent ability to swim at higher stroke frequencies. This imposes specific constraints, resulting in a distinct IdC magnitude and profile between groups.

  16. Simple, Parallel, High-Performance Virtual Machines for Extreme Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, Bijan Chokoufe; Reuter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a high-performance virtual machine (VM) written in a numerically fast language like Fortran or C to evaluate very large expressions. We discuss the general concept of how to perform computations in terms of a VM and present specifically a VM that is able to compute tree-level cross sections for any number of external legs, given the corresponding byte code from the optimal matrix element generator, O'Mega. Furthermore, this approach allows to formulate the parallel computation of a single phase space point in a simple and obvious way. We analyze hereby the scaling behaviour with multiple threads as well as the benefits and drawbacks that are introduced with this method. Our implementation of a VM can run faster than the corresponding native, compiled code for certain processes and compilers, especially for very high multiplicities, and has in general runtimes in the same order of magnitude. By avoiding the tedious compile and link steps, which may fail for source code files of gigabyte sizes, new...

  17. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanfeng Yan

    Full Text Available Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  18. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  19. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  20. Muscle Quality, Strength, and Lower Extremity Physical Performance in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles Shaffer, N; Fabbri, E; Ferrucci, L; Shardell, M; Simonsick, E M; Studenski, S

    2017-01-01

    Muscle quality is defined as the force generated by each volumetric unit of muscle tissue. No consensus exists on an optimal measure of muscle quality, impeding comparison across studies and implementation in clinical settings. It is unknown whether muscle quality measures that rely on complex and expensive tests, such as isokinetic dynamometry and computerized tomography correlate with lower extremity performance (LEP) any better than measures derived from simpler and less expensive tests, such as grip strength (Grip) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) assessed by DXA. Additionally, whether muscle quality is more strongly associated with LEP than strength has not been fully tested. This study compares the concurrent validity of alternative measures of muscle quality and characterizes their relationship with LEP. We also whether muscle quality correlates more strongly with LEP than strength alone. Cross-sectional analysis. Community. 365 men and 345 women 65 years of age and older in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Thigh cross-sectional area (TCSA), isokinetic and isometric knee extension strength (ID), BMI adjusted ALM (ALMBMI) from DXA, and Grip. Concurrent validity was assessed as the percent variance of different measures of LEP explained by each muscle quality measure. In addition, we compared LEP relationships between each measure of strength and its correspondent value of muscle quality. Confidence intervals for differences in percent variance were calculated by bootstrapping. Grip/ALMBMI explained as much variance as ID/TCSA across all LEP measures in women and most in men. Across all LEP measures, strength explained as much variance of LEP as muscle quality. Grip/ALMBMI and ID/TCSA measures had similar correlations with LEP. Muscle quality did not outperform strength. Although evaluating muscle quality may be useful to assess age-related mechanisms of change in muscle strength, measures of strength alone may suffice to understand the relationship

  1. Measurements of extremely low radioactivity levels in BOREXINO

    CERN Document Server

    Arpesella, C

    2001-01-01

    The techniques researched, developed and applied towards the measurement of radioisotope concentrations at ultra-low levels in the real-time solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO at Gran Sasso are presented and illustrated with specific results of widespread interest. We report the use of low-level germanium gamma spectrometry, low-level miniaturized gas proportional counters and low background scintillation detectors developed in solar neutrino research. Each now sets records in its field. We additionally describe our techniques of radiochemical ultra-pure, few atom manipulations and extractions. Forefront measurements also result from the powerful combination of neutron activation and low-level counting. Finally, with our techniques and commercially available mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, new low-level detection limits for isotopes of interest are obtained.

  2. Special issue on exercise immunology: current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Bosch, Jos A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the effects of acute exercise on cellular shifts and gene expression; (3) the effects of exercise on immune regulation during stress and disease; and (4) extreme performance and the impact of dietary counter measures on immunity. We discuss the papers appearing in this issue, in accordance with these major themes, and summarize their important contributions to this exciting and expanding field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  4. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  5. Drop-box Weir for Measuring Flow Rates Under Extreme Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment and large rocks often are transported in runoff during extreme events. The sediment can deposit in a runoff-measuring structure and give erroneous readings. The drop-box weir (DBW) is one of only a few flow-measuring devices capable of measuring sediment-laden flows. Recent studies have ...

  6. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  7. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Kramer, Stefanie; Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Sven; Monninkhoff, Bertram; Pfützner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management and possible impacts of climate change led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with a very intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  8. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.

  9. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; hide

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  10. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence......--Revised. In a second study, the ASQ was obtained in 22 children born extremely preterm and 19 term children at the age of 35-44 mo. RESULTS: The overall ASQ score correlated significantly with IQ (p=0.007). The children born extremely preterm had an ASQ score of -1.06 SD below the score of the term children (p=0...

  11. Longitudinal coherence measurements of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotter, W F; Sorgenfrei, F; Beeck, T; Beye, M; Gieschen, S; Meyer, H; Nagasono, M; Föhlisch, A; Wurth, W

    2010-02-01

    We have measured the average single-pulse longitudinal coherence characteristics of FLASH, a self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser, at extreme UV wavelengths. Electric field autocorrelation measurements in the time domain were enabled by a wavefront division beam splitter applied to a tunable delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These data agree with the spectral bandwidth measurements made in the frequency domain. They exhibit two correlation time scales and the measured coherence curves have relevant implications for single-shot measurements.

  12. [Assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of pet animals: principles, rules and other measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-05-01

    The review deals with fundamental aspects of the problems and the assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of companion and pet animals, with legislation and with other measures to avoid breeding animals with extreme characteristics. Efforts are important in particular by breeding organisations to adapt breeding standards and to improve the education of judges and breeders. Furthermore adequate activities to correctly inform animal keepers are important.

  13. Changes in Upper-Extremity Functional Capacity and Daily Performance During Outpatient Occupational Therapy for People With Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doman, Caitlin A.; Waddell, Kimberly J.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke. METHOD. Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge. RESULTS. Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles. CONCLUSION. UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation. PMID:27089298

  14. Effect of core strength on the measure of power in the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkle, Justin; Nesser, Thomas W; Demchak, Timothy J; McMannus, David M

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) develop a functional field test to assess the role of the core musculature and its impact on sport performance in an athletic population and (b) develop a functional field test to determine how well the core can transfer forces from the lower to the upper extremities. Twenty-five DI collegiate football players performed medicine ball throws (forward, reverse, right, and left) in static and dynamic positions. The results of the medicine ball throws were compared with several athletic performance measurements: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat, squat kg/bw, 1RM bench press, bench kg/bw, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), 40-yd dash (40 yd), and proagility (PrA). Push press power (PWR) was used to measure the transfer of forces through the body. Several correlations were found in both the static and dynamic medicine ball throws when compared with the performance measures. Static reverse correlated with CMJ (r = 0.44), 40 yd (r = 0.5), and PrA (r = 0.46). Static left correlated with bench kg/bw (0.42), CMJ (0.44), 40 yd (0.62), and PrA (0.59). Static right also correlated with bench kg/bw (0.41), 40 yd (0.44), and PrA (0.65). Dynamic forward (DyFw) correlated with the 1RM squat (r = 0.45) and 1RM bench (0.41). Dynamic left and Dynamic right correlated with CMJ, r = 0.48 and r = 0.40, respectively. Push press power correlated with bench kg/bw (0.50), CMJ (0.48), and PrA (0.48). A stepwise regression for PWR prediction identified 1RM squat as the best predictor. The results indicate that core strength does have a significant effect on an athlete's ability to create and transfer forces to the extremities. Currently, plank exercises are considered an adequate method of training the core for athletes to improve core strength and stability. This is a problem because it puts the athletes in a nonfunctional static position that is very rarely replicated in the demands of sport-related activities. The core is the center of most kinetic

  15. Perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction switching dynamic modes, extreme events, and performance scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Zihui; Hao, Xiaojie; Gan, Huadong; Xu, Pengfa; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Zhou, Yuchen; Zhang, Jing; Yen, Bing K.; Huai, Yiming

    2017-05-01

    The performance of the state-of-the-art perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (pMTJ) device is fundamentally determined by the physics of material "extreme events." A dynamic mode approach is used to study "extreme events" of stochastic nonlinear magnetization switching, including magnetic interactions and non-uniform magnetization dynamics. Our theory and experiment show that the magnetization switching "extreme events" are well characterized by the dynamic modes of interacting magnetic systems. The dynamic modes provide a clear understanding of the physical processes of the magnetization switching "extreme events." We predict markedly different pMTJ scaling behaviors for spin transfer torque, spin-orbit-interaction torque, and thermal fluctuations at different operation speeds and bit error rate conditions. Understanding these scaling behaviors is critical for existing and emerging pMTJ device applications.

  16. 20 CFR 638.302 - Performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance measurement. 638.302 Section 638... § 638.302 Performance measurement. The Job Corps Director shall establish a national performance measurement system for centers and other program components which shall include annual performance standards. ...

  17. Accounting System and Financial Performance Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Halíř, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    The paper concerns measuring and reporting of financial performance of an enterprise. Currently increasing emphasis is placed on performance measurement and management. Within performance measurement and management in general the role of financial performance is becoming increasingly important. The paper is concerned with measuring and reporting of financial performance of an enterprise primarily from manager’s point of view. In its first part it deals primarily with the connection between th...

  18. Formation of the multidimensional performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Sližytė, Asta

    2009-01-01

    The growing attention of scientists and practitioners towards the issues of performance measurement encourage to analyze actualities of performance measurement as individual object of management. It becomes relevant to analyze what performance measurement system must be in order to ensure for the organizations operating in the changing environment the multidimensional performance measurement and usage of measurement results for the management of organization. In dissertation concepts of pe...

  19. Mobility and reliability performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This project grew out of the fact that mobility was identified early on as one of the key performance focus areas of NCDOTs : strategic transformation effort. The Transformation Management Team (TMT) established a TMT Mobility Workstream Team : in...

  20. Performance evaluation of TMPA version 7 estimates for precipitation and its extremes in Circum-Bohai-Sea region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dejuan; Zhang, Hua; Li, Ruize

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation and its extremes are of significance for drought and flood warning and monitoring. This study evaluates the capability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42 V7 to detect rainfall events, especially extreme precipitation events, using gauge observations for the period 1998-2012 over Circum-Bohai-Sea region, a mid-altitude and semi-humid monsoon area. The results show that 3B42 V7 performs better at monthly and annual scales than at a daily scale. Spatially or seasonally, the rainfall pattern is more effectively captured by 3B42 V7 for the wet region or season than for the dry region or season. 3B42 V7 displays a positive relative bias in most areas, and the largest is situated in high latitude region, while negative relative bias is found at coastal regions. 3B42 V7 tends to overestimate at low and middle rainfall intensity (RI) ranges (RI extreme precipitation amount (EPRETOT, above 95th percentile of daily rainfall) are slightly overestimated by 3B42 V7, while EPRETOT exhibits a lower correlation with observations than PRETOT does. The relative root mean square error (RMSE) are higher than 50 % relative to rain gauges for eight extreme precipitation indices except the maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), demonstrating that extreme precipitation estimates of 3B42 V7 are generally unreliable. The improvement of 3B42 V7 in capturing extreme precipitation events is anticipated through extensive efforts for its wide range of climate and hydrological applications. Overall, this study provides an evaluation of the quality of TMPA 3B42 V7 in estimating precipitation and its extremes in a mid-altitude and semi-humid monsoon region.

  1. Reliability of Isometric Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength Measurements in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Measurement Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, A.A.M.; Brehm, M.A.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Jansen, L.; Woudenberg-Vos, H.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). Objective. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric

  2. A comparison of performance between Teflon and polyurethane safety cannulae at extremes of operating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, J; Webster, B B; Hawksley, O J; Mellor, A J

    2012-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, approximately eight million peripheral cannulations are performed each year. Intravenous cannulae are made from either polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) or polyurethane. Polyurethane has a lower incidence of thrombophlebitis, however the physical characteristics of polyurethane may make the cannulae difficult to use at higher ambient temperatures. This effect maybe of importance to those involved in cannulation in extreme environments and especially for military doctors deployed in current theatres of operations. In a randomised single blinded study we investigated the different characteristics of Teflon and polyurethane cannulae (Vasofix Safety Cannulae, B Braun) at three different temperatures (-10 degrees C, 21 degrees C and 40 degrees C). There is no statistically significant difference in the ease or speed of cannulation of either polyurethane or Teflon safety cannulae in extremes of temperature. This study provides evidence that performance of polyurethane safety cannulae are not impaired by temperature extremes.

  3. Business performance measurement: Does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, H.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction remains a management challenge. Research shows that business performance measurement is a popular tool to reduce risk, although applied differently across organizations. This study aimed to assess the influence of organizational size on performance measurement of market-driven organizations. A web-based survey was conducted whereby managers indicated their satisfaction with performance measurement practices, the regularity with which performance measurements were collected and the importance attached to performance measures collected. Respondents were fairly satisfied with existing performance measures, irrespective of organization size. No significant difference between organization size and respondents perception about the value placed by top management with regards to performance measurement was found. The study concludes that managers can make decisions that could ultimately reduce risk when they utilize proper performance measures

  4. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  5. Defining and Measuring Psychomotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    Psychomotor performance is fundamental to human existence. It is important in many real world activities and nowadays psychomotor tests are used in several fields of industry, army, and medical sciences in employee selection. This article tries to define psychomotor activity by introducing some psychomotor theories. Furthermore the…

  6. Sensitivity to change of mobility measures in musculoskeletal conditions on lower extremities in outpatient rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pujalte, Esther; Gacto-Sánchez, Mariano; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Ángeles Franco-Sierra, María; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2018-01-12

    Prospective longitudinal study. To examine the sensitivity of the Mobility Activities Measure for lower extremities and to compare it to the sensitivity of the Physical Functioning Scale (PF-10) and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) at week 4 and week 8 post-hospitalization in outpatient rehabilitation settings. Mobility Activities Measure is a set of short mobility measures to track outpatient rehabilitation progress: its scales have shown good properties but its sensitivity to change has not been reported. Patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited at admission in three outpatient rehabilitation settings in Spain. Data were collected at admission, week 4 and week 8 from an initial sample of 236 patients (mean age ± SD = 36.7 ± 11.1). Mobility Activities Measure scales for lower extremity; PF-10; and PSFS. All the Mobility Activities Measure scales were sensitive to both positive and negative changes (the Standardized Response Means (SRMs) ranged between 1.05 and 1.53 at week 4, and between 0.63 and 1.47 at week 8). The summary measure encompassing the three Mobility Activities Measure scales detected a higher proportion of participants who had improved beyond the minimal detectable change (MDC) than detected by the PSFS and the PF-10 both at week 4 (86.64% vs. 69.81% and 42.23%, respectively) and week 8 (71.14% vs. 55.65% and 60.81%, respectively). The three Mobility Activities Measure scales assessing the lower extremity can be used across outpatient rehabilitation settings to provide consistent and sensitive measures of changes in patients' mobility. Implications for rehabilitation All the scales of the Mobility Activities Measure for the lower extremity were sensitive to both positive and negative change across the follow-up periods. Overall, the summary measure encompassing the three Mobility Activities Measure scales for the lower extremity appeared more sensitive to positive changes than the Physical Functioning Scale

  7. The Validity of Subjective Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Winter, Søren C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Public management studies are increasingly using survey data on managers’ perceptions of performance to measure organizational performance. The perceptual measures are tempting to apply because archival performance data or surveys of target group outcomes and satisfaction are often lacking, costly...... to provide, and are highly policy specific rendering generalization difficult. But are perceptual performance measures valid, and do they generate unbiased findings? We examine these questions in a comparative study of middle managers in schools in Texas and Denmark. The findings are remarkably similar...... the resources it has. Even worse, the use of perceptual performance measures seems to provide biased estimates when examining how management affects performance....

  8. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts.

  9. Extreme Temperature Performance of Automotive-Grade Small Signal Bipolar Junction Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Damron, Benny; Gray, Josh; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Electronics designed for space exploration missions must display efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. For example, lunar outposts, Mars rovers and landers, James Webb Space Telescope, Europa orbiter, and deep space probes represent examples of missions where extreme temperatures and thermal cycling are encountered. Switching transistors, small signal as well as power level devices, are widely used in electronic controllers, data instrumentation, and power management and distribution systems. Little is known, however, about their performance in extreme temperature environments beyond their specified operating range; in particular under cryogenic conditions. This report summarizes preliminary results obtained on the evaluation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) automotive-grade NPN small signal transistors over a wide temperature range and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on functionality of these transistors and to determine suitability for use outside their recommended temperature limits.

  10. Comparison of extreme load extrapolations using measured and calculated loads of a MW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeringa, J.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Since edition 3 of the standard IEC 61400-1 'Wind Turbines-Part 1; Design requirements' has been issued extreme load extrapolation during normal production is an important part of the wind turbine design and certification. At the ECN test site 'ECN Windturbine Testpark Wieringermeer' (EWTW) five in-line 2.5 MW turbines are used for research purposes. A data base with about 4 years of high quality load and meteorological measurements for a 2.5 MW wind turbine in free stream and wake conditions is available for research. This gives ECN the unique opportunity to compare extreme loads using extreme value statistics based on load simulations and load measurements for both free stream and wake conditions. Extreme load extrapolation will be applied on the flat blade root bending moment and the for aft tower bottom bending moment. Attention will be paid to the selection of the extreme value probability distribution and the amount of data needed.

  11. Estimating minimal clinically important differences of upper extremity measures early after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Catherine E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate minimal clinically important difference values of several upper extremity measures early after stroke. Design Data in this report were collected during the VECTORS trial, an acute, single-blind randomized controlled trial of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy. Subjects were tested at the pre-randomization baseline assessment (average of 9.5 days post stroke), and the first post-treatment assessment (25.9 days post stroke). At each time point, the affected upper extremity was evaluated with a battery of 6 tests. At the second assessment, subjects were also asked to provide a global rating of perceived changes in their affected upper extremity. Anchor-based minimal clinically important difference values were calculated separately for the affected dominant upper extremities and the affected non-dominant upper extremities for each of the 6 tests. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Participants Fifty-two people with hemiparesis post stroke. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Estimated minimal clinically important difference values for grip strength, composite upper extremity strength, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and duration of upper extremity use as measured with accelerometry. Results Minimal clinically important difference values for grip strength were 5.0 and 6.2 kg for the affected dominant and non-dominant sides respectively. Minimal clinically important difference values for the ARAT were 12 and 17 points, for the WMFT Function score were 1.0 and 1.2 points, and for the MAL How well score were 1.0 and 1.1 points for the two sides respectively. Minimal clinically important difference values were indeterminate for the dominant (composite strength), the non-dominant (WMFT Time score) or for both affected sides (duration of use) for the other measures. Conclusions Our data provide some of the first estimates of minimal clinically important difference values

  12. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing

  13. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  14. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Ebaugh, David; Pontillo, Marisa; Butowicz, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2) Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3) Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance. Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance. A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  15. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri P. Silfies

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered.OBJECTIVES: 1 Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2 Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3 Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance.DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance.CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  16. Performance measurement and performance management of innovative products

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in performance measurement, in both the academic literature and by practitioners. When implementing innovative products, organisations are facing issues of how to measure and manage the performance of the products concerned and how to do so in a worthwhile way. Reviewing existing literature suggests that there has been limited research on the value of performance measurement and management processes and indeed little conceptual distinction has been made betw...

  17. Performance Measurement and Performance Information in New Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Nõmm (Külli); T. Randma-Liiv (Tiina)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the introduction of performance measurement tools in new democracies by presenting a qualitative study based on Estonian governmental documents and performance audits. A set of specific factors help to explain difficulties in

  18. THE INTEGRATING SYSTEM OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MEASUR?MENT

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa Stojkoviæ-Krstiæ

    2014-01-01

    The integrating business performance measurement system in the enterprise has the important role of development and guidance, giving the basis for formulating and guiding the corporate strategy. Relevance of the integrating business performance measurement system, that is, application of the performance measurement process at the different levels of activities and business dimensions includes the motivation role, since it stimulates higher objectives realization. The integrating business perf...

  19. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients underwent task-oriented training. The training was conducted once a day for 30 minutes, 5 times/week, for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated 3 times before and after the task-oriented training. Changes in upper extremity function were assessed using the manual function test, and changes in the ability to carry out daily activities were assessed using the functional independence measure. [Results] The patients showed improvement in both the upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities after task-oriented training. [Conclusion] Task-oriented training was proven effective in improving upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with impaired cognition.

  20. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Yan; Wu, Chi-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chun-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity bursae are very vulnerable to injury during strenuous physical exercises. Understanding the imaging characteristics of normal bursae is essential for early diagnosis of morphological abnormalities. Therefore, we evaluated the normal range of lower extremity bursae in healthy young men using high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) imaging. Methods: Bursae in the lower extremities were examined by HR-US in 290 Chinese healthy young men with a median age of 18 years (range, 18–23 years). The bilateral suprapatellar bursa (SPB), deep infrapatellar bursa (DIPB), popliteal bursa (PB), and retrocalcaneal bursa (RCB) were imaged and measured for analysis. Results: The HR-US identification rates of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were 89.0% (517/580), 55.0% (319/580), 29.4% (171/580), and 49.5% (287/580), respectively. With the assumption that the bursae were normal in 95% of the study participants, the length and width values at the maximal cross-section of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were ≤18.00 and 6.09 mm, 8.10 and 2.11 mm, 7.67 and 3.93 mm, and 7.82 and 2.04 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity. PMID:26831233

  1. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliar, Mikhail [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  2. Enabling Structured Exploration of Workflow Performance Variability in Extreme-Scale Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Altintas, Ilkay; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2015-11-15

    Workflows are taking an Workflows are taking an increasingly important role in orchestrating complex scientific processes in extreme scale and highly heterogeneous environments. However, to date we cannot reliably predict, understand, and optimize workflow performance. Sources of performance variability and in particular the interdependencies of workflow design, execution environment and system architecture are not well understood. While there is a rich portfolio of tools for performance analysis, modeling and prediction for single applications in homogenous computing environments, these are not applicable to workflows, due to the number and heterogeneity of the involved workflow and system components and their strong interdependencies. In this paper, we investigate workflow performance goals and identify factors that could have a relevant impact. Based on our analysis, we propose a new workflow performance provenance ontology, the Open Provenance Model-based WorkFlow Performance Provenance, or OPM-WFPP, that will enable the empirical study of workflow performance characteristics and variability including complex source attribution.

  3. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  4. Synthesis of work-zone performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...

  5. The Effect of Firm Compensation Structures on Employee Mobility and Employee Entrepreneurship of Extreme Performers

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Carnahan; Rajshree Agarwal; Benjamin Campbell; April Franco

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of employee entrepreneurship have not considered the rewards available to potential entrepreneurs inside of their current organizations. This study hopes to fill this gap by investigating how the firm’s compensation structure, an important strategic decision closely scrutinized by human resource management, affects the mobility and entrepreneurship decisions of its employees, particularly those employees at the extreme ends of the performance distribution. Using a comprehensi...

  6. Lower extremity muscle mass predicts functional performance in mobility-limited elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, K F; Naumova, E N; Carabello, R J; Phillips, E M; Fielding, R A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of lower extremity body composition and muscle strength on the severity of mobility-disability in community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-seven older males and females (age 74.2 +/- 7 yrs; BMI 28.9 +/- 6 kg/m2) underwent an objective assessment of lower extremity functional performance, the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB). Participants were subsequently classified as having moderate (SPPB score 7: n = 38) or severe mobility impairments (SPPB score muscle strength was estimated using the bilateral leg press exercise. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify the significant independent variables that predicted the level of mobility-disability. TLM was a strong independent predictor of the level of functional impairment, after accounting for chronic medical conditions, BMD, body fat, body weight and habitual physical activity. In a separate predictive model, reduced muscle strength was also a significant predictor of severe functional impairment. The severity of mobility-disability was not influenced by gender (p = 0.71). A strong association was elicited between TLM and muscle strength (r = 0.78, p lower extremity muscle mass is an important determinant of physical performance among functionally-limited elders. Such findings may have important implications for the design of suitable strategies to maintain independence in older adults with compromised physical functioning. Additional studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of lifestyle, exercise or therapeutic interventions for increasing lean body mass in this population.

  7. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  8. Performance of an SOI Boot-Strapped Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver, Type CHT-FBDR, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Electronic systems designed for use in deep space and planetary exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. Silicon-based devices are limited in their wide-temperature capability and usually require extra measures, such as cooling or heating mechanisms, to provide adequate ambient temperature for proper operation. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology, on the other hand, lately has been gaining wide spread use in applications where high temperatures are encountered. Due to their inherent design, SOI-based integrated circuit chips are able to operate at temperatures higher than those of the silicon devices by virtue of reducing leakage currents, eliminating parasitic junctions, and limiting internal heating. In addition, SOI devices provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer improved radiation-tolerance. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such devices and circuits under cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the performance of an SOI bootstrapped, full-bridge driver integrated circuit was evaluated under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature conditions.

  9. Should embolectomy be performed in late acute lower extremity arterial occlusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Iyem

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hikmet Iyem, M Nesimi ErenDepartment of Cardiovascular Surgery, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, TurkeyBackground: We analyzed the embolectomy results and complications of patients who were operated on after a diagnosis of late acute arterial occlusion of lower extremities.Methods: A total of 122 patients operated on in our clinic between 2004 and 2009 for late acute arterial occlusion were included in the study. Late arterial occlusion was defined as occlusion occuring 72 hours after initial manifestation of the patient complaints related to the affected lower extremity.Results: Average age of the 122 patients (71 male, 51 female was 54.2 ± 16.8 years. In this cohort, 64.75% of patients had cardiac pathologies, while 28.68% had extracardiac causes; 1.64% patients had cathetherization, 0.81% patient had malignancy, and 2.46% patients had a history of trauma. In 1.64% of the cases, no reason for thromboembolysis could be found. Thirty-one patients (25.40% had additional surgical operations, 14 (11.47% had fasciotomy, and 9 (7.37% had amputation. Re-embolectomy was performed on 37 patients (30.32% who had ongoing ischemia after an operation. Additional surgical operations were performed on 31 patients (25.40% with ongoing ischemia. In 14 of these cases (11.47%, patients were treated with fasciotomy due to development of compartment syndrome. Amputation was performed on a total of 9 patients. Early in the postoperative phase, mortality was observed in 11 patients (9.01%.Conclusion: We believe that late embolectomies of acute late leg ischemia increases blood flow in the extremity and reduces the number of amputations required.Keywords: lower extremity, embolism, prognosis, treatment outcome

  10. Extreme Design Loads Calibration of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades through Real Time Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Vesth, Allan; Lamata, Rebeca Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset of the mea...... moment is extrapolated. This is found to possess smaller scaling factors in measurements over six months as compared to both the flap and edge moments, indicating that the contemporaneous load component of an extrapolated load should possess much smaller magnitude than its maxima....

  11. Extreme Design Loads Calibration of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades through Real Time Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Vesth, Allan; Lamata, Rebeca Rivera

    Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset of the mea...... moment is extrapolated. This is found to possess smaller scaling factors in measurements over six months as compared to both the flap and edge moments, indicating that the contemporaneous load component of an extrapolated load should possess much smaller magnitude than its maxima....

  12. Repeatability of gait pattern variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units in nonlame horses during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Maninchedda, Ugo E; Burger, Dominik; Wanda, Sabine; Vidondo, Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine repeatability of gait variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses during trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. ANIMALS 10 horses. PROCEDURES Six IMUs were strapped to the metacarpal, metatarsal, and distal tibial regions of each horse. Data were collected in a standardized manner (3 measurements/d on 3 d/wk over a 3-week period) while each horse was trotted on a treadmill. Every measurement consisted of a minimum of 20 strides from which a minimum of 10 strides was selected for analysis. Spatial and temporal variables were derived from the IMUs. Repeatability coefficients based on the within-subject SD were computed for each gait analysis variable at each week. RESULTS Most of the temporal and spatial variables had high repeatability (repeatability coefficients variables, specifically the symmetry variables (which were calculated from other variables), had somewhat higher repeatability coefficients (ie, lower repeatability) only in the last week. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With the exceptions of some symmetry variables, which may reflect individual variations during movement, the extremity-mounted IMUs provided data with high repeatability for nonlame horses trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. Repeatability was achieved for each instrumented limb segment with regard to the spatial relationship between 2 adjacent segments (joint angles) and the temporal relationship among all segments (limb phasing). Extremity-mounted IMUs could have the potential to become a method for gait analysis in horses.

  13. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The service of public services performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    measurement suggests a range of contested and contradictory propositions. Its alleged benefits include public assurance, better functioning of supply markets for public services, and direct improvements of public services. But the literature also demonstrates the existence of significant concern about...... explosion” and “the audit society” to describe this development.  Some criticize this development. Thus, a number of critiques which suggest that public service performance measurement may in fact have no significant impact or even lead to negative effects on performance. Powers (1997, 2003) have argued...... that performance measurement serves as “rituals of verification” which promotes the interests of political masters and their mistresses rather than public service. Another area of concern is the cost of performance measurement. Hood & Peters (2004:278) note that performance measurement is likely to “distract...

  15. Performance of the second MEMS space telescope for observation of extreme lightning from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-A.; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jik; Park, Il H.

    2016-03-01

    A small space-telescope equipped with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) micro-mirror is applied to space missions for observing random, rare and temporal events like transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of TLEs with fine time resolution will show the different temporal profiles predicted by the various models for sprites, blue jets, elves and halos. The proposed space-telescope consists of three components: two sub-telescopes with different focal lengths and a spectrometer. The trigger telescope with a short focal length surveys a wide field of view. The zoom-in telescope with a long focal length looks into a small field of view area that is part of the trigger telescope's wide field of view. Upon identifying a candidate TLE, the trigger telescope determines the location of the event and provides the location to the MEMS micro-mirror. Then, the micro-mirror, which is placed as a pinhole in front of the zoom-in telescope, rotates its mirror plane by such an angle that the zoom-in telescope will watch the small field of view around the center of the event. In this manner, the zoom-in telescope achieves the zoom-in designed by its long focal length. The first such small-space telescope, the MEMS Telescope for Extreme Lightning (MTEL), was launched into space in 2009 and identified a few candidates sprites. However a power failure (over-charge of the solar battery) of the main satellite occurred, and the MTEL was not able to continue space operation to acquire sizable statistics for TLE events. We developed and constructed the second small-space telescope, called MTEL-II, to continue to observe TLE events in space. In this paper, we present the performance of MTEL-II based on ground tests.

  16. Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2012-12-01

    Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

  17. Transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for time and space resolved impurity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven [Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A free standing transmission grating based imaging spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet range has been developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The spectrometer operates in a survey mode covering the approximate spectral range from 30 to 700 A and has a resolving capability of {delta}{lambda}/{lambda} on the order of 3%. Initial results from space resolved impurity measurements from NSTX are described in this paper.

  18. EXTREME MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE GRINDING OF LIMESTONE INTO TWO-CHAMBER BALL MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZHELOVSKY V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The productivity of ball mills is an important process parameter. Optimization of loading of the mill will get the maximum efficiency of grinding limestone. Analysis of theresent research. In the scientific work on the process control of grinding in ball mills, particularly interesting are the work of Alekseev B. V., Maksimenko A. A., Uteush E. V., Bapat D. D., Kaminsky A. D. It is proved that the assessment of management effectiveness limestone grinding in a ball mill is a multiobjective and must provide to achieve the highest possible performance and the required fineness of electricity at the lowest cost. A significant factor affecting the performance of the mill is utilization level of limestone. Purpose. Performance of two-chamber ball mill increased by maintaining an optimal level of loading of the drum limestone. Conclusions. 1. In Matlab package developed and investigated simulation model of extreme performance management of a ball mill by optimizing the filling level of the drum limestone. 2. Simulation model allows you to study the influence of various factors on the performance of the mill and determine the previous settings establish extreme regulator to obtain the desired transition process with a given accuracy at the stage of design work.

  19. Performance measures for a dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2017-12-14

    This study from Japan extracted performance measures for dialysis unit management and investigated their characteristics from professional views. Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which dialysis managers/staff were asked to rate the usefulness of 44 performance indicators. A total of 255 managers and 2,097 staff responded. Eight performance measures were elicited from dialysis manager and staff responses: these were safety, operational efficiency, quality of working life, financial effectiveness, employee development, mortality, patient/employee satisfaction and patient-centred health care. These performance measures were almost compatible with those extracted in overall healthcare settings in a previous study. Internal reliability, content and construct validity of the performance measures for the dialysis setting were ensured to some extent. As a general trend, both dialysis managers and staff perceived performance measures as highly useful, especially for safety, mortality, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction, but showed relatively low concerns for patient-centred health care and employee development. However, dialysis managers' usefulness perceptions were significantly higher than staff. Important guidelines for designing a holistic hospital/clinic management system were yielded. Performance measures must be balanced for outcomes and performance shaping factors (PSF); a common set of performance measures could be applied to all the healthcare settings, although performance indicators of each measure should be composed based on the application field and setting; in addition, sound causal relationships between PSF and outcome measures/indicators should be explored for further improvement. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  20. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  1. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: Measuring below the noise floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Roger M.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  2. Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hungu; Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2016-12-08

    Reduced lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength are related to functional disability in older adults who cannot perform one or more activities of daily living (ADL) independently. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors of seven lower extremity ROMs and two muscle strengths play dominant roles in the physical performance of community-dwelling older women. Ninety-five community-dwelling older women (mean age ± SD, 70.7 ± 4.7 years; age range, 65-83 years) were enrolled in this study. Seven lower extremity ROMs (hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, internal and external hip rotation, ankle dorsiflexion, and ankle plantar flexion) and two muscle strengths (knee extension and flexion) were measured. Physical performance tests, including functional reach test (FRT), 5 m gait test, four square step test (FSST), timed up and go test (TUGT), and five times sit-to-stand test (FTSST) were performed. Stepwise regression models for each of the physical performance tests revealed that hip extension ROM and knee flexion strength were important explanatory variables for FRT, FSST, and FTSST. Furthermore, ankle plantar flexion ROM and knee extension strength were significant explanatory variables for the 5 m gait test and TUGT. However, ankle dorsiflexion ROM was a significant explanatory variable for FRT alone. The amount of variance on stepwise multiple regression for the five physical performance tests ranged from 25 (FSST) to 47% (TUGT). Hip extension, ankle dorsiflexion, and ankle plantar flexion ROMs, as well as knee extension and flexion strengths may play primary roles in the physical performance of community-dwelling older women. Further studies should assess whether specific intervention programs targeting older women may achieve improvements in lower extremity ROM and muscle strength, and thereby play an important role in the prevention of dependence on daily activities and loss of physical function, particularly

  3. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  4. Inter-rater reliability for measurement of passive physiological movements in lower extremity joints is generally low: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijffel, E. van; Pol, R.J. van de; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lucas, C.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION: What is the inter-rater reliability for measurements of passive physiological or accessory movements in lower extremity joints? DESIGN: Systematic review of studies of inter-rater reliability. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with and without lower extremity disorders. OUTCOME MEASURES: Range of

  5. Motor Performance as Risk Factor for Lower Extremity Injuries in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina

    2016-01-01

    for distance, core stability tests, vertical jump, shuttle run, and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Lower extremity injuries were registered by clinicians by weekly questionnaires and classified according to the ICD-10 system. RESULTS: Poor balance increased risk for traumatic injury in the foot region (IRR......=1.09-1.15), and good performance in single leg hop for distance protected against traumatic knee injuries (IRR=0.66-0.68). Good performance in core stability tests and vertical jump increased the risk for traumatic injuries in the foot region (IRR=1.12-1.16). Poor balance increased the risk...... for overuse injuries in the foot region (IRR=1.65), as did good performance in core stability tests and shuttle run, especially for knee injuries (IRR=1.07-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Poor balance (sway) performance was a consistent predictor of traumatic injuries, in particular for traumatic ankle injuries. Good...

  6. Examining the Extremes: High and Low Performance on a Teaching Performance Assessment for Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Shea, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    In assessing the teaching practice of preservice teacher candidates, observers, particularly trained observers, will readily identify those who are exceptionally effective or ineffective. The anticipation is that university supervisors and mentor teachers will agree on who demonstrates extraordinary performance for a preservice candidate and who…

  7. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  8. Measurement properties of visual rating of postural orientation errors of the lower extremity - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, Jenny; Creaby, Mark W; Cronström, Anna; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review measurement properties of visual assessment and rating of Postural Orientation Errors (POEs) in participants with or without lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. The search was performed in Medline (Pubmed), CINAHL and EMBASE (OVID) databases until August 2016. Studies reporting measurement properties for visual rating of postural orientation during the performance of weight-bearing functional tasks were included. No limits were placed on participant age, sex or whether they had a musculoskeletal disorder affecting the lower extremity. Twenty-eight articles were included, 5 of which included populations with a musculoskeletal disorder. Visual rating of the knee-medial-to-foot position (KMFP) was reliable within and between raters, and meta-analyses showed that this POE was valid against 2D and 3D kinematics in asymptomatic populations. Other segment-specific POEs showed either poor to moderate reliability or there were too few studies to permit synthesis. Intra-rater reliability was at least moderate for POEs within a task whereas inter-rater reliability was at most moderate. Visual rating of KMFP appears to be valid and reliable in asymptomatic adult populations. Measurement properties remain to be determined for POEs other than KMPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality...

  10. Extreme Value Statistical Characterization of Time Domain Pulse-to-Pulse Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method, based on Extreme Value Theory (EV T), for predicting the worst case repeatability of time domain pulse-to-pulse measurements, modeled as independent and identically distributed random variables, is proposed. The method allows the use of the noise level of a measurement system for predicting the upcoming peak values over a given number of independent observations. The proposed analytical model is compared against simulated distributions generated in Matlab, highlighting satisfying match for any sample size.The simulations are based on a case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystron modulators of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN.

  11. Advanced Engineering Technology for Measuring Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Drew N; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Law, Katherine E; Pugh, Carla M

    2015-08-01

    The demand for competency-based assessments in surgical training is growing. Use of advanced engineering technology for clinical skills assessment allows for objective measures of hands-on performance. Clinical performance can be assessed in several ways via quantification of an assessee's hand movements (motion tracking), direction of visual attention (eye tracking), levels of stress (physiologic marker measurements), and location and pressure of palpation (force measurements). Innovations in video recording technology and qualitative analysis tools allow for a combination of observer- and technology-based assessments. Overall the goal is to create better assessments of surgical performance with robust validity evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...... used class of residual income-based performance measures-such as economic value added (EVA)-is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings...... indicate that EVA is a distorted performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  13. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  14. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based...... performance measures —such as Economic Value Added (EVA)— is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings indicate that EVA is a distorted...... performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  15. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoua, Nadia; de Oliveira, Rita F; Hunter, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model. In professional football competitions can be played in temperatures ranging from -5°C in Norway to 30°C in Spain for example. Despite these conditions, the referee's responsibility is to consistently apply the laws fairly and uniformly, and to ensure the rules are followed without waning or adversely influencing the competitiveness of the play. However, strenuous exercise in extreme environments imposes increased physiological and psychological stress that can affect decision-making. Therefore, the physical exertion required to follow the game and the thermal strain from the extreme temperatures may hinder the ability of referees to make fast and accurate decisions. Here, we review literature on the physical and cognitive requirements of football refereeing and how extreme temperatures may affect referees' decisions. Research suggests that both hot and cold environments have a negative impact on decision-making but data specific to decision-making is still lacking. A theoretical model of decision-making under the constraint of intense physical activity and thermal stress is suggested. Future naturalistic studies are needed to validate this model and provide clear recommendations for mitigating strategies.

  16. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaoua

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model. In professional football competitions can be played in temperatures ranging from -5°C in Norway to 30°C in Spain for example. Despite these conditions, the referee’s responsibility is to consistently apply the laws fairly and uniformly, and to ensure the rules are followed without waning or adversely influencing the competitiveness of the play. However, strenuous exercise in extreme environments imposes increased physiological and psychological stress that can affect decision-making. Therefore, the physical exertion required to follow the game and the thermal strain from the extreme temperatures may hinder the ability of referees to make fast and accurate decisions. Here, we review literature on the physical and cognitive requirements of football refereeing and how extreme temperatures may affect referees’ decisions. Research suggests that both hot and cold environments have a negative impact on decision-making but data specific to decision-making is still lacking. A theoretical model of decision-making under the constraint of intense physical activity and thermal stress is suggested. Future naturalistic studies are needed to validate this model and provide clear recommendations for mitigating strategies.

  17. Thickness of soft tissue of lower extremities measured with magnetic resonance imaging as a new indicator for staging unilateral secondary lower extremity lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulai; Lu, Qing; Chen, Tian-wu; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Zizhou; Li, Yang; Xu, Jianrong; Hu, Jiani; Haacke, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Chronic progressive swelling of the lower extremity due to secondary lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) can affect a patient's quality of life, both physically and psychologically. A feasible and reproducible method for detecting and staging LEL will facilitate decision-making about appropriate management strategies. To determine whether the thickness of the soft tissues of the lower extremities, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could stage unilateral secondary LEL. Seventy-two women with unilateral LEL and 22 participants without LEL underwent lower extremity MRI after treatment of uterine malignancies. LEL was classified clinically as stage 0, 1, 2, or 3. On fat-suppressed T2-weighted mid-axial images of calves and thighs, the total thickness of the soft tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT), and the differences in TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) values and corresponding measurements in the contralateral lower extremity, were obtained and analyzed statistically for staging LEL. There was a trend for the TT and STT of the affected calf and thigh to increase with increasing LEL stage. These parameters were strongly and moderately correlated with LEL stage, respectively (P indicator for staging LEL. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  18. Road weather management performance measures : 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2007, the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) conducted a study with stakeholders from the transportation and meteorological communities to define eleven performance measures that would enable the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to determ...

  19. Choice and Change of Measures in Performance-Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    1984), and product differentiation or cost leadership (Porter, 1980). More conservative strategies include defender, harvest, and cost leadership...while more entrepreneurial strategies are prospector, build, and product differentiation . Guilding (1999) found that companies following a...Measure Attributes Strategy Performance- Measure Attribute Entrepreneurial Firm (prospector, build, product differentiation , entrepreneur

  20. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E

    2015-08-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  1. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2013-07-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength measurements in children with CP with the use of HHD and (2) to assess implications for measurement design. A test-retest design was used. Fourteen children with hemiplegic (n=6) or diplegic (n=8) spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III), ages 7 to 13 years, were assessed for isometric strength on 2 separate days (occasions) with the use of HHD, with 3 trials per muscle group. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated for different measurement designs. Intraclass correlation coefficient values of single measurements for all muscle groups ranged from .70 to .90, and the SDD was large (>30%). Regarding measurement error, the largest source of variability was found for occasion. A 2-occasion mean decreased the SDD by 9% to 14%. For trials, a greater improvement in SDD was found when 2 trials were averaged instead of 3. A measurement design of 2 trials-2 occasions was superior to the often-used approach of 3 trials-1 occasion. The small sample size was the major study limitation. Handheld dynamometry is reliable and can be used to detect changes in isometric muscle strength in children with CP when using the mean of at least 2 trials. To further improve reliability, taking the average of 2 occasions on separate days is recommended, depending on group size and muscle group.

  2. (EVA™) performance measures in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the financial performance of a company is therefore important. The variety of performance ... The measure decided on by an organisation will be determined by what a business is trying to achieve and the ...... The EVA™ methodology is subjective, may be manipulated and may be mostly dependent on the ethics of top.

  3. Using Metrics to Measure Contractor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbeck, R. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This Project examines the use of metrics as a means to measure contractor performance. It is also designed to supplement the research being done on the ''Characteristics of Good Metrics for Performance Based Logistics (PBL)'' by Professors Ken Doerr and Ira Lewis along with Admiral Eaton. Acquisition Research Program

  4. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  5. Measurement of the deformation of an extremely flexible rotor blade using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Jérôme; Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the measurement of the deformation of an extremely flexible rotor blade in hover using a novel application of three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC). In this optical method, images of the rotor blade painted with a high-contrast, random speckle pattern are captured using two digital cameras and a strobe light. Photogrammetry is used to calculate a whole-field, three-dimensional map of the rotor blade. Cross-correlation between images captured under two load conditions is used to calculate deformation. The technique was first validated in the rotating frame by correlating DIC measurements on a stiff rotor blade of known geometry with measurements made by two other laser sensors. The technique was then used to measure the deformation of extremely flexible blades on a 46 cm diameter rotor, rotating at 1200 RPM. The blades of this rotor are so flexible that they can be rolled up into a compact volume. The spanwise variation of extension, lead-lag and flap bending, as well as pitch angle, were extracted from DIC measurements. The technique yielded surface heights with a spatial resolution of 0.15 mm and three-dimensional deformation vectors with a spatial resolution of 2.37 mm (1.04% of the rotor radius), at a calculated accuracy of 15 μm. Tip displacement of up to 7.59 mm (3.3% of the rotor radius) and a tip twist of up to 10.8° were measured. Based on DIC measurements, it is concluded that an accurate aeroelastic model of the rotor blade must include flap and lead-lag bending as well as twist degrees of freedom. In addition, the elastic twist must be considered of the same order of magnitude as the blade root pitch. Finally, the scalability of this technique to the measurement of full-scale rotor blade deformation is discussed.

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 2002 Unit Performance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-10-01

    This EML Unit Performance Plan provides the key goals and performance measures for FY 2002 and continuing to FY 2003. The purpose of the Plan is to inform EML's stakeholders and customers of the Laboratory's products and services, and its accomplishments and future challenges. Also incorporated in the Unit Performance Plan is EML's Communication Plan for FY 2002.

  7. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of Patient Reported Outcome Measures of Lower Extremity Injuries in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Derya; Çoban, Özge; Kılıçoğlu, Önder

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: MCID scores for outcome measures are frequently used evidence-based guides to gage meaningful changes. To conduct a systematic review of the quality and content of the the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) relating to 16 patient-rated outcome measures (PROM) used in lower extremity. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review on articles reporting MCID in lower extremity outcome measures and orthopedics from January 1, 1980, to May 10, 2016. We evaluated MCID of the 16 patient reported outcome measures (PROM) which were Harris Hip Score (HHS), Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Hip Outcome Score (HOS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC), The Lysholm Scale, The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET), The Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality of Life Questionnaire (ACL-QOL), The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), The Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities Index (WOMAC), Knee İnjury And Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patellar Tendinosis (Jumper’s Knee) (VİSA-P), Tegner Activity Rating Scale, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Foot And Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), The Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot And Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), The Foot And Ankle Disability Index Score and Sports Module, Achill Tendon Total Rupture Score(ATRS), The Victorian İnstitute Of Sports Assesment Achilles Questionnaire(VİSA-A), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). A search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, PEDro and Cochrane Cen¬tral Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases from the date of inception to May 1, 2016 was conducted. The terms “minimal clinically important difference,” “minimal clinically important change”, “minimal clinically important improvement” “were combined with one of the PROM as mentioned above

  8. The reliability of side to side measurements of upper extremity activity levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amasay Tal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both clinical and occupational settings, ambulatory sensors are becoming common for assessing all day measurements of arm motion. In order for the motion of a healthy, contralateral side to be used as a control for the involved side, the inherent side to side differences in arm usage must be minimal. The goal of the present study was to determine the reliability of side to side measurements of upper extremity activity levels in healthy subjects. Methods Thirty two subjects with no upper extremity pathologies were studied. Each subject wore a triaxial accelerometer on both arms for three and a half hours. Motion was assessed using parameters previously reported in the literature. Side to side differences were compared with the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of the mean, minimal detectable change scores and a projected sample size analysis. Results The variables were ranked based on their percentage of minimal detectable change scores and sample sizes needed for paired t-tests. The order of these rankings was found to be identical and the top ranked parameters were activity counts per hour (MDC% = 9.5, n = 5, jerk time (MDC% = 15.8, n = 8 and percent time above 30 degrees (MDC% = 34.7, n = 9. Conclusions In general, the mean activity levels during daily activities were very similar between dominant and non-dominant arms. Specifically, activity counts per hour, jerk time, and percent time above 30 degrees were found to be the variables most likely to reveal significant difference or changes in both individuals and groups of subjects. The use of ambulatory measurements of upper extremity activity has very broad uses for occupational assessments, musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand as well as neurological pathologies.

  9. Manipulation of Samples at Extreme Temperatures for Fast in-situ Synchrotron Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Richard [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    2016-04-22

    An aerodynamic sample levitation system with laser beam heating was integrated with the APS beamlines 6 ID-D, 11 ID-C and 20 BM-B. The new capability enables in-situ measurements of structure and XANES at extreme temperatures (300-3500 °C) and in conditions that completely avoid contact with container surfaces. In addition to maintaining a high degree of sample purity, the use of aerodynamic levitation enables deep supercooling and greatly enhanced glass formation from a wide variety of melts and liquids. Development and integration of controlled extreme sample environments and new measurement techniques is an important aspect of beamline operations and user support. Processing and solidifying liquids is a critical value-adding step in manufacturing semiconductors, optical materials, metals and in the operation of many energy conversion devices. Understanding structural evolution is of fundamental importance in condensed materials, geology, and biology. The new capability provides unique possibilities for materials research and helps to develop and maintain a competitive materials manufacturing and energy utilization industry. Test samples were used to demonstrate key features of the capability including experiments on hot crystalline materials, liquids at temperatures from about 500 to 3500 °C. The use of controlled atmospheres using redox gas mixtures enabled in-situ changes in the oxidation states of cations in melts. Significant innovations in this work were: (i) Use of redox gas mixtures to adjust the oxidation state of cations in-situ (ii) Operation with a fully enclosed system suitable for work with nuclear fuel materials (iii) Making high quality high energy in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements (iv) Making high quality in-situ XANES measurements (v) Publishing high impact results (vi) Developing independent funding for the research on nuclear materials This SBIR project work led to a commercial instrument product for the niche market of processing and

  10. Quantifying imaging performance bounds of extreme dipole illumination in high NA optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John; Graves, Trey; Levy, Ady

    2016-10-01

    We present a framework to analyze the performance of optical imaging in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography scanner. We investigate the method to quantify imaging performance by computing upperand lower-bounds on the threshold normalized image log-slope (NILS) and the depth of focus (DOF) in conjunction with the traditional image quality metrics such as the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and the linearity for various different pitches and line to space (LS) duty cycles. The effects of the interaction between the light illumination and the feature size are extensively characterized based on the aerial image (AI) behavior in particular for the extreme dipole illumination that is one of the commonly used off-axis illuminations for sub-100nm logic and memory devices, providing resolution near the physical limit of an optical single patterning step. The proposed aerial imaging-based DOF bounds are compared to the results obtained from an experimentally calibrated resist model, and we observed good agreement. In general, the extreme dipole illumination is only optimal for a single particular pitch, therefore understanding the through-pitch imaging performance bound, which depends on the illumination shape, pattern size, and process conditions, is critically important. We find that overall imaging performance varies depending upon the number of diffracted beams passing through the scanner optics. An even number of beams provides very different trends compared to the results from an odd-number of beams. This significant non-linear behavior occurs in certain pitch regions corresponding to 3 beam interference imaging. In this region the imaging performance and the pattern printability become extremely sensitive to the LS duty cycle. In addition, there is a notable tradeoff between the DOF and the NILS that is observed in the problematic 3-beam region and this tradeoff eventually affects the achievable process window (PW). Given the practical real

  11. Measurement Of Shariah Stock Performance Using Risk Adjusted Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairan Y Yunan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the shariah stock performance using risk adjusted performance method. There are three parameters to measure the stock performance i.e. Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen. This performance’s measurements calculate the return and risk factor from shariah stocks. The data that used on this research is using the data of stocks at Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling method that used on this paper is purposive sampling. This research is using ten companies as a sample. The result shows that from three parameters, the stock that have a best performance are AALI, ANTM, ASII, CPIN, INDF, KLBF, LSIP, and UNTR.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1364

  12. Measurement of the extreme ankle range of motion required by female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2010-12-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion, especially plantar flexion, but research about measuring such motion is lacking. The purposes of this study were to determine in a sample of ballet dancers whether non-weight-bearing ankle range of motion is significantly different from the weight-bearing equivalent and whether inclinometric plantar flexion measurement is a suitable substitute for standard plantar flexion goniometry. Fifteen female ballet dancers (5 university, 5 vocational, and 5 professional dancers; age 21 ± 3.0 years) volunteered. Subjects received 5 assessments on 1 ankle: non-weight-bearing goniometry dorsiflexion (NDF) and plantar flexion (NPF), weight-bearing goniometry in the ballet positions demi-plié (WDF) and en pointe (WPF), and non-weight-bearing plantar flexion inclinometry (IPF). Mean NDF was significantly lower than WDF (17° ± 1.3° vs 30° ± 1.8°, P ballet proficiency. The authors conclude that assessment of extreme ankle motion in female ballet dancers is challenging, and goniometry and inclinometry appear to measure plantar flexion differently.

  13. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  14. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  16. Measurement of the performance of TGC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Feng Cun Feng; Lu Tai Guo; Sun Yan Sheng; Wang Suo Jie; Yan Zhen; Zhu Cheng Guang

    2005-01-01

    Shandong University is in charge of the research and production of T9 type TGC (Thin Gap Chamber) detectors for ATLAS experiment. In this paper, the stability and the leak current of the detectors working at 3200 V voltage were measured, and the plateau curves of the detectors were measured too. The counting rate of each channel was measured with same working condition and counting time interval for all the TGC detectors, in order to check the consistency of all signal channels. The performance of T9 type TGC detectors produced by Shandong University has met the requirement of the ATLAS experiment according to the preliminary results of measurement.

  17. Extreme Performance Scalable Operating Systems Final Progress Report (July 1, 2008 - October 31, 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-10-31

    This is the final progress report for the FastOS (Phase 2) (FastOS-2) project with Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Oregon (UO). The project started at UO on July 1, 2008 and ran until April 30, 2010, at which time a six-month no-cost extension began. The FastOS-2 work at UO delivered excellent results in all research work areas: * scalable parallel monitoring * kernel-level performance measurement * parallel I/0 system measurement * large-scale and hybrid application performance measurement * onlne scalable performance data reduction and analysis * binary instrumentation

  18. The effect of management team characteristics on performance and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Along with mutual funds’ scale and quantity expanding for our country, it is common for fund management companies hiring new managers or the original fund managers mobilizing from one to another. The high liquidity of fund managers makes different managers regroup to manage the funds that belong to the same fund management company in each fund year. The characteristics of these different management team will influence the fund performance, and also affect the earnings of the fund management company and portfolio investors. The purpose of this paper is as follows. First, evaluating the effect of management team characteristics on portfolio characteristics: risk, performance, and extremity. Second, testing the hypothesis that the ranking of mid-year performance have effect on investment style extremity and research what relationship exists between this phenomenon and management team characteristics in depth.Design/methodology/approach: On the analysis of the relationships between the management team characteristics and portfolio characteristics, a series of OLS regressions is run where the time series regression model (the factor model and cross-sectional regression are included based on using the STATA, EVIEWS and MATLAB. The validity and practicability of the model will be verified in the paper. All of the above are aimed at achieving portfolio optimization and realizing the maximization of the interests of fund management companies and investors.Findings: The main findings are as follows. Teams with more doctors or MBA (CPA and CFA hold more risky portfolios, while teams with long team tenure hold less. More members and large gender diversity have negative effect on performance, and the opposite is age diversity. Teams with more members and long tenure tend to hold less extreme style decisions, but age diversity is related to more. Besides, tournament hypothesis does exist in China investment funds industry especially when the

  19. Telerobotic system performance measurement: motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-11-01

    Telerobotic systems (TRSs) and shared teleautonomous systems result from the integration of multiple sophisticated modules. Procedures used in systems integration design decision-making of such systems are frequently ad hoc compared to more quantitative and systematic methods employed elsewhere in engineering. Experimental findings associated with verification and validation (V&V) are often application-specific. Furthermore, models and measurement strategies do not exist which allow prediction of overall TRS performance in a given task based on knowledge of the performance characteristics of individual subsystems. This paper introduces the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT), developed by the senior author to help resolve similar problems in human performance, as a basis for: (1) measurement of overall TRS performance (viewing all system components, including the operator, as a single entity); (2) task decomposition; (3) development of a generic TRS model; and (4) the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT uses a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented in the context of a distributed telerobotics network (Universities Space Automation and Robotics Consortium) as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data (i.e., multi-purpose or reusable) is described. Although the work is motivated by space automation and robotics challenges, it is considered to be applicable to telerobotic systems in general.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF MEASURING INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE TO INCREASE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Livia TĂTAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Management theory and practice suggest a wide range of instruments used in organizations in order to measure performance, whether individual or organizational. The purpose of this paper is to mention some of these tools, with an emphasis on the balanced scorecard. Although numerous organizations have adopted the balanced scorecard as a means to increase organizational performance, few of them have succeeded in making it really work. Moreover, individual performance appraisal is often regarded as a coercive instrument rather than a procedure meant to foster the employee’s performance which, in turn, should contribute to enhancing the organization’s overall performance. The hereby article aims at highlighting some of the advantages, as well as shortcomings of the balanced scorecard, followed by drawing conclusions regarding the way in which the balanced scorecard can and must contribute to organization’s well being.

  1. Is lower extremity strength gain associated with improvement in physical performance and disability in frail, community-dwelling elders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J M; Duncan, P W; Kochersberger, G; Studenski, S

    1998-01-01

    Strength loss is strongly associated with functional decline and is reversible with exercise. The effect of increased strength on function has not been clearly established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength gain is associated with improvement in physical performance and disability. One hundred functionally impaired community-dwelling men and women (77.6 +/- 7.6 yrs) were tested at baseline and outcome for lower extremity strength, physical performance, and disability. After random group assignment, exercise participants received strengthening exercises in their homes three times a week for 10 weeks while control subjects continued their normal activities. Using multiple regression techniques, the relationship between strength gain and improvement in physical performance and disability was assessed, controlling for age, depression, and baseline strength. A significant impact of strength gain on mobility skills (p = .0009) was found. The impact of strength gain on chair rise performance was significant in participants who were more impaired (p = .04). Strength gain was associated with gain in gait speed (p = .02) and in falls efficacy (p = .05), but not with other balance, endurance, or disability measures. Lower extremity strength gain is associated with gains in chair rise performance, gait speed, and in mobility tasks such as gait, transfers, stooping, and stair climbing, but not with improved endurance, balance, or disability. Strength gain is also associated with improvement in confidence in mobility. Factors that may influence the ability of strength gain to affect function are initial level of frailty and specificity of exercise. These results support the idea that strength training is an intervention that can potentially improve physical health status in many frail elders.

  2. Strategic Performance Measurement of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The paper used an in depth case study to investigate how firms can integrate the strategic performance measurement of R&D with the Balanced Scorecard. Moreover, the paper investigated the crucial role of controller in the decision making process of this integration.The literature review of R......&D management evidenced the limits of Balanced Scorecard to manage and monitor the R&D activities. Therefore, the firms have to create a specific performance measurement system and to link it with the macroindicators of Balanced Scorecard. The controller has a central role in the selection of non...... by the reorganization of R&D performance measurement systems and its consequent simplification.The Balanced Scorecard of Eli Lilly Italy were categorized into four perspectives: Financial Perspective, Customer Perspective, Competence Perspective and People Perspective. The competence perspective was linked to the R...

  3. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post-surgery,......PURPOSE: To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post...

  4. Monte Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Morris, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics (AO) system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object AO system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte Carlo AO simulation tool, Durham adaptive optics simulation platform, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcsec per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcsec, that electron multiplying CCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is necessary, and that sky coverage can be improved by a slight reduction in natural guide star sub-aperture count without significantly affecting tomographic performance. We find that AO correction can be maintained across a wide field of view, up to 7 arcmin in diameter. We also recommend the use of at least four laser guide stars, and include ground-layer and multi-object AO performance estimates.

  5. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the lower extremity measure for patients with a hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, S; Lakhani, Z; Schatzker, J

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether currently published outcome measures of physical function would be suitable for use for older adults with a hip fracture. The measures that were considered were the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (MFA) Instrument, the Older Americans' Resources and Services (OARS) Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire physical function subscale, the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Following suggestions by an expert panel and patient interviews, the MFA was not tested further. The TESS was modified and renamed the Lower Extremity Measure (LEM). Forty-three community-dwelling patients with a hip fracture completed the LEM, OARS, and SF-36 in the hospital so that the prefracture status could be obtained; they were then followed prospectively at six weeks and at six months. All patients were interviewed twice in the hospital to assess the reliability of the LEM (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). To establish criterion validity, the measures were compared with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test at six weeks. We tested a number of hypotheses to determine construct validity. Only the LEM scores were significantly correlated with the TUG scores (r = -0.53, p = 0.03). The LEM scores were significantly correlated with the SF-36 subscale scores and the OARS scores. Patients with at least one comorbidity had a lower mean prefracture LEM score (90.0 +/- 9.7) than patients with no comorbidity (96.9 +/- 8.1) (p = 0.02). Patients who had used no walking aids before the fracture had a higher mean prefracture LEM score than those who had used a cane (95.5 +/- 5.8 compared with 85.5 +/- 12.7; p = 0.0007). Both the LEM and the SF-36 scores changed significantly between all of the time-periods (p valid measure for patients with a hip fracture.

  6. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  8. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  9. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatrafyllis, N.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Veisz, L.; Skantzakis, E.; Gray, D.; Bodi, B.; Kuhn, S.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11th-15th harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses.

  10. Corporate Social Performance: From Output Measurement to Impact Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.H. Maas (Karen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAll organisations have social, environmental and economic impacts that effect people, their communities and the natural environment. Impacts include intended as well as unintended effects and negative as well as positive effects. Current practice in performance measurement tends to focus

  11. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15 for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ=0 and ε=±1, were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15>N14>N8.

  12. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  13. Daily temperature variation and extreme high temperatures drive performance and biotic interactions in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Verheyen, Julie; Van Dievel, Marie; Tüzün, Nedim

    2017-10-01

    We review the major patterns on the effects of daily temperature variation (DTV) and extreme high temperatures (EXT) on performance traits and the resulting outcome of biotic interactions in insects. EXT profoundly affects the outcome of all types of biotic interactions: competitive, predator-prey, herbivore-plant, host-pathogen/parasitoid and symbiotic interactions. Studies investigating effects of DTV on biotic interactions are few but also show strong effects on competitive and host-pathogen/parasitoid interactions. EXT typically reduces predation, and is expected to reduce parasitoid success. The effects of EXT and DTV on the outcome of the other interaction types are highly variable, yet can be predicted based on comparisons of the TPCs of the interacting species, and challenges the formulation of general predictions about the change in biotic interactions in a warming world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measures of range of motion and strength among healthy women with differing quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine the association between hip and ankle range-of-motion measures, as well as measures of hip muscle strength, with measures of quality of lower extremity movement, as assessed visually during the lateral step-down test in healthy women. Altered lower extremity movement pattern consisting of excessive femoral adduction and internal rotation, leading to excessive knee valgus alignment, is associated with increased risk of knee ligament injury, as well as patellofemoral pain syndrome. Previous investigations of lower extremity kinematics, using 3-dimensional motion analysis systems, document an inconsistent association between hip muscle strength and lower extremity movement pattern. Currently, it is unknown whether differences in hip muscle strength or other physical measures exist among women with differing quality of lower extremity movement as assessed by visual observation. Two physical therapists assessed the quality of movement during the lateral step-down among 29 healthy women (mean ± SD age, 24.3 ± 3.2 years). Subjects were instructed on the optimal movement pattern prior to performing the test. The quality of movement was categorized as "good" or "moderate," based on a previously established 6-point scale. Several measures of hip strength (handheld dynamometer) and hip and ankle range of motion (fluid-filled inclinometer and universal goniometer) were also assessed. Differences in strength and range-of-motion measures between women with good and women with moderate quality of movement were assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test. Both examiners found decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, as measured with the knee bent (Pdorsiflexion range of motion compared to women with a good quality of movement. Clinicians should consider evaluating ankle dorsiflexion range of motion when observing an altered lower extremity movement pattern during the lateral step-down test.

  15. Performance measurement in industrial R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Nixon, Bill; Pearson, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the need for R&D performance measurements that are both practically useful and theoretically sound seems to be generally acknowledged; indeed, the rising cost of R&D, greater emphasis on value management and a trend towards decentralization are escalating the need for ways of evaluating

  16. 75 FR 38725 - Service Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Performance Rules VI. Reporting of Customer Sastisfaction A. General Considerations B. Rule 3055.91--Consumer Access to Postal Services C. Rule 3055.92--Customer Experience Measurement Surveys D. Rule 3055.93... customer satisfaction. The final rule reflects the Commission's consideration of comments on a proposed...

  17. External Innovation Implementation Determinants and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Matthew; Bals, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    for innovation implementation based on a case study in the pharmaceutical industry. The results of 25 expert interviews and a survey with 67 respondents led to the resulting framework and a corresponding performance measurement system. The results reveal the importance of supporting systems and show differences...

  18. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  19. The five traps of performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likierman, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Evaluating a company's performance often entails wading through a thicket of numbers produced by a few simple metrics, writes the author, and senior executives leave measurement to those whose specialty is spreadsheets. To take ownership of performance assessment, those executives should find qualitative, forward-looking measures that will help them avoid five common traps: Measuring against yourself. Find data from outside the company, and reward relative, rather than absolute, performance. Enterprise Rent-A-Car uses a service quality index to measure customers' repeat purchase intentions. Looking backward. Use measures that lead rather than lag the profits in your business. Humana, a health insurer, found that the sickest 10% of its patients account for 80% of its costs; now it offers customers incentives for early screening. Putting your faith in numbers. The soft drinks company Britvic evaluates its executive coaching program not by trying to assign it an ROI number but by tracking participants' careers for a year. Gaming your metrics. The law firm Clifford Chance replaced its single, easy-to-game metric of billable hours with seven criteria on which to base bonuses. Sticking to your numbers too long. Be precise about what you want to assess and explicit about what metrics are assessing it. Such clarity would have helped investors interpret the AAA ratings involved in the financial meltdown. Really good assessment will combine finance managers' relative independence with line managers' expertise.

  20. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  1. The Effect of Elevation on Volumetric Measurements of the Lower Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordial M. Gillette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The empirical evidence for the use of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation has been questioned regarding its   clinical effectiveness. The component of RICE that has the least literature regarding its effectiveness is elevation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if various positions of elevation result in volumetric changes of the lower extremity. Methodology: A randomized crossover design was used to determine the effects of the four following conditions on volumetric changes of the lower extremity: seated at the end of a table (seated, lying supine (flat, lying supine with the foot elevated 12 inches off the table (elevated, and lying prone with the knees bent to 90 degrees (prone. The conditions were randomized using a Latin Square. Each subject completed all conditions with at least 24 hours between each session. Pre and post volumetric measurements were taken using a volumetric tank. The subject was placed in one of the four described testing positions for 30 minutes. The change in weight of the displaced water was the main outcome measure. The data was analyzed using an ANOVA of the pre and post measurements with a Bonferroni post hoc analysis. The level of significance was set at P<.05 for all analyses. Results: The only statistically significant difference was between the gravity dependent position (seated and all other positions (p <.001. There was no significant difference between lying supine (flat, on a bolster (elevated, or prone with the knees flexed to 90 degrees (prone. Conclusions: From these results, the extent of elevation does not appear to have an effect on changes in low leg volume. Elevation above the heart did not significantly improve reduction in limb volume, but removing the limb from a gravity dependent position might be beneficial.

  2. Snow Depth from Lidar: Challenges and New Technology for Measurements in Extreme Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Kadatskiy, V.; Boardman, J. W.; Bormann, K.; Deems, J. S.; Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Richardson, M.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) uses an airborne LiDAR system to measure basin-wide snow depth with cm-scale accuracy at ~1m spatial resolution. This is accomplished by creating a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) over snow-free terrain in the summer, then repeating the flights again when the terrain is snow-covered and subtracting the elevations. Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is then calculated by incorporating modeled snow density estimates, and when combined with coincident spectrometer albedo measurements, informs distributed hydrologic modeling and runoff prediction. This method provides SWE estimates of unprecedented accuracy and extent compared to traditional snow surveys and towers, and 24hr latency data products through the ASO processing pipeline using Apache Tika and OODT software. The timely ASO outputs support operational decision making by water/dam operators for optimal water management. The water-resource snowpack in the western US lies in remote mountainous terrain, spanning large areas containing steep faces at all aspects, often amongst tree canopy. This extreme terrain presents unusual challenges for LiDAR, and requires high altitude flights to achieve wide area coverage, high point density to capture small terrain features, and the ability to capture all slope aspects without shadowing. These challenges were met by the new state-of-the-art Riegl LMS-Q1560 LiDAR system, which incorporates two independent laser channels and a single rotating mirror. Both lasers and mirror are designed to provide forward, backward, and nadir look capability, which minimizes shadowing and ensures data capture even on very steep slopes. The system is capable of logging more than 10 simultaneous pulses in the air, which allows data collection at extremely high resolution while maintaining very high altitude which reduces complete region acquisition time significantly, and allows data collection over terrain with extreme elevation variation. Our experience to

  3. Longitudinal Performance of a Surgically Implanted Neuroprosthesis for Lower Extremity Exercise, Standing, and Transfers after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Ronald J.; Nogan Bailey, Stephanie; Miller, Michael E.; Rohde, Loretta M.; Anderson, James S.; Davis, John A.; Abbas, James J.; DiPonio, Lisa A.; Forrest, George P.; Gater, David R.; Yang, Lynda J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury. Design Case series. Setting Research or outpatient physical therapy departments of four academic hospitals. Participants 15 subjects with thoracic or low-cervical level spinal cord injuries who had received the 8-channel neuroprosthesis for exercise and standing. Interventions After completing rehabilitation with the device, the subjects were discharged to unrestricted home use of the system. A series of assessments were performed before discharge and at a follow-up appointment approximately one year later. Main Outcome Measure(s) Neuroprosthesis usage, maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, knee fatigue index, electrode stability, and component survivability. Results Levels of maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, and knee fatigue index were not statistically different from discharge to follow-up (p > 0.05). Additionally, neuroprosthesis usage was consistent with subjects choosing to use the system on approximately half of the days during each monitoring period. Although the number of hours using the neuroprosthesis remained constant, subjects shifted their usage to more functional standing versus more maintenance exercise, suggesting that the subjects incorporated the neuroprosthesis into their lives. Safety and reliability of the system were demonstrated by electrode stability and a high component survivability rate (>90%). Conclusions This group of 15 subjects is the largest cohort of implanted lower extremity neurorprosthetic exercise and standing system users. The safety and efficiency data from this group, and acceptance of the neuroprosthesis as demonstrated by continued usage, indicate that future efforts towards commercialization of a similar device may be warranted. PMID:22541312

  4. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  5. Lower Extremity Handheld Dynamometry Strength Measurement in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder-Brouwer, Angelique N; Rameckers, Eugene A A; Bastiaenen, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence on reliability of handheld dynamometry protocols to quantify maximal isometric strength of the muscles of the lower extremities of children with cerebral palsy. A systematic search of Cochrane, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed up to December 2013 and best-evidence synthesis were performed. Seven eligible studies were identified. Best-evidence synthesis revealed "unknown" to "moderate" evidence. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were "positive" for most muscle groups for intrarater reliability and showed mixed results for interrater reliability. Because of small sample sizes (10-25) in all included studies, the final level of evidence remains "unknown." Reliability data obtained in the included studies of handheld dynamometry in children with cerebral palsy are promising, despite low levels of evidence. When these protocols are applied very carefully, they may prove relevant to different clinical settings.

  6. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... is normally determined by statistical extrapolation of the simulated response during operation according to IEC 61400-1 2005. However, this method assumes that the individual 10 min. time series are independent and that peaks extracted are independent. In the present paper two new methods for loads...... extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which...

  7. Ultrafast Demagnetization Measurements Using Extreme Ultraviolet Light: Comparison of Electronic and Magnetic Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan La-O-Vorakiat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrashort pulses of extreme ultraviolet light from high-harmonic generation are a new tool for probing coupled charge, spin, and phonon dynamics with element specificity, attosecond pump-probe synchronization, and time resolution of a few femtoseconds in a tabletop apparatus. In this paper, we address an important question in magneto-optics that has implications for understanding magnetism on the fastest time scales: Is the signal from the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect at the M_{2,3} edges of a magnetic material purely magnetic or is it perturbed by nonmagnetic artifacts? Our measurements demonstrate conclusively that transverse magneto-optical Kerr measurements at the M_{2,3} edges sensitively probe the magnetic state, with almost negligible contributions from the transient variation of the refractive index by the nonequilibrium hot-electron distribution. In addition, we compare pump-probe demagnetization dynamics measured by both high harmonics and conventional visible-wavelength magneto-optics and find that the measured demagnetization times are in agreement.

  8. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  9. Breaking the glass ceiling: Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, due to the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally-relevant timescales. In this work we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in-silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four independent estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently indicate that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is found in simulations even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus open a new observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation.

  10. Prediction of extubation readiness in extreme preterm infants based on measures of cardiorespiratory variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, Doina; Robles-Rubio, Carlos A; Brown, Karen A; Kanbar, L; Kaczmarek, J; Chawla, S; Sant'Anna, G M; Kearney, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of extreme preterm infants require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (ETT-MV) during the first days of life to survive. Unfortunately this therapy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and consequently, it is desirable to remove ETT-MV as quickly as possible. However, about 25% of extubated infants will fail and require re-intubation which is also associated with a 5-fold increase in mortality and a longer stay in the intensive care unit. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to determine the optimal time for extubation that will minimize the duration of MV and maximize the chances of success. This paper presents a new objective predictor to assist clinicians in making this decision. The predictor uses a modern machine learning method (Support Vector Machines) to determine the combination of measures of cardiorespiratory variability, computed automatically, that best predicts extubation readiness. Our results demonstrate that this predictor accurately classified infants who would fail extubation.

  11. An investigation of the usefulness of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic measurements for treaty verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    From FY 1986 through FY 1988, we monitored extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields to determine whether these signals could be detected from underground nuclear explosions. Signals clearly related to underground tests were detected only when the ELF field sensors were located within 10 km of surface ground zero. Theoretical analysis, based on the results of these measurements, shows that the ELF impulse signals from underground nuclear tests are of longer duration than those from lightning sources and are, therefore, less efficient in exciting resonances in the earth-ionosphere cavity, even though the source strength for each may be the same. Thus, ELF signals from underground nuclear tests with yields of <150 kT are generally lower than the background signals caused by worldwide lightning activity. Our conclusion is that ELF monitoring probably will not be useful for detecting underground nuclear tests at distances >10 km from the tests. 16 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids that break the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Coslovich, Daniele; Ninarello, Andrea; Ozawa, Misaki; Yaida, Sho

    2017-10-24

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, because of the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally relevant timescales. In this work, we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently confirm that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is also found in simulations, even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus extend the observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation. Published under the PNAS license.

  13. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  14. Approaches towards airport economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana STRYČEKOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess how economic benchmarking is being used by airports as a means of performance measurement and comparison of major international airports in the world. The study focuses on current benchmarking practices and methods by taking into account different factors according to which it is efficient to benchmark airports performance. As methods are considered mainly data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Apart from them other approaches are discussed by airports to provide economic benchmarking. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the airports and answer some undetermined questions involving economic benchmarking of the airports.

  15. MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU CATALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Any significant management action can be assessed both in terms of success of immediate goals and as effect of the organization ability to embrace change. Market competition intensifies with the development of Romanian society and its needs. Companies that offer different products and services need to impose certain advantages and to increase their performances. The paper will present modern tools for measuring and evaluating organizational performance, namely: Balanced Scorecard, Deming model and Baldrige model. We also present an example for Balance Scorecard, of an organizations belonging to the cosmetics industry.

  16. Validity and intra- and interobserver reliability of an indirect volume measurements in patients with upper extremity lymphedema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.S.; Rietman, J.S.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Bosmans, J.C.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    We investigated a method of indirect volume measurement that utilized surface measurements and a simplified formula derived from the formula for a frustum (Sitzia's method) to determine limb volumes in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema of the upper extremity. Repeated measurements of

  17. Durango: Scalable Synthetic Workload Generation for Extreme-Scale Application Performance Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, Christopher D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Meredith, Jeremy S. [ORNL; Blanco, Marc [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Vetter, Jeffrey S. [ORNL; Mubarak, Misbah [Argonne National Laboratory; LaPre, Justin [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Moore, Shirley V. [ORNL

    2017-05-01

    Performance modeling of extreme-scale applications on accurate representations of potential architectures is critical for designing next generation supercomputing systems because it is impractical to construct prototype systems at scale with new network hardware in order to explore designs and policies. However, these simulations often rely on static application traces that can be difficult to work with because of their size and lack of flexibility to extend or scale up without rerunning the original application. To address this problem, we have created a new technique for generating scalable, flexible workloads from real applications, we have implemented a prototype, called Durango, that combines a proven analytical performance modeling language, Aspen, with the massively parallel HPC network modeling capabilities of the CODES framework.Our models are compact, parameterized and representative of real applications with computation events. They are not resource intensive to create and are portable across simulator environments. We demonstrate the utility of Durango by simulating the LULESH application in the CODES simulation environment on several topologies and show that Durango is practical to use for simulation without loss of fidelity, as quantified by simulation metrics. During our validation of Durango's generated communication model of LULESH, we found that the original LULESH miniapp code had a latent bug where the MPI_Waitall operation was used incorrectly. This finding underscores the potential need for a tool such as Durango, beyond its benefits for flexible workload generation and modeling.Additionally, we demonstrate the efficacy of Durango's direct integration approach, which links Aspen into CODES as part of the running network simulation model. Here, Aspen generates the application-level computation timing events, which in turn drive the start of a network communication phase. Results show that Durango's performance scales well when

  18. Enhancing an enterprise's innovation performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Ljiljana; Novićević, Blagoje; Đukić, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Business conditions under which modern enterprises operate are becoming more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused not only by external but also by internal factors, which imposes the need for turnover in management focus. The turnover is reflected primarily in the change of business models. The changes are evident at all management stages. Development and enhancement of business performance measurement system is the area where the changes are most evident con...

  19. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuassba, Adnan O M; Zhang, Dezheng; Luo, Xiong; Shaheryar, Ahmad; Ali, Hazrat

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN). It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME) for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2), and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble). The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  20. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan O. M. Abuassba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN. It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2, and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble. The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  1. Key indicators for organizational performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Haddadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each organization for assessing the amount of utility and desirability of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments, requires determining and ranking the vital performance indicators. Indicators provide essential links among strategy, execution and ultimate value creation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework, which identifies and prioritizes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs that a company should focus on them to define and measure progress towards organizational objectives. For this purpose, an applied research was conducted in 2013 in an Iranian telecommunication company. We first determined the objectives of the company with respect to four perspectives of BSC (Balanced Scorecard framework. Next, performance indicators were listed and paired wise comparisons were accomplished by company's high-ranked employees through standard Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP questionnaires. This helped us establish the weight of each indicator and to rank them, accordingly.

  2. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting in the development of disorganized attachment: validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, Dorothee; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2009-09-01

    Early adverse caregiving experiences constitute an important risk factor for the development of disorganized attachment in infancy, especially extreme insensitivity and frightening behavior associated with an unresolved loss or trauma. Using existing measures for frightening parenting and disrupted communication, we developed a new measure assessing Disconnected and extremely Insensitive Parenting (DIP), in order to investigate the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behaviors to infant disorganization. Maternal behavior was assessed during a laboratory session in a low-risk sample of 202 mothers and their infants. Construct and discriminant validity of the DIP was established for both types of parental behavior. Disconnected parental behavior predicted infant disorganization but not organized attachment security, whereas extreme insensitivity was marginally related to organized attachment insecurity in boys but not to attachment disorganization.

  4. Prior contralateral amputation predicts worse outcomes for lower extremity bypasses performed in the intact limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T.; Goodney, Philip P.; Robinson, William P.; Nolan, Brian W.; Stone, David H.; Li, YouFu; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date, history of a contralateral amputation as a potential predictor of outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) has not been studied. We sought to determine if a prior contralateral lower extremity amputation predicts worse outcomes in patients undergoing LEB in the remaining intact limb. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for CLI between 2003 and 2010 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England was performed. Patients were stratified according to whether or not they had previously undergone a contralateral major or minor amputation before LEB. Primary end points included major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary end points included in-hospital major adverse events, discharge status, and mortality at 1 year. Results Of 2636 LEB procedures, 228 (8.6%) were performed in the setting of a prior contralateral amputation. Patients with a prior amputation compared to those without were younger (66.5 vs 68.7; P = .034), more like to have congestive heart failure (CHF; 25% vs 16%; P = .002), hypertension (94% vs 85%; P = .015), renal insufficiency (26% vs 14%; P = .0002), and hemodialysis-dependent renal failure (14% vs 6%; P = .0002). They were also more likely to be nursing home residents (8.0% vs 3.6%; P = .036), less likely to ambulate without assistance (41% vs 80%; P amputation experienced increased rates of graft occlusion (38% vs 17%; P amputation (16% vs 7%; P amputation was an independent predictor of both major amputation (odds ratio, 1.73; confidence interval, 1.06–2.83; P = .027) and graft occlusion (odds ratio, 1.93; confidence interval, 1.39–2.68; P amputations who present with CLI in the intact limb represent a high-risk population, even among patients with advanced peripheral arterial disease. When considering LEB in this setting, both physicians and patients should expect increased rates of

  5. FMCW Radar Performance for Atmospheric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ince

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-modulated continuous-wave radars (FMCW have been used in the investigation of the atmosphere since the late 1960’s. FMCW radars provide tremendous sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to their pulsed counterparts and are therefore attractive for clear-air remote-sensing applications. However, these systems have some disadvantages and performance limitations that have prevented their widespread use by the atmospheric science community. In this study, system performance of atmospheric FMCW radar is analyzed and some measurement limitations for atmospheric targets are discussed. The effects of Doppler velocities and spectral widths on radar performance, radar’s near-field operation, and parallax errors for two-antenna radar systems are considered. Experimental data collected by the highresolution atmospheric FMCW radar is used to illustrate typical performance qualitatively based on morphological backscattered power information. A post-processing based on single-lag covariance differences between the Bragg and Rayleigh echo is applied to estimate clear-air component from refractive index turbulence and perform quantitative analysis of FMCW radar reflectivity from atmospheric targets.

  6. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  7. Detection of Stress Levels from Biosignals Measured in Virtual Reality Environments Using a Kernel-Based Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongrae Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a computer technique that creates an artificial environment composed of realistic images, sounds, and other sensations. Many researchers have used VR devices to generate various stimuli, and have utilized them to perform experiments or to provide treatment. In this study, the participants performed mental tasks using a VR device while physiological signals were measured: a photoplethysmogram (PPG, electrodermal activity (EDA, and skin temperature (SKT. In general, stress is an important factor that can influence the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Heart-rate variability (HRV is known to be related to ANS activity, so we used an HRV derived from the PPG peak interval. In addition, the peak characteristics of the skin conductance (SC from EDA and SKT variation can also reflect ANS activity; we utilized them as well. Then, we applied a kernel-based extreme-learning machine (K-ELM to correctly classify the stress levels induced by the VR task to reflect five different levels of stress situations: baseline, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress, and recovery. Twelve healthy subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiological signals were measured in stress environment generated by VR device. As a result, the average classification accuracy was over 95% using K-ELM and the integrated feature (IT = HRV + SC + SKT. In addition, the proposed algorithm can embed a microcontroller chip since K-ELM algorithm have very short computation time. Therefore, a compact wearable device classifying stress levels using physiological signals can be developed.

  8. Detection of Stress Levels from Biosignals Measured in Virtual Reality Environments Using a Kernel-Based Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongrae; Ham, Jinsil; Oh, Jooyoung; Park, Jeanho; Kim, Sayup; Lee, Nak-Kyu; Lee, Boreom

    2017-10-24

    Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technique that creates an artificial environment composed of realistic images, sounds, and other sensations. Many researchers have used VR devices to generate various stimuli, and have utilized them to perform experiments or to provide treatment. In this study, the participants performed mental tasks using a VR device while physiological signals were measured: a photoplethysmogram (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), and skin temperature (SKT). In general, stress is an important factor that can influence the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart-rate variability (HRV) is known to be related to ANS activity, so we used an HRV derived from the PPG peak interval. In addition, the peak characteristics of the skin conductance (SC) from EDA and SKT variation can also reflect ANS activity; we utilized them as well. Then, we applied a kernel-based extreme-learning machine (K-ELM) to correctly classify the stress levels induced by the VR task to reflect five different levels of stress situations: baseline, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress, and recovery. Twelve healthy subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiological signals were measured in stress environment generated by VR device. As a result, the average classification accuracy was over 95% using K-ELM and the integrated feature (IT = HRV + SC + SKT). In addition, the proposed algorithm can embed a microcontroller chip since K-ELM algorithm have very short computation time. Therefore, a compact wearable device classifying stress levels using physiological signals can be developed.

  9. Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hungu; Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength are related to functional disability in older adults who cannot perform one or more activities of daily living (ADL) independently. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors of seven lower extremity ROMs and two muscle strengths play dominant roles in the physical performance of community-dwelling older women. Methods Ninety-five community-dwelling older women (mean age???SD, 70.7???4.7?years; age rang...

  10. Short period, high field cryogenic undulator for extreme performance x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. O’Shea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Short period, high field undulators can enable short wavelength free electron lasers (FELs at low beam energy, with decreased gain length, thus allowing much more compact and less costly FEL systems. We describe an ongoing initiative to develop such an undulator based on an approach that utilizes novel cryogenic materials. While this effort was begun in the context of extending the photon energy regime of a laser-plasma accelerator based electron source, we consider here implications of its application to sub-fs scenarios in which more conventional injectors are employed. The use of such low-charge, ultrashort beams, which has recently been proposed as a method of obtaining single-spike performance in x-ray FELs, is seen in simulation to give unprecedented beam brightness. This brightness, when considered in tandem with short wavelength, high field undulators, enables extremely high performance FELs. Two examples discussed in this paper illustrate this point well. The first is the use of the SPARX injector at 2.1 GeV with 1 pC of charge to give 8 GW peak power in a single spike at 6.5 Å with a photon beam peak brightness greater than 10^{35}  photons/(s mm^{2} mrad^{2}  0.1%  BW, which will also reach LCLS wavelengths on the 5th harmonic. The second is the exploitation of the LCLS injector with 0.25 pC, 150 as pulses to lase at 1.5 Å using only 4.5 GeV energy; beyond this possibility, we present start-to-end simulations of lasing at unprecedented short wavelength, 0.15 Å, using 13.65 GeV LCLS design energy.

  11. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases : psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Joannes

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease

  12. Measuring the performance of maintenance service outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio Miguel; Rincon, Adriana Maria Rios; Haugan, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (1) to identify the characteristics of maintenance service providers that directly impact maintenance service quality, using 18 independent covariables; (2) to quantify the change in risk these covariables present to service quality, measured in terms of equipment turnaround time (TAT). A survey was applied to every maintenance service provider (n = 19) for characterization purposes. The equipment inventory was characterized, and the TAT variable recorded and monitored for every work order of each service provider (N = 1,025). Finally, the research team conducted a statistical analysis to accomplish the research objectives. The results of this study offer strong empirical evidence that the most influential variables affecting the quality of maintenance service performance are the following: type of maintenance, availability of spare parts in the country, user training, technological complexity of the equipment, distance between the company and the hospital, and the number of maintenance visits performed by the company. The strength of the results obtained by the Cox model built are supported by the measure of the Rp,e(2) = 0.57 with a value of Rp,e= 0.75. Thus, the model explained 57% of the variation in equipment TAT, with moderate high positive correlation between the dependent variable (TAT) and independent variables.

  13. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadia Gaoua; Rita F. de Oliveira; Steve Hunter

    2017-01-01

    ... for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model...

  14. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT THROUGH NON-FINANCIAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarta (Blaga Eugenia Anisoara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The information about a company’s performance is necessary in order to evaluate the potential modifications of the economic resources that the entity will be able to control in the future, to anticipate the ability to generate treasury fluxes with the available resources, and to establish the efficiency with which it can employ and make use of new resources. In current practice, the information regarding financial performance are mainly given by “the profit and loss account”, respectively “the budgetary execution account”, but things are not so simple as to reduce them to the synthetic data in a certain periodic report form since it would be a pity to ignore the real - time information given by the account itself. In our paper we have tried to resume the most important non-financial indicators, through which the performance of a company is measured.

  15. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  16. DPIV measurements of dolphins performing tailstands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Moon, Yae; Sherman, Erica; Fish, Frank; Williams, Terrie; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    In the past few years, we have adapted DPIV to permit measurements of flow around swimming mammals (human and dolphin). In this study, we apply this technique to measure flow associated with a dolphin performing a tail stand; the behavior in which the dolphin lifts and holds itself vertically out of the water by rapid and strong oscillations of its tail. The objective of this work was i) to validate the ability to compute thrust production from vortices generated by the tail motions and ii) to develop a quantitative measure of the thrust production capability of a dolphin. Data from numerous tail stands taken from two different Atlantic bottlenose dolphins will be presented. Independent thrust comparisons are developed by monitoring how much of the dolphins' bodies were held above the water during the tailstand behavior. The presentation includes both movies showing flow velocity overlayed on the original dolphin videos as wall as plots of thrust as a function of percent body weight lifted from the water. The data clearly demonstrate that dolphins produce thrust on the order of their body weight, far more than necessary to overcome turbulent boundary layer drag.

  17. Measuring soccer skill performance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to execute skilled movement patterns efficiently and effectively is the most important aspect of soccer performance and players must apply cognitive, perceptual and motor skills to rapidly changing situations. There have been attempts to measure these parameters for talent identification (or development) purposes and skill acquisition and intervention research; the aim of this review is to examine the strengths and limitations of these tests. High levels of perceptual and cognitive skill are characteristics of those players who are able look in the right places for information and process this information efficiently before deciding on a suitable course of action. The motor skills required to successfully control, pass, dribble and shoot the ball at goal are fundamental skills of the soccer player and a variety of methods have been used to measure these aspects. The tests mentioned in this review vary in their complexity and the type of skill(s) they purport to measure. The assessment of choice must come down to a number of factors including cost, available time and space, number of athletes in the cohort and experience of researchers. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the aim(s) of the research/assessment and issues relating to validity and reliability. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Manual muscle testing: a method of measuring extremity muscle strength applied to critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Nancy; Dinglas, Victor; Fan, Eddy; Kho, Michelle; Kuramoto, Jill; Needham, Dale

    2011-04-12

    Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other causes of critical illness often have generalized weakness, reduced exercise tolerance, and persistent nerve and muscle impairments after hospital discharge. Using an explicit protocol with a structured approach to training and quality assurance of research staff, manual muscle testing (MMT) is a highly reliable method for assessing strength, using a standardized clinical examination, for patients following ARDS, and can be completed with mechanically ventilated patients who can tolerate sitting upright in bed and are able to follow two-step commands. (7, 8) This video demonstrates a protocol for MMT, which has been taught to ≥ 43 research staff who have performed >800 assessments on >280 ARDS survivors. Modifications for the bedridden patient are included. Each muscle is tested with specific techniques for positioning, stabilization, resistance, and palpation for each score of the 6-point ordinal Medical Research Council scale. Three upper and three lower extremity muscles are graded in this protocol: shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist extension, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. These muscles were chosen based on the standard approach for evaluating patients for ICU-acquired weakness used in prior publications. (1,2).

  19. Trajectories of Lower Extremity Physical Performance: Effects on Fractures and Mortality in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Lui, Li-Yung; McCulloch, Charles E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cawthon, Peggy M; Yaffe, Kristine; Barnes, Deborah E; Fredman, Lisa; Newman, Anne B; Cummings, Steven R; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-12-01

    Prior studies have only considered one measurement of physical performance in its relationship to fractures and mortality. A single measurement is susceptible to large within-person changes over time, and thus, may not capture the true association between physical performance and the outcomes of interest. Using data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, we followed 7,015 women enrolled prior to age 80 years who had outcome information beyond this age. Trajectories of walking speed (m/s) and chair stand speed (stands/s) were estimated up to the last visit prior to age 80 years using mixed-effects linear regression. Physical performance at age 80 (PF_age80) was assessed at the last visit prior to age 80 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and multivariate models adjusted for all other covariates. Greatest walking speed decline and chair stand speed decline were both associated with higher risk of hip fracture (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58 and HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54, respectively), but not nonspine fractures. Greatest walking speed decline and chair stand speed decline were both associated with a significant 29% (95% CI: 17-42%) and 27% (95% CI: 15-39%) increased risk of mortality, respectively. Greatest declines in walking speed and chair stand speed were both associated with an increased risk of hip fracture and mortality independent of PF_age80 and other important confounders. Both physical performance change and the single physical performance measurement should be considered in the etiology of hip fracture and mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Driving Extreme Variability: Measuring the Changing Characteristics of the X-ray Emitting Coronae in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Daniel; Gallo, Luigi C.; Kara, Erin; Fabian, Andrew c

    2014-08-01

    Through detailed analysis of the reflection of the X-ray continuum from the accretion disc, it is possible to probe the innermost structures right down to the innermost stable circular orbit and event horizon around the supermassive black holes in AGN. By measuring the emissivity profile of the accretion disc, that is its pattern of illumination by the coronal X-ray source, along with reverberation time lags between variability in the X-ray continuum and reflection, it has proven possible to measure the geometry and spatial extend of the corona that produces the X-ray continuum when the observed data are combined with insight gained from general relativistic ray tracing simulations.We conducted detailed analysis of both the X-ray continuum and its reflection from the accretion disc during periods of high and low X-ray flux drawn from long observations of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy, 1H0707-495, totalling more than 1.3Ms with XMM Newton, as well as during the course of an X-ray flare in another narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy, Markarian 335, observed in 2013 by Suzaku.These observations allow us to trace, for the first time, from observations, the evolution of the X-ray emitting corona that gives rise to the extreme variability seen in the X-ray emission from AGN. We detect expansion in the corona as well as variations in its energetics as the X-ray flux increases, which gives us insight into the physical processes by which energy is liberated from black hole accretion flows and allows observational constraints to be placed upon theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and associated coronae.

  1. Measuring the Weathertight Performance of Flashings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bassett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are now better engineered to manage rainwater following the leaking building problem in New Zealand. The next challenge is to improve the weathertightness of medium-rise buildings which often use joint details widely applied on low-rise buildings but are subject to higher wind pressures and surface runoff rates. This study begins to address this challenge by measuring the water leakage performance limits of the following common flashings with static and dynamic rain and wind loads to see how their performance might be improved: (a Horizontal H and Z jointers between direct fixed sheet claddings; (b The window head flashing in a cavity wall; (c A horizontal apron flashing at the junction between a roof and wall. At this stage, water penetration resistances have been measured but the data has not yet been discussed in the context of wind pressures and rain loads on mid-rise buildings. All of the joints were found to resist water leakage to pressures equivalent to the hydrostatic head of the upstand, so long as there were no air leakage paths through the joint. When vents were added, or openings were present that might arise due to construction tolerances, then the onset pressure for leakage was found to fall by as much as 50%. Vents, of course, are essential for ventilation drying in rainscreen walls and even with vents present, the onset of leakage was at generally at least twice the 50 Pa wet wall test pressure applied in New Zealand. Opportunities were found to improve the way vented joints deal with runoff by enlarging the gap between the cladding and flashing. This prevented the outer joint volume from filling with water and occluding the vents. The apron flashing was found to cope better than a window head joint with runoff, because of the larger 35 mm vertical gap between the cladding and apron.

  2. Is the differential response of riparian plant performance to extreme drought and inundation events related to differences in intraspecific trait variation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, Y.A.M.; Aerts, R.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the impacts of extreme events has focussed mainly on plant performance. Selective effects of extremes suggests that appropriate traits to withstand extremes, or the ability to modulate traits, may increase the competitive advantage and survival of a species. We tested how

  3. Maximum Wave Run-up Measured on a Natural Beach Owing to Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E. B.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Unique field data indicative of maximum run-up owing to extreme wave conditions with a 50 year return period are obtained from the distribution of sea-glass on 10-18 m high dunes. The hypothesis that sea-glass is an indicator of maximum run-up is verified by the observations that new sea-glass on a beach is found at the rackline, the highest point of run-up. The source of the sea-glass is a garbage dump on the dune in southern Monterey Bay from 1937-1951. It is estimated that the dump, located on an erosive shoreline, was falling into the ocean by at least 1960, so that the maximum run-up values have a return period of at least 50 years. Various empirical run-up models based both on extensive laboratory and field measurements are assessed to include contributions from sea-swell and infragravity waves, setup and tidal elevation, which are parameterized on wave height and surf parameter, P, which is a function of wave height, period and beach slope. Deep water hindcast waves (1958-2011) refracted to 4m water depth are used as input to the models. Beach and dune slopes averaged over the run-up region from mean water level to the maximum run-up ranged 0.1 - 0.63 (angle of repose). Reasonable comparison with model predicted run-up with distribution of sea-glass on the dune were obtained for P model equations were derived, suggesting a possible deficiency in the models.

  4. Simulating extreme environments: Ergonomic evaluation of Chinese pilot performance and heat stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yinsheng; Ding, Li; Zou, Huijuan; Ren, Zhaosheng; Shi, Liyong; Feathers, David; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-05

    High-temperatures in the cockpit environment can adversely influence pilot behavior and performance. To investigate the impact of high thermal environments on Chinese pilot performance in a simulated cockpit environment. Ten subjects volunteered to participate in the tests under 40°C and 45°C high-temperature simulations in an environmentally controlled chamber. Measures such as grip strength, perception, dexterity, somatic sense reaction, and analytical reasoning were taken. The results were compared to the Combined Index of Heat Stress (CIHS). CIHS exceeded the heat stress safety limit after 45 min under 40°C, grip strength decreased by 12% and somatic perception became 2.89 times larger than the initial value. In the case of 45°C, CIHS exceeded the safety limit after only 20 min, while the grip strength decreased just by 3.2% and somatic perception increased to 4.36 times larger than the initial value. Reaction and finger dexterity were not statistically different from baseline measurements, but the error rate of analytical reasoning test rose remarkably. Somatic perception was the most sensitive index to high-temperature, followed by grip strength. Results of this paper may help to improve environmental control design of new fighter cockpit and for pilot physiology and cockpit environment ergonomics research for Chinese pilots.

  5. Detection of Extant Life in Extreme Environmentsby Phosphatase ActivitiesDetection of Extant Life in Extreme Environments by Measuring Phosphatase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Sato, Shuji; Naganawa, Kazuki; Itoh, Yuki; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Yukishige

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a candidate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica soils, and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002, and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems, the Pacific Ocean in 2003, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline (or acid) Phosphatase activity in solid samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0 (or pH 6.5)) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC and GC/MS. Significant enzymatic activities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes are present in such environments as hydrothermal vent chimneys and Antarctica soils. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase

  6. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise the...

  7. Performance Measurement and Analysis of Large-Scale Parallel Applications on Leadership Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Brian J. N.; Markus Geimer; Felix Wolf

    2008-01-01

    Developers of applications with large-scale computing requirements are currently presented with a variety of high-performance systems optimised for message-passing, however, effectively exploiting the available computing resources remains a major challenge. In addition to fundamental application scalability characteristics, application and system peculiarities often only manifest at extreme scales, requiring highly scalable performance measurement and analysis tools that are convenient to inc...

  8. High Job Performance Through Co-Developing Performance Measures With Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.; Wilderom, C.P.M.; Wouters, M.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    According to various studies, employee participation in the development of performance measures can increase job performance. This study focuses on how this job performance elevation occurs. We hypothesize that when employees have participated in the development of performance measures, they

  9. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  10. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  11. Pilot Performance Measurement: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    limitations inherent in the human opera- tor, i.e. time-delay, neuromotor , dynamic, and controller rem- n a nt. Advantages to a modeling approach...meet two specific requirements: (1) minimal data collection and (2) objective scores for Initial Entry Rotary Wing (IERW) student performance on basic ...performance variables in order to develop a method for assessing student flight performance objectively. Basic instrument maneuvers were used in the study. In

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON MEASURING PERFORMANCE AND MARKET STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon Cosmin Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    According to neoclassical theory, the relationship between the price, respectively of marginal cost and market structures, the methods for determining the performance of a firm or of an industry, deviate from the model of perfect competition. Assessing performance involves performing comparisons, reporting that their reference level can be a standard value, or a statistical value which can be a national-regional average, a homogeneous group, or an average value at a market level. Modern theor...

  13. Measures of range of motion and strength among healthy women with differing quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine the association between hip and ankle range-of-motion measures, as well as measures of hip muscle strength, with measures of quality of lower extremity movement, as assessed visually...

  14. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  15. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  16. Upper extremity skeletal muscle mass: potential of measurement with single frequency bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Grammes, J; Nuñez, C; Wang, Z; Pietrobelli, A

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the potential of single frequency (50 kHz) BIA for estimation of upper extremity skeletal muscle (SM) mass. Subjects (n = 50) were weight stable adults varying in age (X +/- SD, 51.6 +/- 17 yr) and body mass index (27.2 +/- 5.9 kg/m2). Determinants of arm to arm impedance index (length L; L2/Z) were examined using multiple regression analysis. A good correlation was observed between L2/Z and arm SM estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Additional significant model covariates were arm fat mass (p < 0.05), bone mass (p < 0.01), and age (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that upper extremity SM may be rapidly and easily quantified using a simple and inexpensive BIA system combined with appropriate age-adjusted impedance prediction equations.

  17. Implementation of probe data performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    This report presents results from a 12-month project where three arterial analysis tools based on probe vehicle segment speed data were developed for District 6. A case study of 5 arterials and two incidents was performed.

  18. Chip seal performance measures : best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has a long history of designing, constructing, : and maintaining chip seal or bituminous surface treatment pavements. However, to date WSDOT has not : developed pavement performance indicators...

  19. Logistics Performance Measurements - Issues and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Azlan; Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Faisol, Nasruddin; Muhammad, Azlina

    2014-01-01

    Logistics is a backbone for the global supply chains. In Malaysia, logistics are now recognized as strategic industry that positively contribute to gross domestic product (GDP) and performance of logistics is foremost significant. Whereas most of the logistics performance has focused on investigating operational and trade facilitation contexts. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the issues and reviews by practitioners and found 7 key components that translated it into operations pe...

  20. ESRD - Clinical Performance Measures (CPM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4558 (b) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) requires CMS to develop and implement by January 1, 2000, a method to measure and report the quality of renal...

  1. "Productivity performance measurement - follow-up"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour producti......The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour...

  2. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    An organisation looking to form collaborations across borders is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. Recent studies highlighted key challenges and success factors organisation’s face when globalising stages of product development. To optimize performance along these factors...

  3. Using participatory agent-based models to measure flood managers' decision thresholds in extreme event response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, A.; Douglass, E.; Gray, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme flooding impacts to coastal cities are not only a function of storm characteristics, but are heavily influenced by decision-making and preparedness in event-level response. While recent advances in climate and hydrological modeling make it possible to predict the influence of climate change on storm and flooding patterns, flood managers still face a great deal of uncertainty related to adapting organizational responses and decision thresholds to these changing conditions. Some decision thresholds related to mitigation of extreme flood impacts are well-understood and defined by organizational protocol, but others are difficult to quantify due to reliance on contextual expert knowledge, experience, and complexity of information necessary to make certain decisions. Our research attempts to address this issue by demonstrating participatory modeling methods designed to help flood managers (1) better understand and parameterize local decision thresholds in extreme flood management situations, (2) collectively learn about scaling management decision thresholds to future local flooding scenarios and (3) identify effective strategies for adaptating flood mitigation actions and organizational response to climate change-intensified flooding. Our agent-based system dynamic models rely on expert knowledge from local flood managers and sophisticated, climate change-informed hydrological models to simulate current and future flood scenarios. Local flood managers from interact with these models by receiving dynamic information and making management decisions as a flood scenario progresses, allowing parametrization of decision thresholds under different scenarios. Flooding impacts are calculated in each iteration as a means of discussing effectiveness of responses and prioritizing response alternatives. We discuss the findings of this participatory modeling and educational process from a case study of Boston, MA, and discuss transferability of these methods to other types

  4. Functionally interpretable local coordinate systems for the upper extremity using inertial & magnetic measurement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, W.H.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Cutti, A.G.; Baten, C.; Helm, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Inertial Magnetic Measurement Systems (IMMS) are becoming increasingly popular by allowing for measurements outside the motion laboratory. The latest models enable long term, accurate measurement of segment motion in terms of joint angles, if initial segment orientations can accurately

  5. Cognitive Styles, Dynamic Geometry and Measurement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…

  6. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare the bodyweight and body measurements, carcass composition, and characteristics of major visceral organs in male and female Pekin ducks. A total of 80 hybrid SM3 Heavy ducks were kept in a conventional building and fed complete commercial diets ad libitum. The male and female ...

  7. Partnership Versus Public Ownership of Accounting Firms: Exploring RelativePerformance, Performance Measurement and Measurement Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Pickering

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite theoretical arguments that partnerships are the most efficient ownership form for professional service firms (PSFs, PSFs are increasingly moving to other ownership structures, such as publicly listed companies (PLCs. Research on the comparative performance of PSF, PLCs and partnerships is sparse with conflicting results suggesting that some segments of PSFs are moving to a less efficient form. This study explores the performance of two Australian accounting PLCs compared to a sample of similar sized mid tier accounting firms. The accounting PLCs achieved substantially higher revenue growth rates but lower productivity than the partnership sample. Measurement issues were identified in the use of closing resource numbers and different treatment of reporting merger and acquisition revenues which may partially explain the underperformance of publicly owned PSFs in prior studies. The need for research at a more detailed level exploring the market and service focus, organisational structures, resources utilised and resource costs across different PSF ownership forms is suggested.

  8. Performance measurement in academic libraries in Ghana | Badu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measurement policies as a means of diagnosing and justifying their existence. Three of the libraries were found to measure the performance of their libraries whilst two of the libraries did not measure performance of their libraries. It is concluded that an excellent use of performance indicators is key to effective, efficient and ...

  9. 26 CFR 801.3 - Measuring employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.3 Measuring employee performance. (a) In general. All employees of the IRS will be... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring employee performance. 801.3 Section...

  10. A measure of stress for athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggar, J F; Pedersen, D M; Hawkes, N R; McGown, C

    1997-02-01

    The Athlete Stress Inventory of 49 items was developed. Using factor analysis on the intercorrelations of responses of 148 women student-athletes, four orthogonal factors of stress in athletes were identified-Negative Mood, Team Compatibility, Physical Well-being, and Academic Efficacy. Scales for these factors were reliable and valid. The predictive validity of these scores was investigated by correlations with the athletic performance of 32 women athletes on three intercollegiate teams-tennis, gymnastics, and basketball. Stress scores (except Emotional Mood) reported four days prior to competition tended to be significantly correlated with performance for the individual sports (tennis and gymnastics) but not for the group sport (basket-ball). The correlation involving Physical Well-being was not significant for gymnasts.

  11. Effects of short duration static stretching on jump performance, maximum voluntary contraction, and various mechanical and morphological parameters of the muscle-tendon unit of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafilidis, Savvas; Tilp, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Static stretching is used in sport practice but it has been associated with decrements in force and performance. Therefore, we examined the effect of short duration static stretch on the mechano-morphological properties of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) muscle tendon unit (MTU) and on the jumping performance. Eight males and three females (mean ± SD, 25.5 ± 3.1 years) stretched their lower legs for a 15 or 60 s duration or acted as their own control without stretching in a randomized order. In a pre-post design, a passive movement (5°/s) and a maximum voluntary knee extension contraction (MVC) were performed on dynamometer while the VL tendon and aponeurosis was observed via ultrasound. Furthermore, the participants performed countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ). Repeated measures ANOVA did not show significant differences in MVC, active and passive strain, stiffness, elongation, knee joint angle range, and jump performance between and within groups. The applied stretch stimuli (15 or 60 s) were not sufficient to trigger adaptations in the mechano-morphological properties of the lower extremities MTU which therefore did neither affect jump performance nor MVC. As a possible mechanism, we hypothesized that the dose-time dependency effect of static stretch might have important implications when measuring functional parameters of the MTU and performance. Further examination is necessary to elucidate its impact in the examination of the MTU mechano-morphological properties.

  12. CMS performance for CP violation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralavorio, P.

    1996-12-31

    Recent set of structure functions, branching ratios and the current understanding of detector performance lead to a new evaluation of the CP reach of CMS. Compared to previous analysis, expected numbers of fully reconstructed and {mu} tagged B events are smaller, but are partly recovered thanks to progress on low pT electron identification based upon the high-resolution and fine granular electromagnetic calorimeter. This allow to use electrons for tagging purpose as well s for J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}reconstruction. (author). 13 refs.

  13. Performance appraisal & promotion process: A measured approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra

    2012-06-01

    Most of the companies have yearly performance appraisal process for their employees. This process involves rating of employees by their manager. And Companies rely purely on managerís state of thinking and perception. Humans have tendency to become biased, corrupt, give favor to some employees whom they like. This favor is due to some other reasons e.g. personal reason, social reason, political reason, flattering. All these reasons are not related to the work that the employee is doing for the organization.

  14. Occupational performance, pain, and global quality of life in women with upper extremity fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekkers, Merete Klindt; Nielsen, Tove Lise

    2010-01-01

    L. The participants reported 802 performance problems: 38% within self-care, 52% within productivity, and 10% within leisure. Strength demanding bilateral activities in cleaning, hygiene, and cooking were most frequently reported. The median COPM performance and satisfaction scores were 2.8 and 3.4; the mean DASH...

  15. Lower extremity performance following ACL rehabilitation in the KANON-trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Ylva B; Roos, Ewa M.; Frobell, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The additional effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on muscle strength and physical performance after a structured exercise programme is not well understood.......The additional effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on muscle strength and physical performance after a structured exercise programme is not well understood....

  16. Inference of Extreme Synchrony with an Entropy Measure on a Bipartite Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method to quantify the structure of a bipartite graph with a network entropy from a statistical--physical point of view. The network entropy of a bipartite graph with random links is computed from numerical simulation. As an application of the proposed method to analyze collective behavior, the affairs in which participants quote and trade in the foreign exchange market are quantified. The network entropy per node is found to correspond to the macroeconomic situation. A finite mixture of Gumbel distributions is used to fit with the empirical distribution for the minimum values of network entropy per node in each week. The mixture of Gumbel distributions with parameter estimates by segmentation procedure is verified by Kolmogorov--Smirnov test. The finite mixture of Gumbel distributions can extrapolate the probability of extreme events that have never been observed.

  17. Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsig, U.; Nolting, F.; Fraile Rodríguez, A.; Krempaský, J.; Quitmann, C.; Schmidt, T.; Spielmann, S.; Zimoch, D.

    2010-06-01

    The Surface/Interface: Microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source started operation in 2001. In 2007 the beamline has been significantly upgraded with a second refocusing section and a blazed grating optimized for high photon flux. Two Apple II type undulators with a plane grating monochromator using the collimated light scheme deliver photons with an energy from 90eV to about 2keV with variable polarization for the photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) as the primary user station. We measured a focus of (45×60) μm(ν×h) and a photon flux > 1012 photon/s for all gratings. Polarization switching within a few seconds is realized with the small bandpass of the monochromator and a slight detuning of the undulator.

  18. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  19. Performance measurement systems development in a telecommunications company

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut-Bonnici, Tanya; Sarkis, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Developing performance measurement is a necessary element for the effective management of organizations. Performance measurement has been gaining in importance in both operations and management literature. In this paper an evaluation of the development and implementation of performance measures is presented. Investigation of the process from an organizational viewpoint provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of a strategic activity-based development framework for performance m...

  20. A multivariate approach in measuring innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to propose a procedure of innovativeness measurement, taking Summary Innovation Index methodology as a starting point. In contemporary world, innovative activity is perceived as a source of competitiveness and economic growth. New products, utility models, trademarks and creative projects are an important element of present socio-economic reality. In particular, authors focus on selection and application of multivariable statistical analysis to distinguish factors influencing innovativeness of EU economies to the highest degree. The result of quantitative analyses is linear ordering of EU countries by the level of their innovativeness based on the reduced set of diagnostic variables. The rating was compared with the outcome presented in Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS with Summary Innovation Index (SII. Conducted analysis proves a convergence between authors’ results and existing ratings of innovativeness. Nevertheless, the main conclusion is that the methodology of innovativeness assessment remains an open issue and requires further research. Especially, it should first and foremost concentrate on deeper verification of a small set of variables that have the strongest impact on innovativeness. It is both, in economic and social interest, to get a clear picture of innovativeness driving forces.

  1. Performance Measurement of Complex Event Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zámečníková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find and compare existing solutions of complex event processing platforms (CEP. CEP platforms generally serve for processing and/or predicting of high frequency data. We intend to use CEP platform for processing of complex time series and integrate a solution for newly proposed method of decision making. The decision making process will be described by formal grammar. As there are lots of CEP solutions we will take the following characteristics under consideration - the processing in real time, possibility of processing of high volume data from multiple sources, platform independence, platform allowing integration with user solution and open license. At first we will talk about existing CEP tools and their specific way of use in praxis. Then we will mention the design of method for formalization of business rules used for decision making. Afterwards, we focus on two platforms which seem to be the best fit for integration of our solution and we will list the main pros and cons of each approach. Next part is devoted to benchmark platforms for CEP. Final part is devoted to experimental measurements of platform with integrated method for decision support.

  2. Strategy Archetypes Adopted by Icelandic Companies, Their Fit with Performance Measures and Effects on Financial Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    certain performance measures. It seems however, that many Icelandic companies have a diffuse strategic profile and only focus on financial performance measures. Even when using a mix of performance measures Icelandic managers seem to place most importance on financial performance measures.......Past research seems to suggest that companies adopting certain strategies favor certain sets of performance measures. That is to say companies using entrepreneurial focused strategies favor non-financial measures or a balanced mix of financial and non-financial measures. Companies adopting reactive...... or operational strategies seem to favor financial measures and are less likely to use non-financial measures. We take this research further by focusing not only on the link between strategy types and performance measures but also on what specific performance measures are used in connection to which strategies...

  3. Understanding the performance of water supply systems during mild to extreme droughts

    OpenAIRE

    Anderton, S.; Ledbetter, R.; Prudhomme, C.

    2015-01-01

    This project assessed the performance of different types of public water supply systems in England and Wales in a range of droughts, including those that are more severe than the worst droughts in the historical record.

  4. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    ... was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes...

  5. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheri P. Silfies; David Ebaugh; Marisa Pontillo; Butowicz, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  6. Influence of anthropometry on race performance in extreme endurance triathletes: World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Andonie, Jorge Luis; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    ...) cm and body mass index (BMI) 24.7 (2.2) kg/m2). None. Direct measurement of body mass, height, leg length, skinfold thicknesses, limb circumference and calculation of BMI, skeletal muscle mass (SM), percentage SM (%SM...

  7. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-09-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the 'dollar a day' measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda.

  8. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  9. Real-time performance measurement system for automated teller machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Anholt, R. G.; Vis, I. F A

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement systems have proven to facilitate process improvement in the past decades in various markets and environments. The objective of this paper is to design a performance measurement system to actively control, monitor and improve performance of automated teller machines. In our

  10. The Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training and Creatine Supplementation on Lower Extremity Performance and Balance in Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration training (WBVT and creatine (Cr supplementation on lower extremity performance and balance in elderly males. Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, twenty two eligible males from the members of an elderly daycare center with more than 60 years of age were enrolled and were divided into three groups randomly, WBVT+Cr(n=7, WBVT+Pgroup (n=7, and control group (n=8. In WBVT+Cr and WBVT+P groups exercises were performed on the whole body vibration device for 10 days with 30-35 Hz intensity and 5 mm amplitude. The WBVT+Cr group consumed 20g/day Crsupplement for the first 5 days followed by 5g/days for the next 5 days of protocol. The WBVT+P group consumed dexterous. The control group neither did any exercise nor consumed any supplement during the protocol. Static balance by standing time on one leg, dynamic balance by TUG test and lower extremity performance by 30-meter walking test, sit and stand test and tandem gait test weremeasured. Paired sample t-test and one way ANOVAwere used for data analysis (α=0.05. Results: Our results showed that dynamic balance, lower body performance in 30- meter walking and tandem gait improved in experimental groups. However, ANOVA did not show any significant increase in static balance (P=0.514, dynamic balance (P=0.153, lower body performance in 30-meter walking test (P=0.339, sit and stand test (P=0.578 and tandem gait (P=0.151. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that WBVT plus Cr supplementation improves some of the motor fitness factors in elderly males during a short time.

  11. FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL INDICATORS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Iuliana Ion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organizational performance is reflected in the results that the organization obtains, those one being measured by key performance indicators. In the last years, the acerbity competition from the business world, aroused the desire and the interest of companies to improve their performance and to experience ways of measuring the level of performance achieved. The measurement is a condition “sine qua non” of performance assessment, but does not represent a finality by itself. Knowing and understanding a company’s financial data is done in order to predict the future and to improve the performance level of this

  12. Plant performance and population characteristics of Orchis simia (Orchidaceae) in two extremes of its distribution area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is a comparative study on plant performance and population characteristics among populations of Orchis simia (Orchidaceae) in both the south-eastern and north-western limits of its distribution area, viz. on Cyprus and in northern France and the southern part of the Netherlands. Differences in

  13. Evaluation of the Human/Extreme Environment Interaction: Implications for Enhancing Operational Performance and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    this proposal have been to measure changes in muscle cells after exercise in cold and high altitude environments. Because the stresses of hard work...et al., 2012). Thermoregulation is challenged with high ambient and radiant temperatures. When combined with high metabolic demand, the

  14. Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Yang, Kun; Wei, Yu; Lei, Likun

    2018-01-01

    Volatilities of crude oil price have important impacts on the steady and sustainable development of world real economy. Thus it is of great academic and practical significance to model and measure the volatility and risk of crude oil markets accurately. This paper aims to measure the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of a portfolio consists of four crude oil assets by using GARCH-type models, extreme value theory (EVT) and vine copulas. The backtesting results show that the combination of GARCH-type-EVT models and vine copula methods can produce accurate risk measures of the oil portfolio. Mixed R-vine copula is more flexible and superior to other vine copulas. Different GARCH-type models, which can depict the long-memory and/or leverage effect of oil price volatilities, however offer similar marginal distributions of the oil returns.

  15. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany H. Gagnon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test, trunk and upper extremity (U/E strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation.

  16. In situ measurements reveal extremely low pH in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Loibide, Amaia Irixar; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2017-01-01

    We measured pH in situ in the top organic soil horizons in heathland and pine forest and found values between 2.6 and 3.2. This was 0.5e0.8 units lower than concurrent laboratory pH measurements of the same soil, which raises questions about the interpretation of pH measurements. We propose...... that the higher pH recorded by standard laboratory methods may be due to buffering ions from soil biota released from drying, grinding and rewetting of soil samples, whereas the in situ pH reflects the correct level of acidification....

  17. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  18. Selective recovery of Pd(II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: Adsorption performance and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shuo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wei, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Tao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Mao, Juan, E-mail: monicamao45@hust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An acid-resisting chitosan fiber was prepared by ion-imprinting technique. • Pd(II) and ECH were as template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. • IIF showed a good adsorption and selectivity performance on Pd(II) solutions. • Selectivity was due to the electrostatic attraction between −NH{sub 3}{sup +} and [PdCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. • Stable sorption/desorption performance shows a potential in further application. - Abstract: A novel, selective and acid-resisting chitosan fiber adsorbent was prepared by the ion-imprinting technique using Pd(II) and epichlorohydrin as the template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. The resulting ion-imprinted chitosan fibers (IIF) were used to selectively adsorb Pd(II) under extremely acidic synthetic metal solutions. The adsorption and selectivity performances of IIF including kinetics, isotherms, pH effects, and regeneration were investigated. Pd(II) rapidly adsorbed on the IIF within 100 min, achieving the adsorption equilibrium. The isotherm results showed that the maximum Pd(II) uptake on the IIF was maintained as 324.6–326.4 mg g{sup −1} in solutions containing single and multiple metals, whereas the Pd(II) uptake on non-imprinted fibers (NIF) decreased from 313.7 to 235.3 mg g{sup −1} in solution containing multiple metals. Higher selectivity coefficients values were obtained from the adsorption on the IIF, indicating a better Pd(II) selectivity. The amine group, supposedly the predominant adsorption site for Pd(II), was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH value played a significant role on the mechanism of the selective adsorption in the extremely acidic conditions. Furthermore, the stabilized performance for three cycles of sorption/desorption shows a potential for further large-scale applications.

  19. Initial CT-guided needle biopsy of extremity skeletal lesions: Diagnostic performance and experience of a tertiary musculoskeletal center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab, E-mail: mragab73@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University (Egypt); Department of Radiology, Al-Razi Hospital, Sulibikhate 13001 (Kuwait); Abu Shady, Hamdy Mohamed, E-mail: hamdi_abushadi@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Al-Razi Hospital, Sulibikhate 13001 (Kuwait)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Appendicular long bones are the target for a wide spectrum of bony lesions with variable clinical presentations. Biopsy procedures are needed for subsequent proper patient's management. Most of the available literature globally assessed musculoskeletal biopsies with inclusion of repeat biopsy results. We thought to retrospectively assess the diagnostic performance of initial CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB) of extremity long bone lesions in a tertiary musculoskeletal referral center. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of initial CT-guided PCNB of 49 patients who presented with extremity long bone lesions which were biopsied in our hospital during a 36 months’ time period. The diagnostic performance was assessed in terms of diagnostic yield and accuracy. Results: There were 34 males and 15 females with a mean age of 33.69 years (range from 4 to 77 years). The overall diagnostic yield of initial biopsies was 87.75% with a diagnostic accuracy of 82.85% derived from the surgically proven cases. The higher diagnostic yield was recorded with malignancy, presence of extra-osseous soft-tissue component as well as mixed and sclerotic lesions. The pathologies of the non-diagnostic biopsies included large-cell lymphoma, giant-cell tumor, langerhans cell histiocytosis, osteoid osteoma and a non-ossifying fibroma. Conclusion: Initial CT-guided PCNB in extremities’ long bones lesions showed high diagnostic performance in malignant, mixed and/or sclerotic lesions as well as lesions with extra-osseous exophytic tissue growth. Lack of extra-osseous components, benign and lytic lesions all had worse diagnostic performance.

  20. Measurement of influence geometry of floor convector on his performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hužvár J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The report deals with experimental measurement of influence geometry bath floor convector on his performance in the thermostatic chamber in natural convection. Purpose is to find influence of slope bath of floor convector on his performance.

  1. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  2. A dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging: Design, optimization, and initial performance characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Carestream Health, Rochester, New York 14615 (United States); The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper reports on the design and initial imaging performance of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for musculoskeletal (MSK) extremities. The system complements conventional CT and MR and offers a variety of potential clinical and logistical advantages that are likely to be of benefit to diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessment of therapy response in MSK radiology, orthopaedic surgery, and rheumatology. Methods: The scanner design incorporated a host of clinical requirements (e.g., ability to scan the weight-bearing knee in a natural stance) and was guided by theoretical and experimental analysis of image quality and dose. Such criteria identified the following basic scanner components and system configuration: a flat-panel detector (FPD, Varian 3030+, 0.194 mm pixels); and a low-power, fixed anode x-ray source with 0.5 mm focal spot (SourceRay XRS-125-7K-P, 0.875 kW) mounted on a retractable C-arm allowing for two scanning orientations with the capability for side entry, viz. a standing configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a sitting configuration for imaging of tensioned upper extremity and unloaded lower extremity. Theoretical modeling employed cascaded systems analysis of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) computed as a function of system geometry, kVp and filtration, dose, source power, etc. Physical experimentation utilized an imaging bench simulating the scanner geometry for verification of theoretical results and investigation of other factors, such as antiscatter grid selection and 3D image quality in phantom and cadaver, including qualitative comparison to conventional CT. Results: Theoretical modeling and benchtop experimentation confirmed the basic suitability of the FPD and x-ray source mentioned above. Clinical requirements combined with analysis of MTF and DQE yielded the following system geometry: a {approx}55 cm source-to-detector distance; 1.3 magnification; a

  3. Performance measurement for product lifecycle management: a systemact literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify recommendations as well as the main performance indicator for developing a performance measurement system (PMS for product lifecycle management (PLM approach. Thus it was performed a systematic literature review that identified 22 recommendations and 296 performance indicators.

  4. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  5. Enabling employees through co-development of performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that involving employees in the development of performance measures can lead to improved employee performance. Yet to date it is unclear how such performance improvement comes about. In order to enable companies to improve the performance of their employees, this

  6. Joint Integration Test Facility (JITF) Engineering II Performance Measurement Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boucher, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    ..., effectiveness, and accountability in federal programs and spending. The plan establishes six separate performance measurements, which correlate directly to customer satisfaction, Intelligence Mission Application (IMA...

  7. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM STANDARDS USING THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Kopia; Andreas Kompalla; Melanie Buchmüller; Bastian Heinemann

    2017-01-01

    .... One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating...

  8. New’ Performance Measures: Determinants of Their Use and Their Impact on Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the extent to which Dutch organizations use ‘new’ performance measures to deal with the perceived inadequacies of traditional accounting performance measures. In addition, the determinants of the use of these ‘new’ performance measures are documented; finally, the

  9. Embedded optical probes for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement of materials in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, R. L.; Rodriguez, G.; Gibson, L. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Grover, M.; Lalone, B. M.; Udd, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop sensors for simultaneous, in situ pressure and temperature measurements under dynamic conditions by using an all-optical fiber-based approach. While similar tests have been done previously in deflagration-to-detonation tests (DDT), where pressure and temperature were measured to 82 kbar and 400°C simultaneously, here we demonstrate the use of embedded fiber grating sensors to obtain high temporal resolution, in situ pressure measurements in inert materials. We present two experimental demonstrations of pressure measurements: (1) under precise shock loading from a gas-gun driven plate impact and (2) under high explosive driven shock in a water filled vessel. The system capitalizes on existing telecom components and fast transient digitizing recording technology. It operates as a relatively inexpensive embedded probe (single-mode 1550 nm fiber-based Bragg grating) that provides a continuous fast pressure record during shock and/or detonation. By applying well-controlled shock wave pressure profiles to these inert materials, we study the dynamic pressure response of embedded fiber Bragg gratings to extract pressure amplitude of the shock wave and compare our results with particle velocity wave profiles measured simultaneously.

  10. Topic 14+16: High-performance and scientific applications and extreme-scale computing (Introduction)

    KAUST Repository

    Downes, Turlough P.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1......] We developed a novel assay based on molecular partitioning between two coexisting phases, the gel and fluid phase, within the bilayer. [2, 3] This assay allows for a direct measurement of local temperature gradients, an assay which does not necessitate any pre-assumptions about...

  12. The Poverty Burden: A Measure of the Difficulty of Ending Extreme Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin; Renuka Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an extension of the commonly used poverty gap measure that may be used to address the question of whether the elimination of poverty is a feasible objective, given sufficient political commitment. The resources potentially available to address poverty may be measured by the total amount by which the incomes of the non-poor exceed the same poverty line. The ratio of the poverty gap to the resources potentially available is equal to the proportional tax rate on income...

  13. Boosting photoelectrochemical performance of hematite photoanode with TiO2 underlayer by extremely rapid high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xintong; Suzuki, Norihiro; Terashima, Chiaki

    2017-11-01

    Extremely rapid high temperature annealing (ER-HTA) was used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite thin film deposited on a TiO2 nanosheet-modified SnO2:F substrate (FTO-TN-HM). The PEC performance of FTO-TN-HM photoanodes were strongly enhanced with increasing ER-HTA temperatures from 700 to 820 °C with a holding time as short as 30 s. The photocurrent density of FTO-TN-HM photoanode treated by ER-HTA at 800 °C was 0.49 mA cm-2 and interfacial hole transfer efficiency of 32% was achieved at 1.23 V vs. RHE, which were 18.8 and 16 times as great as FTO-TN-HM photoanodes annealed at 500 °C for 30 min, respectively. The effect of ER-HTA on the PEC performance of FTO-TN-HM photoanodes were studied comparatively, which suggested that the improved crystallinity, decreased recombination through surface states, and enhanced interfacial Ti4+ diffusion all contributed to their advanced PEC performance. Our studies confirm that the ER-HTA treatment is an effective method to improve the PEC properties of hematite photoanodes with TiO2 underlayer and might be applicable for other semiconducting photoelectrodes to get better PEC performance.

  14. Reliability of side-to-side sonographic cross-sectional area measurements of upper extremity nerves in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Martinoli, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    In sonographic evaluations of peripheral nerves, the healthy, contralateral side may be used as an internal control for the pathologic one. Therefore, the inherent side-to-side differences must be minimal. The goal of this study was to determine the reliability of side-to-side measurements of upper extremity nerves in healthy volunteers. Forty participants with no upper extremity abnormalities were included. Upper limb nerves were evaluated bilaterally at the usual pathologic sites by 3 musculo-skeletal radiologists in separate sessions. To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement, sonographic examinations were repeated 2 months after the first evaluations. The median nerve, ulnar nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, and radial nerve were considered. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Minimum detectable differences with relative 95% confidence intervals were reported. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were good (0.73 measurement was evaluated, the reliability was 80% to 87%. In general, the healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control considering that changes in minimum detectable differences are related to the anatomic site considered.

  15. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  16. A New Inequality Measure that is Sensitive to Extreme Values and Asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); H.K. Ryu (Hang); D.J. Slottje (Daniel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThere is a vast literature on the selection of an appropriate index of income inequality and on what desirable properties such a measure (or index) should contain. The Gini index is, of course, the most popular. There is a concurrent literature on the use of hypothetical

  17. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Cryotherapy, in the form of ice massge is used to reduce inflammation after acute musculoskeletal injury or trauma. The potential negative effects of ice massage on proprioception are unknown, despite equivocal evidence supporting its effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of cooling on weight discrimination ability and hence the performance in footballers. The study was of same subject experimental design (pretest-posttest design). Thirty male collegiate football players, whose mean age was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes on hamstrings muscle tendon. Pre cooling scores of Single Leg Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 166.65 (± 10.16) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 167.25 (± 11.77) cm. Pre cooling scores of Crossed Over Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 174.14 (± 8.60) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 174.45 (± 9.28) cm. Pre cooling scores of Weight Discrimination Differential Threshold of the dominant leg in the subjects was 1.625 ± 1.179 kg compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg 1.85 (± 1.91) kg. Pre cooling scores of single leg hop and crossed over hop test of the dominant leg in the subjects compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg showed no significant differences and it was also noted that the weight discrimination ability (weight discrimination differential threshold) didn't show any significant difference. All the values are reported as mean ± SD. This study provides additional evidence that proprioceptive acuity in the hamstring muscles (biceps femoris) remains largely unaffected after ice application to the hamstrings tendon (biceps femoris).

  18. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  19. Measurements of crystal growth kinetics at extreme deviations from equilibrium. [Rapid solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, M.J.

    1993-05-07

    We have measured solute trapping of Sn in Al over a wide enough range of velocities to make a quantitative test of theory. The Continuous Growth Model of Aziz is the only one-parameter model that fits the data. We have also measured the diffusive speed - the growth rate at which interfacial partitioning is in mid-transition between equilibrium partitioning and complete solute trapping - for several solutes in A1. We have found an inverse correlation between the equilibrium partition coefficient and the diffusive speed. Taken together, these results give us heretofore unprecedented predictive capability in modeling rapid solidification processing. We have also examined theoretically short-range diffusion-limited growth, characteristic of incomplete solute trapping, and interface-limited growth, characteristic of complete solute trapping, in alloy solidification and have shown that the two regimes fall naturally out of a single unified theory of solidification.

  20. Operational Risk Measurement of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiashan; Li, Yong; Ji, Feng; Peng, Cheng

    The financial institutions and supervision institutions have all agreed on strengthening the measurement and management of operational risks. This paper attempts to build a model on the loss of operational risks basing on Peak Over Threshold model, emphasizing on weighted least square, which improved Hill’s estimation method, while discussing the situation of small sample, and fix the sample threshold more objectively basing on the media-published data of primary banks loss on operational risk from 1994 to 2007.

  1. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF COMPANY'S PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Kotāne, Inta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of performance is one of the most important categories of economic analysis, it has been extensively used and it has a broad interpretation. To describe the concept of performance, the related words are used, linked by the noun “performance”: performance management, performance measurement, and performance assessment. In Latvia, these concepts have not been analysed and assessed; therefore, there is a necessity to carry out a theoretical investigation into the concept of performan...

  2. Influence of coal-specific fly ash properties upon baghouse performance: a comparison of two extreme examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.; Sears, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot plant data with a large number of lignite and subbituminous coals have demonstrated that shaker baghouse efficiency is highly coal specific with large differences in baghouse penetration for different coals. A previous report has presented these findings along with an observed correlation between elemental fly ash composition and baghouse penetration. This paper presents a further investigation of the relationship between fly ash properties and baghouse penetration with woven glass fabric and shaker cleaning. The focus will be on two coals which represent the good and poor extremes of filter performance. The coal and ash properties of a lignite showing good filter performance are compared with the properties of a lignite demonstrating very poor performance. An examination of both chemical and physical ash properties which include elemental compositions as a function of size, particulate size distribution, particle surface morphology, and other physical descriptors is presented in an attempt to determine causes of grossly different baghouse performance. The work described in this paper was not funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency and therefore the contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement shoud be inferred. 12 references.

  3. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  4. Clinimetric properties of hip abduction strength measurements obtained using a handheld dynamometer in individuals with a lower extremity amputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud A Leijendekkers

    Full Text Available Suitable handheld dynamometer (HHD-techniques to test hip abduction strength in individuals with a lower extremity amputation, irrespective of their amputation level are absent. The aim of this study was to optimise a HHD-technique and to test its reproducibility and validity.This study involved three phases, in which two techniques were evaluated. Both HHD-techniques used a lever-arm of 22 centimetre. HHD-technique 1 used a break-technique. After obtaining within-session test-retest reproducibility (phase 1 we optimised the HHD-technique by adding a fixation-belt and using a make-technique (HHD-technique 2. We tested the within-session test-retest and inter-rater reproducibility (phase 2 and the validity (phase 3 of HHD-technique 2 using an isokinetic dynamometer. New cohorts of participants were recruited for each phase.Phase 1: we tested HHD-technique 1 in 26 participants with a lower extremity amputation. It was test-retest reproducible (ICC3.1agreement: 0.80-0.92, standard error of measurement (SEM: 3.1-4.4 Nm and smallest detectable change (SDC: 8.6-12.3 Nm. There were questions regarding the validity of the measurement, because the mean muscle torque of the residual limb and sound limb were similar, which is uncommon. Phase 2: reproducibility of HHD-technique 2 was tested in 44 participants with a lower extremity amputation. It was test-retest reproducible (ICC3.1agreement: 0.96-0.97, SEM: 3.9-4.7 Nm and SDC: 10.9-12.9 Nm but not inter-rater reproducible despite having good reliability (ICC3.1agreement: 0.92, SEM: 6.9-7.6 Nm and SDC: 19.2-21.2 Nm. Systematic bias and bias related to the magnitude of the muscle torque was suspected. Phase 3: the concurrent validity was established in 30 healthy participants (r = 0.84. Systematic bias in measurement error was present, including a consistent overestimation of the muscle torque of 28% using the HHD.HHD-technique 2 is a test-retest reproducible and valid measuring technique The technique may

  5. Clinimetric properties of hip abduction strength measurements obtained using a handheld dynamometer in individuals with a lower extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijendekkers, Ruud A; Hinte, Gerben van; Sman, Amy D; Staal, J Bart; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Hoogeboom, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Suitable handheld dynamometer (HHD)-techniques to test hip abduction strength in individuals with a lower extremity amputation, irrespective of their amputation level are absent. The aim of this study was to optimise a HHD-technique and to test its reproducibility and validity. This study involved three phases, in which two techniques were evaluated. Both HHD-techniques used a lever-arm of 22 centimetre. HHD-technique 1 used a break-technique. After obtaining within-session test-retest reproducibility (phase 1) we optimised the HHD-technique by adding a fixation-belt and using a make-technique (HHD-technique 2). We tested the within-session test-retest and inter-rater reproducibility (phase 2) and the validity (phase 3) of HHD-technique 2 using an isokinetic dynamometer. New cohorts of participants were recruited for each phase. Phase 1: we tested HHD-technique 1 in 26 participants with a lower extremity amputation. It was test-retest reproducible (ICC3.1agreement: 0.80-0.92, standard error of measurement (SEM): 3.1-4.4 Nm and smallest detectable change (SDC): 8.6-12.3 Nm). There were questions regarding the validity of the measurement, because the mean muscle torque of the residual limb and sound limb were similar, which is uncommon. Phase 2: reproducibility of HHD-technique 2 was tested in 44 participants with a lower extremity amputation. It was test-retest reproducible (ICC3.1agreement: 0.96-0.97, SEM: 3.9-4.7 Nm and SDC: 10.9-12.9 Nm) but not inter-rater reproducible despite having good reliability (ICC3.1agreement: 0.92, SEM: 6.9-7.6 Nm and SDC: 19.2-21.2 Nm). Systematic bias and bias related to the magnitude of the muscle torque was suspected. Phase 3: the concurrent validity was established in 30 healthy participants (r = 0.84). Systematic bias in measurement error was present, including a consistent overestimation of the muscle torque of 28% using the HHD. HHD-technique 2 is a test-retest reproducible and valid measuring technique The technique may be

  6. On performance measures for infinite swapping Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, J D; Dupuis, Paul

    2015-01-14

    We introduce and illustrate a number of performance measures for rare-event sampling methods. These measures are designed to be of use in a variety of expanded ensemble techniques including parallel tempering as well as infinite and partial infinite swapping approaches. Using a variety of selected applications, we address questions concerning the variation of sampling performance with respect to key computational ensemble parameters.

  7. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness: The Role of Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the challenges associated with demonstrating organizational effectiveness and the role of performance measures as surrogates for demonstrating effectiveness are provided. The complexity of analysis and the importance of use of performance measures provide a way to review the strengths and weakness of eight different ways to…

  8. Hydrologic and water quality models: Performance measures and evaluation criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance measures and corresponding criteria constitute an important aspect of calibration and validation of any hydrological and water quality (H/WQ) model. As new and improved methods and information are developed, it is essential that performance measures and criteria be updated. Therefore, th...

  9. Supply chain oriented performance measurement for automotive spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Beekman, L.

    2008-01-01

    Literature provides a number of conceptual frameworks and discussions on performance measurement in supply chains. However, most of these frameworks focus on a single link of a supply chain. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical analysis and case studies on performance metrics and measurements

  10. Systematic design of R&D performance measurement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    For many years, Research and Development (R&D) activities were excluded from the routine performance measurement practices in many companies because performance measurement in this area of business was considered to be too difficult, or even counter-productive. Today, the pressure on R&D managers to

  11. A customer perspective on performance measurement in humanitarian supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffling, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of services in SCM leads to a stronger focus on the customer perspective. Donors and beneficiaries are two distinct customer groups of humanitarian supply chains. This paper will analyse how this impacts performance measurement for example in the commonly used balanced scorecard, which includes a customer perspective. Keywords: Performance measurement, Humanitarian logistics, Customer perspective

  12. Pressure-stability of phospholipid bicelles: Measurement of residual dipolar couplings under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, E.; Arnold, M.R.; Kremer, W.; Kalbitzer, H.R. [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)

    2001-10-15

    High-pressure NMR of proteins in solutions currently gains increasing interest. 3D structure determination of proteins under high pressure is, however, so far impossible due to the lack of NOE information. Residual dipolar couplings induced by the addition of magnetically orienting media are known to be capable of replacing NOE information to a very high extent. In the present contribution we study the pressure-wstability of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/ dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) bicelles and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring residual dipolar couplings in proteins under high pressure.

  13. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  14. Longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower-extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Ronald J; Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Miller, Michael E; Rohde, Loretta M; Anderson, James S; Davis, John A; Abbas, James J; DiPonio, Lisa A; Forrest, George P; Gater, David R; Yang, Lynda J

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower-extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury. Case series. Research or outpatient physical therapy departments of 4 academic hospitals. Subjects (N=15) with thoracic or low cervical level spinal cord injuries who had received the 8-channel neuroprosthesis for exercise and standing. After completing rehabilitation with the device, the subjects were discharged to unrestricted home use of the system. A series of assessments were performed before discharge and at a follow-up appointment approximately 1 year later. Neuroprosthesis usage, maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, knee fatigue index, electrode stability, and component survivability. Levels of maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, and knee fatigue index were not statistically different from discharge to follow-up (P>.05). Additionally, neuroprosthesis usage was consistent with subjects choosing to use the system on approximately half of the days during each monitoring period. Although the number of hours using the neuroprosthesis remained constant, subjects shifted their usage to more functional standing versus more maintenance exercise, suggesting that the subjects incorporated the neuroprosthesis into their lives. Safety and reliability of the system were demonstrated by electrode stability and a high component survivability rate (>90%). This group of 15 subjects is the largest cohort of implanted lower-extremity neuroprosthetic exercise and standing system users. The safety and efficiency data from this group, and acceptance of the neuroprosthesis as demonstrated by continued usage, indicate that future efforts toward commercialization of a similar device may be warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible......OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures...

  16. The balanced scorecard--measures that drive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R S; Norton, D P

    1992-01-01

    Frustrated by the inadequacies of traditional performance measurement systems, some managers have abandoned financial measures like return on equity and earnings per share. "Make operational improvements and the numbers will follow," the argument goes. But managers do not want to choose between financial and operational measures. Executives want a balanced presentation of measures that allow them to view the company from several perspectives simultaneously. During a year-long research project with 12 companies at the leading edge of performance measurement, the authors developed a "balanced scorecard," a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. The balanced scorecard includes financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken. And it complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures having to do with customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve--the activities that drive future financial performance. Managers can create a balanced scorecard by translating their company's strategy and mission statements into specific goals and measures. To create the part of the scorecard that focuses on the customer perspective, for example, executives at Electronic Circuits Inc. established general goals for customer performance: get standard products to market sooner, improve customers' time-to-market, become customers' supplier of choice through partnerships, and develop innovative products tailored to customer needs. Managers translated these elements of strategy into four specific goals and identified a measure for each.

  17. Performance measurement, expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. An important implication of this model is that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent's optimal effort choice is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance measure. In contrast, expectancy theory as developed by psychologists predicts that effort levels are increasing in the signal-to-noise ratio. We conduct a real effort laboratory experiment to assess the...

  18. Prospects for measuring supermassive black hole masses with future extremely large telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Tuan; Wright, Shelley A. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H4, ON (Canada); Barth, Aaron J.; Barton, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Simard, Luc [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Moore, Anna M. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent [TMT Observatory Corporation Instrumentation Department, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes (>20 m) will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from Z band (0.9 μm) to K band (2.2 μm). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} to the most massive black holes known today of >10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We find that IRIS will be able to observe Milky Way mass black holes out the distance of the Virgo Cluster, and will allow us to observe many more of the brightest cluster galaxies where the most massive black holes are thought to reside. We also evaluate how well the kinematic moments of the velocity distributions can be constrained at the different spectral resolutions and plate scales designed for IRIS. We find that a spectral resolution of ∼8000 will be necessary to measure the masses of intermediate mass black holes. By simulating the observations of galaxies found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find that over 10{sup 5} massive black holes will be observable at distances between 0.005 < z < 0.18 with the estimated sensitivity and angular resolution provided by access to Z-band (0.9 μm) spectroscopy from IRIS and the TMT adaptive optics system. These observations will provide the most accurate dynamical measurements of black hole masses to

  19. Library performance measurement : the case of academic libraries (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Ambrožič

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of assessing performance of academic libraries and library performance indicators in general. The author emphasises the importance of a systematic evaluation of library's activities and the use of modern management methods, of which the process of library performance measurement is an integral part. The role of library statistics as a method of quantitative representation of the library's activities is presented and the meaning of professional standards and accreditation procedures in the evaluation process is assessed. The article also presents some projects and actual examples of library performance measurement globally and in Slovenia, as well as some suggestions for performance indicators.

  20. Comparative measurements of mineral salt concentrations in the calcaneus by /sup 125/I. gamma. -absorption measurement in the course of fractures of the lower extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrlich, P.

    1979-01-01

    In a group of 52 patients aged between 16 and 78 years, all with fractures of the lower extremities, BMC concentrations were determined in a period from 10 weeks to 50 month after the accident in both calcaneal bones and the right ulna. The gamma absorption measurements were carried out in a single-isotope technique in a water bath, using a /sup 125/I source as radionuclides. The results were evaluated by planimetrisation of the absorption curve. The patients were divided in groups according to clinically complicated, clinically uncomplicated, radiologically demineralized, and radiologically and clinically uncomplicated healing. In 11 patients, up to 4 measurements were also carried out as course control measures. The results differed in dependence of the patients' age. The localisation of the fracture had no effect on the degree of demineralisation.

  1. Development, application, and evaluation of an organizational performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, L. Altyn.

    1995-01-01

    Organizational performance measurement is an issue in any large-scale organizational change effort. In general, an organizational performance management system is the set of people, methods and tools for generating, analyzing, portraying, discriminating and evaluating data and information about multiple dimensions of performance at the individual, group and organization level for multiple constituencies.

  2. Performance measurement, expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. An important implication of this model is that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent's optimal effort choice is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance

  3. Performance measurement in the context of CREM and FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Sarasoja, AL; Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, DJM; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss trends in organisational performance measurement, to identify and discuss widely used performance criteria and key performance indicators (KPIs) in general and in the fields of Facility Management (FM) and Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM), and to identify how a more

  4. Measuring Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields at 220 kV Substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Tonteri, Juhani; Elovaara, Jarmo; Mika, Penttilä; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels are being exceeded. The measurements were conducted at two old 220 kV substations in Finland. The higher AL of 20 kV m-1 was exceeded at both substations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    When irradiated at its resonance frequency, a metallic nanoparticle efficiently converts the absorbed energy into heat which is locally dissipated. This effect can be used in photothermal treatments, e.g., of cancer cells. However, to fully exploit the functionality of metallic nanoparticles...... as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1...... of light by the nanorod and the corresponding dissipated heat strongly depends on the orientation of the nanorod with respect to the polarization. Finally, by comparing to spherical gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate how a change in shape, from spherical to rod like, leads to a dramatic enhancement...

  6. Measurements of extremely low radioactivity levels in stainless steel for GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneschg, W.; Laubenstein, M.; Budjáš, D.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.

    2008-08-01

    The radioisotope concentrations in stainless steel for the cryostat of the GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) have been measured. A total of 13 different stainless steel batches have been screened by low-level γ-ray spectrometry with germanium detectors located at two underground laboratories. The article reports the discovery of commonly available stainless steel with very low concentrations of primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides. The concentrations are in the range of 1 mBq/kg and below. Only the manmade 60Co-isotope is present in all samples with a higher concentration of around 19 mBq/kg. Further, deviations from secular equilibrium in the natural decay chains of U and Th have been observed in some cases.

  7. Can Composite Measures Provide a Different Perspective on Provider Performance Than Individual Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Rosen, Amy K; Burgess, James F

    2017-12-01

    Composite measures, which aggregate performance on individual measures into a summary score, are increasingly being used to evaluate facility performance. There is little understanding of the unique perspective that composite measures provide. To examine whether high/low (ie, high or low) performers on a composite measures are also high/low performers on most of the individual measures that comprise the composite. We used data from 2 previous studies, one involving 5 measures from 632 hospitals and one involving 28 measures from 112 Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes; and new data on hospital readmissions for 3 conditions from 131 VA hospitals. To compare high/low performers on a composite to high/low performers on the component measures, we used 2-dimensional tables to categorize facilities into high/low performance on the composite and on the individual component measures. In the first study, over a third of the 162 hospitals in the top quintile based on the composite were in the top quintile on at most 1 of the 5 individual measures. In the second study, over 40% of the 27 high-performing nursing homes on the composite were high performers on 8 or fewer of the 28 individual measures. In the third study, 20% of the 61 low performers on the composite were low performers on only 1 of the 3 individual measures. Composite measures can identify as high/low performers facilities that perform "pretty well" (or "pretty poorly") across many individual measures but may not be high/low performers on most of them.

  8. Business process performance measurement : a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and...

  9. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2017-02-01

    To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post-surgery, and that this deficiency would be normalized at 12 months following surgery. Twenty-three patients (46 ± 6.5 years) meniscectomized in 2012 and 2013 were examined for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction maximal isometric muscle strength (iMVC), rate of force development (RFD200), and knee function (single-leg hop for distance and single-leg knee bends in 30 s.) before surgery, 3 and 12 months after surgery. Functional performance, knee extension iMVC and RFD200 were impaired in the affected leg compared to the contralateral leg (p muscle strength, rapid force production, and functional performance in the leg undergoing surgery compared to the contralateral leg prior to surgery. These deficits in muscle strength and knee function were still present at 3 months post-surgery but were no longer observed at 12 months following surgery. III.

  10. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Beyer, Nina

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the reliability and agreement of measures of lower extremity muscle strength, power and functional performance in patients with hip osteoarthritis at different time intervals, and to compare these with the same measures in healthy peers. Intra-rater test-retest separated by 1, 2, or 2.5 weeks in patients, and 1 week in healthy peers. Patients with hip osteoarthritis (age range 61-83 years) with 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 35), or 2.5 weeks (n = 15) between tests, and 35 healthy peers (age range 63-82 years). Maximal isometric hip and thigh strength, leg extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. Most hip strength measurements for the most symptomatic extremity, and nearly all strength measurements for the least symptomatic lower extremity, declined after 1 week (p strength was unchanged. Regardless of the time interval, leg extensor power was unchanged, while functional performances improved at retest for all participants. In patients with hip osteoarthritis leg extensor power is unaffected by the time interval between tests, in contrast to muscle strength and functional performance.

  11. SERS on paper: an extremely low cost technique to measure Raman signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, Nabadweep; Hazarika, Anil; Hatiboruah, Diganta; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-12-01

    Finding a low cost substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) yielding enhanced, reproducible Raman signal from Raman active samples has been a longstanding goal for researchers for years. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of such a SERS substrate from paper. The proposed paper-based SERS substrate was developed by attaching polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nano-particles (AgNPs) to printing grade paper. The performance of the substrate has been evaluated for paper substrates of various grades (in grams per square meter; GSM). The usability of the developed substrate for detection of two Raman active samples—namely, malachite green (MG) and rhodamine6G (R6G)—is reported. In addition to these samples, the reproducibility of the designed substrate has been evaluated for 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE); a good degree of reproducibility was observed. Finally, applicability of the proposed substrate for reliable detection of Raman signals from two more important samples—namely, glucose and urine—has been successfully demonstrated.

  12. Performance Measure as Feedback Variable in Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the view of image processing performance measure presenting the use of this measure as an actual value in a feedback structure. The idea behind is that the control loop, which is built in that way, drives the actual feedback value to a given set point. Since the performance measure depends explicitly on the application, the inclusion of feedback structures and choice of appropriate feedback variables are presented on example of optical character recognition in industrial application. Metrics for quantification of performance at different image processing levels are discussed. The issues that those metrics should address from both image processing and control point of view are considered. The performance measures of individual processing algorithms that form a character recognition system are determined with respect to the overall system performance.

  13. Energy Storage and Generation for Extreme Temperature and Pressure and Directional Measurement While Drilling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, Riccardo [FastCAP Systems Corporation, Boston, MA (United States); Cooley, John [FastCAP Systems Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-14

    FastCAP Systems Corporation has successfully completed all milestones defined by the award DE-EE0005503. Under this program, FastCAP developed three critical subassemblies to TRL3 demonstrating proof of concept of a geothermal MWD power source. This power source includes an energy harvester, electronics and a novel high temperature ultracapacitor (“ultracap”) rechargeable energy storage device suitable for geothermal exploration applications. FastCAP’s ruggedized ultracapacitor (ultracap) technology has been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. Characteristics of this technology are that it is rechargeable and relatively high power. This technology was the basis for the advancements in rechargeable energy storage under this project. The ultracap performs reliably at 250°C and beyond and operates over a wide operating temperature range: -5°C to 250°C. The ultracap has significantly higher power density than lithium thionyl chloride batteries, a non-rechargeable incumbent used in oil and gas drilling today. Several hermetically sealed, prototype devices were tested in our laboratories at constant temperatures of 250°C showing no significant degradation over 2000 hours of operation. Other prototypes were tested at Sandia National Lab in the month of April, 2015 for a third party performance validation. These devices showed outstanding performance over 1000 hours of operation at three rated temperatures, 200°C, 225°C and 250°C, with negligible capacitance degradation and minimal equivalent series resistance (ESR) increase. Similarly, FastCAP’s ruggedized electronics have been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. This technology was the basis for the advancements in downhole electronics under this project. Principal contributions here focused on design for manufacture innovations that have reduced the prototype build cycle time by a factor

  14. The reliability and validity of handheld dynamometry for the measurement of lower-extremity muscle strength in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cathy M; Warkentin, Kathryn D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Magnus, Charlene R A

    2010-03-01

    Lower-extremity muscle strength is important in predicting fall risk in older adults. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a tool used to measure isometric muscle strength in the older adult, but few studies have evaluated the utility of HHD for muscle groups beyond knee extension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of HHD at the hip, knee, and ankle and to compare HHD strength values to other isometric dynamometry (ID) and to balance and recovery in older adults. This was a repeated measures study design of 18 men and women, age 65 to 92 years of age, who had HHD strength testing 3 to 7 days apart by the same examiner and repeat testing on the same day using 2 independent examiners. ID strength, balance, step length, and reaction time were measured once. HHD demonstrated good intrarater and interrater reliability for isometric strength at the hip and knee but was not a reliable measure for ankle strength. The HHD was a valid measure of isometric strength at the hip and knee, demonstrating moderate to high correlation values when compared to ID strength measures (r = 0.57-0.86; p strength was positively associated to step length and reaction time but not to balance (r = 0.40-0.71; p strength at the hip and knee in older adults, and greater strength in these muscles is associated with longer step length and decreased reaction time, which are important components of balance recovery in older adults. HHD can be used as an effective strength measurement tool for the older adult population.

  15. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2016-12-29

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  16. Generation and Measurement of Chlorine Dioxide Gas at Extremely Low Concentrations in a Living Room: Implications for Preventing Airborne Microbial Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio; Sogawa, Koushirou; Takigawa, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible. ClO2 gas was released from a gas generator and its concentration was measured by a novel highly sensitive gas analyzer. We compared its data with those from ion chromatography. We demonstrate that the gas concentrations measured in a room using the gas analyzer are accurate and reproducible after comparing the results with those from ion chromatography. However, the temperature dependence of the gas analyzer was found. Therefore, data correction is required for each temperature at which gas concentration is measured. A theoretical analysis of the gas concentrations predicted by the rate of ClO2 gas released from the ClO2 generator was also performed. Our results advance progress toward using low concentration ClO2 gas to prevent airborne infectious diseases such as influenza. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Measuring the added value of workplace change: Performance measurement in theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C; van der Voordt, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to compare performance measurement systems from the literature with current performance measurement approaches in practice to get a better understanding of the complex relationships between workplace change, added value and organisational performance.To be

  18. The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2007-01-01

    Humans evolved as an athletic species able to run in the midday heat, to throw with exquisite accuracy and to strike powerfully despite relatively weak upper arms compared to those of the great apes. The true extent to which humans could run long distances was first tested in a unique series of 6-day foot races contested between 1874 and 1888 by professional athletes from England and the United States. These athletes typically would have expended approximately 60,000 kcal (24.12 MJ) of energy during these races. The discovery of the bicycle soon caused the replacement of these races by 6-day cycling races which, in turn, led to the modern day Tour de France, the cycling race across America (RaAM) and two running races across the width of the United States in 1928 and 1929. The total energy expenditures during these different events can be estimated at approximately 168,000, 180,000 and 340,000 kcal respectively. But, in terms of the total energy expenditure, all these performances pale somewhat when compared to that of Robert Falcon Scott's Polar party during the 1911/12 British Antarctic Expedition. For most of 159 consecutive days, Scott's team man-hauled for 10 hours a day to the South Pole and back covering a distance of 2500 km. Their predicted total energy expenditure per individual would have been about 1 million kcal, making theirs, by some margin, the greatest sustained endurance athletic performance of all time. Interestingly, the dogs that provided the pulling power for Norwegian Roald Amundsen's team that was the first to reach the South Pole, 35 days before Scott's party, would have expended about 500,000 kcal in their 97 day trip, making theirs the greatest animal "sporting" performance on record. By contrast, mountain climbers expend only approximately 4000 kcal/day when climbing at extreme altitudes (above 4000 m). This relatively low rate of energy expenditure results from the low exercise intensities that can be sustained at extreme altitude. Here

  19. THE MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE-THE ESSENTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Stan, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Performance cannot be separated from the means and activities which generated it, but neither from the means through which it can be measured and evaluated. The present article aims at analyzing the approach of performance from the perspective of the management of performance and the tools for evaluating performance, insisting upon the evaluation of managerial performances, on the factors that can produce distortions. The aim of performance management is to obtain better results of the organi...

  20. Exposure Modelling of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields from Overhead Power Lines and Its Validation by Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Alfred; Sagar, Sanjay; Struchen, Benjamin; Joss, Stefan; Röösli, Martin

    2017-08-23

    A three-dimensional model for calculating long term exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields from high-voltage overhead power lines is presented, as well as its validation by measurements. For the validation, the model was applied to two different high-voltage overhead power lines in Iffwil and Wiler (Switzerland). In order to capture the daily and seasonal variations, each measurement was taken for 48 h and the measurements were carried out six times at each site, at intervals of approximately two months, between January and December 2015. During each measurement, a lateral transect of the magnetic flux density was determined in the middle of a span from nine measurement points in the range of ±80 m. The technical data of both the lines as well as the load flow data during the measurement periods were provided by the grid operators. These data were used to calculate 48 h averages of the absolute value of the magnetic flux density and compared with modelled values. The highest 48 h average was 1.66 µT (centre of the line in Iffwil); the lowest 48 h average was 22 nT (80 m distance from the centre line in Iffwil). On average, the magnetic flux density was overestimated by 2% (standard deviation: 9%) in Iffwil and underestimated by 1% (8%) in Wiler. Sensitivity analyses showed that the uncertainty is mainly driven by errors in the coordinates and height data. In particular, for predictions near the centre of the line, an accurate digital terrain model is critical.

  1. Exposure Modelling of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields from Overhead Power Lines and Its Validation by Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bürgi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional model for calculating long term exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields from high-voltage overhead power lines is presented, as well as its validation by measurements. For the validation, the model was applied to two different high-voltage overhead power lines in Iffwil and Wiler (Switzerland. In order to capture the daily and seasonal variations, each measurement was taken for 48 h and the measurements were carried out six times at each site, at intervals of approximately two months, between January and December 2015. During each measurement, a lateral transect of the magnetic flux density was determined in the middle of a span from nine measurement points in the range of ±80 m. The technical data of both the lines as well as the load flow data during the measurement periods were provided by the grid operators. These data were used to calculate 48 h averages of the absolute value of the magnetic flux density and compared with modelled values. The highest 48 h average was 1.66 µT (centre of the line in Iffwil; the lowest 48 h average was 22 nT (80 m distance from the centre line in Iffwil. On average, the magnetic flux density was overestimated by 2% (standard deviation: 9% in Iffwil and underestimated by 1% (8% in Wiler. Sensitivity analyses showed that the uncertainty is mainly driven by errors in the coordinates and height data. In particular, for predictions near the centre of the line, an accurate digital terrain model is critical.

  2. Atmospheric impacts of the 2010 Russian wildfires: integrating modelling and measurements of an extreme air pollution episode in the Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous wildfires provoked by an unprecedented intensive heat wave caused continuous episodes of extreme air pollution in several Russian cities and densely populated regions, including the Moscow region. This paper analyzes the evolution of the surface concentrations of CO, PM10 and ozone over the Moscow region during the 2010 heat wave by integrating available ground based and satellite measurements with results of a mesoscale model. The CHIMERE chemistry transport model is used and modified to include the wildfire emissions of primary pollutants and the shielding effect of smoke aerosols on photolysis. The wildfire emissions are derived from satellite measurements of the fire radiative power and are optimized by assimilating data of ground measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM10 into the model. It is demonstrated that the optimized simulations reproduce independent observations, which were withheld during the optimisation procedure, quite adequately (specifically, the correlation coefficient of daily time series of CO and PM10 exceeds 0.8 and that inclusion of the fire emissions into the model significantly improves its performance. The model results show that wildfires are the principal factor causing the observed air pollution episode associated with the extremely high levels of daily mean CO and PM10 concentrations (up to 10 mg m−3 and 700 μg m−3 in the averages over available monitoring sites, respectively, although accumulation of anthropogenic pollution was also favoured by a stagnant meteorological situation. Indeed, ozone concentrations were simulated to be episodically very large (>400 μg m−3 even when fire emissions were omitted in the model. It was found that fire emissions increased ozone production by providing precursors for ozone formation (mainly VOC, but also inhibited the photochemistry by absorbing and scattering

  3. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  4. Decentralization, Interdependence and Performance Measurement System Design : Sequences and Priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.; Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of decentralization and performance measurement choices in multidivisional firms.We extend the research on the economics of organizational design choices by examining the impact of two important determinants of those choices, namely, subunit interdependencies and

  5. Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Firssova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor Onderwijswetenschappen.

  6. Performance Measurement in Production and Support Areas of a Shipyard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project was to identify and test some alternative performance measurement methods that might be more appropriate for modem shipbuilding and business operations, and to establish...

  7. Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor

  8. Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Firssova, O. (2012, 19 January). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation given at the ICO Masterclass, Theme Domain-Specific Instruction, January 19-February 10, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  9. Procurement performance measurement system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Ozdamar, Linet; Ng, Chai Peng

    2005-01-01

    The rising operating cost of providing healthcare is of concern to health care providers. As such, measurement of procurement performance will enable competitive advantage and provide a framework for continuous improvement. The objective of this paper is to develop a procurement performance measurement system. The paper reviews the existing literature in procurement performance measurement to identify the key areas of purchasing performance. By studying the three components in the supply chain collectively with the resources, procedures and output, a model is been developed. Additionally, a balanced scorecard is proposed by establishing a set of generic measures and six perspectives. A case study conducted at the Singapore Hospital applies the conceptual model to describe the purchasing department and the activities within and outside the department. The results indicate that the material management department has already made a good start in measuring the procurement process through the implementation of the balanced scorecard. There are many data that are collected but not properly collated and utilized. Areas lacking measurement include cycle time of delivery, order processing time, effectiveness, efficiency and reliability. Though a lot of hard work was involved, the advantages of establishing a measurement system outweigh the costs and efforts involved in its implementation. Results of balanced scorecard measurements provide decision-makers with critical information on efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department's work. The measurement model developed could be used for any hospital procurement system.

  10. Schedule performance measurement based on statistical process control charts

    OpenAIRE

    Oleghe, Omogbai; Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In a job-shop manufacturing environment, achieving a schedule that is on target is difficult due to the dynamism of factors affecting the system, and this makes schedule performance measurement systems hard to design and implement. In the present paper, Statistical Process Control charts are directly applied to a scheduling process for the purpose of objectively measuring schedule performance. SPC charts provide an objective and timely approach to designing, implementing and mo...

  11. The effectiveness of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries, and calls attention to the problems attached to it. The argued presumption is that the performance measuring carried out on the state level, is not always a sufficient and adequate foundation for plarming of the developmenl and functioning of an individual library which has to cater for the needs and wishes of the population in a certain area.

  12. Holistic Performance Measurement to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keni Keni

    2013-01-01

    In the past, companies used balanced scorecard to measure its performance. Now, balanced scorecard as a performance measurement tool is no longer sufficient because business has been affected by changes to the natural environment and developing social expectations. In order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, companies are beginning to address the risks and opportunities associated with these changes in their longer-term business planning. To turn risks into opportunities, companies...

  13. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN; LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-01-01

    In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a mult...

  14. SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository TSP Symposium, Pittsburgh Nov 4, 2014...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Team Software Process ( TSP -2014) Symposium, 3-6 Nov

  15. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  16. Defining and Measuring the Occupational Performance of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Occupational performance assessments of children are essential for guiding occupational therapy intervention and for measuring the effectiveness of occupational therapy services for children. A review of relevant research and of occupational performance assessments designed for children was conducted to determine and describe how the occupational…

  17. Merits and demerits of measuring the performance of a library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article examines the strengths and weaknesses of assessing the performance of a library service using quantitative measures. It argues that quantitative methods are useful in justifying additional funding, continued existence, comparing the performance of library services, among others. It is the kind of approach that is ...

  18. Inmate Recidivism as a Measure of Private Prison Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Andrew L.; Sharp, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of the private corrections industry has elicited interest in the comparative performance of state and private prisons. One way to measure the service quality of private prisons is to examine inmates' postrelease performance. Current empirical evidence is limited to four studies, all conducted in Florida. This analysis replicates and…

  19. gLite Workload Management System Performance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Svraka, N; Belic, A; Bogojevic, A R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to the gLite Grid middleware and one of its most important components, Workload Management System (WMS), responsible for management of user jobs is given.Useful performance metrics of gLite WMS are defined from a Grid application point of view, and preliminary results of performance measurements are presented and briefly analyzed.

  20. Chinese Middle School Teachers' Preferences Regarding Performance Evaluation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Xu, Xianxuan; Stronge, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation currently is receiving unprecedented attention from policy makers, scholars, and practitioners worldwide. This study is one of the few studies of teacher perceptions regarding teacher performance measures that focus on China. We employed a quantitative dominant mixed research design to investigate Chinese teachers'…

  1. Setting Targets In An Asset Management Performance Measurement Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D; Masschelein, S; Hodkiewicz, M.R.; Schoenmaker, R.; Muruvan, S

    2016-01-01

    All asset-intensive organisations have some sort of asset performance targets in place. How legitimate are these targets? Are they achievable given the resources and span of the control of the manager responsible? Are they fair? Is it clear how targets for asset performance measures should be set?

  2. Performance measures for wicket keepers in cricket | Lemmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wicket keeper should not only perform well behind the wickets in terms of taking catches, executing stumpings and limiting the number of byes, but should also perform well as a batsman. The purpose of this study is to combine the dismissal rate (based on the number of catches and stumpings) and a measure of batting ...

  3. Measuring Performance Improvement in a Strategic Planning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Daniel A.; Parry, Arthur E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines employer-assisted tuition support as a means that organizations use to improve human performance, considers how these programs are aligned with the overall strategic interests of the organization, and makes recommendations about how to measure performance improvement efforts in alignment with organization strategy. (LRW)

  4. System Load Characterization Using Low-Level Performance Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, C.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a software system directly influences customer satisfaction. Self-adaptiveness can contribute to this customer satisfaction by (1) taking appropriate measures when the performance becomes critical, e.g., the system load is too high, or (2) scheduling intensive tasks when the load

  5. THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION ON LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE PERFORMANCE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nicole; Baker, Russell; Cheatham, Scott W

    2016-12-01

    Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) is a non-invasive therapeutic technique used to theoretically aid in scar tissue breakdown and absorption, fascial mobilization, and improved tissue healing. Researchers have hypothesized that utilizing IASTM will improve muscular efficiency and performance; yet previous Investigations has been focused on treating injury. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the effects of IASTM on muscle performance to assess if typical treatment application affected measures of muscular performance. A pretest-posttest randomized control design. A convenience sample of 48 physically active adults (mean age 24 ± 4 years), randomly assigned to one of three groups: quadriceps treatment group, triceps surae treatment group, or control group. Participants performed a five-minute warm-up on a Monark bicycle ergometer before performing three countermovement vertical jumps (CMJ). Immediately after, the IASTM treatment was applied by one researcher for three minutes on each leg at the specified site (e.g., quadriceps) for those assigned to the treatment groups, while the control group rested for six minutes. Immediately following treatment, participants performed three additional CMJs. Pre- and post-testing included measures of vertical jump height (JH), peak power (PP) and peak velocity (PV). There were no statistically significant differences found between treatment groups in JH, PP, or PV or across pre- and post-test trials. These preliminary findings suggest that standard treatment times of IASTM do not produce an immediate effect in muscular performance in healthy participants. This may help clinicians determine the optimal sequencing of IASTM when it is part of a pre-performance warm-up program. Future research should be conducted to determine the muscle performance effects of IASTM in individuals with known myofascial restriction and to determine optimal treatment parameters, such as instrument type, amount of

  6. Effects of Gait Self-Efficacy and Lower-Extremity Physical Function on Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Despite evidence of self-efficacy and physical function’s influences on functional limitations in older adults, few studies have examined relationships in the context of complex, real-world tasks. The present study tested the roles of self-efficacy and physical function in predicting older adults’ street-crossing performance in single- and dual-task simulations. Methods. Lower-extremity physical function, gait self-efficacy, and street-crossing success ratio were assessed in 195 older adults (60–79 years old at baseline of a randomized exercise trial. During the street-crossing task, participants walked on a self-propelled treadmill in a virtual reality environment. Participants crossed the street without distraction (single-task trials and conversed on a cell phone (dual-task trials. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized associations independent of demographic and clinical covariates. Results. Street-crossing performance was better on single-task trials when compared with dual-task trials. Direct effects of self-efficacy and physical function on success ratio were observed in dual-task trials only. The total effect of self-efficacy was significant in both conditions. The indirect path through physical function was evident in the dual-task condition only. Conclusion. Physical function can predict older adults’ performance on high fidelity simulations of complex, real-world tasks. Perceptions of function (i.e., self-efficacy may play an even greater role. The trial is registered with United States National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01472744; Fit & Active Seniors Trial.

  7. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  8. MEASURING DRIVING PERFORMANCE BY CAR-FOLLOWING IN TRAFFIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; DEWAARD, D; MULDER, Lambertus J.M.

    The measurement of impairing effects on driving performance by such external factors as alcohol, medicinal drugs, or mobile telephoning, etc., is extended with a new test. Most existing methods of measuring impairing effects in the actual driving environment have the drawback that, irrespective of

  9. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA)'s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust ...

  10. New methods for mobility performance measurement in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, MAM; Bregman, DJJ; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased professionalism in wheelchair sports demand a more precise and quantitative measure of individual wheelchair mobility performance, to allow it to be an evaluation measure of wheelchair setting or training optimization. This research describes the application of an inertial sensor based

  11. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...

  12. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets...

  13. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  14. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 10. Measurement of extremely low-level radioactivity distributions with imaging plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Chizuo [Aichi Inst. of Tech., Toyota (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Imaging plate (IP) has about 1,000 times higher sensitivity than the ordinary X-ray film. This review described the application of the IP to measurement of extremely low-level radioactivity distributions. Due to its high sensitivity, it was necessary to make a shielding box to detect the natural radioactivity contained in a lot of things. Exposure time in the box was about 1 month, however, the longer time was found meaningless because of latent-image fading in the IP. Radioactivity distributions in daily necessities like vegetables, leaves and spectacles were presented, which were considered to be useful for the public to understand the presence of natural radioactivity. Distributions of radioactivity, even if extremely low, located in small points like radioisotope contamination in the hot-lab and uranium in the granite, or contained in some kinds of the pottery and glass, and in the lead were found to be detected without shield. The major radiation source for IP imaging in the lead, was found {alpha} ray of {sup 210}Po by pulse-height analysis with silicon photodiode. (K.H.)

  15. Energy Performance Contracting Methodology Based upon Simulation and Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ligier, Simon; Robillart, Maxime; Schalbart, Patrick; Peuportier, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Discrepancies between ex-ante energy performance assessment and actual consumption of buildings hinder the development of energy performance contracting (EPC). To address this issue, uncertainty integration in simulation as well as measurement and verification (M&V) strategies have been studied. In this article, we propose a methodology, combining detailed energy performance simulation and M&V anticipation. Statistical studies using Monte-Carlo analysis allow a guarant...

  16. The effects of isolated and integrated 'core stability' training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Casey A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-08-01

    Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance

  17. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic

  18. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received....... In order to limit the noise rise from femto UEs, femto UE power capping and lowering femto common pilot channel (CPICH) power is recommended. The consequence is less uplink interference towards the macro, but also decreased femto coverage. Measurements close to macro cell centre showed femto coverage...

  19. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  20. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun Moges Kasie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview and observation of records. The methodology is to evaluate business performances of sampled manufacturing companies and the extent of utilization of crucial non-financial (lagging and non-financial (leading performance measures. The positive correlation between financial business performance and practice of MCPM is clearly shown using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Findings –This research paper indicates that companies which measure their performance using important financial and non-financial measures achieve better business performance. Even though certain companies are currently using non-financial measures, the researchers have learned that these financial measures were not integrated with each other, financial measures and strategic objectives. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this paper is that the number of surveyed companies is small to make generalization and they are found in a single country. Further researches which incorporate a large number of companies from various developing nations are suggested to minimize the limitation of this research.Practical Implication: The paper shows that multi-dimensional performance measures with the inclusion of key leading indicator are essential to predict the future environment. But cost-accounting based financial measures are inadequate to do so. These are shown practically using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Originality/value: The significance of multi

  1. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  2. Performance Measurement of Management System Standards Using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Management system standards (MSS, such as ISO standards, TQM, etc. are widely-used standards adopted by millions of organizations worldwide. It is still an unclear question whether these standards are beneficial for an organization, besides the fact that they might be required or expected by law or customers. The question, whether MSS increase the efficiency, the output, or the performance of an organization is still discussed in scientific research. One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating of levels of environmental, social or economic expectations known as the Trible Bottom Line. The Balanced Scorecard is one possible solution for performance measurement on a strategic and operational level and therefore useful for the measurement of the influence of MSS within organizations. This study summarized current research in the field of performance measurement in the context of MSS and IMS and the use of BSC and quantitatively and qualitatively tests the usefulness of BSC in measuring the effect of MSSs using the Execution Premium. It was found that BSC is often used, that an average number of companies integrate their measurement initiatives of their MSSs into the BSC-process, and that a high integration of MSS into the BSC improves the organizational performance. This research is useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand the benefits of the usage of the BSC in the context of MSS or Integrated Management Systems.

  3. The (mis)Measurement of M&A Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; Risberg, Annette

    2011-01-01

    &A performance measures, we believe the problem rests in trying to compare different measures as if they were measuring the same feature of the organization. Through our narrative review of empirical research we analyze factors shaping the M&A – as well as the organizational – performance measurement process......This paper seeks to further the understanding of the variety of meanings M&A scholars attach to the label “M&A performance” by providing an alternative way to interpret the claimed inconsistency of M&A research findings. While many scholars contend that the problem stems from the multiplicity of M....... The conclusion is that it is not possible to talk about M&A performance as if it was a universal construct....

  4. Performing Complex Tasks by Users With Upper-Extremity Disabilities Using a 6-DOF Robotic Arm: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halimi, Reem K; Moussa, Medhat

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study that was conducted to examine how users suffering from severe upper-extremity disabilities can control a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) robotics arm to complete complex activities of daily living. The focus of the study is not on assessing the robot arm but on examining the human-robot interaction patterns. Three participants were recruited. Each participant was asked to perform three tasks: eating three pieces of pre-cut bread from a plate, drinking three sips of soup from a bowl, and opening a right-handed door with lever handle. Each of these tasks was repeated three times. The arm was mounted on the participant's wheelchair, and the participants were free to move the arm as they wish to complete these tasks. Each task consisted of a sequence of modes where a mode is defined as arm movement in one DOF. Results show that participants used a total of 938 mode movements with an average of 75.5 (std 10.2) modes for the eating task, 70 (std 8.8) modes for the soup task, and 18.7 (std 4.5) modes for the door opening task. Tasks were then segmented into smaller subtasks. It was found that there are patterns of usage per participant and per subtask. These patterns can potentially allow a robot to learn from user's demonstration what is the task being executed and by whom and respond accordingly to reduce user effort.

  5. Child-Report Measures of Occupational Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinie Cordier

    Full Text Available Improving occupational performance is a key service of occupational therapists and client-centred approach to care is central to clinical practice. As such it is important to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across measures of occupational performance; in order to guide assessment and treatment planning.To systematically review the literature on the psychometric properties of child-report measures of occupational performance for children ages 2-18 years.A systematic search of the following six electronic databases was conducted: CINAHL; PsycINFO; EMBASE; PubMed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HAPI database; and Google Scholar. The quality of the studies was evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and the overall quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using pre-set psychometric criteria.Fifteen articles and one manual were reviewed to assess the psychometric properties of the six measures-the PEGS, MMD, CAPE, PAC, COSA, and OSA- which met the inclusion criteria. Most of the measures had conducted good quality studies to evaluate the psychometric properties of measures (PEGS, CAPE, PAC, OSA; however, the quality of the studies for two of these measures was relatively weak (MMD, COSA. When integrating the quality of the psychometric properties of the measures with the quality of the studies, the PAC stood out as having superior psychometric qualities.The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was limited. There is a need for continuing research into the psychometric properties of child-report measures of occupational performance, and to revise and improve the psychometric properties of existing measures.

  6. Performance measurement and incentives : a study on performance management in a changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Nina Birgithe

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study is an examination of performance management systems in relation to the management control approach Beyond Budgeting. The study focuses on the developments of performance measurement and incentive systems, and the problem statement is: What is the relationship between performance measurement and incentives? The method used is qualitative research of managers in a larger international energy company. Applying a theoretical perspective, the study finds a strong relationship ...

  7. Multi-objective Optimization for the Robust Performance of Drinking Water Treatment Plants under Climate Change and Climate Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Rosario-Ortiz, F.; Summers, R. S.; Stewart, J.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    To promote public health, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and similar entities around the world enact strict laws to regulate drinking water quality. These laws, such as the Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP) Rules, come at a cost to water treatment plants (WTPs) which must alter their operations and designs to meet more stringent standards and the regulation of new contaminants of concern. Moreover, external factors such as changing influent water quality due to climate extremes and climate change, may force WTPs to adapt their treatment methods. To grapple with these issues, decision support systems (DSSs) have been developed to aid WTP operation and planning. However, there is a critical need to better address long-term decision making for WTPs. In this poster, we propose a DSS framework for WTPs for long-term planning, which improves upon the current treatment of deep uncertainties within the overall potable water system including the impact of climate on influent water quality and uncertainties in treatment process efficiencies. We present preliminary results exploring how a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search can be coupled with models of WTP processes to identify high-performing plans for their design and operation. This coupled simulation-optimization technique uses Borg MOEA, an auto-adaptive algorithm, and the Water Treatment Plant Model, a simulation model developed by the US EPA to assist in creating the D/DBP Rules. Additionally, Monte Carlo sampling methods were used to study the impact of uncertainty of influent water quality on WTP decision-making and generate plans for robust WTP performance.

  8. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  9. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector : Effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.F.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  10. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...... these performance initiatives are due to two main factors: A clash between external and internal regimes of performance management and a conflict over the interpretation of the overall aims of the university. A distinction between three Performance management paradigms – target regimes, ranking regimes...... and intelligent regimes – is used to propose a way out of the current governance impasse at the universities....

  11. Assessing local and regional economic impacts of climatic extremes and feasibility of adaptation measures in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.; Andree, B.P.J.; Koomen, E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method that combines local productivity factors, economic factors, crop-specific sensitivity to climatic extremes, and future climate change scenarios, to assess potential impacts of extreme weather events on agricultural production systems. Our assessment is spatially explicit and uses

  12. Measuring target detection performance in paradigms with high event rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Andersen, Søren K

    2013-05-01

    Combining behavioral and neurophysiological measurements inevitably implies mutual constraints, such as when the neurophysiological measurement requires fast-paced stimulus presentation and hence the attribution of a behavioral response to a particular preceding stimulus becomes ambiguous. We develop and test a method for validly assessing behavioral detection performance in spite of this ambiguity. We examine four approaches taken in the literature to treat such situations. We analytically derive a new variant of computing the classical parameters of signal detection theory, hit and false alarm rates, adapted to fast-paced paradigms. Each of the previous approaches shows specific shortcomings (susceptibility towards response window choice, biased estimates of behavioral detection performance). Superior performance of our new approach is demonstrated for both simulated and empirical behavioral data. Further evidence is provided by reliable correspondence between behavioral performance and the N2b component as an electrophysiological indicator of target detection. The appropriateness of our approach is substantiated by both theoretical and empirical arguments. We demonstrate an easy-to-implement solution for measuring target detection performance independent of the rate of event presentation. Thus overcoming the measurement bias of previous approaches, our method will help to clarify the behavioral relevance of different measures of cortical activation. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  14. Performance Measurement and Analysis of Large-Scale Parallel Applications on Leadership Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J.N. Wylie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Developers of applications with large-scale computing requirements are currently presented with a variety of high-performance systems optimised for message-passing, however, effectively exploiting the available computing resources remains a major challenge. In addition to fundamental application scalability characteristics, application and system peculiarities often only manifest at extreme scales, requiring highly scalable performance measurement and analysis tools that are convenient to incorporate in application development and tuning activities. We present our experiences with a multigrid solver benchmark and state-of-the-art real-world applications for numerical weather prediction and computational fluid dynamics, on three quite different multi-thousand-processor supercomputer systems – Cray XT3/4, MareNostrum & Blue Gene/L – using the newly-developed SCALASCA toolset to quantify and isolate a range of significant performance issues.

  15. Associations Between Measures of Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength/Power in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    It has frequently been reported that balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power are associated with sports-related and everyday activities. Knowledge about the relationship between balance, strength, and power are important for the identification of at-risk individuals because deficits in these neuromuscular components are associated with an increased risk of sustaining injuries and falls. In addition, this knowledge is of high relevance for the development of specifically tailored health and skill-related exercise programs. The objectives of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis were to characterize and, if possible, quantify associations between variables of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2015 to capture all relevant articles. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 996 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included only if they investigated healthy individuals aged ≥6 years and tested at least one measure of static steady-state balance (e.g., center of pressure [CoP] displacement during one-legged stance), dynamic steady-state balance (e.g., gait speed), proactive balance (e.g., distance in the functional-reach-test), or reactive balance (e.g., CoP displacement during perturbed one-legged stance), and one measure of maximal strength (e.g., maximum voluntary contraction), explosive force (e.g., rate of force development), or muscle power (e.g., jump height). In total, 37 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age (i.e., children: 6-12 years, adolescents: 13-18 years, young adults: 19-44 years, middle-aged adults: 45-64 years, old adults: ≥65 years), sex (i.e., female, male), and test modality/outcome (i.e., test for the assessment of balance

  16. Library Network Statistics and Performance Measures: Approaches and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carlo Bertot

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Library networked statistics and performance measures are important indicators of the use, uses, and users of networked services that libraries offer their patrons. This article focuses on three efforts to develop and standardize library network statistics and performance measures. In particular, the article discusses, compares, and contrasts selected aspects of the International Standards Organization (ISO, U.S. public library network statistics, and Association of Research Library (ARL efforts. The three approaches attempt to capture, describe, and present library networked activities in similar ways through similar approaches – yet they differ in key areas. It is important to note that there are a number of national and international efforts underway that continue to research the library network statistics and performance measure environment.

  17. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  18. Developing a performance measurement system for public research centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masella, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a performance measurement system (PMS for research and development (R&D activities carried out by public research centres. Public research institutions are characterized by multiple stakeholders with different needs, and the management of R&D activities requires balancing the multiple goals of different stakeholders. This characteristic is a key issue in the process of construction of the PMS. Empirical evidence is provided by an Italian public research centre, where the researchers carried out a project aimed to develop a PMS following action research principles. This project gave the possibility to researchers to interact with different stakeholders and integrate their different information needs in a comprehensive set of key performance indicators (KPIs. As a result, multidimensional framework for measuring R&D performance in a public research centre is proposed and a set of Key Performance Indicators is developed, suggesting implications for academics and practitioners.

  19. Measuring business performance using indicators of ecologically sustainable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Charles G., Jr.; Snow, Charles C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of ecology-based performance measures as a way of augmenting the Balanced Scorecard approach to organizational performance measurement. The Balanced Scorecard, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton, focuses on four primary dimensions; financial, internal-business-process, customer, and learning and growth perspectives. Recently, many 'green' organizational theorists have developed the concept of "Ecologically Sustainable Organizations" or ESOs, a concept rooted in open systems theory. The ESO is called upon to consider resource use and conservation as a strategy for long-term viability. This paper asserts that in order to achieve ESO status, an organization must not only measure but also reward resource conservation measures. Only by adding a fifth perspective for ecological dimensions will the entity be truly motivated toward ESO status.

  20. Measurements of library performance and study of librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Žaucer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the significance of evaluation and measurement of library performance. The measurement of the medium tirne of document delivery from closed stacks in one library according to the methodology of standard ISO 11620 is described. Further, the significance of creative problem solving in libraries in transition in the light of fast technological development is presented, followed by cases of used opportunities from foreign libraries. In the conclusion, the link between time measurements of library performance and creative problemsolving in the frames of seminar papers of students of librarianship is presented. The results of the measurements of the medium time of document search in open access are presented together with the analysis of the state of affairs and some students' suggestions for improvements.

  1. Performance measurement of electricity suppliers using PROMETHEE and balance scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Osati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement in energy industry plays an important role on increasing the productivity. Electricity is also among the most essential components of energy in mega cities like Tehran. The lack of a good service in this city may result unpleasant consequences on most civilians who live in this city. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of six major electricity contractors in city of Tehran, Iran. The study implements grey numbers to handle any uncertainty associated with numbers. The study has also adopted four main perspectives used in balanced scorecard as part of PROMETHEE method to rank different contractors.

  2. Measuring the impact of HRM on organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Katou, Anastasia A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of HRM on organisational performance in the context of Greece. Data were collected from 178 organisations using a questionnaire survey in the Greek manufacturing sector, and analysed using the ‘structural equation modelling’ methodology. The results indicated that the relationship between HRM policies (resourcing and development, compensation and incentives, involvement and job design) and organisational performance is partially mediated th...

  3. Towards Effective Educational Politics through Improving the Performance Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Reisberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational field is impelled to increase performance and quality, financial discipline, strategic behaviour and its goals in order to enhance “effectiveness”. As a result the incorporation of private sector management practices into the educational field is taking place. But it is important to notice that a proliferation of private managerial practices into the educational field goes along with a conflict-laden and contradictory process. Education provides an important area of implementation for techniques of performance evaluation aimed at improving the performance of public services. One of the most common conceptual frameworks in measuring organisational performance takes the form of a production function where the educational institution is seen as analogous to a company transforming inputs into outputs and outcomes through a production process. But the problems and the vagueness in determining educational system’s inputs, outputs and outcomes cause difficulties in making political decisions and that is why clear policy prescriptions have been difficult to derive. The purpose of this article is to create a discussion whether performance measurement should be a part of decision-making in educational politics. The authors debate about incorporating private sector management practices into the educational field. The debate is based on the example of evaluating the social impact in the educational field and the performance of teachers’ work in the educational system. The article consists of three parts. Firstly, the theoretical background of the performance measurement in educational field is discussed. Secondly, the important criteria for performance measurement design and political issues are argued. Thirdly, the evaluated shortcomings in Estonian educational organisations, which restrict them to be effective, are brought out. Relieving some of these shortcomings could be in authority of Estonian educational politics.

  4. Elpif E-Logistics Performance Measure Extension and Its Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Genç, Ruhet

    2008-01-01

    ELPIF presents a promising architecture as a generic, multinational and multicultural platform for e logistics. Such generality requires a Performance Measure method to reveal further potentials of the system. Using several metrics available in the logistics literature for evaluating performance of logistics services, uncover a good source of potentially very valuable information. The knowledge gained by interpretation of these findings can be utilized as a further feedback mechanism by the c...

  5. Scorecards, dashboards, and KPIs keys to integrated performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jamie

    2004-02-01

    Many providers are using a balanced scorecard to measure performance. Another tool that can be used with the balanced scorecard is a visual dashboard. Visual dashboards can help managers easily access and analyze their key performance indicators (KPIs), saving time and confusion. The experience of St. Luke's Episcopal Health System shows that successful application of a balanced scorecard requires integrating information and using the visual dashboards to provide immediate organizationwide access to KPIs.

  6. Exploratory study on performance measures as indicators of IS effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy

    1992-01-01

    The Information Systems Directorate at JSC/NASA has undertaken the reevaluation of its performance measures process and measures. Under the direction of a quality approach it is essential to identify an external perspective of how well an organization is performing. This study was conducted with two major objectives: (1) survey and summarize the academic literature on performance measures as indicators of information systems (IS) effectiveness; and (2) survey organizations for their experience in measuring for IS effectiveness. Four approaches to measuring the effectiveness of IS performance were identified: (1) listen to the customer for the things they need; (2) align with corporate goals; (3) benchmark against well-respected organizations; and (4) ask yourself what critical factors lead to success. The list of known methods for soliciting customer feedback are as follows: (1) executive visit; (2) survey, interview, and focus group; (3) complaints and compliments; and (4) service level agreements. A common set of characteristics that satisfy customers was identified from the literature. The list includes elements such as the following: accuracy, timeliness, relevance, understandability, reliability, and completeness. Future research in this topic area should prove beneficial to determine the metrics for external validity.

  7. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  8. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hong-chao; Li, Guo-qiang; Yan, Feng; ZHUANG Da-jie

    2015-01-01

    The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using differe...

  9. A Framework of Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermawan Wibisono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic environment, measuring a company’s performance becomes exceedingly complex since Performance Measurements Systems (PMS not only measure a company’s performance but also reflect their organizational culture and philosophy. Designing and implementing PMS is an integral part of management control systems. However, traditional PMS are criticized for being obsolete, irrelevant to managerial decision making, unrelated to strategic objectives and detrimental to organizational improvements. Given the shortcomings of traditional PMS, there is need for a new framework that can lead to the design of a PMS that balances short-term and long-term measures, internal and external measures, and financial and operational measures. This paper presents issues associated with the needs of a dynamic PMS, observe past research achievements in PMS and review past PMS frameworks that have been introduced. The paper then proposes an improved methodology for the design of a realistic PMS and its effective implementation in a manufacturing environment with case for Indonesia’s company.

  10. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79 : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Stamm, Elizabeth; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: The loss of muscle mass with aging, or sarcopenia, is hypothesized to be associated with the deterioration of physical function. Our aim was to determine whether low leg muscle mass and greater fat infiltration in the muscle were associated with poor lower extremity performance (LEP).

  11. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. In this project, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, the team tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in NREL’s Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  12. Measurement of Energy Performances for General-Structured Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Meng; Chen, Haihong

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of servers in data centers increases rapidly along with the wide application of Internet and connected devices. To improve the energy efficiency of servers, voluntary or mandatory energy efficiency programs for servers, including voluntary label program or mandatory energy performance standards have been adopted or being prepared in the US, EU and China. However, the energy performance of servers and testing methods of servers are not well defined. This paper presents matrices to measure the energy performances of general-structured servers. The impacts of various components of servers on their energy performances are also analyzed. Based on a set of normalized workload, the author proposes a standard method for testing energy efficiency of servers. Pilot tests are conducted to assess the energy performance testing methods of servers. The findings of the tests are discussed in the paper.

  13. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...... used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost...... positions that are better reflected in operational performance indicators. In our view, the idiosyncratic choice of the performance measures contributes to the varying results in past studies. We offer suggestions for improving future research designs....

  14. Measurement of extremely (2) H-enriched water samples by laser spectrometry: application to batch electrolytic concentration of environmental tritium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Kumar, B; Douence, C; Belachew, D L; Aggarwal, P K

    2016-02-15

    Natural water samples artificially or experimentally enriched in deuterium ((2) H) at concentrations up to 10,000 ppm are required for various medical, environmental and hydrological tracer applications, but are difficult to measure using conventional stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that off-axis integrated cavity output (OA-ICOS) laser spectrometry, along with (2) H-enriched laboratory calibration standards and appropriate analysis templates, allows for low-cost, fast, and accurate determinations of water samples having δ(2) HVSMOW-SLAP values up to at least 57,000 ‰ (~9000 ppm) at a processing rate of 60 samples per day. As one practical application, extremely (2) H-enriched samples were measured by laser spectrometry and compared to the traditional (3) H Spike-Proxy method in order to determine tritium enrichment factors in the batch electrolysis of environmental waters. Highly (2) H-enriched samples were taken from different sets of electrolytically concentrated standards and low-level (enriched waters by laser spectrometry will facilitate the use of deuterium as a tracer in numerous environmental and other applications. For low-level tritium operations, this new analytical ability facilitated a 10-20 % increase in sample productivity through the elimination of spike standards and gravimetrics, and provides immediate feedback on electrolytic enrichment cell performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of request..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  16. Performance Measures of Academic Faculty--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila

    2011-01-01

    This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…

  17. Measurements And Analyses Of Key Performance Indices Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of key performance evaluation indices of telephone networks such as answer bid ratios, answer seizure ratios, call completion ratios, bids per circuit per hour, seizures per circuit per hour, per cent over flow, mean holding time per seizure and traffic carried in Erlang were made in Kaduna and Kano ...

  18. Performance Measures of a Fuzzy Product Form Queueing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Mukeba Kanyinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the performance measures computation of a product form queueing network with fuzzy parameters. In this first study, we focus our objective to find the customers number and the customer sojourn time in the system at the stationary state. Values of these characteristics are provided. A didactical example is used to illustrate the process.

  19. Enabling performance measurement in a small professional service firm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.; van de Belt, Mirthe; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show why developing an enabling performance measurement system (PMS) can be useful to small professional service firms (PSFs) and how small PSFs can develop such an enabling PMS. Design/methodology/approach – The authors used a process‐consultation type of

  20. design, construction and measured performance of a single-stage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same ...

  1. Flow among Musicians: Measuring Peak Experiences of Student Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnamon, Sarah; Moran, Aidan; O'Connell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    "Flow" is a highly coveted yet elusive state of mind that is characterized by complete absorption in the task at hand as well as by enhanced skilled performance. Unfortunately, because most measures of this construct have been developed in physical activity and sport settings, little is known about the applicability of flow scales to the…

  2. Measuring Performance of Virtual Learning Environment System in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, William; Higson, Helen E.; Dey, Prasanta K.; Xu, Xiaowei; Bahsoon, Rami

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the performance of commercial virtual learning environment (VLE) systems, which helps the decision makers to select the appropriate system for their institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper develops an integrated multiple criteria decision making approach, which combines the analytic…

  3. The Exposure Index: Developing firefighter safety performance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; John Phipps; Tom Holmes; Jon Rieck; Matt Thompson

    2011-01-01

    A cornerstone of effective institutional learning and accountability is the development, tracking, and analysis of informative performance measures. In a previous issue of Fire Management Today ("A New Look at Risk Management," Winter 2011), a series of articles highlighted the importance of organizational safety and risk management and the challenges of...

  4. Measuring the marketing performances of state forest enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, any enterprise has to consider marketing as important as production. Production and marketing are two complementary activities in enterprises. The increase in marketing effectiveness is achieved through measuring the activity outcomes that can be described as marketing performance. Because marketing is a ...

  5. Performance measures and criteria for hydrologic and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance measures and criteria are essential for model calibration and validation. This presentation will include a summary of one of the papers that will be included in the 2014 Hydrologic and Water Quality Model Calibration & Validation Guidelines Special Collection of the ASABE Transactions. T...

  6. Relationship between performance measurements and sale price of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sale prices of 1 609 Dorper rams sold between 1990 and 1999 were compared with their measured performances. An analysis of variance was carried out in order to determine which variables influenced sale price. The most importance factors were classification (stud vs. commercial), auction weight and coat type (hair ...

  7. Issues with performance measures for dynamic multi-objective optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Helbig, M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a number of algorithms were proposed to solve dynamic multi-objective optimisation problems. However, a major problem in the field of dynamic multi-objective optimisation is a lack of standard performance measures to quantify...

  8. Performance Measurement, Estimating and Control of Offshore Modification Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Fouche, Deon Paul

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to describe and demonstrate the practical application of techniques of performance measurement to the control and execution of modification projects in the offshore oil industry. The techniques were developed partly as a consequence of practical work in the industry and partly as a consequence of the work underpinning this dissertation.

  9. Performance measures for wicket-keepers in cricket

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hoffiel

    Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning, 2011, 33(3): 89-102. ISBN: 0379-9069. 89. PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR WICKET KEEPERS IN CRICKET. Hermanus H. LEMMER. Department of Statistics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, Republic of South.

  10. Introducing the Balanced Scorecard: Creating Metrics to Measure Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbus, Andra

    2005-01-01

    This experiential exercise presents the concept of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and applies it in a university setting. The Balanced Scorecard was developed 12 years ago and has grown in popularity and is used by more than 50% of the Fortune 500 companies as a performance measurement and strategic management tool. The BSC expands the traditional…

  11. Individual match approach to Bowling performance measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Match conditions can play a significant role in player performances in a cricket match. If the pitch is in a good condition, the batsmen can achieve good scores, making it difficult for the bowlers. In the case of an uneven pitch or adverse weather conditions, the bowlers may have the upper hand. In order to measure bowlers' ...

  12. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  13. Child Care Services Guide. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 14 terminal objectives for a high school child care services course. This course is designed to provide opportunities for exploring a broad range of child care, guidance, and service occupations. Major concepts include characteristics of…

  14. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  15. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity.This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace change

  16. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity. This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace

  17. Multi-modal, Multi-measure, and Multi-class Discrimination of ADHD with Hierarchical Feature Extraction and Extreme Learning Machine Using Structural and Functional Brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Oh, Jooyoung; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom

    2017-01-01

    Structural and functional MRI unveil many hidden properties of the human brain. We performed this multi-class classification study on selected subjects from the publically available attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD-200 dataset of patients and healthy children. The dataset has three groups, namely, ADHD inattentive, ADHD combined, and typically developing. We calculated the global averaged functional connectivity maps across the whole cortex to extract anatomical atlas parcellation based features from the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data and cortical parcellation based features from the structural MRI (sMRI) data. In addition, the preprocessed image volumes from both of these modalities followed an ANOVA analysis separately using all the voxels. This study utilized the average measure from the most significant regions acquired from ANOVA as features for classification in addition to the multi-modal and multi-measure features of structural and functional MRI data. We extracted most discriminative features by hierarchical sparse feature elimination and selection algorithm. These features include cortical thickness, image intensity, volume, cortical thickness standard deviation, surface area, and ANOVA based features respectively. An extreme learning machine performed both the binary and multi-class classifications in comparison with support vector machines. This article reports prediction accuracy of both unimodal and multi-modal features from test data. We achieved 76.190% (p < 0.0001) classification accuracy in multi-class settings as well as 92.857% (p < 0.0001) classification accuracy in binary settings. In addition, we found ANOVA-based significant regions of the brain that also play a vital role in the classification of ADHD. Thus, from a clinical perspective, this multi-modal group analysis approach with multi-measure features may improve the accuracy of the ADHD differential diagnosis.

  18. Sampling Approaches for Multi-Domain Internet Performance Measurement Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calyam, Prasad

    2014-09-15

    The next-generation of high-performance networks being developed in DOE communities are critical for supporting current and emerging data-intensive science applications. The goal of this project is to investigate multi-domain network status sampling techniques and tools to measure/analyze performance, and thereby provide “network awareness” to end-users and network operators in DOE communities. We leverage the infrastructure and datasets available through perfSONAR, which is a multi-domain measurement framework that has been widely deployed in high-performance computing and networking communities; the DOE community is a core developer and the largest adopter of perfSONAR. Our investigations include development of semantic scheduling algorithms, measurement federation policies, and tools to sample multi-domain and multi-layer network status within perfSONAR deployments. We validate our algorithms and policies with end-to-end measurement analysis tools for various monitoring objectives such as network weather forecasting, anomaly detection, and fault-diagnosis. In addition, we develop a multi-domain architecture for an enterprise-specific perfSONAR deployment that can implement monitoring-objective based sampling and that adheres to any domain-specific measurement policies.

  19. Laboratory Performance Evaluation Report of SEL 421 Phasor Measurement Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenyu; faris, Anthony J.; Martin, Kenneth E.; Hauer, John F.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2007-12-01

    PNNL and BPA have been in close collaboration on laboratory performance evaluation of phasor measurement units for over ten years. A series of evaluation tests are designed to confirm accuracy and determine measurement performance under a variety of conditions that may be encountered in actual use. Ultimately the testing conducted should provide parameters that can be used to adjust all measurements to a standardized basis. These tests are performed with a standard relay test set using recorded files of precisely generated test signals. The test set provides test signals at a level and in a format suitable for input to a PMU that accurately reproduces the signals in both signal amplitude and timing. Test set outputs are checked to confirm the accuracy of the output signal. The recorded signals include both current and voltage waveforms and a digital timing track used to relate the PMU measured value with the test signal. Test signals include steady-state waveforms to test amplitude, phase, and frequency accuracy, modulated signals to determine measurement and rejection bands, and step tests to determine timing and response accuracy. Additional tests are included as necessary to fully describe the PMU operation. Testing is done with a BPA phasor data concentrator (PDC) which provides communication support and monitors data input for dropouts and data errors.

  20. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Medicare health maintenance organization benefits packages and plan performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Don; Lanyi, Bettina; Strabic, Allison

    2002-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of the relationship between supplemental benefits offered by Medicare+Choice (M+C) plans and their plan performance ratings. We examined two measures of plan performance: (1) plan ratings as reported in the Medicare Managed Care (MMC) Consumer Assessment of Health Care Study (CAHPS), and (2) disenrollment rates. The results of our analysis indicated that variations in plan supplemental offerings have little impact on enrollees' plan performance ratings--both overall ratings and access to care measures. Furthermore, disenrollment rates were found to be more sensitive to the availability of alternative M+C plans, either in general, or for specific benefits than to variations in benefit offerings.

  2. Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry

    This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...... in an increasingly competitive and entrepreneurial public service culture. Following an introductory overview by the three editors the book is in three parts. The first part deals with the theory and practice of performance measurement and evaluation; the second part provides a series of specific case studies...

  3. A performance measurement using balanced scorecard and structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosha Makvandi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, balanced scorecard (BSC has been widely used as a promising method for performance measurement. BSC studies organizations in terms of four perspectives including customer, internal processes, learning and growth and financial figures. This paper presents a hybrid of BSC and structural equation modeling (SEM to measure the performance of an Iranian university in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses this conceptual method, designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some university students and professors. Using SEM technique, the survey analyzes the data and the results indicate that the university did poorly in terms of all four perspectives. The survey extracts necessary target improvement by presenting necessary attributes for performance improvement.

  4. Driver Cognitive Distraction Detection Using Driving Performance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver cognitive distraction is a hazard state, which can easily lead to traffic accidents. This study focuses on detecting the driver cognitive distraction state based on driving performance measures. Characteristic parameters could be directly extracted from Controller Area Network-(CAN-Bus data, without depending on other sensors, which improves real-time and robustness performance. Three cognitive distraction states (no cognitive distraction, low cognitive distraction, and high cognitive distraction were defined using different secondary tasks. NLModel, NHModel, LHModel, and NLHModel were developed using SVMs according to different states. The developed system shows promising results, which can correctly classify the driver’s states in approximately 74%. Although the sensitivity for these models is low, it is acceptable because in this situation the driver could control the car sufficiently. Thus, driving performance measures could be used alone to detect driver cognitive state.

  5. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  6. Proposed system for measuring project performance using process-based key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haponava, T.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite some evidence of its usefulness, performance measurement by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the construction industry also has its critics. Among the shortcomings attributed to existing KPIs is the fact that almost all of them are product oriented. This means that the indicators

  7. The Curvilinear Association between Performance Measurement System Design and Strategic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    This paper reconciles prior research regarding beneficial and detrimental effects of performance measurement system (PMS) design on performance by arguing for a curvilinear association. By taking the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect as a starting point, we challenge the assumption of a linear...

  8. The Curvilinear Association between Performance Measurement System Design and Strategic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    This paper reconciles prior research regarding beneficial and detrimental effects of performance measurement system (PMS) design on performance by arguing for a curvilinear association. By taking the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect as a starting point, we challenge the assumption of a linear asso...

  9. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF UCITS INVESTMENT FUNDS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Curkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available UCITS investment funds represent an important investment opportunity for retail, as well for institutional investors in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyse the performance of the UCITS investment funds in Croatia and to detect relatively homogeneous groups among the UCITS funds based on its performance. The analysis includes 55 UCITS, in the period from the beginning of 2011 until the end of 2014, and it is conducted on daily data of share prices, available from Bloomberg terminal. Analysis is performed separately within the groups of different investment fund by investment strategy. The research methodology is based on the calculation of various indicators of absolute and relative risk-adjusted performance and riskiness of the funds. In general, based on analysis of performance measures, it can be concluded that funds with higher values of net assets were more successful compared to the funds with below-average asset values. Also, funds with below-average values of net assets were more volatile. At the same time, funds run by foreign own management companies were more successful by the absolute performance measures, compared to funds run by management companies with domestic ownership. On the other hand, those funds were more volatile, as well.

  10. Illustrating the Impact of Performance Measurement Systems on Organizational Performance: The Blue-Green Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umble, Elisabeth; Umble, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Business students are thoroughly schooled about the importance of measurement systems that, by their very nature, are designed to accurately measure the past performance of organizations, departments, and individuals. This article describes a team-based, active-learning exercise that clearly illustrates an additional important and often…

  11. Performance Measurement using KPKU- BUMN in X School Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arijanto, Sugih; Harsono, Ambar; Taroepratjeka, Harsono

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine X School's Strengths and Opportunity of Improvement through performance measurement using KPKU-BUMN (Kriteria Penilaian Kinerja Unggul - Kementerian Badan Usaha Milik Negara). KPKU-BUMN is developed based on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellent (MBCfPE). X school is an education foundation at Bandung that has provides education from kindergarten, elementary school, to junior and senior high school. The measurement is implemented by two aspects, Process and Result. The Process is measured by A-D-L-I approaches (Approach- Deployment-Learning- Integration), on the other hand The Result is measured by Le-T-C-I approach (Level-Trend- Comparison-Integration). There are six processes that will be measured: (1) Leadership, (2) Strategic Planning, (3) Customer Focus, (4) Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management, (5) Work Force Focus, and (6) Operation Focus. Meanwhile, the result are (a) product & process outcomes, (b) customer-focused outcomes, (c) workforce-focused outcomes, (d) leadership & governance outcomes, and (e) financial & market outcomes. The overall score for X School is 284/1000, which means X School is at “early result” level at “poor” global image.

  12. Measuring the performance of visual to auditory information conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shern Shiou Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. METHODOLOGY: Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID and inter sound distance (ISD whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. CONCLUSIONS: With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives.

  13. Behavioral Health and Performance Laboratory Standard Measures (BHP-SM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas J.; Cromwell, Ronita

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceflight Standard Measures is a NASA Johnson Space Center Human Research Project (HRP) project that proposes to collect a set of core measurements, representative of many of the human spaceflight risks, from astronauts before, during and after long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The term "standard measures" is defined as a set of core measurements, including physiological, biochemical, psychosocial, cognitive, and functional, that are reliable, valid, and accepted in terrestrial science, are associated with a specific and measurable outcome known to occur as a consequence of spaceflight, that will be collected in a standardized fashion from all (or most) crewmembers. While such measures might be used to define standards of health and performance or readiness for flight, the prime intent in their collection is to allow longitudinal analysis of multiple parameters in order to answer a variety of operational, occupational, and research-based questions. These questions are generally at a high level, and the approach for this project is to populate the standard measures database with the smallest set of data necessary to indicate further detailed research is required. Also included as standard measures are parameters that are not outcome-based in and of-themselves, but provide ancillary information that supports interpretation of the outcome measures, e.g., nutritional assessment, vehicle environmental parameters, crew debriefs, etc. The project's main aim is to ensure that an optimized minimal set of measures is consistently captured from all ISS crewmembers until the end of Station in order to characterize the human in space. -This allows the HRP to identify, establish, and evaluate a common set of measures for use in spaceflight and analog research to: develop baselines, systematically characterize risk likelihood and consequences, and assess effectiveness of countermeasures that work for behavioral health and performance risk factors

  14. Pitfalls of converting practice guidelines into quality measures: lessons learned from a VA performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Louise C; Davidowitz, Natalie P; Heineken, Paul A; Covinsky, Kenneth E

    2004-05-26

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) manages the largest health care system in the United States, and the Institute of Medicine has recommended that many practices of VA quality measurement be applied to the US health care system as a whole. The VA measures quality of care at all of its sites by assessing adherence rates to performance measures, which generally are derived from evidence-based practice guidelines. Higher adherence rates are used as evidence of better quality of care. However, there are problems with converting practice guidelines, intended to offer guidance to clinicians, into performance measures that are meant to identify poor-quality care. We suggest a more balanced perspective on the use of performance measures to define quality by delineating conceptual problems with the conversion of practice guidelines into quality measures. Focusing on colorectal cancer screening, we use a case study at 1 VA facility to illustrate pitfalls that can cause adherence rates to guideline-based performance measures to be poor indicators of the quality of cancer screening. Pitfalls identified included (1) not properly considering illness severity of the sample population audited for adherence to screening, (2) not distinguishing screening from diagnostic procedures when setting achievable target screening rates, and (3) not accounting for patient preferences or clinician judgment when scoring performance measures. For many patients with severe comorbid illnesses or strong preferences against screening, the risks of colorectal cancer screening outweigh the benefits, and the decision to not screen may reflect good quality of care. Performance measures require more thoughtful specification and interpretation to avoid defining high testing rates as good quality of care regardless of who received the test, why it was performed, or whether the patient wanted it.

  15. Medicare Program; Medicare Shared Savings Program: Extreme and Uncontrollable Circumstances Policies for Performance Year 2017. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-26

    This interim final rule with comment period establishes policies for assessing the financial and quality performance of Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program) Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) affected by extreme and uncontrollable circumstances during performance year 2017, including the applicable quality reporting period for the performance year. Under the Shared Savings Program, providers of services and suppliers that participate in ACOs continue to receive traditional Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments under Parts A and B, but the ACO may be eligible to receive a shared savings payment if it meets specified quality and savings requirements. ACOs in performance-based risk agreements may also share in losses. This interim final rule with comment period establishes extreme and uncontrollable circumstances policies for the Shared Savings Program that will apply to ACOs subject to extreme and uncontrollable events, such as Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria, and the California wildfires, effective for performance year 2017, including the applicable quality data reporting period for the performance year.

  16. Improvement of a questionnaire measuring activity limitations in rising and sitting down in patients with lower-extremity disorders living at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, LD; Molenaar, IW; Lankhorst, GJ; Bouter, LM

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve a self-administered questionnaire that includes 42 dichotomous items and measures activity limitations in rising and sitting down (R&S) in patients with lower-extremity disorders who live at home. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient clinics of secondary and

  17. Measuring recent research performance for Chinese universities using bibliometric methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-07-29

    This paper focuses on measuring the academic research performance of Chinese universities by using Scopus database from 2007 to 2010. We have provided meaningful indicators to measure the research performance of Chinese universities as compared to world class universities of the US and the European region. Using these indicators, we first measure the quantity and quality of the research outcomes of the universities and then examine the internationalization of research by using international collaborations, international citations and international impact metrics. Using all of this data, we finally present an overall score called research performance point to measure the comprehensive research strength of the universities for the selected subject categories. The comparison identifies the gap between Chinese universities and top-tier universities from selected regions across various subject areas. We find that Chinese universities are doing well in terms of publication volume but receive less citations from their published work. We also find that the Chinese universities have relative low percentage of publications at high impact venues, which may be the reason that they are not receiving more citations. Therefore, a careful selection of publication venues may help the Chinese universities to compete with world class universities and increase their research internationalization. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  18. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Sobiecki, René; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with one exercise of 30 minutes duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns performance verification of the volumetric measuring capability of a small volume coordinate measuring machine. ....... This section contains reference to the American standard normative ANSI/ASME and a description of the exercise....

  19. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm(2) and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm(2)/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  20. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Tight homes require intentional mechanical ventilation to ensure healthy indoor air. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. There is currently not sufficient information available at a wide enough range of operating points to design dehumidification systems for high performance homes in hot-humid climates. The only industry information available on dehumidifier moisture removal and energy consumption are performance ratings conducted at a single test condition, which does not provide a full representation of dehumidifier operation under real-world conditions. Winkler et al. (2011) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, we tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  1. A Thermographic Measurement Approach to Assess Supercapacitor Electrical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Galla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proposal for the qualitative assessment of condition of supercapacitors based on the conducted thermographic measurements. The presented measurement stand was accompanied by the concept of methodology of performing tests. Necessary conditions, which were needed to minimize the influence of disturbing factors on the performance of thermal imaging measurements, were also indicated. Mentioned factors resulted from both: the hardware limitations and from the necessity to prepare samples. The algorithm that was used to determine the basic parameters for assessment has been presented. The article suggests to use additional factors that may facilitate the analysis of obtained results. Measuring the usefulness of the proposed methodology was tested on commercial samples of supercapacitors. All of the tests were taken in conjunction with the classical methods based on capacitance (C and equivalent series resistance (ESR measurements, which were also presented in the paper. Selected results presenting the observed changes occurring in both: basic parameters of supercapacitors and accompanying fluctuations of thermal fields, along with analysis, were shown. The observed limitations of the proposed assessment method and the suggestions for its development were also described.

  2. Effectiveness of measures of performance during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Rotundo, Giulia

    2008-06-01

    Statistical analysis of financial data mostly focused on testing the validity of Brownian motion (Bm). Analyses performed on several time series have shown deviation from the Bm hypothesis, that is at the base of the evaluation of many financial derivatives. We analyze the behavior of performance measures based on maximum drawdown movements ( MDD( T)), testing their stability when the underlying process deviates from the Bm hypothesis. In particular we consider the fractional Brownian motion (fBm), and fluctuations estimated empirically on raw market data. The case study of the rising part of speculative bubbles is reported.

  3. Process-oriented performance indicators for measuring ecodesign management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to support ecodesign performance measurement from a business perspective, this paper performs an exploration of available process-oriented indicators to be applied to ecodesign management practices. With the Ecodesign Maturity Model as a background framework, a systematic literature review...... coupled with a cross-content analysis was carried out to assign proper indicators to the practices. Results show that the currently available indicators do not fully reflect the characteristics of ecodesign and there is significant room for improving the development of tailor-made indicators....

  4. Measuring the Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research,” Frontiers in Neurology 2, 58 (2011). 9. R.B. Bogoslovov, C.M. Roland, and R.M. Gamache...C.M. Roland R.M. GaMaChe Materials Chemistry Branch Chemistry Division Measuring the Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor i REPORT... Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor C.M. Roland and R.M. Gamache Naval Research Laboratory Chemistry Division, Code 6120 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW

  5. Innovative Performance Measurement: an Integrative Perspective of Stakeholder's View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Fresno Palmira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Management (BPM has been increasingly focused as an holistic approach to manage organizations for better organizational effectiveness. BPM involves the use of innovative performance measurement systems to follow up, coordinate, control and improve processes and overall business efficacy and efficiency. In this paper we propose a global holistic perspective of integrated information, combining the view of all stakeholders and both qualitative and quantitative information, as a basic prerequisite for quality of information for better decision making. The paper includes findings from an empirical case study of measuring Parkinson's Disease Neurosurgery process, including stakeholder's view with an integrative perspective.

  6. A characterization of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies: case studies in food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Araújo Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The postponement strategy is more and more used by companies with the increasing complexity and variety of products, currently required by the market. In essence, the postponement is used to delay as much as possible the final configuration and/or movement of products and services, until the demand known. Despite the increasing attention to the subject, little is known about is implementation, especially in the Brazilian food industry. This research aims to investigate how the postponement strategy is applied to food companies and what performance measures that can be used to evaluate the results of this application. To meet these goals were developed six exploratory case studies in orange juice and fruits processing companies. The results allow comparing the performance measures found in the literature with those obtained in empirical research and systematize them in order to obtain a list of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies.

  7. Study of radon measurement instrumentation in extreme environmental conditions; Estudio de la instrumentacion de medida de radon en condiciones ambientales extremas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, V.; Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, L.; Vargas, A.; Grossi, C.

    2011-07-01

    Within the framework of the scientific project of the Nuclear Safety Council ''Study of environmental monitoring instrumentation and measurement of radon in extreme environmental conditions' at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona has established a partnership with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) to conduct a study to identify the most appropriate filters to minimize the influence of measurement conditions, particularly with respect to moisture on the response of continuous radon detectors and integrators. (Author)

  8. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  9. Performance Improvement of a Measurement Station for Superconducting Cable Test

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Montenero, G; Le Naour, S

    2012-01-01

    A fully digital system, improving measurements flexibility, integrator drift, and current control of superconducting transformers for cable test, is proposed. The system is based on a high-performance integration of Rogowski coil signal and a flexible direct control of the current into the secondary windings. This allows state-of-the-art performance to be overcome by means of out-of-the-shelf components: on a full-scale of 32 kA, current measurement resolution of 1 A, stability below 0.25 Amin-1, and controller ripple less than 50 ppm. The system effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally on the superconducting transformer of the Facility for the Research of Superconducting Cables at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  10. Monitoring psychotherapy with performance-based measures of personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Irving B

    2004-12-01

    In this commentary, I review a meta-analysis and three original research reports concerning the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) assessment in psychological treatment planning and outcome evaluation. The information in these four articles bears witness to the potential utility of performance-based personality assessment measures for this purpose. The strengths and limitations of the articles suggest several guidelines for future research designed to examine this Rorschach and TAT application including an emphasis on effectiveness studies, longitudinal data, integrated independent variables, observable dependent variables, sophisticated data analysis combining nomothetic and idiographic presentation, and the incremental contribution of performance-based measures to psychotherapy-related personality assessment.

  11. Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won HL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,2 Normah Che Din,3 Manal Badrasawi,4 Zahara Abdul Manaf,4 Sin Thien Tan,2 Chu Chiau Tai,2 Suzana Shahar4 1Nutrition Science Program, 2Physiotherapy Program, 3Health Psychology Program, 4Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. Methods: A total of 164 older adults aged ≥60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. Results: There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=−0.355, clock drawing test (r=−0.441, matrix reasoning test (r=−0.315, and block design test (r=−0.045. A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301, and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251. The agility test appeared as a significant (R2=0.183, R2=0.407, R2=0.299, P<0.05 predictor of some cognitive performance measures, including the digit span test, clock drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusion: These results suggest that a decline in most cognitive performance measures can be predicted by poor execution of a more demanding physical performance

  12. Building scale in community impact investing through nonfinancial performance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Ben; Dailey, Colby

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of nonfinancial performance is becoming increasingly important in the community impact investing industry, where individuals and institutions actively deploy capital in low-income domestic markets for both financial and social returns. Quality data ensure that the creation of jobs, construction of community facilities, financing of affordable housing, and other benefits that characterize the sector are delivered cost-effectively and transparently. This paper discusses the limi...

  13. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  14. Computing Fuzzy Queueing Performance Measures by L-R Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Mukeba Kanyinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the {\\it L-R method} introduced in this work is one of valid methods for computing performance measures of fuzzy queues. Using this calculation technique, we find the number of customers and the waiting time of a simple queue M/M/1 in fuzzy environment. L-R method has the advantage of being short, convenient and flexible compared to the well-known and called alpha-cuts method.

  15. A proteomics performance standard to support measurement quality in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley-Green, Ashley; Bunk, David; Rudnick, Paul; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Phinney, Karen

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as a prominent technology utilized in biochemical and biomedical research has increased the need for high-quality MS measurements. To address this need, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference material (RM) 8323 yeast protein extract is introduced as a proteomics quality control material for benchmarking the preanalytical and analytical performance of proteomics-based experimental workflows. RM 8323 yeast protein extract is based upon the well-characterized eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and can be utilized in the design and optimization of proteomics-based methodologies from sample preparation to data analysis. To demonstrate its utility as a proteomics quality control material, we coupled LC-MS/MS measurements of RM 8323 with the NIST MS Quality Control (MSQC) performance metrics to quantitatively assess the LC-MS/MS instrumentation parameters that influence measurement accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility. Due to the complexity of the yeast proteome, we also demonstrate how NIST RM 8323, along with the NIST MSQC performance metrics, can be used in the evaluation and optimization of proteomics-based sample preparation methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  17. Application of Anova to Pulse Detonation Engine Dynamic Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Kumar, Rakesh; Sandhu, Manmohan; Jindal, TK

    2017-10-01

    Application of Anova to Pulse detonation engine dynamic performance measurement resulted in quantifying engine functionality during various operations. After evaluating the performance, techniques of improving it, were applied in multiple areas of relevant interest. This produced encouraging results and helped in upscaling efforts in a significant manner. The current paper deals in the details of anova implementation and systematic identification of key areas of improvements. The improvements were carried out after careful selection of plans in the engine, ground rig and instrumentation setup etc. It also yielded better reproducibility of performance and optimization of main subsystems of PDE. Further, this will also contribute to reduce the development cycle and trial complexity also, if researchers continue to extract concern areas to be addressed.

  18. Validation of a global measure of faculty's clinical teaching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent C; Litzelman, Debra K; Babbott, Stewart F; Lubitz, Robert M; Hofer, Tim P

    2002-02-01

    To validate the University of Michigan Global Rating Scale (GRS), a single-item, five-point global measure of faculty members' clinical teaching performances previously shown to be reliable. In June 1998, 98 senior medical residents (98% of seniors) from four academic institutions completed the GRS for all teaching faculty at their institutions. Each resident also completed the 26-item Stanford Faculty Development questionnaire (SFDP26) for ten faculty with whom he or she had had teaching contact during residency. The SFDP26 is a validated instrument that measures seven specific aspects of clinical teaching (e.g., communication of goals, feedback). The mean GRS score (SE) was 3.83 (.07). There was no difference in mean GRS or SFDP26 subscale scores across institutions. In a random-effects model that controlled for interrater reliability, correlation coefficients comparing the mean GRS scores and the mean scores for the individual SFDP26 subscales ranged from.86 to.98. The GRS correlates highly with measures of seven specific aspects of teaching effectiveness among senior medical residents. The GRS is a simple, readily administered measure of faculty's teaching performances that can be used by residency programs as part of an incentive or reward program, to identify teachers as potential candidates for faculty development, or for consideration in promotion decisions.

  19. Influence of Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty on Handset Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  20. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...