Sample records for extremities preoperative color

  1. Primary chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities: preoperative color duplex Doppler ultrasound study; Insuficiencia venosa cronica primaria de los miembros inferiores. Valoracion prequirurgica con ecografia Doppler duplex color

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    Selfa, S.; Diago, T.; Ricart, M.; Chulia, R.; Martin, F. [Hospital Lluis Xativa. Valencia (Spain)


    To asses the role of color duplex Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the preoperative study of patients with varicose veins in lower extremities. We employed CDU to examine varicose veins in 342 lower limbs, assessing reflux in saphenous veins (SV), deep venous system (DVS) and perforating veins (PV). We analyzed the relationship between the anatomical extent of the reflux and the clinical findings. Insufficiency of the superficial venous system alone was uncommon, occurring in only 10.8% of the limbs examined. Reflux was observed in SV and PV in 48.2% of the legs. It was detected in all three systems in 29.2% of cases. The presence of reflux in more than one system and more than one value was associated with increased clinical severity. The site of venous reflux in lower extremities with varicose veins varies. Greater clinical severity is observed in the presence of more marked reflux in the DVS and PV. CDU provides anatomic and functional data on the three venous systems of the lower limbs, allowing an individualized therapeutic surgery. Preoperative localization of incompetent PV by means of CDU facilities their ligation. CDU is the technique of choice for the preoperative examination of the venous systems of patients with varicose veins. (Author)

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Preoperative Versus Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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    Qu, Xuanlu M. [Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, London, Ontario (Canada); Ashman, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Wasif, Nabil, E-mail: [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)


    Purpose: Surgery combined with radiation therapy (RT) is the cornerstone of multidisciplinary management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Although RT can be given in either the preoperative or the postoperative setting with similar local recurrence and survival outcomes, the side effect profiles, costs, and long-term functional outcomes are different. The aim of this study was to use decision analysis to determine optimal sequencing of RT with surgery in patients with extremity STS. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a state transition Markov model, with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as the primary outcome. A time horizon of 5 years, a cycle length of 3 months, and a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was used. One-way deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the thresholds at which each strategy would be preferred. The robustness of the model was assessed by probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: Preoperative RT is a more cost-effective strategy ($26,633/3.00 QALYs) than postoperative RT ($28,028/2.86 QALYs) in our base case scenario. Preoperative RT is the superior strategy with either 3-dimensional conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT. One-way sensitivity analyses identified the relative risk of chronic adverse events as having the greatest influence on the preferred timing of RT. The likelihood of preoperative RT being the preferred strategy was 82% on probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: Preoperative RT is more cost effective than postoperative RT in the management of resectable extremity STS, primarily because of the higher incidence of chronic adverse events with RT in the postoperative setting.

  3. Extreme reaction times determine fluctuation scaling in human color vision (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.


    In modern mental chronometry, human reaction time defines the time elapsed from stimulus presentation until a response occurs and represents a reference paradigm for investigating stochastic latency mechanisms in color vision. Here we examine the statistical properties of extreme reaction times and whether they support fluctuation scaling in the skewness-kurtosis plane. Reaction times were measured for visual stimuli across the cardinal directions of the color space. For all subjects, the results show that very large reaction times deviate from the right tail of reaction time distributions suggesting the existence of dragon-kings events. The results also indicate that extreme reaction times are correlated and shape fluctuation scaling over a wide range of stimulus conditions. The scaling exponent was higher for achromatic than isoluminant stimuli, suggesting distinct generative mechanisms. Our findings open a new perspective for studying failure modes in sensory-motor communications and in complex networks.

  4. Preoperative Factors Associated with Infiltrative Histologic Growth Patterns in Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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    Jong Woong Park


    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcoma (STS with an infiltrative histologic growth pattern, when compared to STS with an expansile pattern, may pose difficulties in local control. Preoperative assessment of the presence of infiltrative histologic growth pattern would be helpful in deciding treatment strategies. A review of 144 patients who underwent surgery for extremity STS was performed. Microscopically, the histologic growth pattern was defined as infiltrative if the penetration of the tumor cells into the surrounding tissue was observed. Possible clinicopathologic factors that might be associated with infiltrative histologic growth pattern were investigated with regard to patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and MRI findings. Of the 144 tumors, 71 (49% showed infiltrative histologic growth pattern. On multivariate analysis, histological subtypes other than liposarcoma (OR = 4.57, p=0.02 and infiltrative border on MRI (OR = 2.48, p=0.01 were independent factors associated with infiltrative histologic growth pattern. Predictive index based on these two factors showed a significant improved accuracy (ROC-AUC = 0.647 for predicting infiltrative histologic growth pattern compared to either factor alone. Our data suggests that liposarcoma histology and tumor border on MRI can predict histologic growth pattern in extremity STS.

  5. Patient-, Treatment-, and Facility-Level Structural Characteristics Associated With the Receipt of Preoperative Lower Extremity Amputation Rehabilitation (United States)

    Bates, Barbara E.; Hallenbeck, Richard; Ferrario, Toni; Kwong, Pui L.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Stineman, Margaret G.; Xie, Dawei


    Objectives To determine patient, treatment, or facility characteristics that influence decisions to initiate a rehabilitation assessment before transtibial or transfemoral amputation within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Design Retrospective database study. Setting VA medical centers. Participants A total of 4226 veterans with lower extremity amputations discharged from a VA medical center between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2004. Outcome Evidence of a preoperative rehabilitation assessment after the index surgical stay admission but before the surgical date. Results Evidence was found that 343 of 4226 veterans (8.12%) with lower extremity amputations received preoperative rehabilitation assessments. Veterans receiving preoperative rehabilitation were more likely to be older, admitted from home, or transferred from another hospital. Patients who underwent surgical amputation at smaller-sized hospitals or in the South Central or Mountain Pacific regions were more likely to receive preoperative rehabilitation compared with patients in mid-sized hospitals or in the Northeast, Southeast, or Midwest regions. Patients with evidence of paralysis, patients treated in facilities with programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (P amputation etiology of a previous amputation complication were more likely to receive preoperative consultation rehabilitation services (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02–2.19) compared with patients who did not have this etiology. Compared with patients treated in the Southeast region of the United States, those treated in the South Central region (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.82–3.48) or Mountain Pacific region (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11–2.37) were more likely to receive preoperative consultation rehabilitation services. Patients with evidence of paralysis were less likely to receive preoperative rehabilitative services compared with patients who did not have this condition (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.93), and

  6. Color Face Recognition Based on Steerable Pyramid Transform and Extreme Learning Machines

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    Ayşegül Uçar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel color face recognition algorithm by means of fusing color and local information. The proposed algorithm fuses the multiple features derived from different color spaces. Multiorientation and multiscale information relating to the color face features are extracted by applying Steerable Pyramid Transform (SPT to the local face regions. In this paper, the new three hybrid color spaces, YSCr, ZnSCr, and BnSCr, are firstly constructed using the Cb and Cr component images of the YCbCr color space, the S color component of the HSV color spaces, and the Zn and Bn color components of the normalized XYZ color space. Secondly, the color component face images are partitioned into the local patches. Thirdly, SPT is applied to local face regions and some statistical features are extracted. Fourthly, all features are fused according to decision fusion frame and the combinations of Extreme Learning Machines classifiers are applied to achieve color face recognition with fast and high correctness. The experiments show that the proposed Local Color Steerable Pyramid Transform (LCSPT face recognition algorithm improves seriously face recognition performance by using the new color spaces compared to the conventional and some hybrid ones. Furthermore, it achieves faster recognition compared with state-of-the-art studies.

  7. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology. (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph


    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.

  8. Preoperative blood glucose and prognosis in diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity amputation

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    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus


    INTRODUCTION: Previous work has shown that uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse surgical outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to establish if a high peri-operative random blood sugar (RBS) concentration among patients with diabetes with non-traumatic lower......: A total of 270 patients underwent non-traumatic LEA of whom 105 had diabetes, whereas 81 patients were included for this study. The mean age was 71 years (standard deviation: ± 11.8). Mortality was 27% and 16% were re-amputated within three months after their first amputation.The median pre-operative RBS.......50-7.22), with the Q1 tertile as the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not confirm that a high peri-operative RBS level can predict increased mortality or re-amputation among patients with diabetes who undergo non-traumatic LEA. Furthermore, based on our results, we cannot inform clinical decision...

  9. Emergency color Doppler sonography of the extremity artery: A pictorial essay. (United States)

    Mennitt, Kevin; Deol, Madhvi; Gao, Jing

    Arterial color duplex sonography (CDUS) of the extremities is routinely analyzed in the field of emergency radiology. A retrospective review of 500 consecutive arterial CDUS extremity studies was performed in our emergency department. Abnormal CDUS examinations were classified into two groups according to their primary etiology: 1) traumatic arterial injuries (accidents or post-operative complications) and 2) acute arterial ischemia (thrombosis or embolism outside of the setting of acute trauma). This article reviews common CDUS imaging findings in a busy emergency radiology division including traumatic pseudoaneurysm, secondary pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, acute ischemic arterial disease and chronic peripheral arterial disease. This essay highlights the crucial role of CDUS in the diagnosis of vascular abnormalities in the emergency setting. CDUS provides several advantages over other imaging modalities including high accuracy, rapid results, portability, lack of radiation, and low cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A failure of preoperative duplex imaging to diagnose a lower extremity venous aneurysm in a patient with severe chronic venous insufficiency

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    Roy Wesley Jones


    Full Text Available Objective: We present a case of recurrent bilateral lower extremity venous stasis ulcers in association with a superficial venous aneurysm at the right saphenofemoral junction that was misdiagnosed on preoperative duplex scanning. Methods: A 53-year-old female presented to our clinic with 6-year history of bilateral lower extremity venous stasis ulcers. Her past medical history was significant for refractory venous stasis ulcers of the bilateral lower extremities present for 6 years and morbid obesity. Results: Preoperative venous duplex demonstrated severe venous insufficiency of the superficial and deep systems, but a venous aneurysm was not appreciated. During the high ligation of the right saphenofemoral junction, a 3 × 4 × 5 cm aneurysm was encountered. Repair consisted of aneurysm resection, high ligation of the greater saphenous vein, dissociation of the great saphenous and anterior saphenous veins, and stab phlebectomy of large varicose veins of the thigh and lower leg. The patient recovered uneventfully and experienced complete healing of the venous stasis ulcer in several weeks. Conclusion: Superficial venous aneurysms of the lower extremity are rare and can be often missed on preoperative duplex ultrasound imaging. Large diameter measurements of the proximal greater saphenous vein and obesity increase the risk of misdiagnosing venous aneurysms with duplex imaging; therefore, clinical suspicion must remain high. These aneurysms can be associated with significant symptoms for which repair is indicated.

  11. Color-texture based extreme learning machines for tissue tumor classification (United States)

    Yang, X.; Yeo, S. Y.; Wong, S. T.; Lee, G.; Su, Y.; Hong, J. M.; Choo, A.; Chen, S.


    In histopathological classification and diagnosis of cancer cases, pathologists perform visual assessments of immunohistochemistry (IHC)-stained biomarkers in cells to determine tumor versus non-tumor tissues. One of the prerequisites for such assessments is the correct identification of regions-of-interest (ROIs) with relevant histological features. Advances in image processing and machine learning give rise to the possibility of full automation in ROI identification by identifying image features such as colors and textures. Such computer-aided diagnostic systems could enhance research output and efficiency in identifying the pathology (normal, non-tumor or tumor) of a tissue pattern from ROI images. In this paper, a computational method using color-texture based extreme learning machines (ELM) is proposed for automatic tissue tumor classification. Our approach consists of three steps: (1) ROIs are manually identified and annotated from individual cores of tissue microarrays (TMAs); (2) color and texture features are extracted from the ROIs images; (3) ELM is applied to the extracted features to classify the ROIs into non-tumor or tumor categories. The proposed approach is tested on 100 sets of images from a kidney cancer TMA and the results show that ELM is able to achieve classification accuracies of 91.19% and 88.72% with a Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) and linear kernel, respectively, which is superior to using SVM with the same kernels.

  12. Color Face Recognition Based on Steerable Pyramid Transform and Extreme Learning Machines


    Ayşegül Uçar


    This paper presents a novel color face recognition algorithm by means of fusing color and local information. The proposed algorithm fuses the multiple features derived from different color spaces. Multiorientation and multiscale information relating to the color face features are extracted by applying Steerable Pyramid Transform (SPT) to the local face regions. In this paper, the new three hybrid color spaces, YSCr, Z n SCr, and B n SCr, are firstly constructed using the Cb and Cr component i...

  13. Excisional biopsy of suspected benign soft tissue tumors of the upper extremity: correlation between preoperative diagnosis and actual pathology

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    Sluijmer, Heleen C. E.; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Bossen, Jeroen K. J.; Ring, David


    Tumors of the upper extremity are common and mostly benign. However, the prevalence of discordant diagnosis of a solid hand tumor is less studied. The objectives of this retrospective study were (1) to determine the proportion of patients with a different (discrepant or discordant) pathological

  14. Terminal valve of sapheno-femoral junction: a comparative assessment between pre-operative color-duplex ultrasound and intra-operative evaluation

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    Attilio Cavezzi


    Full Text Available According to literature data, up to 59% of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSV have no reflux at the terminal valve (TV of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ. The aim was to compare color duplex ultrasound (CDU investigation and direct intra-operative assessment of competence of the TV at SFJ. A prospective comparative study was performed on 28 patients, who consecutively presented for surgical intervention for their primary varicose veins of the lower limbs with GSV incompetence. CDU assessment was performed pre-operatively to define GSV and SFJ terminal valve morphology and hemodynamics. Under local anesthesia these patients underwent SFJ disconnection (crossectomy and segmental inverted saphenous stripping of the incompetent GSV tract + phlebectomy of the varicose tributaries. SFJ disconnection was performed in four stages in an ascending fashion: I division of GSV below the lower SFJ tributaries, II disconnection of lower SFJ tributaries, III disconnection of upper tributaries, IV flush to CFV ligature of GSV stump. After the completion of stage I, the SFJ stump was opened and kept open when needed throughout the subsequent stages, in order to highlight any possible blood leak through the SFJ stump. To highlight intraoperative blood leak from SFJ stump visual observation was carried out both during respiration and when performing Valsalva maneuver and manual compression of homolateral iliac fossa. As to pre-operative CDU all limbs showed GSV reflux and they were divided in two groups according to TV competence (group A or incompetence (group B. Group A comprised 18 patients (6 M and 12 F, mean age 50.6 years. Group B included 10 patients (4 M and 6 F, mean age 54.8 years. Mean calibre of GSV at proximal/mid thigh was 6.4 mm in group A and 7.8 in group B. Concerning the intra-operative findings: in the group A, 5 patients had blood leak in the SFJ stump after stage I, 4 patients showed blood leak after stage II. After completion of stage III

  15. Effective and efficient lymphaticovenular anastomosis using preoperative ultrasound detection technique of lymphatic vessels in lower extremity lymphedema. (United States)

    Hayashi, Akitatsu; Hayashi, Nobuko; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takumi


    Identification of functional lymphatic vessels and localization of lymphatic vessels are important for lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA). Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography is useful for localization of superficial lymphatic vessels where dermal backflow is not observed, but not for lymphatic vessels in deep layer or where dermal backflow is observed. Ultrasound has been applied in LVA and is considered useful for localization of lymphatic vessels with ICG lymphography cannot be visualized. Fifty-five secondary lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) patients who underwent LVA were classified into two groups, ultrasound-detection-of-lymphatic group (US group, n = 29) and non-ultrasound-detection-of-lymphatic group (non-US group, n = 26), and assessed. Sensitivity and specificity to detect lymphatic vessel were evaluated in US group. Intraoperative findings, required time for dissecting lymphatic vessels and veins, length of skin incision, and postoperative lymphedematous volume reduction were compared between the groups. Lymphatic vessels were detected in all incisions in both groups. LVA resulted in 232 anastomoses in US group and 210 anastomoses in non-US group. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detection of lymphatic vessels were 88.2% and 92.7%, respectively. Diameter of lymphatic vessels found in US group was significantly larger than that in non-US group (0.66 ± 0.18 vs 0.45 ± 0.20 mm; P = 0.042). Time required for dissecting lymphatic vessels and veins in US group was shorter than that in non-US group (9.2 ± 1.7 vs 14.7 ± 2.4 min; P = 0.026). LEL index reduction was significantly greater in US group than that in non-US group (26.7 ± 13.6 vs 7.8 ± 11.3; P = 0.031). Ultrasound-guided detection of lymphatic vessels for lymphedema was performed with high precision, and allows easier and more effective LVA surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Preoperative Treatment of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

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    Richard, Patrick, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Davidson, Darin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kim, Edward; Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)


    Purpose: Create a cost-effectiveness model comparing preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Input parameters included 5-year local recurrence rates, rates of acute wound adverse events, and chronic toxicities (edema, fracture, joint stiffness, and fibrosis). Health-state utilities were used to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Overall treatment costs per QALY or incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Roll-back analysis was performed using average costs and utilities to determine the baseline preferred radiation technique. One-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed for input parameters with the largest impact on the ICER. Results: Overall treatment costs were $17,515.58 for 3DCRT compared with $22,920.51 for IMRT. The effectiveness was higher for IMRT (3.68 QALYs) than for 3DCRT (3.35 QALYs). The baseline ICER for IMRT was $16,842.75/QALY, making it the preferable treatment. The ICER was most sensitive to the probability of local recurrence, upfront radiation costs, local recurrence costs, certain utilities (no toxicity/no recurrence, grade 1 toxicity/no local recurrence, grade 4 toxicity/no local recurrence), and life expectancy. Dominance patterns emerged when the cost of 3DCRT exceeded $15,532.05 (IMRT dominates) or the life expectancy was under 1.68 years (3DCRT dominates). Furthermore, preference patterns changed based on the rate of local recurrence (threshold: 13%). The PSA results demonstrated that IMRT was the preferred cost-effective technique for 64% of trials compared with 36% for 3DCRT. Conclusions: Based on our model, IMRT is the preferred technique by lowering rates of local recurrence, severe toxicities, and improving QALYs. From a third-party payer perspective, IMRT should be a supported approach for extremity soft tissue sarcomas.

  17. Preoperative assessment. (United States)

    García-Miguel, F J; Serrano-Aguilar, P G; López-Bastida, J


    Although anaesthetic and surgical procedures should be individualised for every patient, in practice many preoperative protocols and routines are used generally. In this article, we aim to emphasise: why preoperative assessment is important; how it should be done, and by whom; what can be expected; and the importance of test selection based on patients' needs and on scientific evidence of effectiveness. We outline the roles of preoperative medical assessment in otherwise healthy patients. Clinical history, preoperative questionnaires, physical examination, routine tests, individual risk-assessment, and fasting policies are investigated by review of published work. Cost of routine preoperative assessment, the anaesthetist's legal responsibility, and patients'views in the preoperative process are also considered. A thorough clinical preoperative assessment of the patient is more important than routine preoperative tests, which should be requested only when justified by clinical indications. Moreover, this practice eliminates unnecessary cost without compromising the safety and quality of care. Education and training of medical doctors should be more scientifically guided, emphasising the relevance of effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness in clinical decision-making and complemented by audit.

  18. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

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    Wang Dian, E-mail: [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  19. Preoperative Screening. (United States)

    Marwell, Julianna G; Heflin, Mitchell T; McDonald, Shelley R


    Older adults undergoing elective surgical procedures suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality than younger patients. A geriatric-focused preoperative evaluation can identify risk factors for complications and opportunities for health optimization and care coordination. Key components of a geriatric preoperative evaluation include (1) assessments of function, mobility, cognition, and mental health; (2) reviews of medical conditions and medications; and (3) discussion of risks, preferences, and goals of care. A geriatric-focused, team-based approach can improve surgical outcomes and patient experience. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Variation in the Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Large High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity Among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

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    Wang Dian, E-mail: [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Al Lozi, Rawan; El Naqa, Issam [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate variability in the definition of preoperative radiotherapy gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) delineated by sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Extremity sarcoma planning CT images along with the corresponding diagnostic MRI from two patients were distributed to 10 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions to define GTV and CTV using standardized guidelines. The CT data with contours were then returned for central analysis. Contours representing statistically corrected 95% (V95) and 100% (V100) agreement were computed for each structure. Results: For the GTV, the minimum, maximum, mean (SD) volumes (mL) were 674, 798, 752 {+-} 35 for the lower extremity case and 383, 543, 447 {+-} 46 for the upper extremity case. The volume (cc) of the union, V95 and V100 were 882, 761, and 752 for the lower, and 587, 461, and 455 for the upper extremity, respectively. The overall GTV agreement was judged to be almost perfect in both lower and upper extremity cases (kappa = 0.9 [p < 0.0001] and kappa = 0.86 [p < 0.0001]). For the CTV, the minimum, maximum, mean (SD) volumes (mL) were 1145, 1911, 1605 {+-} 211 for the lower extremity case and 637, 1246, 1006 {+-} 180 for the upper extremity case. The volume (cc) of the union, V95, and V100 were 2094, 1609, and 1593 for the lower, and 1533, 1020, and 965 for the upper extremity cases, respectively. The overall CTV agreement was judged to be almost perfect in the lower extremity case (kappa = 0.85 [p < 0.0001]) but only substantial in the upper extremity case (kappa = 0.77 [p < 0.0001]). Conclusions: Almost perfect agreement existed in the GTV of these two representative cases. Tshere was no significant disagreement in the CTV of the lower extremity, but variation in the CTV of upper extremity was seen, perhaps related to the positional differences between the planning CT and the diagnostic MRI.

  1. [Preoperative information]. (United States)

    Knobel, A; Hassfeld, S


    Many empirical studies have identified the quality and communication of patient information as a major weak point in the treatment process. Patient information can be made considerably more effective by multimedia communication of contents tailored to the patient's needs. Computer-based training (CBT) takes the multimedia presentation one step further. Using the Macromedia Director 8.5 authoring software, a multimedia system for pre-operative patient information was developed on CD-ROM for a limited area of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This information system was evaluated for quality assurance on the basis of a random sample of 85 patients in a test lasting about 20 min. Impressions were determined with regard to design features, motivation, understanding, the subjective communication of knowledge, the newly acquired competence and acceptance compared with other media (information leaflets, Internet, conventional information). The analysis of the program test revealed a hugely positive assessment of the interactive program in respect of layout, functionality and design as well as in respect of structuring and the subjective understanding of the underlying complaint, therapy and potential complications. In a comparison with other information media such as information leaflets and the Internet, the program was rated just as good or better by over 70% of the respondents. Only conventional consultation with a doctor came off better in a direct comparison. It was shown that the quality of preoperative patient information can be improved through multimedia presentation and that it would be sensible to make use of modern media for the purposes of giving patients graphic information.

  2. Agreement among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists in Contouring Suspicious Peritumoral Edema for Pre-operative Radiotherapy of Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity (United States)

    Bahig, Houda; Roberge, David; Bosch, Walter; Levin, William; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Freeman, Carolyn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Indelicato, Danny J.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hitchcock, Ying; Kirsch, David G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Wolfson, Aaron; Wang, Dian


    Purpose Peritumoral edema may potentially harbor sarcoma cells. The extent of suspicious edema (SE) included in the treatment volume is subject to clinical judgment, balancing the risk of missing tumor cells with excess toxicity. Our goal was to determine variability in SE delineation by sarcoma radiation oncologists (RO). Material and Method Twelve expert ROs were provided with T1 Gadolinium and T2-weighted MR images of 10 patients with high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma. Gross tumor volume, CTV3cm (3cm longitudinal and 1.5cm radial margin) and CTV2cm (2cm longitudinal and 1cm radial margin) were contoured by a single observer. Suspicious peritumoral edema, defined as abnormal signal on T2 images, was independently delineated by all 12 ROs. Contouring agreement was analyzed using the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results The mean volumes of GTV, CTV2cm and CTV3cm were respectively 130 cm3 (7–413 cm3), 280cm3 and 360cm3. The mean consensus volume computed using the STAPLE algorithm at 95% confidence interval was 188cm3 (24–565cm3) with a substantial overall agreement corrected for chance (mean kappa =0.71; range: 0.32–0.87). The minimum, maximum and mean volume of suspicious edema (excluding the GTV) were 4cm3, 182cm3 and 58 cm3 (representing a median of 29% of the GTV volume). The median volume of suspicious edema not included in the CTV2cm and in the CTV3cm was 5 cm3 and 0.3cm3 respectively. There were 3 large tumors with >30cm3 of suspicious edema not included in the CTV3cm volume. Conclusion Despite the fact that SE would empirically seem to be a more subjective volume, a substantial or near-perfect inter-observer agreement was observed in SE delineation in most cases with high-grade STS of the extremity. A median of 97% of the consensus SE is within the CTV2cm (99.8% within the CTV3cm). In a minority of cases, however, significant expansion of the CTVs is required to cover SE. PMID

  3. Agreement Among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists in Contouring Suspicious Peritumoral Edema for Preoperative Radiation Therapy of Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahig, Houda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Roberge, David, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Bosch, Walter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Levin, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Freeman, Carolyn [Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Indelicato, Danny J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Baldini, Elizabeth H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hitchcock, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); and others


    Purpose: Peritumoral edema may harbor sarcoma cells. The extent of suspicious edema (SE) included in the treatment volume is subject to clinical judgment, balancing the risk of missing tumor cells with excess toxicity. Our goal was to determine variability in SE delineation by sarcoma radiation oncologists (RO). Methods and Materials: Twelve expert ROs were provided with T1 gadolinium and T2-weighted MR images of 10 patients with high-grade extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV)3cm (3 cm longitudinal and 1.5 cm radial margin), and CTV2cm (2 cm longitudinal and 1 cm radial margin) were contoured by a single observer. Suspicious peritumoral edema, defined as abnormal signal on T2 images, was independently delineated by all 12 ROs. Contouring agreement was analyzed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: The mean volumes of GTV, CTV2cm, and CTV3cm were, respectively, 130 cm{sup 3} (7-413 cm{sup 3}), 280 cm{sup 3} and 360 cm{sup 3}. The mean consensus volume computed using the STAPLE algorithm at 95% confidence interval was 188 cm{sup 3} (24-565 cm{sup 3}) with a substantial overall agreement corrected for chance (mean kappa = 0.71; range: 0.32-0.87). The minimum, maximum, and mean volume of SE (excluding the GTV) were 4, 182, and 58 cm{sup 3} (representing a median of 29% of the GTV volume). The median volume of SE not included in the CTV2cm and in the CTV3cm was 5 and 0.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. There were 3 large tumors with >30 cm{sup 3} of SE not included in the CTV3cm volume. Conclusion: Despite the fact that SE would empirically seem to be a more subjective volume, a substantial or near-perfect interobserver agreement was observed in SE delineation in most cases with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity. A median of 97% of the consensus SE is within the CTV2cm (99.8% within the CTV3cm). In a minority of cases, however, significant

  4. Color naming across languages reflects color use. (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R


    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  6. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping


    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  7. Color Blindness (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  8. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša


    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  9. [Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty]. (United States)

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Levet, Y; Aiach, G


    Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty consists in analyzing individual anatomical and functional characteristics without losing sight of the initial requirements of the patient to which priority should be given. The examination is primarily clinical but it also uses preoperative photographs taken at specific accurate angles. Detecting functional disorders or associated general pathologies, which will reduce the risk of complications. All of these factors taken into account, the surgeon can work out a rhinoplasty plan which he or she will subsequently explain to the patient and obtain his or her approbation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N


    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  11. Effect of preoperative neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on functional outcome after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Erika O; Roos, Ewa M.; Meichtry, André


    BACKGROUND: Improving functional status preoperatively through exercise may improve postoperative outcome. Previous knowledge on preoperative exercise in knee osteoarthritis is insufficient. The aim of the study was to compare the difference in change between groups in lower extremity function fr....... These benefits were not sustained after TKR. Our trial doesn't give a conclusive answer to whether additional preoperative exercise on postoperative functional outcomes is beneficial....

  12. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines. (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda


    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  13. Preoperative Safety Briefing Project. (United States)

    Defontes, James; Surbida, Stephanie


    Increased media attention on surgical procedures that were performed on the wrong anatomic site or wrong patient has prompted the health care industry to identify and address human factors that lead to medical errors. To increase patient safety in the perioperative setting, our objective was to create a climate of improved communication, collaboration, team-work, and situational awareness while the surgical team reviewed pertinent information about the patient and the pending procedure. A team of doctors, nurses, and technicians used human factors principles to develop the Preoperative Safety Briefing for use by surgical teams, a briefing similar to the preflight checklist used by the airline industry. A six-month pilot of the briefing began in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Anaheim Medical Center in February 2002. Four indicators of safety culture were used to measure success of the pilot: occurrence of wrong-site/wrong procedures, attitudinal survey data, near-miss reports, and nursing personnel turnover data. Wrong-site surgeries decreased from 3 to 0 (300%) per year; employee satisfaction increased 19%; nursing personnel turnover decreased 16%; and perception of the safety climate in the operating room improved from "good" to "outstanding." Operating suite personnel perception of teamwork quality improved substantially. Operating suite personnel perception of patient safety as a priority, of personnel communication, of their taking responsibility for patient safety, of nurse input being well received, of overall morale, and of medical errors being handled appropriately also improved substantially. Team members who work together and communicate well can quickly detect and more easily avoid errors. The Preoperative Safety Briefing is now standard in many operating suites in the KP Orange County Service Area. The concepts and design of this project are transferable, and similar projects are underway in the Departments of Radiology and of Labor and Delivery at KP

  14. Color Algebras (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.


    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  15. Urine Color (United States)

    ... is often caused by medications, certain foods or food dyes. In some cases, though, changes in urine color ... can be caused by: Dyes. Some brightly colored food dyes can cause green urine. Dyes used for some ...

  16. Ocean Color (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  17. Entropy, color, and color rendering. (United States)

    Price, Luke L A


    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  18. Color Algebras (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.


    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  19. Color invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geerts, H.


    This paper presents the measurement of colored object reflectance, under different, general assumptions regarding the imaging conditions. We exploit the Gaussian scale-space paradigm for color images to define a framework for the robust measurement of object reflectance from color images. Object

  20. Preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients. (United States)

    Perks, Anna; Chakravarti, Sucharita; Manninen, Pirjo


    Anxiety is common in surgical patients, with an incidence of 60% to 92%. There is little information on the incidence and severity of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to measure the level of preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients and to assess any influencing factors. After the Institutional Review Board approval and informed written consent, 100 patients booked for neurosurgery were interviewed preoperatively. Each patient was asked to grade their preoperative anxiety level on a verbal analog scale, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. The anxiety scores and the responses to the questions were compared between the sex, age, weight, diagnosis, and history of previous surgery. The mean age (+/-SD) was 50+/-13 years. The preoperative diagnosis was tumor (n=64), aneurysm (n=14), and other (n=22). Overall verbal analog scale was 5.2+/-2.7; the score was higher for female (5.8+/-2.8) than male patients (4.6+/-2.5) (PAmsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale anxiety and knowledge scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Questionnaire results showed that the most common anxieties were waiting for surgery, physical/mental harm, and results of the operation. In conclusion, our study showed that neurosurgical patients have high levels of anxiety, with a higher incidence in females. There was a moderately high need for information, particularly in patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety.

  1. Preoperative Quadriceps Strength as a Predictor for Short-Term Functional Outcome After Total Hip Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Marije S.; Lindeboom, Robert; Lucas, Cees


    Objective: To determine the preoperative strength of the muscle group of the lower extremity that is most important in predicting functional recovery after primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR). Design: Prospective observational study with inception cohort. Settings: Joint care program

  2. Color Categories and Color Appearance (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul


    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  3. Color Terms and Color Concepts (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules


    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  4. Color Analysis (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  5. Color categories and color appearance (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul


    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  6. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald


    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  7. Colored percolation (United States)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.


    A model called "colored percolation" has been introduced with its infinite number of versions in two dimensions. The sites of a regular lattice are randomly occupied with probability p and are then colored by one of the n distinct colors using uniform probability q =1 /n . Denoting different colors by the letters of the Roman alphabet, we have studied different versions of the model like A B ,A B C ,A B C D ,A B C D E ,... etc. Here, only those lattice bonds having two different colored atoms at the ends are defined as connected. The percolation threshold pc(n ) asymptotically converges to its limiting value of pc as 1 /n . The model has been generalized by introducing a preference towards a subset of colors when m out of n colors are selected with probability q /m each and the rest of the colors are selected with probability (1 -q )/(n -m ) . It has been observed that pc(q ,m ) depends nontrivially on q and has a minimum at qmin=m /n . In another generalization the fractions of bonds between similarly and dissimilarly colored atoms have been treated as independent parameters. Phase diagrams in this parameter space have been drawn exhibiting percolating and nonpercolating phases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  9. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children


    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek


    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of compute...

  10. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete


    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...

  11. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete


    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  12. Preoperative Assessment for Ambulatory Surgery. (United States)

    Prabhakar, Amit; Helander, Erik; Chopra, Nikki; Kaye, Aaron J; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David


    Ambulatory surgery has grown in recent decades in volume and represents a significant number of anesthetics delivered throughout the USA. Preoperative anesthetic assessment in the ambulatory setting has become important because patients with numerous complex comorbidities are now commonplace in this arena. Disease states involving the lungs, the heart, the kidneys, and subpopulations including those who are obese and the elderly commonly receive anesthetics in an ambulatory setting. This review presents key aspects of current thinking with regard to preoperative assessment and considerations for different critical disease states and subpopulations that are now being managed under ambulatory surgery. Same day surgery centers require patient safety, and expectations are high for patient satisfaction. Advancements in surgical and anesthetic technique have allowed for more complex patients to partake in ambulatory surgery. Anesthesiologists must be familiar with guidelines, state-of-the-art pain management, and standards of preoperative patient evaluation to accurately stratify patient risk and to advocate for patient safety.

  13. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H


    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  14. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children. (United States)

    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek


    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of computer programs in this area may facilitate important achievements, and it needs to support new studies to be performed.

  15. Anxiety in preoperative anesthetic procedures. (United States)

    Valenzuela Millán, Jaquelyn; Barrera Serrano, José René; Ornelas Aguirre, José Manuel


    Preoperative anxiety is a common and poorly evaluated condition in patients who will undergo an anesthetic and surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety in a group of patients undergoing elective surgery, as assessed by the Amsterdam Anxiety Preoperative and Information (AAPI) scale. We studied 135 patients scheduled for elective surgery applying the AAPI scale 24 h before the surgical procedure to evaluate the presence of anxiety and patient characteristics. A descriptive analysis with mean +/- standard deviation for categorical variables was done. For intragroup differences, chi(2) test was used. Pearson correlation for the association between anxiety and postoperative complications was carried out. A value of p =0.05 was considered significant. One hundred six patients were surgically treated, 88% were female (average age 44 +/- 12 years). Some degree of preoperative anxiety was present in 72 patients (76%; p = 0.001) with a grade point average on the AAPI scale equal to 17 +/- 7 points, of which 95 (70%, OR = 5.08; p = 0.002) were females. Results of this study suggest the presence of high levels of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for elective surgery. The origin of the anxiety appears to be related to many factors that can be evaluated in pre-anesthetic consultation. Further study is needed to prevent the presence of this disorder.

  16. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.


    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  17. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  18. Preoperative breast radiation therapy: Indications and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightowlers, S V; Boersma, L J; Fourquet, A


    Preoperative breast radiation therapy (RT) is not a new concept, but older studies failed to change practice. More recently, there has been interest in revisiting preoperative RT using modern techniques. This current perspective discusses the indications, summarises the published literature...

  19. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update]. (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J


    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete


    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  1. Music interventions for preoperative anxiety. (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl; Shim, Minjung


    Patients awaiting surgical procedures often experience significant anxiety. Such anxiety may result in negative physiological manifestations, slower wound healing, increased risk of infection, and may complicate the induction of anaesthesia and impede postoperative recovery. To reduce patient anxiety, sedatives and anti-anxiety drugs are regularly administered before surgery. However, these often have negative side effects and may prolong patient recovery. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to a variety of non-pharmacological interventions for reduction of preoperative anxiety such as music therapy and music medicine interventions. Interventions are categorized as 'music medicine' when passive listening to pre-recorded music is offered by medical personnel. In contrast, music therapy requires the implementation of a music intervention by a trained music therapist, the presence of a therapeutic process, and the use of personally tailored music experiences. A systematic review was needed to gauge the efficacy of both music therapy and music medicine interventions for reduction of preoperative anxiety. To examine the effects of music interventions with standard care versus standard care alone on preoperative anxiety in surgical patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2012), CINAHL (1980 to August 2012), AMED (1985 to April 2011; we no longer had access to AMED after this date), EMBASE (1980 to August 2012), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2012), LILACS (1982 to August 2012), Science Citation Index (1980 to August 2012), the specialist music therapy research database (March 1 2008; database is no longer functional), CAIRSS for Music (to August 2012), Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to August 2012), (2000 to August 2012), Current Controlled Trials (1998 to August 2012), and the National Research Register (2000 to September 2007). We

  2. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H


    in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  3. Clonidine as a preoperative sedative. (United States)

    Henry, Robert G; Raybould, Ted P; Romond, Kelli; Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E; Challman, Sandra D


    The purpose of this study was to -examine the use of oral clonidine as a preoperative sedative prior to parenteral moderate sedation. Initially, four patients were given 0.2 mg oral clonidine but reduced to 0.1 mg clonidine due to -significant drops in blood pressure. Oral clonidine doses of 0.1 mg were then given to 19 patients preoperatively. In all these patients, blood pressure measurements decreased, but there were no significant differences in amounts of sedative agents needed in the clonidine group and the control group (N = 80). The conclusions reached suggest that clonidine has an advantage over other preoperative sedation agents in anxious patients exhibiting hypertension and tachycardia. However, the preop ideal dose required to reduce the amount of sedative drugs used as well as provide anxiolysis remains unknown. In further studies, different doses should be explored to determine what dosage of clonidine may offer hemodynamic protection as well as decrease sedative drugs needed. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Colorful drying. (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko


    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  5. What is Color Blindness? (United States)

    ... these three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... condition. Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan


    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  9. Clinical features and risk factor analysis for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in Chinese neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyou Guo


    Full Text Available Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of neurosurgical patients; however, no data regarding lower extremity DVT in postoperative Chinese neurosurgical patients have been reported. Materials and Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, 196 patients without preoperative DVT who underwent neurosurgical operations were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography and D-dimer level measurements on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days after surgery. Follow-up clinical data were recorded to determine the incidence of lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients and to analyze related clinical features. First, a single factor analysis, Chi-square test, was used to select statistically significant factors. Then, a multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, was used to determine risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Results: Lower extremity DVT occurred in 61 patients, and the incidence of DVT was 31.1% in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical patients. The common symptoms of DVT were limb swelling and lower extremity pain as well as increased soft tissue tension. The common sites of venous involvement were the calf muscle and peroneal and posterior tibial veins. The single factor analysis showed statistically significant differences in DVT risk factors, including age, hypertension, smoking status, operation time, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, postoperative dehydration, and glucocorticoid treatment, between the two groups (P < 0.05. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that an age greater than 50 years, hypertension, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, and postoperative dehydration were risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Conclusions: Lower extremity DVT was a common complication following craniotomy in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical

  10. Preoperative fasting time in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adeel, S


    The aim of preoperative fasting is to prevent regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration while limiting potential problems of thirst, dehydration and hypoglycaemia. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) has suggested guidelines for preoperative fasting for children undergoing elective surgery. We did a postal survey to determine the current practice regarding these guidelines amongst all specialist registrars in anaesthesia in Ireland. A questionnaire was sent to all specialist registrars in anaesthesia (90 in total), 60 (67%) were returned and analysed. The question asked was how long children should be kept fasting before elective surgery. The results of our survey suggest that most of the respondents are following the ASA guidelines for clear fluids and solids however there were differing opinion regarding the duration of fasting for formula milk and breast milk. In conclusion, we would recommend greater awareness and collaboration between anaesthetists, nurses and surgeons to ensure that fasting instructions are consistent with the ASA guidelines and that patient and their parents understand these directives as well.

  11. [Algorithm for treating preoperative anemia]. (United States)

    Bisbe Vives, E; Basora Macaya, M


    Hemoglobin optimization and treatment of preoperative anemia in surgery with a moderate to high risk of surgical bleeding reduces the rate of transfusions and improves hemoglobin levels at discharge and can also improve postoperative outcomes. To this end, we need to schedule preoperative visits sufficiently in advance to treat the anemia. The treatment algorithm we propose comes with a simple checklist to determine whether we should refer the patient to a specialist or if we can treat the patient during the same visit. With the blood count test and additional tests for iron metabolism, inflammation parameter and glomerular filtration rate, we can decide whether to start the treatment with intravenous iron alone or erythropoietin with or without iron. With significant anemia, a visit after 15 days might be necessary to observe the response and supplement the treatment if required. The hemoglobin objective will depend on the type of surgery and the patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Video tonal stabilization via color states smoothing. (United States)

    Wang, Yinting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xiang; Song, Mingli; Bu, Jiajun; Tan, Ping


    We address the problem of removing video color tone jitter that is common in amateur videos recorded with hand-held devices. To achieve this, we introduce color state to represent the exposure and white balance state of a frame. The color state of each frame can be computed by accumulating the color transformations of neighboring frame pairs. Then, the tonal changes of the video can be represented by a time-varying trajectory in color state space. To remove the tone jitter, we smooth the original color state trajectory by solving an L1 optimization problem with PCA dimensionality reduction. In addition, we propose a novel selective strategy to remove small tone jitter while retaining extreme exposure and white balance changes to avoid serious artifacts. Quantitative evaluation and visual comparison with previous work demonstrate the effectiveness of our tonal stabilization method. This system can also be used as a preprocessing tool for other video editing methods.

  13. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity. (United States)

    Corsino, B V


    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  14. Preoperative and postoperative care in cosmetic laser resurfacing (United States)

    Ross, Adam T.; Becker, Daniel G.


    Advances in laser technology have allowed the application of lasers to cosmetic facial skin resurfacing. While this application has been extremely advantageous to patients, the development of pre- and postoperative therapeutic regimens was necessary to mitigate potential complications associated with laser resurfacing. Potential complications of laser resurfacing include prolonged postoperative erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, herpetic, bacterial or candidal infection, and other concerns including scarring and abnormal wound healing. In this report we review the state of the art of preoperative and postoperative care for cosmetic laser resurfacing.

  15. Color Relationalism and Relativism. (United States)

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R


    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  17. Role of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of nonpalpable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiol Med (Torino) 1992; 84:785–791. 13 Gangopadhyay AN, Sharma S, Bhushan V, Shukla RC. Role of preoperative versus post-operative HCG therapy in bilateral nonpalpable undescended testis. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2005; 10:164–167. Table 1 Site of nonpalpable testes by color Doppler ultrasound. Inguinal ...

  18. Impaired anastomotic healing after preoperative radiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Patients with rectal carcinoma undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) have a lower recurrence rate with preoperative radiotherapy (RT). The aim of this study was to assess the side-effects in patients who had preoperative RT compared with those who did not receive it (because of palliative resections, ...

  19. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum for giant inguinal hernias


    Piskin, Turgut; Aydin, Cemalettin; Barut, Bora; Dirican, Abuzer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt


    Reduction of giant hernia contents into the abdominal cavity may cause intraoperative and postoperative problems such as abdominal compartment syndrome. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum expands the abdominal cavity, increases the patient?s tolerability to operation, and can diminish intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is recommended for giant ventral hernias, but rarely for giant inguinal hernias. We present two giant inguinal her...

  20. Preoperative Feeding Neonates With Cardiac Disease. (United States)

    Scahill, Carly J; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Zyblewski, Sinai C


    The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between preoperative feeding and NEC. Secondary outcomes including growth failure, total ventilator days, total length of stay, and tube-assisted feeds at discharge were analyzed. One hundred thirty consecutive neonates who required cardiac surgery were included in the analysis. Preoperative feeding occurred in 61% (n = 79). The overall prevalence of NEC was 9% (12/130), including three neonates with surgical NEC. There was no difference in the prevalence of NEC between the preoperative feeding and nil per os (NPO) groups. Preoperative NPO status was associated with longer ventilator-dependent days ( P = .01) but was not associated with worsened growth failure, longer length of stay, or increased prevalence of tube-assisted feeds at discharge. In this study cohort, preoperative feeding was associated with a low prevalence of NEC. Larger prospective studies evaluating the safety and benefits of preoperative feeding in cardiac neonates are warranted.

  1. Preoperative Smoking Status and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Grønkjær; Eliasen, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang


    To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type.......To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type....

  2. Color to gray: visual cue preservation. (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Li, Xuelong; Chen, Chang Wen


    Both commercial and scientific applications often need to transform color images into gray-scale images, e.g., to reduce the publication cost in printing color images or to help color blind people see visual cues of color images. However, conventional color to gray algorithms are not ready for practical applications because they encounter the following problems: 1) Visual cues are not well defined so it is unclear how to preserve important cues in the transformed gray-scale images; 2) some algorithms have extremely high time cost for computation; and 3) some require human-computer interactions to have a reasonable transformation. To solve or at least reduce these problems, we propose a new algorithm based on a probabilistic graphical model with the assumption that the image is defined over a Markov random field. Thus, color to gray procedure can be regarded as a labeling process to preserve the newly well--defined visual cues of a color image in the transformed gray-scale image. Visual cues are measurements that can be extracted from a color image by a perceiver. They indicate the state of some properties of the image that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. Different people may perceive different cues from the same color image and three cues are defined in this paper, namely, color spatial consistency, image structure information, and color channel perception priority. We cast color to gray as a visual cue preservation procedure based on a probabilistic graphical model and optimize the model based on an integral minimization problem. We apply the new algorithm to both natural color images and artificial pictures, and demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms representative conventional algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, it requires no human-computer interactions.

  3. Preoperative hypoxyradiotherapy of colorectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacev, T.; Skricka, T.; Zaloudik, J.; Pacovsky, Z. [Masaryk Memorial Cancer Inst., Brno (Czech Republic)


    Aim: The article focuses on the radioprotective effect of acute hypoxia on healthy tissues during preoperative accelerated hypoxyradiotherapy of colorectal carcinoma performed as locoregional irradiation including the common iliac lymph nodes. Analysis of early and late side effects and complications. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, early and late complications were assessed in 50 patients as a function of hypoxyradiotherapeutic dose increase. The preliminary treatment results of this radiotherapeutic modification were evaluated after a median follow-up of 48 months using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Between April 1991 and February 1997, 50 patients (36 men and 14 women) with colorectal carcinoma were treated preoperatively with locoregional accelerated hypofractionated hypoxyradiotherapy. The extent of disease was classified according to Dukes' criteria (A: four patients, B: 28 patients, C: 18 patients). We used a 20-MeV linear accelerator with two parallel opposed fields. Hypoxyradiotherapy was performed extending from the perineum to the L4 region. Acute hypoxia was induced during irradiation by ventilation of a hypoxic gas mixture containing 7.8-8.0% oxygen. Total doses of 24 Gy/8 days, 28 Gy/9 days, and 32 Gy/10 days were applied in five, 20, and 25 patients, respectively. Low anterior resection or abdominoperineal amputation of the rectum was performed the day after completion of preoperative hypoxyradiotherapy. The early reactions after irradiation were evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria of the National Cancer Institute (CTC-NCI). Results: Early postirradiation proctitis was documented in three and early radiation-induced cystitis in two patients only. Neither early nor late radiation-associated complications were observed in any of the three hypoxyradiotherapy schedules during the follow-uper period of 6-105 months. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (median 48 months), a 5-year overall survival rate of 61.5% and a local relapse

  4. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin


    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  9. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic


    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  10. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction in Children: Role of Preoperative Imaging. (United States)

    Achar, Shashidhar; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Gogoi, Rudra Kanta


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is characterized by features of recent thrombosis or portal hypertension with portal cavernoma as a sequel of portal vein obstruction. Imaging of spleno-portal axis is the mainstay for the diagnosis of EHPVO. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of imaging in the preoperative assessment of the portal venous system in children with EHPVO. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty children with EHPVO aged between 1 and 18 years over a period of 1 year. The children were evaluated clinically, followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Radiological assessment included imaging of the main portal vein, its right and left branches, splenic vein, and superior mesenteric vein using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) and magnetic resonance portovenogram (MRP). Evidence of portal biliopathy, status of collaterals, and possible sites for portosystemic shunt surgery were also examined. All the patients presented in chronic stage with portal cavernoma and only one patient (5%) had bland thrombus associated with cavernoma. The CDUSG and MRPs had a sensitivity of 66.6-90% and 96.7% and specificity of 91.5% and 98.3% respectively with regard to the assessment of the extent of thrombus formation and flow in the portal venous system. Both the modalities were found to be complementary to each other in preoperative assessment of EHPVO. However, the sensitivity of MRP was slightly superior to CDUSG in detecting occlusion and identifying portosystemic collaterals and dilated intrahepatic biliary radicals. Results of the present study indicate that MRP is well suited and superior to CDUSG in the preoperative imaging of patients with EHPVO.

  11. [Significance of preoperative oral rehydration therapy]. (United States)

    Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Toshiyasu


    Recently, European countries and US have issued the practice guidelines for preoperative fasting, and there is a trend of shortening the fating time before surgery. In Japan, some institutions have just started to use an oral rehydration therapy by oral rehydration solutions, which is effective in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration, and in the preoperative water and electrolyte management. Besides shortening the fasting time, water and electrolytes can be adequately given to the patients by oral rehydration therapy Currently, this therapy is gaining a widespread attention, because it can improve patients' satisfaction for preoperative care and is also a safe and efficient medical treatment.

  12. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources. (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica


    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  13. CFA-aware features for steganalysis of color images (United States)

    Goljan, Miroslav; Fridrich, Jessica


    Color interpolation is a form of upsampling, which introduces constraints on the relationship between neighboring pixels in a color image. These constraints can be utilized to substantially boost the accuracy of steganography detectors. In this paper, we introduce a rich model formed by 3D co-occurrences of color noise residuals split according to the structure of the Bayer color filter array to further improve detection. Some color interpolation algorithms, AHD and PPG, impose pixel constraints so tight that extremely accurate detection becomes possible with merely eight features eliminating the need for model richification. We carry out experiments on non-adaptive LSB matching and the content-adaptive algorithm WOW on five different color interpolation algorithms. In contrast to grayscale images, in color images that exhibit traces of color interpolation the security of WOW is significantly lower and, depending on the interpolation algorithm, may even be lower than non-adaptive LSB matching.

  14. Color: An Unsuspected Influence. (United States)

    Scargall, Hollie


    Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

  15. Color identification testing device (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.


    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  16. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.


    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  17. Preoperative imaging for DIEA perforator flaps: a comparative study of computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound. (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Phillips, Timothy J; Ashton, Mark W; Stella, Damien L; Gibson, Robert N; Taylor, G Ian


    Abdominal donor-site flaps, including the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps, are standard in autologous breast reconstruction. With significant variation in the vascular anatomy of the abdominal wall, preoperative imaging is essential for preoperative planning and reducing intraoperative error. Doppler and color duplex sonography have been used with varying results, and the quest continues for optimal preoperative assessment. Computed tomographic angiography has recently been proposed as a noninvasive modality for this purpose. This is the first study to formally compare preoperative Doppler ultrasound with computed tomographic angiography for imaging the DIEA. Eight consecutive patients undergoing DIEA perforator flap surgery for breast reconstruction underwent both computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound preoperatively. All investigations and procedures were performed at the same institution with the same primary and assisting surgeons and the same radiology team. Computed tomographic angiography was superior to Doppler ultrasound at identifying the course of the DIEA and its branching pattern, and in visualizing its perforators. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography was highly specific (100 percent) and more sensitive in mapping and visualizing perforators (p = 0.0078). It was also proficient at identifying the superficial epigastric arterial system and for effectively displaying the results intraoperatively. It was substantially quicker and removed the interobserver error associated with Doppler ultrasonography. The study was ceased after eight patients because of the overwhelming benefit of computed tomographic angiography over Doppler ultrasonography. Computed tomographic angiography is a valuable imaging modality for the preoperative assessment of the donor-site vascular supply for TRAM and DIEA perforator flaps.

  18. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang


    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation.......30-2.49), prolonged stay at the hospital (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31), and admission to intensive care unit (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). Clearly defined high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (RR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.50-4.78). Low to moderate preoperative alcohol...

  19. Preoperative alcohol cessation prior to elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppedal, Kristian; Møller, Ann Merete; Pedersen, Bolette


    Hazardous drinking has been associated with an increased postoperative complication rate after surgery. Common complications include postoperative infections, cardiopulmonary complications, and bleeding episodes. Preoperative abstinence may to some degree reverse alcohol-induced pathophysiological...

  20. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision. (United States)

    Price, Trevor D


    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  1. Modeling color preference using color space metrics. (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Lessard, Laurent; Racey, Chris; Hurlbert, Anya C


    Studying color preferences provides a means to discover how perceptual experiences map onto cognitive and affective judgments. A challenge is finding a parsimonious way to describe and predict patterns of color preferences, which are complex with rich individual differences. One approach has been to model color preferences using factors from metric color spaces to establish direct correspondences between dimensions of color and preference. Prior work established that substantial, but not all, variance in color preferences could be captured by weights on color space dimensions using multiple linear regression. The question we address here is whether model fits may be improved by using different color metric specifications. We therefore conducted a large-scale analysis of color space models, and focused in-depth analysis on models that differed in color space (cone-contrast vs. CIELAB), coordinate system within the color space (Cartesian vs. cylindrical), and factor degrees (1st degree only, or 1st and 2nd degree). We used k-fold cross validation to avoid over-fitting the data and to ensure fair comparisons across models. The best model was the 2nd-harmonic Lch model ("LabC Cyl2"). Specified in CIELAB space, it included 1st and 2nd harmonics of hue (capturing opponency in hue preferences and simultaneous liking/disliking of both hues on an opponent axis, respectively), lightness, and chroma. These modeling approaches can be used to characterize and compare patterns for group averages and individuals in future datasets on color preference, or other measures in which correspondences between color appearance and cognitive or affective judgments may exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Color: Physics and Perception (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  3. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A


    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  4. Preoperative prediction of severe postoperative pain. (United States)

    Kalkman, C J; Visser, K; Moen, J; Bonsel, G J; Grobbee, D E; Moons, K G M


    We developed and validated a prediction rule for the occurrence of early postoperative severe pain in surgical inpatients, using predictors that can be easily documented in a preoperative setting. A cohort of surgical inpatients (n=1416) undergoing various procedures except cardiac surgery and intracranial neurosurgery in a University Hospital were studied. Preoperatively the following predictors were collected: age, gender, type of scheduled surgery, expected incision size, blood pressure, heart rate, Quetelet index, the presence and severity of preoperative pain, health-related quality of life the (SF-36), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). The outcome was the presence of severe postoperative pain (defined as Numeric Rating Scale > or =8) within the first hour postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression in combination with bootstrapping techniques (as a method for internal validation) was used to derive a stable prediction model. Independent predictors of severe postoperative pain were younger age, female gender, level of preoperative pain, incision size and type of surgery. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74). Adding APAIS scores (measures of preoperative anxiety and need for information), but not STAI, provided a slightly better model (ROC area 0.73). The reliability of this extended model was good (Hosmer and Lemeshow test p-value 0.78). We have demonstrated that severe postoperative pain early after awakening from general anesthesia can be predicted with a scoring rule, using a small set of variables that can be easily obtained from all patients at the preoperative visit. Before this internally validated preoperative prediction rule can be applied in clinical practice to support anticipatory pain management, external validation in other clinical settings is necessary.

  5. Preoperative assessment and patient teaching : preoperative forms and guidelines for a LEIKO unit


    Ijäs, Erja; Suni, Alina


    The preoperative phase begins when the decision of the procedure is made and ends when the patient enters the operation room. The purpose of good preoperative care aims to decrease risks during and after the procedure, to speed up the healing process of the patient, to enhance time management and to minimize costs. It is important for the patient to receive the preoperative guidance both orally and in written form. When guiding the patient it is essential to take into consideration the patien...

  6. Motion Alters Color Appearance (United States)

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk


    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  7. Color-avoiding percolation. (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M; Danziger, Michael M; Zlatić, Vinko


    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)]2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  8. Color-avoiding percolation (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko


    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  9. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I


    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  10. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salerno, Kilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  11. Preoperative education for lumbar surgery for radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Louw


    Full Text Available To date no studies have been published on preoperative education forpatients who had lumbar surgery. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a demand for preoperative education for patients who had lumbar surgery for radiculopathy. A convenience sample of 47 patients who had lumbar surgery and a random sample of 141 physiotherapists involved in treating patients who had lumbar surgery completed a newly developed spinal surgery questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptiveand inferential statistical tests. Results showed that 100% of the patients and 99% of therapists view preoperative education to be an important component for lumbar surgery for radiculopathy. The most important factors identifiedfor inclusion in preoperative educational programs were reason for surgery, risks associated with surgery, limitations following surgery and more education regarding pain. The preferred method of education delivery was verbal one-on-one education. This study demonstrates that there is a demand for preoperative education for patients who had lumbar surgery.

  12. Training tomorrow's doctors in the preoperative clinic. (United States)

    Cousland, Zoe; Shelton, Clifford; O'Mahony, Fidelma


      The reduction in the length of hospital stay for surgical patients at a time of expanding medical student numbers has created challenges in the provision of adequate exposure to surgical patients. This has required the use of surgical learning opportunities in the ambulatory setting, including the preoperative assessment clinic. At Keele University, fourth-year medical students follow patient journeys through the preoperative assessment process, gaining experience of history taking, examination, prescribing and practical skills. This is followed by group discussion with a clinical teaching fellow, focusing on management and clinical reasoning. We audited the experience our students gained in the preoperative assessment clinic against the relevant Tomorrow's Doctors outcomes.   An audit tool was created by reviewing the patient journey to identify potential learning opportunities. These were then mapped to the relevant Tomorrow's Doctors outcomes. Audit pro formas were completed for each student at the end of the clinic by the clinical educator, with a total of 42 sessions audited.   Our findings show that it is possible for students to gain experience in all nine of the identified Tomorrow's Doctors outcomes in the preoperative assessment clinic. Practical procedure experience was gained by 92 per cent of students, and 70 per cent demonstrated clinical judgment and decision skills.   This study shows that students can gain experience in multiple Tomorrow's Doctors outcomes in the preoperative assessment clinic. In particular, it is a useful environment to learn and teach practical procedures, clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Book review: Extreme ocean waves (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.


    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... and Your Eyes Aug 16, 2016 More Eye Health News Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... With Inherited Retinal Disease Oct 30, 2017 How long does it take ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... from dry eye now have a completely new, drug-free alternative to lubricating eye drops and topical ...

  1. The effect of preoperative Lugol's iodine on intraoperative bleeding in patients with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yeliz; Kamer, Kemal Erdinc; Ureyen, Orhan; Sari, Erdem; Acar, Turan; Karahalli, Onder


    To investigate the effect of preoperative Lugol's iodine on intraoperative bleeding in patients with hyperthyroidism. This controlled, randomized, prospective cohort was carried out on 40 patients who admitted for surgery due to hyperthyroidism. Cases were randomly assigned to receive either preoperative treatment with Lugol solution (Group 1) or no preoperative treatment with Lugol solution (Group 2). Group 3 (n = 10) consisted of healthy adults with no known history and signs of hyperthyroidism. Blood flow through the thyroid arteries of patients was measured by color flow Doppler ultrasonography. Free T3, free T4, TSH, thyroid volume and the resistance index of the four main thyroid arteries were measured in all patients. There was not a significant difference between gender, preoperative serum thyroid hormone levels, or thyroid gland volumes between groups 1 and 2. The mean blood flow of the patients in Group 1 was significantly lower than values in Group 2. When age, gender, thyroid hormone, TSH, thyroid volume, blood flow, and Lugol solution treatment were included as independent variables, Lugol solution treatment (OR, 7.40; 95% CI, 1.02-58.46; p = 0.001) was found to be the only significant independent determinant of intraoperative blood loss. Lugol solution treatment resulted in a 7.40-fold decrease in the rate of intraoperative blood loss. Preoperative Lugol solution treatment was found to be a significant independent determinant of intraoperative blood loss. Moreover, preoperative Lugol solution treatment decreased the rate of blood flow, and intraoperative blood loss during thyroidectomy.

  2. Specialist pre-operative assessment clinics. (United States)

    Dhesi, J K; Swart, M


    While specialist pre-operative assessment is not new, its focus has evolved in response to more operations and changes in the surgical population. Patients are older and have more long-term medical comorbidities. At the same time, there has been a move from paternalistic medical decision-making to shared decision-making, based on an individual patient's choice or preference. Specialist pre-operative consultations have had to adapt to these changes by broadening their scope. Pre-operative clinics have a central role in shared decision-making, coordinating and planning care before, during and after surgery, including rehabilitation and discharge planning. Multiple specialties need to work together to deliver quality patient-centred care. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. [Preoperative management of anemia in oncologic surgery]. (United States)

    Díaz-Cambronero, O; Matoses-Jaén, S; García-Claudio, N; García-Gregorio, N; Molins-Espinosa, J


    Preoperative anemia in patients with cancer is highly prevalent, is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and is a risk factor for transfusion. There is evidence that patients who undergo transfusions have higher morbidity, increased cancer recurrence and poorer survival. The pathophysiology of anemia is multifactorial, with an inflammatory component to which chronic blood loss and nutritional deficiencies can be associated. Therefore, preoperative anemia in patients with cancer should be treated appropriately, given that there is sufficient time in the preoperative period. Of the currently available options, parenteral iron is an effective alternative, especially for those types of cancer that have an associated hemorrhagic component. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O


    complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...... in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...

  5. Pre-operative fasting guidelines: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søreide, E; Eriksson, L I; Hirlekar, G


    Liberal pre-operative fasting routines have been implemented in most countries. In general, clear fluids are allowed up to 2 h before anaesthesia, and light meals up to 6 h. The same recommendations apply for children and pregnant women not in labour. In children......Liberal pre-operative fasting routines have been implemented in most countries. In general, clear fluids are allowed up to 2 h before anaesthesia, and light meals up to 6 h. The same recommendations apply for children and pregnant women not in labour. In children...

  6. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo


    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair...... include subjective measures, wound complications and analysis of blood and wound fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first trial on the effect of preoperative glucocorticoid administration in patients undergoing AWR. Due to long post-operative stays and a high rate of post-operative complications...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  8. Developmental Color Perception (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.


    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  9. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.


    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  10. Reimagining the Color Wheel (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer


    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  11. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A


    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  12. Preoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after resection for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Gessler, B; Burcharth, Jakob


    AIM: Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication. Despite extensive research, no consensus on the most important preoperative risk factors exists. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate risk factors for anastomotic leakage in patients operated with colore......AIM: Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication. Despite extensive research, no consensus on the most important preoperative risk factors exists. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate risk factors for anastomotic leakage in patients operated...... with colorectal resection. METHOD: The databases MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL were searched for prospective observational studies on preoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Meta-analyses were performed on outcomes based on odds ratios (OR) from multivariate regression analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale...... for cancer. The meta-analyses found that a low rectal anastomosis [OR = 3.26 (95% CI: 2.31-4.62)], male gender [OR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.37-1.60)] and preoperative radiotherapy [OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.06-2.56)] may be risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Primarily as a result of observational design, the quality...

  13. Acquired color vision deficiency. (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P


    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  15. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Preoperative Ultrasonography as a Predictor of Difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouret introduced laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1987, which brought a radical change in the treatment of patients with gallstones. Although laparoscopic .... Corr P, Tate JJ, Lau WY, Dawson JW, Li AK. Preoperative ultrasound to predict technical difficulties and complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov


    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  18. Preoperative predictors of thrombocytopenia in Caesarean delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative predictors of thrombocytopenia in Caesarean delivery: is routine platelet count testing necessary? ... moderate thrombocytopenia. All asymptomatic patients, including those who were HIV positive, had platelet counts > 70 000/μl. Keywords: Caesarean delivery, HIV, obstetrics, pregnancy, thrombocytopenia ...

  19. Preoperative exercise training to improve postoperative outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenet, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413984141


    It is common knowledge that better preoperative physical fitness is associated with better postoperative outcomes. However, as a result of aging of the population and improved surgical and anaesthesia techniques, the proportion of frail patients with decreased physical fitness levels undergoing

  20. Preoperative Prediction of Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A univariate regression analysis was used to find the significant risk factors. Those found significant on univariate analysis were analyzed using multivariate linear regression model. Continuous normally. Preoperative Prediction of Difficult Laparoscopic. Cholecystectomy: A Scoring Method. Nikhil Agrawal, Sumitoj Singh, ...

  1. Impact of Preoperative Patient Characteristics on Posturethroplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in event of failure after a single attempt at dilatations or urethrotomy for selected strictures as repeated attempts are of no use.[5]. Impact of Preoperative Patient ..... Financial support and sponsorship. Nil. Conflicts of interest. There are no conflicts of interest. REFERENCES. 1. Latini JM, McAninch JW, Brandes SB, Chung JY, ...

  2. [Preoperative factors of misdiagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma]. (United States)

    Berger, J; Valgueblasse, E; Thereaux, J; Plainard, X; Bouhlel, A; Lanoe, M; Paraf, F; Cornu, F; Dumas, J-P; Flam, T; Zerbib, M; Debre, B; Descazeaud, A


    To explain the high incidence of misdiagnosis of angiomyolipoma (AML) prior to surgery. Between 1989 and 2007, 2,657 patients were operated for a renal tumor at Dupuytren hospital in Limoges and at Cochin hospital in Paris. In 85 cases (3.2%), tumors were AMLs on pathology. The group of patients in which the diagnosis was done preoperatively was compared to the one in which the diagnosis was missed. Mean age of patients was 57-years-old and the sex-ratio was five women for one man. The mean size of AMLs was 5.4 cm. The patients were symptomatic in 46% of cases (39/85). The diagnosis of AML was ignored preoperatively in 62 patients (73%). In multivariate analysis, the small size of the AML, low proportion of fat and male sex were significantly associated with misdiagnosis of AML (p<0.001, p<0.018 and p<0.008, respectively). The incidence of misdiagnosis of AML preoperatively is high. The diagnosis seems particularly difficult when the tumor is small or contains a small proportion of fat. In addition, this study highlights that the diagnosis of AML is frequently ignored in men. The increased resolution of CTscan and the use of preoperative biopsies for tumors less than 4 cm could be helpful to decrease the incidence of useless surgery of AMLs.

  3. Reducing the preoperative ecological footprint in otolaryngology. (United States)

    Lui, Justin T; Rudmik, Luke; Randall, Derrick R


    To (1) evaluate the potential for recycling uncontaminated preoperative waste and (2) identify recycling differences within otolaryngology-head and neck surgery subspecialties. Prospective study. Three university-affiliated tertiary level hospitals. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery operative procedures. A total of 97 operative procedures were evaluated. Preoperative waste products were sorted into recyclable and nonrecyclable materials; intraoperative waste was weighed for volume but not sorted. The preoperative period was defined as the opening of the surgical supply cart for operating room preparation until procedure initiation. Mass and volume of each type of waste were recorded upon the conclusion of the case. Approximately 23.1% of total operative waste mass (36.7% by volume) was derived from the preoperative set-up, of which 89.7% was recyclable. Pediatric procedures produced the least recyclable material per operation as a proportion of total waste, which was statistically different than the 2 highest recyclable subspecialties, general and rhinology (P = .006); the remaining subspecialties did not statistically differ in proportion of recyclable material produced. This study identified a source of clean recyclable materials that could eliminate 21% of operating room waste mass. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. Preoperative Anaemia and Blood Transfusion Requirements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia prevalence among children in Nigeria is a serious morbidity although it's prevalence in Benin has not been determined in recent times. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preoperative anaemia, its' associated factors and blood transfusion requirements in children ...

  5. Relating color working memory and color perception. (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I


    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula


    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  7. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund


    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  8. Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin. (United States)

    Oei, James D; Mishriky, Maged; Barghi, Nasser; Rawls, H Ralph; Cardenas, H Lee; Aguirre, Rene; Whang, Kyumin


    Dual-cure (DC) resins are mainly used as cements due to high initial color (generally yellow) and large color shift (ΔE*) after polymerization as compared to light-cured resins. However, even as cements, this color shift is clinically unacceptable, especially when used to cement thin veneers. To develop a novel DC initiator system with both lower initial color (less yellow, i.e., whiter) and smaller ΔE*. The effect of using an allyl thiourea (T)/cumene hydroperoxide (CH) self-cure (SC) initiator system in combination with a photo-co-initiator, p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI), in a commercial DC resin cement (PermaFlo DC, Ultradent Products, Inc.) was investigated. Initial color and ΔE* were assessed for 6 weeks in vitro under accelerated aging conditions (75°C water bath). Rockwell15T hardness was used to assess degree of cure (DoC) and the three-point bending test was used to assess mechanical properties. PermaFlo DC (control) was significantly harder than all experimental groups without OPPI but had up to three times higher initial color and four times greater color shift (ΔE*=27 vs. 8). With OPPI, hardness in the experimental groups increased significantly and several were comparable to the controls. Initial color and ΔE* increased slightly (ΔE*=9), but was still 3 times less than that of PermaFlo DC. DC samples containing OPPI had comparable modulus and ultimate transverse strengths to those of the controls. DC resins that use the T/CH initiator system are weaker but have extremely low color and ΔE*. The addition of OPPI increases DoC and mechanical properties to clinically acceptable levels and maintains extremely low color and ΔE*. With this novel initiator system, DC resins potentially can now have comparable color and color stability to light-cure resins and be used in broader esthetic dental applications to improve color stability and reduce shrinkage stress in restorative composites. Copyright © 2013 Academy of

  9. Preoperative education for hip or knee replacement. (United States)

    McDonald, Steve; Page, Matthew J; Beringer, Katherine; Wasiak, Jason; Sprowson, Andrew


    Hip or knee replacement is a major surgical procedure that can be physically and psychologically stressful for patients. It is hypothesised that education before surgery reduces anxiety and enhances clinically important postoperative outcomes. To determine whether preoperative education in people undergoing total hip replacement or total knee replacement improves postoperative outcomes with respect to pain, function, health-related quality of life, anxiety, length of hospital stay and the incidence of adverse events (e.g. deep vein thrombosis). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2013), EMBASE (1980 to May 2013), CINAHL (1982 to May 2013), PsycINFO (1872 to May 2013) and PEDro to July 2010. We handsearched the Australian Journal of Physiotherapy (1954 to 2009) and reviewed the reference lists of included trials and other relevant reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of preoperative education (verbal, written or audiovisual) delivered by a health professional within six weeks of surgery to people undergoing hip or knee replacement compared with usual care. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We analysed dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios. We combined continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. We included 18 trials (1463 participants) in the review. Thirteen trials involved people undergoing hip replacement, three involved people undergoing knee replacement and two included both people with hip and knee replacements. Only six trials reported using an adequate method of allocation concealment, and only two trials blinded participants. Few trials reported sufficient data to analyse the major outcomes of the review (pain, function, health-related quality of life, global assessment, postoperative anxiety

  10. Preoperative carbohydrate nutrition reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to preoperative fasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yilmaz, Neslihan; Cekmen, Nedim; Bilgin, Ferruh; Erten, Ela; Ozhan, Mehmet Özhan; Coşar, Ahmet


    The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate drink 400 mL given 2 h before the surgery with preoperative overnight fasting on the gastric...

  11. Animal coloration research: why it matters. (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi


    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. The nature of colors (United States)

    da Pos, Osvaldo


    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  13. Extremely Preterm Birth (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” ...

  14. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moerman, Nelly; van Dam, F.S.A.M; Muller, M.J; Oosting, H


    ... phase.During routine preoperative screening, 320 patients were asked to assess their anxiety and information requirement on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS...

  15. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally


    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no

  16. Color recognition in Prolog (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.


    Hardware capable of recognizing the `named' colors (e.g., `red,' `yellow,' orange, etc.,) is available now at modest cost. This has been interfaced to a standard computer, running Prolog. The result is a powerful combination, capable of intelligently interpreting colored images, such as those on simple product packaging. The structure and applications of such a system are described. Prolog programs are presented which are capable of recognizing bananas, flags, and dragons. Learning color patterns is also discussed.

  17. Flashing anomalous color contrast


    Pinna, B; Spillmann, L.; Werner, JS


    A new visual phenomenon that we call flashing anomalous color contrast is described. This phenomenon arises from the interaction between a gray central disk and a chromatic annulus surrounded by black radial lines. In an array of such figures, the central gray disk no longer appears gray, but assumes a color complementary to that of the surrounding annulus. The induced color appears: (1) vivid and saturated; (2) self-luminous, not a surface property; (3) flashing with eye or stimulus movement...

  18. Inpainting the Colors (United States)


    INPAINTING THE COLORS By Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 1979 ( May 2004 ) INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS UNIVERSITY OF...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inpainting the Colors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...information, while considering the gradient information brought in by the monochrome data. This way, the color is inpainted , constrained both by the

  19. Dual-energy CT colonography for preoperative "one-stop" staging in patients with colonic neoplasia. (United States)

    Schaeffer, Benno; Johnson, Thorsten R C; Mang, Thomas; Kreis, Martin E; Reiser, Maximilian F; Graser, Anno


    To evaluate the benefits of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) colonography (DECTC) as a preoperative staging tool in patients with clinically suspected colorectal cancer (CRC). Twenty-two patients with colorectal neoplasia underwent preoperative abdominal DECTC on a dual-source scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash; Siemens) operated at tube potentials of Sn140/100 kVp. Scans were evaluated for local tumor stage and the presence of synchronous intracolonic and extracolonic findings using dual-energy color-coded images. An enhancement ≥25 Hounsfield units (HU) was defined to indicate malignancy. Patients' effective doses were calculated. Preoperative DECTC allowed for complete bowel evaluation in all patients, including subjects with stenosing CRC. DECTC revealed 22 carcinomas (mean enhancement, 47 ± 12 HU). In total, 22 synchronous intracolonic lesions were detected, including 19 adenomas (mean enhancement, 51 ± 19 HU). Benign structures showed enhancement synchronous lesions proximal to stenosing CRC could be verified. Mean estimated effective dose was 13.0 ± 5.2 mSv. Preoperative DECTC can be used as an accurate and dose-efficient primary-staging examination. Especially after incomplete optical colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy enables full preoperative colonic assessment on the same day. Dual-energy CT enables distinction between neoplasia and non-neoplastic findings within and outside the colon. Therefore, DECTC can be regarded as a promising "one-stop" staging examination in patients with clinically suspected CRC. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Online color monitoring (United States)

    Massen, Robert C.


    Monitoring color in the production line requires to remotely observe moving and not-aligned objects with in general complex surface features: multicolored, textured, non-flat, showing highlights and shadows. We discuss the use of color cameras and associated color image processing technologies for what we call 'imaging colorimetry.' This is a 2-step procedure which first uses color for segmentation and for finding Regions-of- Interest on the moving objects and then uses cluster-based color image processing for computing color deviations relative to previously trained references. This colorimetry is much more a measurement of aesthetic consistency of the visual appearance of a product then the traditional measurement of a more physically defined mean color vector difference. We show how traditional non-imaging colorimetry looses most of this aesthetic information due to the computation of a mean color vector or mean color vector difference, by averaging over the sensor's field-of-view. A large number of industrial applications are presented where complex inspection tasks have been solved based on this approach. The expansion to a higher feature space dimensions based on the 'multisensorial camera' concept gives an outlook to future developments.

  1. Preoperatively diagnosed mucocele of the appendix. (United States)

    Rojnoveanu, Gh; Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Vozian, M; Mishina, A


    Mucocele of the appendix is an infrequent entity, characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. If untreated, mucocele may rupture producing a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. The type of surgical treatment is related to the dimensions and the histology of the mucocele. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Right hemi-colectomy is recommended for cystadeno carcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of an asymptomatic 37-year-old woman in whom mucocele was found on a routine ultrasound examination and preoperative computed tomography scan. Surgery revealed a big appendix measuring 84 mm in length and 40 mm in diameter. The final pathologic diagnosis was simple mucocele. Celsius.

  2. Emotional and psychological preoperative preparation in adults. (United States)

    Walker, Jennie April

    Emotional and psychological surgical preparation plays an important role in many areas of nursing. However, it varies greatly in terms of its perception and delivery. The aim of this article is to familiarize the reader with the concept of emotional and psychological preparation for surgery and to explain how this may be achieved in nursing practice. It highlights that gender, age, and previous experiences are predisposing factors to preoperative anxiety, as is fear of the unknown and fear of harm. It is recommended that information should be given verbally with written supplements and that the patient should be encouraged to ask questions. Diversion therapy such as music, humour and guided imagery have been shown to be effective in reducing patients' preoperative anxiety.

  3. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server


    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  4. Citrus aurantium blossom and preoperative anxiety. (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mahmood; Shabanian, Gholamreza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Parvin, Neda; Saadat, Mitra; Akhlaghi, Mohsen


    Reducing anxiety is very important before operation. Preoperative visit and use of premedication are popular methods to achieve this goal, but the role of anxiolytic premedication remains unclear and postoperative side-effects may result from routine premedication. Citrus aurantium is used as an alternative medicine in some countries to treat anxiety, and recently the anxiolytic role of this medicinal plant was established in an animal model study. The aim of this study was to assess the anxiolytic effect of Citrus aurantium blossomon preoperative anxiety. We studied 60 ASA I patients undergoing minor operation. In a randomized double-blind design, two groups of 30 patients received one of the following oral premedication two hours before induction of anesthesia: 1) Citrus aurantium blossom distillate (C-group); 2) Saline solution as placebo (P-group). Anxiety was measured before and after premedication using the Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-state) and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS) before operation. After premedication, both the STAI-state and the APAIS scales were decreased in C-group (ppreoperative anxiety before minor operation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghee, E-mail: [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Koh, Tae-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyunsu [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schwab, Tobias [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jae-Hyun [Department School of Global Convergence Studies, Hanbat National University, San 16-1, Duckmyoung-dong, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Hofmann, Simone [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Ik [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seunghyup [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); and others


    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m{sup −2}. At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage.

  6. Text location in color documents (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Namboodiri, Anoop M.; Jung, Keechul


    Many document images contain both text and non-text (images, line drawings, etc.) regions. An automatic segmentation of such an image into text and non-text regions is extremely useful in a variety of applications. Identification of text regions helps in text recognition applications, while the classification of an image into text and non-text regions helps in processing the individual regions differently in applications like page reproduction and printing. One of the main approaches to text detection is based on modeling the text as a texture. We present a method based on a combination of neural networks (texture-based) and connected component analysis to detect text in color documents with busy foreground and background. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 96% (by area) on a test set of 40 documents.

  7. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.


    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  8. Quorum Colorings of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Heditniemi (Sandra); R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)


    textabstractLet $G = (V,E)$ be a graph. A partition $\\pi = \\{V_1, V_2, \\ldots, V_k \\}$ of the vertices $V$ of $G$ into $k$ {\\it color classes} $V_i$, with $1 \\leq i \\leq k$, is called a {\\it quorum coloring} if for every vertex $v \\in V$, at least half of the vertices in the closed neighborhood

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  10. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector


    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  11. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van


    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... 2017 By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a gene therapy ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... DEC 21, 2017 By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a ...

  14. 3-D Color Wheels (United States)

    DuBois, Ann


    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ... Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without a prescription in the United States. All ...

  16. Lighting For Color Vision (United States)

    Worthey, James A.


    Some results concerning lighting for human color vision can be generalized to robot color vision. These results depend mainly on the spectral sensitivities of the color channels, and their interaction with the spectral power distribution of the light. In humans, the spectral sensitivities of the R and G receptors show a large overlap, while that of the B receptors overlaps little with the other two. A color vision model that proves useful for lighting work---and which also models many features of human vision---is one in which the "opponent color" signals are T = R - G, and D = B - R. That is, a "red minus green" signal comes from the receptors with greatest spectral overlap, while a "blue minus yellow" signal comes from the two with the least overlap. Using this model, we find that many common light sources attenuate red-green contrasts, relative to daylight, while special lights can enhance red-green contrast slightly. When lighting changes cannot be avoided, the eye has some ability to compensate for them. In most models of "color constancy," only the light's color guides the eye's adjustment, so a lighting-induced loss of color contrast is not counteracted. Also, no constancy mechanism can overcome metamerism---the effect of unseen spectral differences between objects. However, we can calculate the extent to which a particular lighting change will reveal metamerism. I am not necessarily arguing for opponent processing within robots, but only presenting results based on opponent calculations.

  17. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi


    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  18. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.


    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  19. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald


    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.

  20. New concepts in preoperative imaging of anorectal malformation. New concepts in imaging of ARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A.; Delliacqua, A.; Marzoli, A. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology); Martucciello, G.; Jasonni, V. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery); Dodero, P. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Intensive Care Unit); Salomone, G. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Surgical Emergency Unit)


    In this study of 14 patients with anorectal anomalies CT and MRI were employed for preoperative assessment. The use of a pressure enhanced water soluble enema via the colostomy proved to be an extremely efficient method for showing a fistula. MRI studies were enhanced by the use of vaseline oil and in one case this technique was used prior to surgery to provide important information by injecting through a perineal fistula. CT and axial MRI proved to be more valuable than sagittal MRI which is only useful for the length of the atretic segment. The authors consider that a combined approach using pressure enhanced water soluble enema and MRI will provide the most valuable preoperative information to plan a successful operative approach and enable an accurate prognostic evaluation of continence in these difficult and complex patients. (orig.).

  1. Color matching in facial prosthetics: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Ranabhatt


    Full Text Available Color matching to the surrounding skin is extremely important in patients wearing maxillofacial prostheses. It is of utmost importance to know the different techniques of color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The purpose of this study is to review the literature data with regard to color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. An electronic search of peer review restricted to English language dental literature was conducted to identify the relevant scientific article on color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The publication year was up to December 2015 so that the search could include all the articles provided in that particular database. Two independent observers independently read the abstracts and later preselected full-text articles. A full-text review was carried out only for 15 articles. Out of the 15 articles, 7 were related to coloring using tinting, spraying, milling, and use of commercial cosmetics. Three studies were related to shade matching in maxillofacial prostheses. Two studies conducted the measurement of color in maxillofacial prostheses. Only one study had explained color and its relevance in maxillofacial prosthetics. Only one study was done for reproducing silicone shade guide matching Indian skin color. In addition, a single pilot study was done to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by race, gender, and age. Currently, there is no evidence discussing the best technique available for perfectly matching the color for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. However, the latest instruments such as spectrophotometer and colorimeters are believed to have improved efficiency in matching the color.

  2. Stool Color: When to Worry (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  3. Exploring preoperational features in chronic depression. (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Zobel, Ingo; Härter, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth


    The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) by James McCullough is the first psychotherapeutical approach specifically designed for chronic depression. Whereas its efficacy has recently been studied, empirical investigations on the underlying etiopathological hypotheses are missing. McCullough postulates that chronically depressed patients - particularly those with early onset - think preoperationally. This term was coined by J. Piaget and includes egocentrism in the views of self and others and incapacity for authentic interpersonal empathy. In accordance, empirical studies indicate a deficit in theory of mind (ToM) in depressed individuals. Sixteen patients with early onset chronic depression were compared to sixteen matched healthy controls using three measurements: 1) the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) as a new video-based theory of mind test, 2) self-rated questionnaires on empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and a scale assessing individual competence in relationships), and 3) a structured evaluation by the patients' therapists. The groups did not differ in their theory of mind performance on any aspect assessed by the used test. However, patients rated their empathy in daily life as significantly inferior to healthy controls. In addition, the therapists assigned a considerable amount of preoperational behavior to their patients. No meaningful correlations between these three types of measurements were found. Small sample size, no structural assessment of possible psychopathology in the control group, control group was not rated by clinicians concerning preoperational behaviors. Lack of empathy exists in the daily life of early onset chronically depressed patients according to their own and their therapists' evaluation. However, a video-based test failed to pick up deficits in their theory of mind capacities. Further research is needed to investigate theory of mind deficits using real life interpersonal

  4. Preoperative urinary tract obstruction in scoliosis patients. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Kotani, Toshiaki; Mori, Kazuetsu; Kawamura, Ken; Ohtake, Akira


    While the association between scoliosis and cardiac and respiratory function impairments has been well characterized in clinical practice and research, the potential effect of scoliosis on urinary tract structure and renal function has received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the preoperative clinical characteristics of urinary tract structure and renal function in pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis, using a combination of blood tests, urinalysis, and imaging. Preoperative measures of urinary tract structure and renal function were obtained for 16 patients, 13-17 years old, scheduled for corrective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. Preoperative assessment included blood test and urinalysis, combined with structural imaging on ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance urography (MRU), and radioisotope tracing (RI), using technetium-99 m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99m Tc-MAG3). Differences in blood and urine tests between patients with and without urinary tract obstruction (UTO) were evaluated for significance using Mann-Whitney U test. For all 16 patients, blood tests and MRU were within normal limits. Dilatation of the renal pelvis was identified on US in eight patients (50.0%). UTO was identified on RI in six patients (37.5%). UTO was associated with elevated β2-microglobulin concentration. Urinary β2-microglobulin concentration >0.7 μg/mg Cr differentiated patients with UTO from those without UTO, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 70%. β2-Microglobulin concentration may be a useful marker to screen for asymptomatic UTO in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma]. (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel


    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  6. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  8. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  9. Preoperative ultraviolet B inflammation in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Dawes, J M; Denk, F


    and transcriptional analysis of hyperalgesia arising as a result of UVB-induced inflammation in patients before total knee arthroplasty (TKA, n = 23). Levels of acute postoperative pain were assessed and correlated with preoperative data. RESULTS: Cytokine and chemokine responses after UVB irradiation were found...... to be inversely correlated with the level of pain experienced after surgery (Spearman's ρ = -0.498). CONCLUSION: It may be possible to use this simple model to study and predict the nature of neuro-immune responses at more remote, clinically relevant sites. SIGNIFICANCE: A simple model of UVB inflammation...

  10. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3) (United States)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei


    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  11. Color Display Design Guide (United States)


    and G. M. Corso , "Color flcsearch for Visuz’l Displays, Technical Report No. ONH-CR2l3-102-3, July 1975, 108 pp. 45 1 Results of two code comparison...respective- ly. Since the display elements constitute routine or non-priority informatica , all display information would be coded green if the three-color...1963, with Amendment 1, 30 September 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. 27. Christ, R.E. and G.M. Corso . "Color Research for Visual

  12. The Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale provides a simple and reliable measure of preoperative anxiety. (United States)

    Boker, Abdulaziz; Brownell, Laurence; Donen, Neil


    To compare three anxiety scales; the anxiety visual analogue scale (VAS), the anxiety component of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS), and the state portion of the Spielburger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), for assessment of preoperative anxiety levels in same day admission patients. Patients completed the three anxiety assessment scales both before and after seeing the anesthesiologist preoperatively. The scales used were the STAI, the six-question APAIS, and the VAS. APAIS was further subdivided to assess anxiety about anesthesia (sum A), anxiety about surgery (sum S) and a combined anxiety total (i.e., sum C = sum A + sum S). These scales were compared to one another. Pearson's correlation (pair-wise deletion) was used for validity testing. Cronbach's alpha analysis was used to test internal validity of the various components of the APAIS scale. A correlation co-efficient (r) > or = 0.6 and P scale sets were completed by 197 patients. There was significant and positive correlation between VAS and STAI r = 0.64, P anxiety components of the APAIS (sum C) and desire for information were 0.84 and 0.77 respectively. In addition to VAS, the anxiety component of APAIS (sum C) is a promising new practical tool to assess preoperative patient anxiety levels.

  13. [Safety of preoperative oral rehydration therapy]. (United States)

    Mimura, Fumiaki; Sakurai, Yasuyoshi; Uchida, Michiko; Aiba, Junko; Yamaguchi, Midori


    OS-1 is an oral rehydration solution that conforms with the principles of oral rehydration therapy. It may be useful for preoperative fluid management of surgical patients. While intake of clear fluids 2 hours before surgery is considered safe, it is not known if the same applies to OS-1. We therefore investigated the safety of OS-1 for preoperative patients as compared with clear fluids. First, eight healthy adult volunteers were studied in a crossover manner. Volunteers ingested 500 ml of OS-1 or water (clear fluid). Gastric emptying time was measured using gastric ultrasonography. Gastric antral area as measured by ultrasonography correlates well with gastric volume in a close-to-linear manner. Next, we measured gastric volume of elective surgical patients who had drunk OS-1 until two hours before the induction of anesthesia. Gastric emptying time did not differ between OS-1 and water. The stomach was emptied 30 minutes after ingestion of both OS-1 and water. The fasting stomach was identified in all patients who had drunk OS-1 before surgery. We concluded that allowing elective surgical patients to drink OS-1 until two hours before anesthesia did not affect the volume of gastric contents.

  14. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  15. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollahi Mansoureh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  16. Acupuncture on Yintang point decreases preoperative anxiety. (United States)

    Acar, H Volkan; Cuvaş, Ozgün; Ceyhan, Ayşegül; Dikmen, Bayazit


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ear-press needle acupuncture on Yintang point for preoperative anxiety. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled study. The study setting was the Department of Anesthesiology in Ankara Training and Research Hospital of Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey. The study comprised 52 adult surgical patients. A single, 20-minute session of single-point acupuncture was applied on Yintang (acupuncture group) or sham point (sham acupuncture group). The efficacy of acupuncture was evaluated by means of the changes in bispectral index (BIS) and STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Index). BIS values in the acupuncture group were significantly lower than in the sham group in all time intervals (p0.0004). Mean values of state anxiety (STAI-S) decreased after acupuncture in the study group (p=0,018), while no change was observed in trait anxiety (STAI-T) (p=0.156). Patients of the sham group showed no change in both parameters (p=0.387 and p=0,116). Ear-press needle acupuncture on Yintang point reduces preoperative anxiety in adult surgical patients.

  17. Fingers that change color (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, ... Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... more kids are being diagnosed with the condition. Studies show that a low-dose of atropine, typically ...

  19. Color Associations of Children. (United States)

    Byrnes, Deborah A.


    Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Purchase the colored contact lenses from an eye product retailer who asks for a prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... Eyes SEP 20, 2017 By Dan Gudgel A report published in a medical journal reinforces what that ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to ... Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Gene Therapy ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  11. Food Coloring and Behavior


    J Gordon Millichap


    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that ... directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. There is no ... of approved contact lenses . Related Stories How long does it take the eye to go back to ...

  14. Tooth - abnormal colors (United States)

    ... or by a child during the time of tooth development can cause changes in the color and hardness ... be taken. Alternative Names ... MO: Elsevier; 2016:chap 2. Tinanoff N. Development and developmental anomalies of the teeth. In: Kliegman ...

  15. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  17. Color vision test (United States)

    ... asked to tell the difference between a red bottle cap and caps of a different color. How the ... information from the eye to the brain) -- the bottle caps are used in this case. Normal Results Normally, ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. ...

  19. Preoperative short-term traction prior to posterior vertebral column resection: procedure and role. (United States)

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Zhao, Zhi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yin; Bi, Ni; Shi, Zhiyue; Cai, Yunhua; Zhang, Yuhao


    Severe rigid spine deformity with sharp curve can be effectively corrected by posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR). Meanwhile, high risk of this procedure also has been recognized generally. The aim of this study is to review and evaluate the role of preoperative skull-femoral traction prior to PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp angular curve >150°. Twelve cases with extremely severe rigid deformities and sharp curves were treated by skull-femoral traction before operation. For them, the mean preoperative major scoliotic curve and kyphosis were 153° (110°-168°) and 109° (61°-180°). Continuous skull-femoral traction in supine position was started 4 weeks before operation. In the process of traction, tolerance, neurologic status, deformity changes, etc., were reviewed and documented for analysis. PVCR were performed in all these patients for final and main correction. The final traction force in the 12 cases was 63% of body weight. After 4-week traction, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 34 and 31%. In 1 week, main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 19 and 15%. In 2 weeks, the major scoliosis curve was decreased by 11%, but kyphosis was unexpectedly increased by 4%. Deformity in the last 2 weeks was less significant than the first 2 weeks. After PVCR, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were improved 69 and 66%. No permanent neurological damage occurred. Preoperative skull-femoral traction effectively mitigates the neurological risks of PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp curve. During traction, scoliosis can be improved more significantly and easily than kyphosis.

  20. Weather and Climate Extremes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Paul


    .... All extremes are presented in terms of their location and date and, where supportive information is available in the professional literature, detailed discussions of the extreme event are provided...

  1. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)


    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  2. Color Laser Microscope (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.


    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  3. Color in interior spaces


    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli


    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  4. Wetting in Color


    Burgess, Ian Bruce


    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly...

  5. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube (United States)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.


    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  6. Color planner for designers based on color emotions (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail


    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  7. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D


    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  8. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors: the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale. (United States)

    Goebel, Simone; Kaup, Lea; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian


    Preoperative anxiety is a major problem in patients with brain tumors and is of high clinical relevance. However, to date no instruments have been validated for the assessment of preoperative anxiety for this patient group. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) has shown promising results for the assessment of preoperative anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine its psychometric properties and the optimal cutoff score for patients with intracranial tumors to make it applicable in the neurosurgical setting. The sample totaled 180 neurosurgical patients with intracranial tumors. Patients were administered the APAIS along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as the gold standard against which the APAIS was compared. Patients scoring 11 or above in the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were defined as clinical cases having anxiety. The psychometric properties of the APAIS were evaluated for a postulated 2-factor structure, Cronbach α, and correlations. The postulated 2-factor structure could not be replicated. Instead, we found a 3-factor solution (anxiety about the operation, anxiety about the anesthesia, information requirement). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve ranged from ≥0.65 to ≥0.77. Optimal cutoff scores were calculated. The cutoff score for the anxiety scale was ≥10 for the whole sample and men only, and was ≥11 for women only. Analysis of the psychometric properties yielded satisfactory results (eg. Cronbach α for the anxiety scale >0.84). Despite its brevity, the APAIS is valid and recommendable for the assessment of preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors. As this is the first validation study focusing on patients with severe diseases and major surgeries, we recommend the application of our cutoff scores also for patients similar to our study population with regard to disease and surgery severity.

  9. The Trojan Color Conundrum (United States)

    Jewitt, David


    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  10. Preoperative medical testing in Medicare patients undergoing cataract surgery. (United States)

    Chen, Catherine L; Lin, Grace A; Bardach, Naomi S; Clay, Theodore H; Boscardin, W John; Gelb, Adrian W; Maze, Mervyn; Gropper, Michael A; Dudley, R Adams


    Routine preoperative testing is not recommended for patients undergoing cataract surgery, because testing neither decreases adverse events nor improves outcomes. We sought to assess adherence to this guideline, estimate expenditures from potentially unnecessary testing, and identify patient and health care system characteristics associated with potentially unnecessary testing. Using an observational cohort of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery in 2011, we determined the prevalence and cost of preoperative testing in the month before surgery. We compared the prevalence of preoperative testing and office visits with the mean percentage of beneficiaries who underwent tests and had office visits during the preceding 11 months. Using multivariate hierarchical analyses, we examined the relationship between preoperative testing and characteristics of patients, health system characteristics, surgical setting, care team, and occurrence of a preoperative office visit. Of 440,857 patients, 53% had at least one preoperative test in the month before surgery. Expenditures on testing during that month were $4.8 million higher and expenditures on office visits $12.4 million higher (42% and 78% higher, respectively) than the mean monthly expenditures during the preceding 11 months. Testing varied widely among ophthalmologists; 36% of ophthalmologists ordered preoperative tests for more than 75% of their patients. A patient's probability of undergoing testing was associated mainly with the ophthalmologist who managed the preoperative evaluation. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery occurred frequently and was more strongly associated with provider practice patterns than with patient characteristics. (Funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Grove Foundation.).

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad


    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  13. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment. (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios


    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner's syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as "Pancoast-Tobias syndrome". Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment.

  14. Preoperative vascular access evaluation for haemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Kosa, Sarah D; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E


    Haemodialysis treatment requires reliable vascular access. Optimal access is provided via functional arteriovenous fistula (fistula), which compared with other forms of vascular access, provides superior long-term patency, requires few interventions, has low thrombosis and infection rates and cost. However, it has been estimated that between 20% and 60% of fistulas never mature sufficiently to enable haemodialysis treatment. Mapping blood vessels using imaging technologies before surgery may identify vessels that are most suitable for fistula creation. We compared the effect of conducting routine radiological imaging evaluation for vascular access creation preoperatively with standard care without routine preoperative vessel imaging on fistula creation and use. We searched Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 14 April 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) with chronic or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who needed fistulas (both before dialysis and after dialysis initiation) that compared fistula maturation rates relating to use of imaging technologies to map blood vessels before fistula surgery with standard care (no imaging). Two authors assessed study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes, including fistula creation, maturation and need for catheters at dialysis initiation, were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous outcomes, such as numbers of interventions required to maintain patency, were expressed as mean differences (MD). We used the random-effects model to measure mean effects. Four studies enrolling 450 participants met our inclusion criteria. Overall risk of bias was judged to be low in one study, unclear in two, and high in one.There was no significant differences in the number of fistulas that were successfully created (4

  15. 7 CFR 51.1827 - Highly colored. (United States)


    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1827 Highly colored. Highly colored means that the ground color of each fruit is a deep tangerine color, or characteristic color for the variety...

  16. Investigation of Preoperative Fasting Times in Children. (United States)

    Dolgun, Eda; Yavuz, Meryem; Eroğlu, Birsen; Islamoğlu, Ayşe


    The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative fasting times of children. A prospective and descriptive design was used. The study was carried out in the pediatric surgery departments of a University Faculty of Medicine Hospital, between January 1 and May 31, 2012. The sample included 332 pediatric patients having surgery with general anesthesia and their family. Data were collected via patient and family interview using a 28-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. 29.2% of the sample was between the age of 1 and 3 years, of which 68.1% were male. 82.5% had day surgery. 94.9% of families were informed about the operation and 97.6% about nutrition before the operation. The children were fed an average of 10.51 hours before the operation (n = 203) with clear liquids, 6.27 hours (n = 52) with breast milk, 9.9 hours (n = 107) with baby food or cow's milk, 11.22 hours (n = 100) with toast and other, and 12.25 hours (n = 106) with daily food. About 65.6% of children between the years 0 and 3 (n = 151) declared being hungry when they were going to surgery, and 58.9% said that they were thirsty. Of the children older than 3 years (n = 181), 55.2% were hungry and 58.0% were thirsty. Results indicate that patients' preoperative fasting times were longer than recommended by current guidelines. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Aoife


    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy with reference to content of information, method of delivery, information providers and timing of information provision. BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy can be anxiety provoking for children and preoperative preparation programmes are long recognised to reduce anxiety. However, few have been designed from the perspectives of children and to date little is known about how best to prepare children in terms of what to tell them, how to convey information to them, who can best provide information and what is the best timing for information provision. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHOD: Data were collected from nine children (aged 6-9) using interviews supported by a write and draw technique. Data were coded and categorised into themes reflecting content, method, providers and timing of information. RESULTS: Children openly communicated their information needs especially on what to tell them to expect when facing a tonsillectomy. Their principal concerns were about operation procedures, experiencing \\'soreness\\' and discomfort postoperatively and parental presence. Mothers were viewed as best situated to provide them with information. Children were uncertain about what method of information and timing would be most helpful to them. CONCLUSION: Preoperative educational interventions need to take account of children\\'s information needs so that they are prepared for surgery in ways that are meaningful and relevant to them. Future research is needed in this area. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Practical steps towards informing children about having a tonsillectomy include asking them what they need to know and addressing their queries accordingly. Child-centred information leaflets using a question and answer format could also be helpful to children.

  18. Structural colors, cosmetics, and fabrics (United States)

    Dushkina, Natalia; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Structural colors are non-pigment colors that originate from the scattering of light from ordered microstructures, thin films, and even irregular arrays of scatterers. Examples include the flashing sparks of colors in opals and the brilliant hues of some butterflies such as Morpho rhetenor. Structural colors arise in nature from one or more of a palette of physical mechanisms that are now understood quite well and can be implemented industrially to produce structurally colored paints, fabrics, and cosmetics.

  19. DNATagger, colors for codons. (United States)

    Scherer, N M; Basso, D M


    DNATagger is a web-based tool for coloring and editing DNA, RNA and protein sequences and alignments. It is dedicated to the visualization of protein coding sequences and also protein sequence alignments to facilitate the comprehension of evolutionary processes in sequence analysis. The distinctive feature of DNATagger is the use of codons as informative units for coloring DNA and RNA sequences. The codons are colored according to their corresponding amino acids. It is the first program that colors codons in DNA sequences without being affected by "out-of-frame" gaps of alignments. It can handle single gaps and gaps inside the triplets. The program also provides the possibility to edit the alignments and change color patterns and translation tables. DNATagger is a JavaScript application, following the W3C guidelines, designed to work on standards-compliant web browsers. It therefore requires no installation and is platform independent. The web-based DNATagger is available as free and open source software at

  20. How bees distinguish colors. (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian


    Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models.

  1. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.


    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  2. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color. (United States)

    Zheng, Liling; Huang, Ping; Zhong, Xiao; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei


    Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  3. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color. (United States)

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K


    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  4. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4) (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei


    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  5. Rationale for and approach to preoperative opioid weaning: a preoperative optimization protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath McAnally


    Full Text Available Abstract The practice of chronic opioid prescription for chronic non-cancer pain has come under considerable scrutiny within the past several years as mounting evidence reveals a generally unfavorable risk to benefit ratio and the nation reels from the grim mortality statistics associated with the opioid epidemic. Patients struggling with chronic pain tend to use opioids and also seek out operative intervention for their complaints, which combination may be leading to increased postoperative “acute-on-chronic” pain and fueling worsened chronic pain and opioid dependence. Besides worsened postoperative pain, a growing body of literature, reviewed herein, indicates that preoperative opioid use is associated with significantly worsened surgical outcomes, and severely increased financial drain on an already severely overburdened healthcare budget. Conversely, there is evidence that preoperative opioid reduction may result in substantial improvements in outcome. In the era of accountable care, efforts such as the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS protocol have been introduced in an attempt to standardize and facilitate evidence-based perioperative interventions to optimize surgical outcomes. We propose that addressing preoperative opioid reduction as part of a targeted optimization approach for chronic pain patients seeking surgery is not only logical but mandatory given the stakes involved. Simple opioid reduction/abstinence however is not likely to occur in the absence of provision of viable and palatable alternatives to managing pain, which will require a strong focus upon reducing pain catastrophization and bolstering self-efficacy and resilience. In response to a call from our surgical community toward that end, we have developed a simple and easy-to-implement outpatient preoperative optimization program focusing on gentle opioid weaning/elimination as well as a few other high-yield areas of intervention, requiring a minimum of resources.

  6. Iris color evaluation with a digital color camera


    Herrera Ramírez, Jorge Alexis; Vilaseca Ricart, Meritxell; de Lasarte, Marta; Düll, Jochen; Pujol Ramo, Jaume


    In this work we measure and evaluate the color of irises, prostheses and cosmetic colored contact lenses with a system based on a digital RGB color camera. Using multispectral tools, the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric coordinates are computed from the RGB digital values of the acquired images. With the statistical analysis of the L*a*b* values, the color gamuts and the CIEDE2000 color differences, a comparison of the color associated to each set of samples is performed. Specifically, the...

  7. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  8. Color optical biopsy (United States)

    Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam


    Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

  9. The Monitoring of Preoperative External Detorsion with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in a Patient with Acute Testicular Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Beyazal


    Full Text Available Testicular torsion is one of the main causes of acute scrotum and may result in permanent damage of the testicular tissue. Color Doppler imaging has been frequently used in the diagnosis of testicular torsion and posttreatment follow-up period of the disease. There are some studies reporting the value and usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of testicular torsion. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report regarding the monitoring of preoperative external detorsion in testicular torsion with diffusion-weighted imaging examination. In this article, diffusion-weighted imaging findings in the management of preoperative external detorsion in a case with testicular torsion were presented.

  10. The use of nasal midazolam in reducing preoperative anxiety in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of nasal midazolam in reducing preoperative anxiety in children. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. Journal Home ... This preoperative anxiety can lead to post operative emergence delirium, maladaptive behavioral changes such as night time crying, enuresis, feeding difficulties, apathy, and withdrawal.

  11. The Effect of Mild Preoperative Renal Impairment on Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Severe preoperative renal impairment (RI) is often included in score systems used to predict outcome after open cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mild preoperative RI on the early postoperative mortality after open heart surgery. Methods: We retrospectively collected ...

  12. [Preoperative information for paediatric patients. The anaesthesiologist's point of view]. (United States)

    Orliaguet, G


    Medical information is mandatory before any medical procedure, including pediatric anesthesia. Preoperative information covers many aspects, including medico-psychologic and judicial aspects. When the patient is a child, information must be delivered to the parents in priority. However, the French law has given a particular attention to the opinion of the child. In 70% of the cases, preoperative anxiety of the parents is more related to anesthesia than to the surgical procedure itself. We have to explain the most frequent adverse effects, as well as the more severe and well known complications to the parents, even though they are very infrequent. The only cases where preoperative information is not required are: emergency cases and refusal of the patient or the parents to be informed. While information is necessarily oral, it may be completed using a written document. The quality of the preoperative information directly influences the quality of the psychological preoperative preparation of the parents, and thereafter of the child. Preoperative preparation programs have been developed, but controversial results have been observed. The great majority of the studies on preoperative programs were performed in the USA, where the demand for preoperative information is very important. It is far from sure that the results of all these studies may be extrapolated to French parents, and French studies are needed.

  13. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M


    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  14. What is the effect of preoperative information on patient satisfaction? (United States)

    Walker, Jennie April

    The aim of this literature review is to examine the relationship between the provision of written information given to patients' preoperatively and their postoperative recovery following elective surgery. It is not currently apparent which is the most effective method of delivering preoperative information, or at what stage of the preoperative phase is the optimum time to deliver such important information. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the affiliation between anxiety experienced by surgical patients and the information received preoperatively and to examine the relationship between the provision of written information given to patients preoperatively and their postoperative recovery following elective surgery. Research findings are contradictory with respect to the effect of preoperative information on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction. However, research does indicate that the provision of good-quality preoperative information facilitates patients' active involvement in their care, and therefore may contribute to an overall increase in satisfaction. There remains a need for rigorous research that identifies the optimum timing and method of delivering preoperative information to maximize their positive effects on patients undergoing elective surgery.

  15. Data collection variation in preoperative assessment: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Cornet, Ronald; van Klei, Wilton A.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.


    This study is a systematic literature review to identify data collected in the preoperative assessment. The PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for articles published from 1997 to 2007. From the included articles, data items that were described as part of the preoperative assessment were

  16. An audit of documented preoperative evaluation of surgery patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The anaesthetic preoperative evaluation of a patient is the clinical foundation of perioperative patient management, and can potentially reduce operative morbidity and enhance patient outcomes. Generally, anaesthetists complete a standardised preoperative anaesthetic record (PAR) form to improve the quality ...

  17. The role of anxiolytic premedication in reducing preoperative anxiety.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Jennifer K


    Prevention of preoperative anxiety with anxiolytic premedication is associated with improved preoperative outcomes in surgical patients. The objective of the authors\\' study was to evaluate the percentage of surgical patients that are prescribed premedication for preoperative anxiety before their anticipated surgical procedure. A prospective study was carried out by theatre nursing staff in the theatre reception bay of a university teaching hospital. A questionnaire was designed to record the number of patients that described symptoms consistent with preoperative anxiety. The number of patients that had been offered anxiolytic premedication for preoperative anxiety was also recorded. Consent was obtained from 115 consecutive surgical patients (male, n=52; female, n=63). Of these, 66% (n=76) reported anxiety before their surgical procedure (male: n=27, female: n=49). Premedication with a low-dose benzodiazepine was prescribed by an anaesthetist in 4% of cases (n=5). Patients that received premedication preoperatively reported effective relief of their anxiety symptoms This study demonstrates that preoperative patient anxiety is highly prevalent. The authors\\' findings suggest that premedication with anxiolytic pharmacological therapy may be an underused therapeutic resource for managing preoperative patient anxiety.

  18. Preoperative percutaneous transhepatic drainage: use or abuse. A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Moody, F. G.


    The benefit of preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice was reviewed in the literature from 1974 to July 1984. The role of preoperative drainage cannot be definitively assessed. Significant reduction of morbidity and mortality has been reported in

  19. Audit of preoperative localisation of tumor with tattoo for patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Saleh, A; Ihedioha, U; Babu, B; Evans, J; Kang, P


    Preoperative localisation of tumour is an essential requirement in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Since the introduction of laparoscopic colorectal resections in NGH in February 2010, the difficulties of tumour localisation at the time of surgery without tattoo have been highlighted. Furthermore, endoscopic documentation of site of tattoo with respect to the tumour can be inconsistent and at times misleading or difficult to interpret. Tattooing guidelines should be simple to follow and consistent for all lesions irrespective of the location of the tumour. The recommendations were to place at least three spots of tattoo one mucosal fold distal to the lesion and clearly document site of tattoo with respect to tumour in the endoscopy report. We identified 100 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections over a two-year period. Data were collected regarding presence of tattoo preoperatively as documented in the colonoscopy report and subsequently the visibility of the tattoo at time of laparoscopy and its accuracy in relation to the tumour. Abdominoperineal resections and emergency colorectal operations were excluded. Only 59% of the patients had a visible and accurate tattoo. In 17% of the patients, the tattoo was not visible at all, although it was documented in the endoscopy report that it had been administered. In 4% of patients, it was visible but inaccurately placed. In 20% of the patients, there were no tattoos at all, necessitating on table endoscopy and intraoperative specimen analysis to confirm that the tumour/lesion was within the resection specimen. Preoperative tumour localisation is extremely important to correctly identify the site of tumour or lesion at laparoscopy. A standardised departmental protocol should be implemented by all endoscopists to place three spots of tattoo one mucosal fold distal to any significant lesions found. Failure to tattoo lesions/cancers preoperatively can lead to intraoperative delays and

  20. Preoperative quadriceps strength as a predictor for short-term functional outcome after total hip replacement. (United States)

    Holstege, Marije S; Lindeboom, Robert; Lucas, Cees


    To determine the preoperative strength of the muscle group of the lower extremity that is most important in predicting functional recovery after primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR). Prospective observational study with inception cohort. Joint care program (hospital care/clinical division of a nursing home/outpatient physical therapy). Patients (N=55) undergoing primary unilateral THR. Not applicable. Baseline measures within 2 weeks preoperative and follow-up at 6 and 12 weeks postoperative included isometric strength measurement of the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors) and knee (flexors, extensors) musculature using a handheld dynamometer. Functional outcome was tested using performance-based (Timed Up and Go Test, 6-Minute Walk Test) and self-report measures (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, subscale Physical Function [WOMAC PF], 36-Item Short Form Health Survey subscale Mental Health, visual analog scale for pain). Of the patients (N=55; mean age, 72.7±6.8y; 41 women) included; 18 dropped out, leaving 37 patients for analyses. After correction for WOMAC PF score at baseline, body mass index, sex, and age, the preoperative knee extensors strength measure of the operated site was the only muscle group showing a significant effect on functional outcome measured by using the WOMAC PF at 12 weeks postoperatively (R(2)=.355; β=-.105; P for β=.004). Preoperative greater knee extensor strength of the operated site is associated with better physical function, measured by using the WOMAC PF at 12 weeks postoperative. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) - the first trial of a German version. (United States)

    Berth, Hendrik; Petrowski, Katja; Balck, Friedrich


    Preoperative anxiety influences the result of the treatment in patients. To assess preoperative anxiety the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) [1] was developed. The APAIS measures anxiety and the need-for-information with 6 items, with good reliability and validity. This article presents the first test of the German version of this screening instrument. The German version of the APAIS was tested on 68 patients questioned before surgery on the lower extremities in the Orthopaedic Department of a University Hospital. From 68 patients, 47 (69%) were female and the average age was 55 years. Besides the APAIS, several additional questionnaires with similar or divergent content were administered for testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the APAIS (HADS, SCL-9-K, KASA, COSS, STOA). The two scales anxiety and need-for-information could be replicated by a factor analysis and had high reliability (anxiety: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.92; need-for-information: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.86). As expected the scales of the APAIS correlated highly with different standard questionnaires which measure anxiety (KASA, STOA) and low with questionnaires of divergent contents (HADS depression, COSS). The APAIS-scales are independent of sex, age or previous surgeries. Patients with a higher need-for-information show higher anxiety (r=0.59) prior to surgery. During its first trial the German version of the APAIS proved to be a reliable and valid instrument. Furthermore, it is a good screening instrument to assess preoperative anxiety and need-for-information in clinical practice, especially due to its brevity. In further studies the predictive validity has to be examined in large heterogeneous samples.

  2. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme...... that classifies extreme returns for several markets jointly. The new classification scheme holds about the same information as the old one, while demanding a shorter sample period. The new classification scheme is useful....

  3. Children's emotional associations with colors. (United States)

    Boyatzis, C J; Varghese, R


    In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitsky


    Full Text Available Author brings modern conception of extreme and terminal states, their types, likenesses and differences, etiology, key common chains of pathogenesis, principles and methods of their treatment. Pathophysiological data on one of extreme states — collapse — is described in details. Next publications will present the data on shock and coma.Key words: extreme and terminal states, vicious circle of pathogenesis, extreme regulation, principles of treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:74-80

  5. An object-color space. (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D


    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda, respectively.

  6. Mitral Regurgitation Grading in the Operating Room: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Preoperative and Intraoperative Assessments During Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Johnson, Christopher; Bellavia, Diego; Morsolini, Marco; Romano, Giuseppe; Santonocito, Cristina; Centineo, Luigi; Pastore, Federico; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio


    To assess differences in mitral regurgitation (MR) grade between the preoperative and the intraoperative evaluations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 observational studies found from MEDLINE and EMBASE. Cardiac surgery. One hundred thirty-seven patients. Comparison between the preoperative MR assessment and the intraoperative evaluation conducted under general anesthesia (GA), with or without "hemodynamic matching" (HM) (artificial increase of afterload). The primary outcome was the difference between the preoperative and intraoperative MR grade under "GA-only" or "after-HM." Secondary analyses addressed differences according to effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), regurgitant volume (RVol), color-jet area, and vena contracta width. Risk of MR underestimation was found under "GA-only" (SMD: 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.79, p strategy carries high risk of clinically significant overestimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative Weight Loss and Operative Outcome After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy. (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Seki, Yosuke; Haruta, Hidenori; Kikkawa, Eri; Kasama, Kazunori


    Use of a preoperative diet before bariatric surgery to improve postoperative complications and weight loss has been reported. However, evidence supporting this diet for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is insufficient. We aimed to investigate postoperative outcomes influenced by preoperative diet before LSG. This study included 247 patients who underwent LSG after preoperative weight management. They were classified according to preoperative weight changes (group 1, weight gain; group 2, 0-3.0% total weight loss (TWL); group 3, 3.1-5.0% TWL; group 4, >5.1% TWL) and investigated for early postoperative complications and weight loss at 1 year. There were 37 patients in group 1, 79 in group 2, 64 in group 3, and 67 in group 4. There were no statistical differences in initial physical status among the 4 groups. The median BMI declined to 27.6 kg/m2 in the entire group. Although the average %TWL during the combined preoperative and postoperative periods showed no statistical differences (P = 0.69), the average %TWL during the postoperative period decreased gradually as the extent of preoperative weight loss increased (P = 0.01). The early postoperative complication rate for the entire group was 6.9%; it tended to be lower as the extent of preoperative weight loss increased. However, a multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that the preoperative diet was not a statistical predictor of reduced early postoperative complications (P = 0.28). The extent of preoperative weight loss statistically affected postoperative weight loss. A preoperative diet might have minor advantages in reducing the risk of early postoperative complications.

  8. Color invariant edge detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.-M.; Dev, A.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Cornelissen, F.; Geerts, H.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.; Olsen, O.F.; Weickert, J.


    Segmentation based on color, instead of intensity only, pro- vides an easier distinction between materials, on the condition that ro- bustness against irrelevant parameters is achieved, such as illumination source, shadows, geometry and camera sensitivities. Modeling the phys- ical process of the

  9. Color discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.


    The sense of sight provides us with information on how the radiance of the environment is distributed in time and space. Such information pertains to both the energy and the spectral distribution of the radiance. Researchers in the field of color vision generally assume that, as attributes of visual


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seven-color Asteroid Survey(SCAS) consists of photometry in seven filters from 0.9 to 2.3 microns, of a total of 126 asteroids of types S, K, and M.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... the United States. Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With ... Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers (United States)

    ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... the United States. Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With ... Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann ... lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying ...

  14. Local Color Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Gomila Salas


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a local algorithm for contrast enhancement developed by N. Moroney at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and presented at the IS&T/SID Eight Color Imaging Conference, in 2000. The algorithm uses a non-linear masking, is fast and does not require any manual parameter adjustments.

  15. "Color-Blind" Racism. (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  16. Facts About Color Blindness (United States)

    ... percent of men and 0.5 percent of women with Northern European ancestry have the common form of red-green color blindness. Men are much more likely to be colorblind than women because the genes responsible for the most common, ...

  17. Color Wheel Windows (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie


    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Why Leaves Change Color (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without a prescription in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a gene therapy treatment ...

  2. Color appearance in stereoscopy (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano


    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  4. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods


    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not been properly fitted by an eye ... infection and left her with a corneal abrasion. "I was in severe pain and on medication for ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had ... with a corneal abrasion. "I was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn' ...

  7. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A


    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  8. Recovery of the neurosensory retina after macular translocation surgery is independent of preoperative macular sensitivity in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Mettu, Priyatham S; Sarin, Neeru; Stinnett, Sandra S; Toth, Cynthia A


    To directly assess the recovery of the retina overlying choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration and to understand the relationship between macular sensitivity and visual functional measures and retinal structural alterations as predictive factors for outcome among eyes undergoing macular translocation surgery (MT360). In a prospective, consecutive case series of 55 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization undergoing MT360, we explored the relationship between macular sensitivity on the Nidek microperimeter-1 with pathologic features on optical coherence tomography and with distance and near visual acuity, reading speed, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 composite quality-of-life (QOL) score, both before and at 1 year after MT360. On average, there was improvement in all measures of visual function, macular sensitivity, and QOL after MT360. Preoperative median retinal sensitivity score did not predict postoperative measures of visual function, macular sensitivity, and vision-related QOL. Correlation between preoperative median retinal sensitivity score and preoperative measures of visual function and vision-related QOL was generally poor, excepting modest correlation for contrast sensitivity and color vision. However, correlation between postoperative median retinal sensitivity score and postoperative measures of visual function and vision-related QOL was uniformly modest, and change in median retinal sensitivity score correlated modestly with change in most measures of visual function and QOL. Among optical coherence tomography morphologic features, preoperative retinal pigment epithelium elevation predicted reduced postoperative contrast sensitivity (P = 0.04), while preoperative epiretinal membrane or vitreomacular traction predicted increased postoperative contrast sensitivity (P = 0.05). Preoperative cystoid macular edema, subretinal fluid, and

  9. Human preference for individual colors (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.


    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  10. New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis. (United States)

    Ulmer, Miriam; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Assadian, Ojan; Daeschlein, Georg; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard


    During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System. (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N


    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy.

  12. Preoperative gastric conditioning in cervical gastroplasty. (United States)

    Farran, Leandre; Miro, M; Alba, E; Bettonica, C; Aranda, H; Galan, M; Rafecas, A


    To determine if ischemic conditioning of the stomach improves the morbidity, mortality, and the anastomotic failure in gastroplasties with cervical anastomosis. Analysis of all patients with indication for cervical gastroplasty during the period of study. In all cases, ischemic conditioning was performed by selective embolization. Anastomotic failure, morbidity, and mortality rates were studied. Thirty-nine consecutive patients were included. Angiography and selective embolization of the left gastric, right gastric, and splenic arteries were performed. Surgery was performed 2 weeks later. Four patients did not have a complete embolization; median hospital stay after conditioning was 1.24 ± 0.6 days. In two patients, surgery could not be completed. Of the 33 remaining, 29 had a posterior mediastinic gastroplasty and four through the anterior mediastinum. The most common morbidity was respiratory. Five patients had a reoperation and the mortality was 6%. One case of anastomotic leak was found (3%). The mean hospital stay was 17.5 days. Preoperative embolization is a technique with acceptable morbidity and a short hospital stay. In our experience it can reduce the incidence of the morbidity, mortality, and anastomotic leak in gastroplasties with cervical anastomosis. Prospective studies will be necessary to demonstrate the validity of this approach. © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. Preoperative venogram in planning extended craniectomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzieri, C.F.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Rosenbloom, S.A.; Weinstein, M.A.; Sacher, M.


    A technique of extended craniectomy sometimes allows removal of large central or transtentorial mass lesions at a single operative sitting because it affords better exposure and control of normal structures. While seeking to avoid multiple craniotomies, this method requires permanent ligation of the transverse venous sinus. Unless there is adequate collateral venous drainage from the ipsilateral hemisphere, the patient is at risk for venous infarction in the post-craniectomy period. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of establishing the presence of collateral venous drainage preoperatively. Each carotid artery is injected with the head in a neutral position and with the head turned to the side ipsilateral to the carotid artery injection in an attempt to divert the venous flow. Fifty patients were examined using this method; seven were being evaluated for possible craniectomies. The technique identified nine patients with potential venous collaterals (20%). They would otherwise have been considered nonoperable: two of the six patients eventually operated upon (33%) fell into this category. In general, the operative procedure may be safe more often on the left than the right (45%) vs (20%). Particular attention must be given to the pattern of venous drainage from the posterior temporal lobe to avoid isolation of the venous drainage from this area.

  14. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.


    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  15. Natural-color maps via coloring of bivariate grid data (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jane E.; Jenny, Bernhard


    Natural ground color is useful for maps where a representation of the Earth's surface matters. Natural color schemes are less likely to be misinterpreted, as opposed to hypsometric color schemes, and are generally preferred by map readers. The creation of natural-color maps was once limited to manual cartographic techniques, but they can now be created digitally with the aid of raster graphics editing software. However, the creation of natural-color maps still requires many steps, a significant time investment, and fairly detailed digital land cover information, which makes this technique impossible to apply to global web maps at medium and large scales. A particular challenge for natural-color map creation is adjusting colors with location to create smoothly blending transitions. Adjustments with location are required to show land cover transitions between climate zones with a natural appearance. This study takes the first step in automating the process in order to facilitate the creation of medium- and large-scale natural-color maps covering large areas. A coloring method based on two grid inputs is presented. Here, we introduce an algorithmic method and prototype software for creating maps with this technique. The prototype software allows the map author to interactively assign colors to design the appearance of the map. This software can generate web map tiles at a global level for medium and large scales. Example natural-color web maps created with this coloring technique are provided.

  16. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  17. Color and appearance metrology facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  18. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas


    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  19. Nurses' perceptions of preoperative teaching for ambulatory surgical patients. (United States)

    Tse, Kar-yee; So, Winnie Kwok-wei


    This paper is a report of a study to examine nurses' perceptions of the importance of providing preoperative information to ambulatory surgical patients, and factors that might influence their provision of such teaching. Ambulatory surgery is now widespread and creates a challenge for nurses to provide preoperative teaching in the limited contact time they have with patients. Although nurses act as key educators in patient teaching, little is known about their perceptions of the importance of preoperative teaching, or about current practice in the provision of such teaching for ambulatory surgical patients. A self-administered questionnaire including demographics and the Preoperative Teaching Questionnaire was completed by 91 of the 169 eligible nurses (response rate 53.8%) working in day-surgery units, operating theatres or outpatient clinics providing ambulatory surgery services in two public hospitals in Hong Kong in 2005. A discrepancy between nurses' perceptions and practice in relation to the provision of preoperative information was found. Limited teaching aids, tight operation schedules and language barriers affected the delivery of preoperative information to ambulatory surgical patients. The results highlight the importance of reviewing current preoperative teaching methods and improving the effectiveness of such teaching to enhance the quality of care for ambulatory surgical patients.

  20. Preoperative screening for sickle cell disease in children: clinical implications. (United States)

    Crawford, Mark W; Galton, Seth; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed


    Preoperative screening of at-risk patients for sickle cell disease (SCD) is recommended as a method to decrease perioperative morbidity. However, the effectiveness of pre-operative screening in accomplishing this goal has never been demonstrated. We undertook a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of positive test results among those screened preoperatively at our institution and to determine whether amendments to present screening guidelines can be recommended. The hematology laboratory database of a university teaching hospital was searched to identify all patients who underwent preoperative screening for SCD from October 1999 to October 2003. The medical records of those patients testing positive were reviewed. Of 1,906 children screened preoperatively, 79 (4.1%) were diagnosed as having sickle cell trait and three (0.16%) as having some form of SCD: one had homozygous hemoglobin S and two had sickle-hemoglobin C disease. Two of the three had a family history for SCD and none had a preoperative hemoglobin concentration 99.84% that no at-risk child would require transfusion. We recommend that preoperative screening for SCD be undertaken selectively, giving consideration to the risks and benefits of screening to the individual patient.

  1. Preoperative depression symptom severity and its impact on adherence to preoperative beta-blocker therapy. (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Feinleib, Jessica; Holt, Natalie; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia; Burg, Matthew M


    To test the association among depression symptoms, distressed personality type, and preoperative beta-blocker nonadherence and to estimate the prevalence of untreated major depression in this population. Prospective observational study. A veterans hospital. One hundred twenty patients on outpatient beta-blocker therapy presenting for surgery. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, the D-Scale-14 (DS14), and Modified Morisky Scale (MMS) questionnaires. Of 99 participants who presented for surgery, the incidence of preoperative nonadherence was 14.1% (95% confidence interval 7%-21%), consistent with prior research. Nonadherence was 9.5% among those with no depression, 27.8% among those with mild depression, and 28.6% among those with moderate-to-severe depression (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p = 0.03). Distressed personality type was found in 35% of the cohort (95% confidence interval 26-45%) and was not associated with beta-blocker nonadherence (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.24). Among participants with symptoms of major depressive disorder (n = 25, 25.3%), more than half (n = 14, 56%) had no indication of depression listed at their most recent primary care visit. Patients with symptoms of depression on chronic beta-blocker therapy are susceptible to medication nonadherence on the day of surgery. Most surgical patients with symptoms of major depression lack a diagnosis of depression. Preoperative depression screening may thus (1) identify a population at increased risk of beta-blocker withdrawal, and (2) identify patients who may benefit from anesthesiologist-initiated referral for this treatable condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant. (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Ziegler, Gregory R


    There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants. Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner. Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development. Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO. Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation. The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen. The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo. These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent. There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods. Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants. Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air. Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Color preferences are not universal. (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna


    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers


    Zi, Jian; Yu, Xindi; Li, Yizhou; Hu, Xinhua; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xingjun; Liu, Xiaohan; Fu, Rongtang


    We report the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers. We find that the cortex in differently colored barbules, which contains a 2D photonic-crystal structure, is responsible for coloration. Simulations reveal that the photonic-crystal structure possesses a partial photonic bandgap along the direction normal to the cortex surface, for frequencies within which light is strongly reflected. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers are very ingenious and simple: controlling the lattice...

  5. The chemical history of color

    CERN Document Server

    Orna, Mary Virginia


    In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus - all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.

  6. Wetting in Color (United States)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  7. Preoperative Education and Decreasing Preoperative Anxiety Among Children Aged 8 - 10 Years Old and Their Mothers. (United States)

    Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar; Seyedhejazi, Mahin; Fakhari, Ali; Ghadimi, Farzaneh; Hamidi, Masood; Taghizadieh, Nasrin


    Preoperative anxiety is associated with adverse clinical, behavioral, and psychological outcomes. Various effective interventions targeting preoperative anxiety in children exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational intervention by residents on children and maternal anxiety and their satisfaction from anxiety management. After obtaining the institutional ethics committee approval and written informed parental consent, 36 ASA-I, II children (age range, 8 - 10 years) underwent small operations were included in this prospective randomized study. The participants were allocated into the intervention (n =18) and control (n =18) groups. Children in the first group were prepared routinely. In the second group children and their mothers received data about anesthesia and operation by the booklet. Children-maternal anxiety was assessed using the anxiety level form, at the night and in the morning before surgery. Few days after surgery mothers, residents, and children experiences and satisfaction from anxiety management were assessed in the focus group discussion. Mean scores and standard deviations of state anxiety in the intervention group before and after training were 33.1 ± 5.5 and 30.8 ± 6, respectively (P = 0.06). In the control group it was 32 ± 6.5 on the night and 34.1 ± 6.7 in the morning before surgery (P = 0.00). Comparison between groups was not significant (P = 0.6) and (P = 0.1). The mean levels of anxiety in the control group mothers on the night before and in the morning of surgery were 39.2 ± 13.1 and 42.8 ± 14 (P = 0.00), respectively. In the intervention group, mothers' anxiety before education was 41 ± 12.7 and after education it was 35.6 ± 9.5 (P = 0.04). Comparison between groups was not significant (P = 0.7) and (P = 0.1). According to the focus group discussions, booklet study, provided education, sympathy of medical team, spiritual issues and beliefs reduced anxiety and fear of surgery. Anesthesia and lack of knowledge of

  8. Astronomy with the Color Blind (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn


    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  9. Biological origins of color categorization. (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna


    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  10. Testing Children for Color Blindness (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... between the two colors. According to Dr. Varma, children with color blindness can benefit from different kinds of lesson plans ...

  11. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety? (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim


    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  12. Typography, Color, and Information Structure. (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth


    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  13. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.


    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  15. Preoperative fasting: will the evidence ever be put into practice? (United States)

    Crenshaw, Jeannette T


    Decades of research support the safety and health benefits of consuming clear liquids, including those that are carbohydrate rich, until a few hours before elective surgery or other procedures requiring sedation or anesthesia. Still, U.S. clinicians routinely instruct patients to fast for excessively long preoperative periods. Evidence-based guidelines, published over the past 25 years in the United States, Canada, and throughout Europe, recommend liberalizing preoperative fasting policies. To improve patient safety and health care quality, it's essential that health care professionals abandon outdated preoperative fasting policies and allow available evidence to guide preanesthetic practices.

  16. Anterior mediastinal paraganglioma: A case for preoperative embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Murtaza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraganglioma is a rare but highly vascular tumor of the anterior mediastinum. Surgical resection is a challenge owing to the close proximity to vital structures including the heart, trachea and great vessels. Preoperative embolization has been reported once to facilitate surgical treatment. Case presentation We report a case of anterior mediastinal paraganglioma that was embolized preoperatively, and was resected without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and without major bleeding complications. Conclusion We make a case to further the role of preoperative embolization in the treatment of mediastinal paragangliomas.

  17. Recognition and management of preoperative risk. (United States)

    Nierman, E; Zakrzewski, K


    Internists are frequently asked to do preoperative consultations and to manage perioperative complications. Realistic goals are to identify patient factors that increase the risk of surgery, to quantify this risk in order to make decisions about the appropriateness of and timing of the surgery, to provide recommendations on how to minimize the risk, to identify and manage coexisting medical conditions and their associated medication requirements, to monitor the patient for perioperative problems, and to make recommendations to deal with these problems when they occur. With few exceptions, nonselective imaging and laboratory screening tests have repeatedly been shown to be of little value when the history and physical do not suggest a problem. The risk associated with the planned surgery can be estimated, with the most common serious complications being cardiac events. Updated versions of Goldman's risk indices are particularly helpful for this. Clinical variables are optimally combined with selective stress testing to discern which patients will benefit from preoperative revascularization. This has been studied best in the setting of vascular surgery. A critical guiding principle is that the value of revascularization must be judged in terms of long term gains rather than just immediate perioperative benefit. Other interventions include the selective use of beta blockers, adequate analgesia for all, control of hypertension, and appropriate volume management, especially in the settings of preexisting CHF or valvular disease. It must also be recognized that perioperative ischemia and CHF often present atypically. An approach that combines aspects of both the ACC/AHA and the ACP guidelines seems optimal. A variety of noncardiac issues must also be addressed. Postoperative pulmonary complications are common, especially with preexisting pulmonary disease, thoracic and upper abdominal surgery, and obesity. PFTs and ABGs are indicated in selected patients. Stopping

  18. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  19. [Spectrum and susceptibility of preoperative conjunctival bacteria]. (United States)

    Fernández-Rubio, M E; Cuesta-Rodríguez, T; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Cortés-Valdés, C


    To describe the conjunctival bacterial spectrum of our patients undergoing intraocular surgery and their antibiotic sensitivity during the study period. A retrospective study of preoperative conjunctival culture of patients consecutively scheduled for intraocular surgery from 21 February 2011 to 1 April 2013. Specimens were directly seeded onto blood-agar and MacConkey-agar (aerobiosis incubation, 2 days), and on chocolate-agar (6% CO2 incubation, 7 days). The identified bacteria were divided into 3 groups according to their origin; the bacteria susceptibility tests were performed on those more pathogenic and on some of the less pathogenic when more than 5 colonies were isolated. The sensitivity of the exigent growing bacteria was obtained with disk diffusion technique, and for of the non-exigent bacteria by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration. The Epidat 3.1 program was used for statistical calculations. A total of 13,203 bacteria were identified in 6,051 cultures, with 88.7% being typical colonizers of conjunctiva (group 1), 8.8% typical of airways (group 2), and the remaining 2.5% of undetermined origin (group 3). 530 cultures (8.8%) were sterile. The sensitivity of group 1 was: 99% vancomycin, 95% rifampicin, 87% chloramphenicol, 76% tetracycline. Levels of co-trimoxazole, aminoglycosides, quinolones, β-lactams and macrolides decreased since 2007. The group 2 was very sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. In group 3, to levofloxacin 93%, ciprofloxacin 89%, tobramycin 76%, but ceftazidime 53% and cefuroxime 29% decreased. None of the tested antibiotics could eradicate all possible conjunctival bacteria. Bacteria living permanently on the conjunctiva (group 1) have achieved higher resistance than the eventual colonizers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  1. Children's conceptions of color (United States)

    Feher, Elsa; Rice Meyer, Karen

    An examination of children's notions about light and visual phenomena shows the existence of mental models, that is to say, ways of thinking that are consistent and pervasive. These naive conceptual schemes, used by different children to explain similar phenomena, determine the kinds of responses given by the children in problem-solving situations. In this article we study children's ideas about colored objects and colored shadows, with special attention to the ways in which these ideas are organized into mental models. The elucidation of these models provides valuable instructional tools that serve to assess and to confront students' naive conceptions. This work was carried out in a science museum at the site of interactive exhibits that show unexpected effects. Children who visited the museum were engaged in problem-solving situations that involved predictions, explanations, and manipulations of the exhibit.

  2. Voyager Observations of the Color of Saturn's Ring (United States)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)


    Previously unreduced high resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's main rings are used to generate reflectivity (I/F) profiles as a function of radius. Ratios of profiles taken from green, violet, orange, and UV filter images are then produced. The I/F ratios are diagnostic of composition, and provide us with information on the rings' present state of compositional evolution. The rings are extremely reddish in color which suggests that they could not be pure water ice. The most likely candidates for the non-icy components are silicates and organics. The sources of these pollutants are of extreme importance in determining the compositional history of the rings. The radial profiles of ring color ratio exhibit several very interesting properties: (a) broad-scale, fairly smooth, color variations which are only weakly correlated with underlying ring structure (optical depth variations) across the outer C ring and inner B ring as well as the Cassini division region. These variations are probably consistent with ballistic transport; (b) fine-scale, noise-Like (but unquestionably real) color variations across at least the outer two-thirds of the B ring. Not only the "redness" but the spectral shape varies. These variations are currently unexplained. Groundbased spectroscopic observations should be pursued to study the implied compositional heterogeneities on at least the larger scales. This data set will be used for modeling of the color and composition of the main rings using ballistic transport and radiative transfer theories.

  3. Computing with Colored Tangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishy Y. Carmi


    Full Text Available We suggest a diagrammatic model of computation based on an axiom of distributivity. A diagram of a decorated colored tangle, similar to those that appear in low dimensional topology, plays the role of a circuit diagram. Equivalent diagrams represent bisimilar computations. We prove that our model of computation is Turing complete and with bounded resources that it can decide any language in complexity class IP, sometimes with better performance parameters than corresponding classical protocols.

  4. The Computation of Color (United States)


    intact color vision were compromised. Twelve out of 14 of the patients also suffered prosopagnosia . But from this, one cannot 25 conclude, attractive as...Meadows [81] and Damasio et. al. [20] note, this is supported by the fact that prosopagnosia and achromatopsia may occur independently of each other...toma in his left upper quadrant, he had no other visual deficits, in particular no prosopagnosia and no loss of visual acuity. Damasio et. al. [20

  5. Modeling colorant leakage techniques: application to endodontics. (United States)

    Romieu, Olivier J; Zimányi, László; Warszyński, Piotr; Levallois, Bernard; Cuisinier, Frédéric J; de Périère, Dominique Deville; Jacquot, Bruno


    Our aim was to improve the comprehension of in vitro tracer leakage studies and to determine in which conditions such studies can be reliable. We aimed to develop different theoretical models to describe either an initially dry or a wet interface (slit) between sealer and dentin. Equations based on physical laws were derived to model theoretically in vitro tracer penetration. For the dry interfaces, atmospheric, hydrostatic, tracer gravimetric, capillary and internal air pressures were considered as the underlying forces that control tracer penetration. For wet interfaces, the laws of diffusion were used to model colorant penetration. In both cases penetration is influenced by the width of the interface and by the size of the colorant. Calculations for dry conditions have shown that penetration is quick, mainly driven by the capillary pressure, and the penetration increases as the width of the interface diminishes. Dentinal tubules and the extent of their interconnection modify the penetration depth. For wet conditions, tracer size is the main factor controlling the penetration length and speed (the bigger the tracer, the slower the penetration). Our model calculations demonstrate that tracer penetration studies have to be performed under strict experimental conditions. Dry and wet interfaces are two extreme cases with very different tracer penetration modes. In vitro colorant penetration tests should be performed in both of these conditions avoiding cases where the slit contains both air and water. Theses models can be adapted to other dental situations as well. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke


    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  7. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong


    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  8. Moon - False Color Mosaic (United States)


    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Color on emergency mapping (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An


    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  10. Development and external validation of new ultrasound-based mathematical models for preoperative prediction of high-risk endometrial cancer. (United States)

    Van Holsbeke, C; Ameye, L; Testa, A C; Mascilini, F; Lindqvist, P; Fischerova, D; Frühauf, F; Fransis, S; de Jonge, E; Timmerman, D; Epstein, E


    To develop and validate strategies, using new ultrasound-based mathematical models, for the prediction of high-risk endometrial cancer and compare them with strategies using previously developed models or the use of preoperative grading only. Women with endometrial cancer were prospectively examined using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound imaging. More than 25 ultrasound, demographic and histological variables were analyzed. Two logistic regression models were developed: one 'objective' model using mainly objective variables; and one 'subjective' model including subjective variables (i.e. subjective impression of myometrial and cervical invasion, preoperative grade and demographic variables). The following strategies were validated: a one-step strategy using only preoperative grading and two-step strategies using preoperative grading as the first step and one of the new models, subjective assessment or previously developed models as a second step. One-hundred and twenty-five patients were included in the development set and 211 were included in the validation set. The 'objective' model retained preoperative grade and minimal tumor-free myometrium as variables. The 'subjective' model retained preoperative grade and subjective assessment of myometrial invasion. On external validation, the performance of the new models was similar to that on the development set. Sensitivity for the two-step strategy with the 'objective' model was 78% (95% CI, 69-84%) at a cut-off of 0.50, 82% (95% CI, 74-88%) for the strategy with the 'subjective' model and 83% (95% CI, 75-88%) for that with subjective assessment. Specificity was 68% (95% CI, 58-77%), 72% (95% CI, 62-80%) and 71% (95% CI, 61-79%) respectively. The two-step strategies detected up to twice as many high-risk cases as preoperative grading only. The new models had a significantly higher sensitivity than did previously developed models, at the same specificity. Two

  11. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett


    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  12. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency (United States)

    ... These two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision ( ... Protan defect Florida State University: Human Vision and Color Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness ...

  13. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds. (United States)

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B


    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  14. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  15. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash. (United States)

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  16. [Treatment of preoperative anemia in major orthopedic surgery]. (United States)

    Bisbe Vives, E


    The prevalence of preoperative anemia in major orthopedic surgery is high and is the main predictive factor for allogeneic blood transfusion. The scheduling of a preoperative visit with sufficient notice (at least 3 weeks before surgery), with a blood count test and a basic iron metabolism study, enables us to treat the anemia and/or improve preoperative hemoglobin levels, thereby reducing the need for transfusion and the risks associated with transfusions. Intravenous iron and/or erythropoietin are treatments for optimizing preoperative anemia, with good levels of scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik


    mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds......BACKGROUND: Although persistent postherniotomy occurs in 5-10% of patients, pathogenic mechanisms remain debatable. Since pre-operative pain has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for persistent postherniotomy pain, pre-operative alterations in nociceptive function may be a potential pathogenic...... (7%), all whom experienced no pain or pain less than weekly. Only cool detection thresholds were significantly lower between the hernia vs. contralateral side (pPre-operative groin hernia...

  18. Preoperative strength training for elderly patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. de Ruiter; Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; P.A. Nolte; A. de Haan


    Objective. To investigate the feasibility and effects of additional preoperative high intensity strength training for patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Design. Clinical controlled trial. Patients. Twenty-two patients awaiting TKA. Methods. Patients were allocated to a standard

  19. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence. (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges


    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits related to this shorter preoperative fasting include the reduction of postoperative gastrointestinal discomfort and insulin resistance. New formulas containing amino acids such as glutamine and other peptides are being studied and are promising candidates to be used to reduce preoperative fasting time.

  20. Photorefractive keratectomy for patients with preoperative low Schirmer test value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Tanbakouee


    Conclusion: These results demonstrated that tear function deteriorates after PRK. Therefore, patients with low preoperative Schirmer test values should be thoroughly assessed for dry eye before proceeding with refractive surgery to eliminate postoperative complication.

  1. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S


    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  2. Extreme bosonic linear channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.

  3. Extreme environments and exobiology (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.


    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  4. Upper extremity compartmental anatomy: clinical relevance to radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomayan, Glen A.; Robertson, Fabienne; Major, Nancy M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)


    Malignant tumors of the upper extremity are uncommon, and their care should be referred to specialized facilities with experience treating these lesions. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) staging system is used by the surgeon to determine appropriate surgical management, assess prognosis, and communicate with other healthcare providers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is employed pre-operatively to identify a lesion's compartment of origin, determine extent of spread, and plan biopsy and resection approaches. Involvement of neurovascular structures may result in devastating loss of upper extremity function, requiring amputation. Violation of high-resistance compartmental barriers necessitates more extensive surgical resection. Biopsy may be performed by the radiologist using imaging guidance. Knowledge of compartmental anatomy allows the radiologist or surgeon to use an easily excisable biopsy approach and prevent iatrogenic spread to unaffected compartments. Case examples are presented to illustrate the importance of compartmental anatomy in the management of benign and malignant upper extremity tumors. (orig.)

  5. Color differences without probit analysis (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan


    Color science generally considers color differences from the standpoint of distance metrics. These distance metrics are typically experimental and are based on many paired comparisons and probit analysis. The predominant focus is on the derivation of a uniform metric that is optimized for small color differences around the just-noticeable difference limit. Increasingly sophisticated mathematical modeling is then used to fit a range of laboratory data sets. While this work has yielded invaluable industrial applications, it has perhaps left certain aspects of color differences under explored. For example how do non-experts typically describe color differences? What are the natural language characteristics of the description of color difference? This paper considers color differences specifically from the nominal or linguistic perspective.

  6. Reasoning about color in Prolog (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.


    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  7. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan


    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  8. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen


    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  9. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T


    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  10. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery


    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren


    Background Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. Methods A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and ...

  11. [Preoperative potentiation of immune defenses or postoperative antibiotic therapy?]. (United States)

    Deffez, J P; Wierzbicky, N; Allain, P; Brethaux, J; Lelay, C; Themar, P


    A clinical study was conducted during the postoperative period in adolescents to compare efficacy of two regimens by objective (temperature, edema) and subjective (pain) criteria. half had received preoperative immunotherapy and the other half conventional postoperative antibiotic treatment. Operations were germectomy of a wisdom tooth and maxillary osteotomy. Results were submitted to statistical analysis and data obtained from the objective and particularly subjective parameters studied led to the routine introduction of preoperative immunotherapy for these operations.

  12. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence


    Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges


    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits re...

  13. Color stability and colorant effect on maxillofacial elastomers. Part III: weathering effect on color. (United States)

    Haug, S P; Andres, C J; Moore, B K


    Maxillofacial prostheses are serviceable for approximately 6 months, after which they need to be refabricated because of the deterioration of color and physical properties. This third article in a 3-part series evaluated the color stability of commonly used colorant-elastomer combinations as a result of exposure to weathering. Fifteen specimens were fabricated for each of the 3 elastomers (Silastic medical adhesive type A, Silastic 4-4210, and Silicone A-2186) and 6 colorants (dry earth pigments, rayon fiber flocking, artist's oil paints, kaolin, liquid cosmetics, and no colorant) for a total of 270 specimens (18 groups of 15 specimens). The 15 specimens of each elastomer-colorant combination were separated into 3 test condition groups (control, time passage, and natural weathering) of 5 specimens per test condition group. Control specimens were evaluated within 1 month of fabrication. The time passage group was sealed in glass containers and kept in the dark for 6 months before testing. The natural weathering groups were placed on the roof of the dental school for 6 months and exposed to sunlight and weathering. Color and optical density data for each elastomer-colorant combination were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine effects among test conditions (control, time passage, and weathering). When significant differences were observed, the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to identify differences in elastomer-colorant combinations among each test condition at a significance level of .05. Changes in color, as a result of weathering, were noted in many of the colorant-elastomer combinations. Also, color change occurred not only to the colored, but also to uncolored materials over time without exposure to weathering. Clinically, the addition of colorants could have a stabilizing effect on the elastomer color when it is exposed to weathering.

  14. [Preoperative prognostic variables in renal cancer]. (United States)

    Tobia, Ignacio; González, Mariano S; Damia, Oscar; Gueglio, Guillermo


    To analyze the correlation between preoperative variables in patients with kidney cancer and subsequent finding of bad prognosis factors. Retrospective cohort study reviewing the charts of all patients undergoing surgery at the HIBA bet- ween June 1988 and April 2003. 555 patients were included, registering age, gender, and clinical presentation. Pathology reports were classified following WHO for histology, Furhman for tumor grade, and AJCC for tumor stage. Intrarenal disease was defined as tumors < or = T2; the rest of the tumors were considered extrarenal. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistic 7 Software, performing Students t test, proportions comparison test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. Mean age was 58.8 years (r: 20-94), 388 (69.9%) patients were males and 167 (30.1%) females. 209 (37.7%) were smokers or ex-smokers. 256 (46.1%) tumors were incidentally diagnosed, 299 (53.9%) were symptomatic. The right kidney was affected more often (54.6%), and 2.3% were bilateral synchronic tumors. Grade II was the most frequent grade (62.2%). T1 was the predominant TNM with 273 patients (49.2%). Mean tumor size was 6.7 cm, with 5.54 cm for the intrarenal tumors and 8.67 cm for the extrarenal (Student t test p < 0.00001). 49.6% (127) of the 256 asymptomatic patients have extrarenal tumors, in comparison with only 26.4% (79) of the 299 symptomatic patients (chi-square p < 0.00001). Ninety-two (44%) of the 209 smokers had extrarenal tumors in comparison with 114 (32.9%) of the non-smokers. We may say that patients having a symptomatic renal tumor have between 2 and 3 times more probability to have non organ-confined disease at the time of surgery This also increases, although in smaller amounts, between smokers and older than 70 years patients. The presence of a tumor greater than 7 cm almost triplicates of the possibility of extrarenal involvement.

  15. Evaluating the effects of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation. (United States)

    Tosun, Betül; Yava, Ayla; Açıkel, Cengizhan


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although traditional long-term fasting is not recommended in current preoperative guidelines, this is still a common intervention. Visual analogue scale was used to assess hunger, thirst, sleepiness, exhaustion, nausea and pain; State and Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the preoperative anxiety of 99 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean time of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation were, respectively, 14.70 ± 3.14 and 11.25 ± 3.74 h. Preoperatively, 58.60% of the patients experienced moderate anxiety. Patients fasting 12 h or longer had higher hunger, thirst, nausea and pain scores. The mean trait anxiety score of patients fasting 12 h or longer was statistically significantly higher. Receiving nothing by mouth after midnight preoperatively is a persisted intervention and results in discomfort of patients. Clinical protocols should be revised and nurses should be trained in current fasting protocols. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health ... W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ...

  18. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić


    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  19. Wearable Improved Vision System for Color Vision Deficiency Correction (United States)

    Riccio, Daniel; Di Perna, Luigi; Sanniti Di Baja, Gabriella; De Nino, Maurizio; Rossi, Settimio; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; Frucci, Maria


    Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an extremely frequent vision impairment that compromises the ability to recognize colors. In order to improve color vision in a subject with CVD, we designed and developed a wearable improved vision system based on an augmented reality device. The system was validated in a clinical pilot study on 24 subjects with CVD (18 males and 6 females, aged 37.4 ± 14.2 years). The primary outcome was the improvement in the Ishihara Vision Test score with the correction proposed by our system. The Ishihara test score significantly improved (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p = 0.03$ \\end{document}) from 5.8 ± 3.0 without correction to 14.8 ± 5.0 with correction. Almost all patients showed an improvement in color vision, as shown by the increased test scores. Moreover, with our system, 12 subjects (50%) passed the vision color test as normal vision subjects. The development and preliminary validation of the proposed platform confirm that a wearable augmented-reality device could be an effective aid to improve color vision in subjects with CVD. PMID:28507827

  20. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark


    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  1. Electronics for Extreme Environments (United States)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.


    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  2. Current perspectives on preoperative diagnosis and surgical management of portal vein thrombosis in patients requiring liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Kai


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT are common contraindications for liver transplantation. While portal vein embolization has shown remarkable success in managing both contraindications, hepatocellular carcinoma-a frequent cause of PVTT-remains an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Therefore, it is not only crucial to diagnose PVT or PVTT preoperatively but also to determine the underlying etiology of the complication. This article summarizes the known etiologies and the various classification and grading systems of PVT, as well as the features and benefits of the established preoperative diagnostic methods for PVT and PVTT, including color Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and positron emission tomography-CT. Finally, the various management procedures available for treatment of PVT, including venous thrombectomy, vein bypass/interposition grafting, vein arterialization, cavoportal hemitransposition, and liver/small bowel co-transplantation, are discussed along with published results of patient outcome and limitations yet to be overcome. Obtaining a comprehensive evaluation and accurate preoperative diagnosis of the portal venous system, and having an understanding of the various surgical approaches for managing PVT, will promote the chances of successful patient outcome.

  3. Nuances of preoperative planning of total hip arthroplasty in patients with hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov


    Full Text Available Purpose of the study - to evaluate in different groups of patients variability of anatomical changes that may affect the difference in the length of the lower extremities and affect on the results of the preoperative planning. Material and methods. As study material we used long film X-ays of 142 patients. A main group comprised 69 patients with varying severity of hip dysplasia. Control group consisted of 73 patients without hip pathology. All patients were performed long film X-rays, and measurements of relative and absolute lengths of the lower limbs, followed by analysis of the data. Results. Analysis of the measurements showed that none of the patients had absolutely equal length of the lower limbs, even in the control group in 56.2% of the observations noted the absolute difference of the lower extremities length more than 5 mm, and in 9.6% of patients - from 20 to 35 mm. In assessing the difference of the lower extremities length on AP pelvic view in the main group only one patient of 69 had the same length of the legs, and in 61 cases the difference was more than 5 mm, that it was clinically significant. Of practical interest is the fact that in the main group shortening of the operated limb was observed in 51 of 69 patients in AP views of the pelvis, but the results of measurements of the anatomical length of limbs long film X-rays compared with measurements of the relative shortening on the pelvis AP views showed that clinically significant difference exceeding 5 mm between measurements observed in 68.1% of cases. The greatest difference between the measurements of the limbs length on the pelvis AP views and long film X-rays observed in patients with unilateral hip dislocation and averaged 17.0 mm. Conclusion. Performing preoperative planning in patients with dysplasia only on pelvis AP views not allow properly compensate the difference of the lower extremities lengths, which may adversely affect the functional results of surgery and

  4. Cliques, coloring, and satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David S


    The purpose of a DIMACS Challenge is to encourage and coordinate research in the experimental analysis of algorithms. The First DIMACS Challenge encouraged experimental work in the area of network flow and matchings. The Second DIMACS Challenge, on which this volume is based, took place in conjunction with the DIMACS Special Year on Combinatorial Optimization. Addressed here are three difficult combinatorial optimization problems: finding cliques in a graph, coloring the vertices of a graph, and solving instances of the satisfiability problem. These problems were chosen both for their practical interest and because of their theoretical intractability.

  5. 'Snow White' in Color (United States)


    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali


    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  7. Pre-Operative Twin Anemia/Polycythemia in the Setting of Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS). (United States)

    Van Winden, Kristi R; Quintero, Ruben A; Kontopoulos, Eftichia V; Korst, Lisa M; Llanes, Arlyn; Chmait, Ramen H


    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are classified as distinct clinical disorders associated with unbalanced blood flow through placental vascular communications. Typically, TAPS placentas demonstrate few polycythemia (AP) were compared to those with TTTS alone. AP was defined as middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in one twin >1.5 multiples of the median (MoM), and <1.0 MoM in the other. Of 369 TTTS patients, 9 (2.4%) met criteria for preoperative AP. The mean number (±SD) of AV communications in the TTTS + AP group was 5.6 ± 5.7, compared with 8.8 ± 4.8 in the TTTS-alone group (p = 0.013). Five TTTS + AP patients (56%) had a few thin AV communications (mean 2.8 ± 1.6); all 5 had visibly pale and plethoric twins. The remaining 4 (44%) had large or numerous anastomoses (mean 10.5 ± 6.8); none had fetal skin color discordance. Preoperative AP affected 2% of TTTS patients. Of these, approximately half had placental and skin color findings typically reported with isolated TAPS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. An anaesthetic pre-operative assessment clinic reduces pre-operative inpatient stay in patients requiring major vascular surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, D B


    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing major vascular surgery (MVS) require extensive anaesthetic assessment. This can require extended pre-operative stays. AIMS: We investigated whether a newly established anaesthetic pre-operative assessment clinic (PAC) would reduce the pre-operative inpatient stay, avoid unnecessary investigations and facilitate day before surgery (DBS) admissions for patients undergoing MVS. PATIENT AND METHODS: One year following and preceding the establishment of the PAC the records of patients undergoing open or endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy and infra-inguinal bypass were reviewed to measure pre-operative length of stay (LoS). RESULTS: Pre-operative LoS was significantly reduced in the study period (1.85 vs. 4.2 days, respectively, P < 0.0001). Only 12 out of 61 patients in 2007 were admitted on the DBS and this increased to 33 out of 63 patients (P = 0.0002). No procedure was cancelled for medical reasons. CONCLUSION: The PAC has facilitated accurate outpatient anaesthetic assessment for patients requiring MVS. The pre-operative in-patient stay has been significantly reduced.

  9. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function. (United States)

    Ackerman, William E; Ahmad, Mahmood


    A complex regional pain syndrome of an extremity that has previously resolved can recur after repeat surgery at the same anatomic site. Complex regional pain syndrome is described as a disease of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative sympathetic function and the recurrence of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) in patients after repeat carpal tunnel surgery. Thirty-four patients who developed CRPS I after initial carpal tunnel releases and required repeat open carpal tunnel surgeries were studied. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was used to assess preoperative sympathetic function 5-7 days prior to surgery and to assess postoperative sympathetic function 19-22 days after surgery or 20-22 days after resolution of the CRPS I. Sympathetic nervous system function was prospectively examined by testing reflex-evoked vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic stimuli recorded with LDI of both hands. Patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on LDI responses to sympathetic provocation. Group I (11 of 34) patients had abnormal preoperative LDI studies in the hands that had prior surgeries, whereas group II (23 of 34) patients had normal LDI studies. Each patient in this study had open repeat carpal tunnel surgery. In group I, 8 of 11 patients had recurrent CRPS I, whereas in group II, 3 of 23 patients had recurrent CRPS I. All of the recurrent CRPS I patients were successfully treated with sympathetic blockade, occupational therapy, and pharmacologic modalities. Repeat LDI after recurrent CRPS I resolution was abnormal in 8 of 8 group I patients and in 1 of 3 group II patients. CRPS I can recur after repeat hand surgery. Our study results may, however, identify those individuals who may readily benefit from perioperative therapies. Prognostic I.

  10. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su


    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  11. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  12. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen


    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the uniform...

  13. The Color “Fruit”: Object Memories Defined by Color (United States)

    Lewis, David E.; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K.


    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems. PMID:23717677

  14. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Lewis

    Full Text Available Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  15. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern? (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel


    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  16. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua


    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  17. Preoperative psychological testing--another form of prejudice. (United States)

    Ashton, David; Favretti, Franco; Segato, Gianni


    Preoperative psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates has become routine, and a significant proportion of patients have their surgery deferred as a consequence. If psychological testing is being used as a form of preoperative triage, both patients and surgeons are entitled to know whether there is sufficient evidence to justify its use in this way. We define the argument for psychological screening as consisting of four premises (p1-p4) and a conclusion (C) as follows: (p1) A significant minority of obese patients will not be successful in losing weight following bariatric surgery-the "failure" group; (p2) A significant minority of patients will exhibit abnormal psychological profiles during preoperative testing; (p3) The majority of individuals referred to in (p2) will be found in group (p1) i.e., abnormal psychological profiles identified preoperatively predict less favorable weight loss outcomes postoperatively; (p4) Identifying patients with adverse psychological profiles preoperatively would allow either exclusion of those at high risk of failure or provide a more secure rationale for targeted pre- and postoperative support; (C) Psychological screening should be part of the routine preoperative assessment for patients undergoing obesity surgery. We reviewed the literature to find evidence to support the premises and show that (p1) can be justified but that (p2) is problematic and can only be accepted in a heavily qualified version. We find no evidence for (p3) and since (p4) and (C) are predicated on (p3), the argument clearly fails. There is no evidence to suggest that preoperative psychological screening can predict postoperative outcomes and no justification for using such testing as a means of discriminating between candidates presenting themselves for bariatric surgery.

  18. What characterizes the 'usual' preoperative education in clinical contexts? (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Hyde, Abbey


    The literature on preoperative education is dominated by studies that employ experimental designs to measure the effects of structured programs on patient outcomes. These studies predominantly compare structured preoperative educational interventions with the usual care that patients receive. However, the notion of what the "usual" care comprises is largely elusive and unexplored. This study aimed to understand how the usual preoperative education is practiced in a number of surgical clinical units at one particular hospital in Ireland. Twelve experienced surgical nurses were interviewed in depth. A qualitative strategy resembling grounded theory was employed to analyze the data. The findings indicated that the content and quality of the preoperative education that patients received depended largely upon the individual nurse caring for the patient. Although there was a generic content of preoperative education that all participants identified as important, this related to physical and technical issues, and to the transmission of administrative or procedural information. Perspectives on the process of delivering preoperative education were diverse. The vast majority did not relate to the formal language of the discourses of teaching and learning; nonetheless, their descriptions of engaging in their work indicated the application of some elements of educational theory. The data suggested that the use of teaching tools was inconsistent, depending on their availability and the practices of individual nurses. On the whole, the usual care as described by participants in our study may be characterized as uneven, variable, and mutable. We conclude by raising some methodological issues relating to the use of the usual care in control groups in experimental studies on preoperative education.

  19. Moon Color Composite (United States)


    This color image of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet, red, and near-infrared filters. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, 600 miles across, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. At the upper right is the large, dark Oceanus Procellarum; below it is the smaller Mare Humorum. These, like the small dark Mare Orientale in the center of the basin, formed over 3 billion years ago as basaltic lava flows. At the lower left, among the southern cratered highlands of the far side, is the South-Pole-Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but twice as great in diameter and much older and more degraded by cratering and weathering. The cratered highlands of the near and far sides and the Maria are covered with scattered bright, young ray craters.

  20. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho


    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  1. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server


    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  2. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.


    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  3. Bosonic colored group field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France); University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (BJ). International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair); Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Dakar (Senegal); Magnen, Jacques [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Physique Theorique, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rivasseau, Vincent [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)


    Bosonic colored group field theory is considered. Focusing first on dimension four, namely the colored Ooguri group field model, the main properties of Feynman graphs are studied. This leads to a theorem on optimal perturbative bounds of Feynman amplitudes in the ''ultraspin'' (large spin) limit. The results are generalized in any dimension. Finally, integrating out two colors we write a new representation, which could be useful for the constructive analysis of this type of models. (orig.)

  4. Physics observables for color transparency


    Pire, Bernard


    The physics observables dedicated to the study of color transparency are diverse. After a brief pedagogical introduction, we emphasize the complementarity of the nuclear filtering and color transparency concepts. The importance of quantum interferences leads to suspect pictures based on the preparation of a squeezed state of small transverse size leading to a rapid transverse expansion. The different roles of heavy and light nuclei are emphasized. The possibility of color transparency tests i...

  5. Color Strategies for Image Databases


    Süsstrunk, Sabine


    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  6. Operational Assessment of Color Vision (United States)


    University of Waterloo), Dr. Frank Kooi (The Netherlands Organisation ), Dr. (Lt Col) Jay Flottmann, Dr. (Col) Lex Brown, Lt Col Robert Forino, and Mr...results for each of the four devices. Color vision status for all subjects was based on the consensus of the test battery. Other studies often...Using the consensus of the test battery to define color status, the RCCT and CAD had the best sensitivity (identifying a color anomalous subject

  7. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements (United States)


    evaluated using nominal values for L*a*b* (color space ) from international paint suppliers. The results demonstrate the value of using a spectrophotometer...advantage over the x, y, z tristimulus values used to describe color because they more uniformly span the visible color space . Figure 1 L*a*b...diagram UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 3 There are many possible metrics to express the

  8. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays (United States)

    Khan, Asad


    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  9. Adventure and Extreme Sports. (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin


    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela


    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  11. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    yx ∈ N ¯G(x) ∩ Y. Then x dominates the color class which contains yx. Thus C is a dom- inator coloring of ¯G and χd( ¯G) = ω( ¯G). Now suppose there exists x ∈ X such that. N ¯G(x) ∩ Y = ∅. Then in any dominator coloring of ¯G, the color class which x domi- nates is of the form {x1} where x1 ∈ X and hence it follows that ...

  12. Colored Flag by Double Refraction. (United States)

    Reid, Bill


    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  13. Color Assessment and Transfer for Web Pages


    Wu, Ou


    Colors play a particularly important role in both designing and accessing Web pages. A well-designed color scheme improves Web pages' visual aesthetic and facilitates user interactions. As far as we know, existing color assessment studies focus on images; studies on color assessment and editing for Web pages are rare. This paper investigates color assessment for Web pages based on existing online color theme-rating data sets and applies this assessment to Web color edit. This study consists o...

  14. Transjugular preoperative portal embolization (TJPE) a pilot study. (United States)

    Perarnau, Jean-Marc; Daradkeh, Salam; Johann, Marc; Deneuville, Michele; Weinling, Pierre; Coniel, Claudine


    Because of our previous experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, we decided to apply the transjugular approach to preoperative portal embolization. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and the potential advantages and disadvantages of this new method. Under ultrasound guidance the right or left portal branch was punctured from the right, median or left hepatic vein. Then, a catheter was placed near the portal bifurcation and used to perform right portal branch embolization with a mixture of Histoacryl and Lipiodol. Pre- and post-transjugular preoperative portal embolization duplex ultrasound and CT scan were performed to assess portal flow and liver tissue growth. Hospital stay, pain and hepatic enzymes were monitored. Fifteen patients underwent a transjugular preoperative portal embolization without any serious complication. Mean of hospital stay was 3.3 +/- 0.6 days. (2-5 days). Portal embolization was successful in all cases; left portal branch velocity increased from 11.8 +/- 7.5 cm/s before, to 16.5 +/- 3.5 cm/s on day one, and 14.8 +/- 3.3 cm/s on day 28 after transjugular preoperative portal embolization; volume of non-embolized segments increased by 10% within the 4 weeks after transjugular preoperative portal embolization. Right hepatectomy was possible in 12 patients This method is safe, painless, and can be proposed in cases of impossibility to perform the standard percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (tumor interposition, impaired hemostasis).

  15. Effect of Preoperative Pain on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Sharma, Vikram; Sharma, Ritu; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Geethapriya, Nagarajan


    The present study tested the hypothesis that the amount and severity of preoperative pain will affect the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One-hundred seventy-seven adult volunteer subjects, actively experiencing pain in a mandibular molar, participated in this prospective double-blind study carried out at 2 different centers. The patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of severity of preoperative pain: mild, 1–54 mm on the Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS); moderate, 55–114 mm; and severe, greater than 114 mm. After IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine, endodontic access preparation was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using the HP VAS. The primary outcome measure was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain. The success rates were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression test. There was a significant difference between the mild and severe preoperative pain group (P = .03). There was a positive correlation between the values of preoperative and intraoperative pain (r = .2 and .4 at 2 centers). The amount of preoperative pain can affect the anesthetic success rates of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:26650491

  16. Role of preoperative vascular ultrasonography in hemodialysis vascular access operation. (United States)

    Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Tomtitchong, Prakitpunthu; Kanpirom, Kitti


    Preoperative vascular mapping increase rate of successful hemodialysis vascular access operation. Several studies recommend using this procedure routinely. But some studies recommend using this procedure in selected patients. So this study aims to determine the impacts of preoperative vascular mapping in unfavorable-examined patients. 55 patients were studied retrospectively from August 2006 to October 2009. Before April 2008, the operative plans were based on physical examination (group 1). After April 2008, the surgeon did preoperative vascular mapping prior to the operation in unfavorable-examined patients (group 2). The results were compared. There were high maturation rates in favorable-examined patients. In unfavorable-examined patients, preoperative vascular mapping can identified nonpalpable favorable vein which successful maturation of 18.75%. Complementary duplex scan decrease rate of unsuccessful operation significantly (p = 0.037) but does not increase maturation rate. Careful physical examination is important part before operation. Preoperative vascular mapping has benefit only in patients with unfavorable-examined patients. It finds some nonpalpable favorable vein and decrease unsuccessful exploration.

  17. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li


    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  18. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  20. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.


    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  1. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior. (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B


    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  2. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  3. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.


    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing,

  4. Color the night : applying daytime colors to nighttime imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.


    We present a method to give (fused) multiband night-time imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a false color RGB image that is produced by mapping 3 individual bands (or the first 3 principal components) of a multiband nightvision system to the respective

  5. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a nutshell. • A patient with sudden onset of a cold, weak, numb and painful foot has acute lower extremity ischaemia (ALEXI) until proven otherwise. Labelling patients as acute gout, acute phlegmasia (deep vein thrombosis), acute sciatica, etc. may result in unnecessary delays in treatment, with tragic consequences.

  6. Injuries in extreme sports. (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer


    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  7. Deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the given codimension g ≥ 3 and initial degree p ≥ 2, a Gorenstein algebra R/I with minimal multiplicity is extremal in the sense of Schenzel [8]. This has a nice structural implication: the minimal resolution of R/I must be pure and almost linear, and so their. Betti numbers are given by Herzog and Kühl [3] formulae.

  8. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz


    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  9. Extremism and Disability Chic (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.; Badar, Jeanmarie


    The word chic refers to something fashionable or stylish. Chic varies for individuals and groups and with time and place. Something chic may have desirable or undesirable long-term consequences. Disability and extremism are also changeable concepts, depending on comparison to social norms. People with disabilities should have the option of being…

  10. White Rock in False Color (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  11. Wiedemann: color y exilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda


    Full Text Available El exiliado mantiene viva, en la retina de la memoria, los colores de su inicial contacto con el mundo. Al nacer en Munich en 1905 e interesarse por las artes plásticas, las primeras visiones de Guillermo Wiedemann bien pudieran fijarse en los caballos azules de Franz Marc o en las remotas tierras vírgenes de ese adánico primitivismo con que los expresionistas alemanes de la nueva sensibilidad huían hacia la naturaleza, trátese del bosque verde o las cumbres recubiertas de nieve. La choza africana o lo~ archipiélagos del Pacífico donde los tótems de Gauguin todavía arden, con sensualidad ancestral, en la penumbra salvaje.

  12. Deriving color adjectival nominalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Alexiadou


    Full Text Available In this paper I examine two types of nominalizations related to color adjectives in Greek, a suffixed one and a neutral one, which I will compare to their English and Dutch (and German counterparts. I show that the two differ in that suffixed nominalizations denote stage level properties, while neuter nominalizations denote individual level properties. This difference is due to the fact that suffixed nominalizations are count nouns, while neuter nominalizations are mass nouns. A comparison between Greek, and Dutch/German and English shows that languages have different nominalization strategies: nominalization can take place at three layers: at the root level, at the nP level, and finally at the DP level. This explains the differences in distribution and interpretation among the different nominalization types across languages

  13. Light Vision Color (United States)

    Valberg, Arne


    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  14. Color of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zare, Armin; Georgiou, Tryphon T


    Second-order statistics of turbulent flows can be obtained either experimentally or via direct numerical simulations. Statistics reflect fundamentals of flow physics and can be used to develop low-complexity turbulence models. Due to experimental or numerical limitations it is often the case that only partial flow statistics can be reliably known, i.e., only certain correlations between a limited number of flow field components are available. Thus, it is of interest to complete the statistical signature of the flow field in a way that is consistent with the known dynamics. This is an inverse problem and our approach utilizes stochastically-forced linearization around turbulent mean velocity profile. In general, white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics. In contrast, colored-in-time forcing of the linearized equations allows for exact matching of available correlations. To accomplish this, we develop dynamical models that generate the required stochastic excitation...

  15. Preoperative and postoperative voice analysis of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty patients. (United States)

    Coleman, R F; Sly, D E


    While clinical studies almost universally report few speech and voice complications from uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, there is a paucity of prospective studies concerned with formal acoustic and perceptual evaluation of these patients. This study compares preoperative and postoperative recordings of 32 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty patients. Fast Fourier Transform analyses were made of both long-term spectra of a reading passage and the resonant characteristics of three vowels. Fundamental frequency and reading time were quantified. Polysomnographic studies of these patients were also compared. Finally, listener judgments of "better voice" were made on preoperative and postoperative pairs of the same patients performing a reading task. While the polysomnographic data demonstrated statistically significant improvement in the physical condition of the patients, no perceptual or acoustic measure of voice or speech was significant when preoperative and postoperative scores were compared.

  16. Safe pediatric surgery: development and validation of preoperative interventions checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula de Oliveira Pires


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: this study was aimed at developing and validating a checklist of preoperative pediatric interventions related to the safety of surgical patients. METHOD: methodological study concerning the construction and validation of an instrument with safe preoperative care indicators. The checklist was subject to validation through the Delphi technique, establishing a consensus level of 80%. RESULTS: five professional specialists in the area conducted the validation and a consensus on the content and the construct was reached after two applications of the Delphi technique. CONCLUSION: the "Safe Pediatric Surgery Checklist", simulating the preoperative trajectory of children, is an instrument capable of contributing to the preparation and promotion of safe surgery, as it identifies the presence or absence of measures required to promote patient safety.

  17. Predictors of Pre-operative Anxiety in Indian Children. (United States)

    Malik, Ritu; Yaddanpudi, Sandhya; Panda, Nidhi Bidyut; Kohli, Adarsh; Mathew, Preethy J


    To identify the predictors of pre-operative anxiety in school-going children in India. A prospective observational study was done at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Children aged 7-12 y scheduled for elective surgery and their parents were enrolled. Pre-operative anxiety in children and parents was assessed using STAI-C and STAI-P questionnaires respectively. The child's anxiety in pre-op room, at the time of parental separation and induction of anesthesia were assessed using m-YPAS scale. Possible predictors of anxiety under 'individual', 'social' and 'healthcare' domains were analyzed using logistic regression. The quality of mask induction of anesthesia was assessed using Induction Compliance Checklist. Sixty children completed the study successfully. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicted mYPAS score ≥ 30 (observed score) to identify children with high anxiety as identified by STAI-C ≥37 (self-reported score). The incidence of high anxiety escalated from pre-operative time (48%) to the time of parental separation (72%) and increased further at anesthetic induction (95%). Parental anxiety (p = 0.03) and socioeconomic background (p = 0.03) were significant predictors of the child's pre-operative anxiety. The presence of >4 people at induction (p = 0.002), but not pre-operative anxiety, was found significantly more in children with poor quality of mask induction. The incidence of peri-operative anxiety in Indian children is significant. Parental anxiety and socioeconomic background were found significant predictors of high pre-operative anxiety in our set-up.

  18. Actual status of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer in Albania. (United States)

    Dracini, Xh; Dibra, A; Celiku, E; Alimehmeti, M; Kellici, S; Paparisto, S; Gjergji, D


    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for almost 1% of human cancer. It is well known that the majority of cases occur in women in the middle decades of life. Thyroid cancer is a relatively rare disease; on the other hand clinically apparent thyroid nodules are present in 4-7% of the adult population. Most thyroid nodules are not malignant, with reported malignancy rates from 3-12%. It is important for the surgeon to know beforehand the diagnosis of malignancy, in order to perform a more radical operation on the thyroid gland. In our study we have analyzed the preoperative clinical data of 84 patients operated in the First Clinic of General Surgery, UHC "Mother Theresa" in Tirana; all with a positive histopathologic diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The data comprised age, sex, age distribution, blood group, time-lapse from the first endocrinologic visit, clinical examination, signs and symptoms, imaging, functional tests, preoperative FNA, admission diagnosis, associated diseases and preoperative treatment. From the study emerged that only 9,3% of these patients were diagnosed preoperatively as thyroid cancer. Another related problem is the low percentage of preoperative FNA - only 22%. Among the signs and symptoms related to thyroid cancer we found that 40 and 33% of these patient presented dyspnea and dysphagia, respectively. The physical examination revealed apparent nodular growth of the thyroid gland in 81% and nodular hard consistency in 79% of cases. The proper endocrinologist consultation lacked in 23% of cases. In our opinion, close collaboration between endocrinologists and surgeons in a multidisciplinary frame is the key to correct preoperative thyroid cancer diagnosis and optimal treatment.

  19. Gastric schwannomas revisited: has precise preoperative diagnosis become feasible? (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shinichi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Nishida, Toshirou; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro


    Gastric schwannomas are not common but are clinically important in terms of differential diagnosis from other submucosal lesions. The precise preoperative diagnosis, however, has been challenging mainly owing to the lack of specific findings in conventional imaging studies. The aim of this study was to revisit the possibilities and limitations of modern preoperative diagnostic modalities for gastric schwannomas. Fourteen consecutive patients with a final pathological diagnosis of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively analyzed. Data included demographics, preoperative imaging studies/diagnosis, surgery, histopathology, and follow-up results. The series included 6 males and 8 females, with a median age of 49 years (range 26-68 years). No symptoms were presented, except for 1 patient with epigastric pain. The tumors were located in the upper (n = 5), middle (3), and lower stomach (6), with a median size of 41 mm (range 20-75 mm). Twelve schwannomas (86%) showed homogeneous enhancement on computed tomography. Ulceration was seen on endoscopy in 4 of 12 available cases (33%). Positron emission tomography was performed in the last 4 patients, showing fluorodeoxy-glucose uptake in all cases (100%). A preoperative diagnosis of schwannoma was not obtained in the majority of cases (13/14, 93%); only 1 case was correctly diagnosed, by endoscopic aspiration cytology. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was attempted and completed in 13 cases. The patients have been followed up for 4.7 years (range 2.1-20.3 years), with no recurrencesor metastases and acceptable gastrointestinal function. The precise preoperative diagnosis of gastric schwannomas remains difficult even with modern imaging studies. Surgery, therefore, should be positively considered for patients without a conclusive preoperative diagnosis.

  20. Assessment of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhn EG


    Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Vidhya Nagaratnam Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The evaluation of patient satisfaction is a core aspect of the continuous quality improvement in anesthesia service that can be affected by the preoperative anesthetist visit. This visit enables the anesthetist to know about the patient's general health status and the nature of surgery, to choose the type of anesthesia, and to discuss perioperative complications and their management with the patient. Patients have sometimes complained about the information given during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation in the University of Gondar teaching and referral hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2013. All consecutive elective patients who were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period were interviewed 24 hours after operation. A pretested questionnaire and checklists, which were developed based on the hospital's anesthetic evaluation sheet, were used for data collection. Results: A total of 116 elective patients were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period. Of these, 102 patients were included in our study, with a response rate of 87.9%. Anesthetists introduced themselves to ~24% patients; provided information about anesthesia to ~32%, postoperative complications to ~21%, postoperative analgesia to ~18, and postoperative nausea and vomiting to ~21%; and spent adequate time with ~74%. Patients' questions were answered by the anesthetist in ~65% of cases, and ~65% of patients had reduced anxiety after the anesthetist visit. The patients' overall satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit was ~65%. Conclusion and recommendation: Patient satisfaction with the

  1. A Quilt of Many Colors (United States)

    Masse, Don


    The author discovered artist Eleanor McCain's work on "Dear Ada," an art blog he follows. McCain makes brightly colored art quilts using various rectangles and squares. She creates visual "pop" by using these shapes in a variety of sizes and bright colors. There is an interesting spatial "push and pull" that happens when looking at her quilts.…

  2. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales. (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J


    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  3. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua


    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  4. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  5. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  6. Preoperative testing before low-risk surgical procedures (United States)

    Kirkham, Kyle R.; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.; Pendrith, Ciara; Ng, Ryan; Tu, Jack V.; Laupacis, Andreas; Schull, Michael J.; Levinson, Wendy; Bhatia, R. Sacha


    Background: There is concern about increasing utilization of low-value health care services, including preoperative testing for low-risk surgical procedures. We investigated temporal trends, explanatory factors, and institutional and regional variation in the utilization of testing before low-risk procedures. Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, we accessed linked population-based administrative databases from Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1 546 223 patients 18 years or older underwent a total of 2 224 070 low-risk procedures, including endoscopy and ophthalmologic surgery, from Apr. 1, 2008, to Mar. 31, 2013, at 137 institutions in 14 health regions. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to assess patient- and institution-level factors associated with electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac stress test or chest radiography within 60 days before the procedure. Results: Endoscopy, ophthalmologic surgery and other low-risk procedures accounted for 40.1%, 34.2% and 25.7% of procedures, respectively. ECG and chest radiography were conducted before 31.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.9%–31.1%) and 10.8% (95% CI 10.8%–10.8%) of procedures, respectively, whereas the rates of preoperative echocardiography and stress testing were 2.9% (95% CI 2.9%–2.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI 2.1%–2.1%), respectively. Significant variation was present across institutions, with the frequency of preoperative ECG ranging from 3.4% to 88.8%. Receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were associated with older age (among patients 66–75 years of age, for ECG, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 18.3, 95% CI 17.6–19.0; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.8–3.0), preoperative anesthesia consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 8.7, 95% CI 8.5–8.8; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.1–2.2) and preoperative medical consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 6.8, 95% CI 6.7–6.9; for radiography, adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6). The median ORs

  7. Minimizing preoperative anxiety with alternative caring-healing therapies. (United States)

    Norred, C L


    This article reviews holistic caring-healing therapies that may decrease preoperative anxiety for the surgical patient, based on the philosophy and science of caring developed by Jean Watson, RN, PhD, FAAN. Dr Watson reveals a new paradigm emerging in health care that blends the compassion and caring of nursing in harmony with the curative therapies of medicine. Hypnosis, aromatherapy, music, guided imagery, and massage are integrative caring-healing therapies that may minimize preoperative anxiety. Alternative therapies offer a high-touch balance when integrated with high-tech conventional surgical treatments.

  8. Preoperative visual field deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeet S. Grewal


    Full Text Available Surgical resection and laser thermoablation have been used to treat drug resistant epilepsy with good results. However, they are not without risk. One of the most commonly reported complications of temporal lobe surgery is contralateral superior homonymous quadrantanopsia. We describe a patient with asymptomatic preoperative quadrantanopsia fortuitously discovered as part of our recently modified protocol to evaluate patients prior to temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. This visual field deficit was subtle and not detected on routine clinical neurological examination. While we understand that this is a single case, we advocate further study for more detailed preoperative visual field examinations to characterize the true incidence of postoperative visual field lesions.

  9. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik


    mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds......]) and assessments were correlated to patients' reports of intensity and frequency of spontaneous pain in the groin area. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were examined, whereof one was excluded since no hernia was found intraoperatively. Mechanical pain threshold was inversely correlated with spontaneous pain intensity...... (7%), all whom experienced no pain or pain less than weekly. Only cool detection thresholds were significantly lower between the hernia vs. contralateral side (phernia...

  10. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe


    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  11. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    color modification by laser ablation is briefly described. The environmental benefits are analyzed by life cycle analysis, where the high recyclability leads to reduced environmental impact compared to conventional plastic production. In summary, a promising future is anticipated for plasmonic colors......This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials...... and eliminates mechanical color sorting in the recycling stage. First, the development of experimental processes, techniques and equipment is described. A single-spot electron beam lithography scheme for master pattern definition is developed, and optical characterization equipment for both laboratory...

  12. Trends in utilization: has extremity MR imaging replaced diagnostic arthroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, Nicole; Morrison, William B.; Parker, Laurence [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Suite 3390 Gibbon Building, 111 South 11th Street, PA 19107, Philadelphia (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [Department of Radiology, New York University Hospital for Joint Disease, 301 East 17th Street, NY 10003, New York (United States); Carrino, John A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)


    To examine the relative change in utilization of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the extremities versus diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy. Using the 1993, 1996, and 1999 nationwide Medicare Part B databases, utilization rates (per 100,000) were determined for upper and lower extremity MR imaging, diagnostic arthroscopy and therapeutic arthroscopy using CPT-4 codes. Utilization of extremity MR imaging was compared with that of diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy in 10 geographic regions of the United States and tracked over time. Combined lower and upper extremity MR imaging utilization per 100,000 increased from 393 to 1,056 in 1999 (+168.7%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the extremities decreased from 18 in 1993 to 8 in 1999 (-55.6%); therapeutic arthroscopy rates increased from 461 in 1993 to 636 in 1999 (+40.0%). Specifically, from 1993 to 1999, utilization of lower extremity MR imaging increased from 270 to 661 (+144.8%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee over the same time period decreased from 11 to 5 (-54.5%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 394 to 501 (+27.2%). Similarly, utilization rates for upper extremity MR imaging increased from 123 to 395 (+221.1%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the shoulder over the same time period decreased from 7 to 2 (-71.4%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 44 to 104 (+136.4%). No specific geographic trends were ascertained. The utilization of MR imaging of the extremities has markedly increased from 1993 to 1999. During the same time period the utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy has decreased and that of therapeutic arthroscopy has increased. These findings support the hypothesis that there is increased reliance of clinical practitioners on the diagnostic information provided by MR imaging in preoperative clinical decision-making. (orig.)

  13. Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome


    Tarrier Nicholas; Morris Julie; Carruthers Helen R; Whorwell Peter J


    Abstract Background Approximately two thirds of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond well to hypnotherapy. However, it is time consuming as well as expensive to provide and therefore a way of predicting outcome would be extremely useful. The use of imagery and color form an integral part of the hypnotherapeutic process and we have hypothesised that investigating color and how it relates to mood might help to predict response to treatment. In order to undertake this study we ha...

  14. Role of routine pre-operative screening venous duplex ultrasound in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Praveen Raj


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that obesity is a strongly associated risk factor for post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Physical effects and pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory and hypofibrinolytic effects of severe obesity may predispose to idiopathic DVT (pre-operatively because of which bariatric patients are routinely screened before surgery. The aim of this study was to audit the use of routine screening venous duplex ultrasound in morbidly obese patients before undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 180 patients who underwent bariatric surgery from August 2013 to August 2014 who had undergone pre-operative screening bilateral lower-extremity venous duplex ultrasound for DVT. Data were collected on patient's demographics, history of venous thromboembolism, prior surgeries and duplex ultrasound details of the status of the deep veins and superficial veins of the lower limbs. Results: No patients had symptoms or signs of DVT pre-operatively. No patient gave history of DVT. No patient was found to have iliac, femoral or popliteal vein thrombosis. Superficial venous disease was found in 17 (8%. One patient had a right lower limb venous ulcer. Conclusion: Thromboembolic problems in the morbidly obese before bariatric surgery are infrequent, and screening venous duplex ultrasound can be done in high-risk patients only.

  15. Web Services for Dynamic Coloring of UAVSAR Images (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay


    QuakeSim has implemented a service-based Geographic Information System to enable users to access large amounts of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) data through an online interface. The QuakeSim Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) profile tool calculates radar-observed displacement (from an unwrapped interferogram product) along user-specified lines. Pre-rendered thumbnails with InSAR fringe patterns are used to display interferogram and unwrapped phase images on a Google Map in the InSAR profile tool. One challenge with this tool lies in the user visually identifying regions of interest when drawing the profile line. This requires that the user correctly interpret the InSAR imagery, which currently uses fringe patterns. The mapping between pixel color and pixel value is not a one-to-one relationship from the InSAR fringe pattern, and it causes difficulty in understanding general displacement information for QuakeSim users. The goal of this work is to generate color maps that directly reflect the pixel values (displacement) as an addition to the pre-rendered images. Because of an extremely uneven distribution of pixel values on an InSAR image, a histogram-based, nonlinear color template generation algorithm is currently under development. A web service enables on-the-fly coloring of UAVSAR images with dynamically generated color templates.

  16. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno


    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  17. Influence of gender, anxiety and depression symptoms, and use of oral contraceptive in color perception. (United States)

    Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Anfe, Taciana Emília de Almeida; Matos, Adriana Bona; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli


    The color is a psychophysical phenomenon, and much has been studied about its physical components. However, the psychological part is poorly investigated, except for the difference between genders in the literature shows that more men are color deficient than women. Dental students are trained to better understand the differences in color, so we became interested in studying whether psychological variables such as anxiety and depression and use of hormonal contraceptives may interfere with this ability. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate if factors, such as, hormonal contraceptive use, depressive symptoms, anxiety and quality of life, influence on the ability of color discrimination of dental school students. Sixty-one subjects participated and the following instruments apply: (1) test that consists in the observation of a set of 25 labels (Pantones) with values of known colors, (2) scales of depression, anxiety, and quality of life assessments, and (3) Ishihara test. No difference was observed between genders as color perception (p = 0.868). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly more frequent in the female population that showed worse quality of life (p color perception. Women using hormonal contraceptives had lower color perception than men (p = 0.04). No difference between the genders in the perception of colors was observed, contrary to common sense that women discriminate more colors than men, but women using hormonal contraceptives showed more difficulty in color perception. The ability to understand and distinguish color differences is extremely important in clinical dentistry. There could be differences in color perception between men and women that would influence clinical performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The total colorant sensitivity of a color matching recipe : an approach to colorant weighting and tinctorial strength errors


    Peyvandi, Shahram; Amirshahi, Seyed Hossein; Sluban, Boris


    The repeatability of the recipe color can be affected by several different types of inevitable inaccuracies in the coloration process. Two of the major causes of poor target-color reproducibility are the (random) weighing and (proportional) strength errors. This article describes alternative definitions of colorant strength sensitivity and total colorant sensitivity of a dyeing recipe. The influences of the maximal colorant weighing and strength errors are taken into account in order to bring...

  19. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T


    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  20. Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond (United States)

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo


    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years. PMID:24577523

  1. Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia. (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J


    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.

  2. [Extremity vascular traumas]. (United States)

    Angelini, Romeo; Rutolo, Ferdinando; Cozzolino, Giuseppe; D'Amario, Vanessa; Spigonardo, Francesca


    The Authors report on a series of 61 vascular traumas treated over a 7 years, separated in two groups. The first one includes 35 cases, that are street accidents, on the work and gunshot wounds. The second group includes 26 iatrogenic causes due to arterial catheterism. All patients underwent ecocolor Doppler directly in the operating theatre and, when this diagnostic procedure was not enough, pre-operating angiography was used (10 cases of complex traumas of the lower limb). One death was reported far each groups (3.27%). In 55 cases (90.1%), limb savage was achieved. In the others 4 (6.93%) of the first group, limb demolition was necessary for different causes. In the first group, severe neurological sequelaes were observed in 2 cases and motor deficits caused by tendon lesions in 1 case. The good results obtained are the result of the short ischemic interval between the acute event and treatment, thanks to a multidisciplinary approach of a specific equipe, that is rapid as possible.

  3. Color Contrast and Differentiation in Interactive Cartography (United States)

    Johnson, A. J.; Estes, N. M.


    Selecting colors for an interactive mapping interface is a complex task, as the basemap may contain any number of colors, and changes with panning and zooming. Both algorithmic and historically significant color sets were examined for efficacy.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  5. Deep Colorization for Facial Gender Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, Jonathan; Okafor, Emmanuel; Wiering, Marco; Verheij, Bart; Wiering, Marco


    Recent research suggests that colorization models have the capability of generating plausible color versions from grayscale images. In this paper, we investigate whether colorization prior to gender classification improves classification performance on the FERET grayscale face dataset. For this, we

  6. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored. (United States)


    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1829 Well colored. Well colored means that a... no distinct green color present, and that some portion of the surface has a reddish tangerine blush...

  7. Dynamic phenomenology of grapheme-color synesthesia. (United States)

    Bridgeman, Bruce; Winter, Dorina; Tseng, Philip


    In grapheme-color synesthesia, observers perceive colors that are associated with letters and numbers. We tested the dynamic limits of this phenomenon by exposing two synesthetes to characters that rotate smoothly, that morph into other characters, that disappear abruptly, or that have colors either consistent or inconsistent with the corresponding synesthetic color. Rotating letters changed their synesthetic colors abruptly as letter identification changed or failed. Morphing letters also changed color together with a change in letter identification. Abrupt disappearance of a black character on a white background yielded a negative afterimage, but maintenance of the same synesthetic color. Our synesthetes could maintain both physical and synesthetic color in the same character, without conflict. Neon color spreading in one observer occurred for physical but not synesthetic color. These and other results show close linking of synesthetic color with character identity rather than image properties, in contrast to physical color.

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...

  9. The Effect of Emotion on Color Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan Jean Lee; Eduardo Andrade


    .... However, little is known about which colors consumers prefer, and why. Given the strong associations between colors and feelings, we investigate how the emotional state of an individual affects his/her color preferences...

  10. GPU color space conversion (United States)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary


    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  11. Development of a National Core Dataset for Preoperative Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Cornet, Ronald; Kalkman, C.; de Keizer, N. F.


    Objective:To define a core dataset for preoperative assessment to leverage uniform data collection in this domain. This uniformity is a prerequisite for data exchange between care providers and semantic interoperability between health record systems. Methods: To design this core dataset a

  12. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, L


    patients completed all questionnaires. Twenty-one patients continued to have abdominal pain after the operation. Patients with pain 1 year after cholecystectomy were characterized by the preoperative presence of a high dyspepsia score, 'irritating' abdominal pain, and an introverted personality...

  13. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide risk stratification: Do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: It is unclear if there is value in measuring postoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients risk-stratified using preoperative BNP. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting and subjects: Patients undergoing vascular surgery at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, Durban. Data on intraoperative risk ...

  14. original article patients' preoperative expectation and outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2011 ... health status measures and patients' preoperative expectations for cataract surgery outcomes were performed followed by visual acuity ... measure the change in functional disability. (2). Patient's satisfaction has become .... and written consent was obtained from each patient (and from parents of patients.

  15. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 10, 2016 ... Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. ... mouth into the stomach, approximately about 60 cm from the upper incisor. Accurate placement of the ... The patients were slightly tilted to both sides to maximize the emptying of the stomach.

  16. Characterization and identification of glioblastoma progression on preoperative multimodal MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, A.; Boonzaier, N. R.; Larkin, T. J.; Matys, T.; Price, Stephen J


    Introduction: The treatment failure of Glioblastoma (GBM) is mostly due to the inadequate identification of its invasive margin. We aimed to characterize the peri-tumoral area, the predominant site of tumor progression by using multi-modal MRI. Thereafter, a robust method to preoperatively identify

  17. Analysis of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in stented, distal hypospadias repair. (United States)

    Smith, Jacob; Patel, Ashay; Zamilpa, Ismael; Bai, Shasha; Alliston, Jeffrey; Canon, Stephen


    Surgical site infection [SSI] is a risk for any surgical procedure, including hypospadias repair. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for patients having surgery is often effective in preventing SSIs, but with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, this practice has been questioned. The objectives of this study are 1) to assess the incidence of SSIs in patients following stented, distal hypospadias repair and 2) to observe for any potential difference in the incidence of SSIs for patients with and without preoperative antibiotic utilization in this setting. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients treated with stented, distal hypospadias repair from 2011 to 2014 by three surgeons and compared two groups: patients who received preoperative antibiotics and patients who did not. Patients with a history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded from the study. Two hundred twenty-four subjects were identified. Group 1 (135) received preoperative antibiotic and Group 2 (89) did not receive preoperative antibiotics. There was no statistically significant difference in SSI prevalence with 0 patients in Group 1 and 1 patient in Group 2 having a SSI. Although prophylactic antibiotics prior to hypospadias repair are most often used by pediatric urologists, this study demonstrates further evidence that antibiotics prior to this procedure do not appear to lower the rate of SSI. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and disparate mean follow up in the two cohorts. Surgical site infection does not appear to be decreased by prophylactic antibiotic therapy before distal hypospadias repair.

  18. Preoperative depression and hospital length of stay in surgical patients. (United States)

    Kerper, L F; Spies, C D; Buspavanich, P; Balzer, F; Salz, A L; Tafelski, S; Lau, A; Weiß-Gerlach, E; Neumann, T; Glaesmer, H; Wernecke, K D; Brähler, E; Krampe, H


    The association of depression and hospital length of stay (LOS) has rarely been examined in surgical patients outside of cardiovascular surgery. This study investigates whether clinically significant preoperative depression shows an independent association with LOS in patients from various surgical fields after adjusting for age, gender and important somatic factors. A total of 2624 surgical patients were included in this prospective observational study. Data were collected before the preoperative anesthesiological examination within a computer-assisted psychosocial self-assessment including screening for depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). Data on peri- and postoperative somatic parameters were obtained from the electronic patient management system of the hospital six months after the preoperative assessment. LOS of patients with clinically significant depression (N.=296; median: 5 days, interquartile range: 3-8 days) was longer than LOS of patients without depression (N.=2328; median: 4 days, interquartile range: 2-6 days) (Psurgical field and POSSUM operative severity rating. Data suggest that the association of depression and LOS is independent of the impact of age, gender, surgical field, preoperative physical health, severity of medical comorbidity and extent of surgical procedure. Integration of depression therapy into routine care of surgical patients might be an option to improve outcomes.

  19. The potential benefit of pre-operative assessment of amputation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefit of pre-operative assessment of amputation wound healing potential in peripheral vascular disease. M. Mars, R. P. Mills, J. V. Robbs. Abstract. Choosing the most distal amputation level that will heal is difficult in patients with peripheral vascular disease. From 1984 to 1988,965 patients underwent 1 563 ...

  20. Preoperative staging of lung cancer with PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Fischer, Barbara Malene B; Mortensen, Jann


    PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has become a widely used technology for preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) have established its efficacy over conventional staging, but no studies have assessed its cost...

  1. Preoperative statin therapy and infectious complications in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartholt, N L; Rettig, T C D; Schijffelen, M; Morshuis, W J; van de Garde, E M W; Noordzij, P G


    AIM: To assess whether preoperative statin therapy is associated with the risk of postoperative infection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 520 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in 2010 were retrospectively examined. Data regarding statin and antibiotic use prior to and after

  2. Association between Preoperative Vascular Function and Postoperative Arteriovenous Fistula Development. (United States)

    Allon, Michael; Greene, Tom; Dember, Laura M; Vita, Joseph A; Cheung, Alfred K; Hamburg, Naomi M; Imrey, Peter B; Kaufman, James S; Robbin, Michelle L; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Terry, Christi M; Umphrey, Heidi R; Feldman, Harold I


    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure is the primary cause of dialysis vascular access dysfunction. To evaluate whether preoperative vascular functional properties predict postoperative AVF measurements, patients enrolled in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study underwent up to five preoperative vascular function tests (VFTs): flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, and venous occlusion plethysmography. We used mixed effects multiple regression analyses to relate each preoperative VFT to ultrasound measurements of AVF blood flow rate and venous diameter at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after AVF placement. After controlling for AVF location, preoperative ultrasound measurements, and demographic factors (age, sex, race, and dialysis status), greater NMD associated with greater 6-week AVF blood flow rate and AVF diameter (per absolute 10% difference in NMD: change in blood flow rate =14.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.7% to 25.3%; Pfunctional arterial properties affect AVF development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Utility of 16-multidetector CT angiography in the preoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    583–90. [20] Halpern EJ, Mitchell DG, Wechsler RJ, Outwater EK, Moritz MJ, Wil- son GA. Preoperative evaluation of living renal donors: comparison of CT angiography and MR angiography. Radiology 2000;216(August. (2)):434–9. [21] Kaneko ...

  4. Preoperative fasting times in elective surgical patients at a referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Adults and children are required to fast before anaesthesia to reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. However, prolonged periods of fasting are unnecessary and may cause complications. This study was conducted to evaluate preoperative fasting period in our centre and compare it ...

  5. Preoperative pharmacological correction of severe anaemia due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the effect of total dose iron-dextran infusion and folic acid with or without a progestogen in the preoperative correction of severe anaemia due to fibroid induced menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study of severely anaemic patients with uterine fibroids who refused ...

  6. Accuracy of diagnostic imaging in nephroblastoma before preoperative chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Klinische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Weirich, A. [Kinderklinik, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Troeger, J. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Gamroth, A.H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Raschke, K. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, R. [Kinderklinik, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)


    From July 1988 to February 1991, 130 children with the tentative diagnosis of nephroblastoma were treated preoperatively. The initial diagnostic images (excretory urography, ultrasound, CT, MRI) have been analysed both prospectively and retrospectively and the findings correlated with the intraoperative and histological results. Of the preoperatively treated patients 93.8% had a Wilms` tumour or one of its variants. Five patients had a different malignant tumour and 3 patients, i.e. 2.3% of those preoperatively treated or 1.6% of all registered patients, had benign tumours of the kidney. Wilms` tumour generally presented as a well-defined mass with an inhomogeneous morphology on CT. On ultrasound only 24% of the tumours were homogeneous. Intratumoral haemorrhage and cystic areas occurred frequently; calcifications were rare (8%). With regard to caval involvement only ultrasound and MRI enabled the correct diagnosis, while CT could not differentiate compressions from invasion. The pretherapeutic diagnostic imaging was of sufficient accuracy to start preoperative chemotherapy without diagnostic biopsy. (orig.)

  7. Longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans: Is preoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Longstanding hydrocele is very common among adult Black Africans. Preoperative scrotal ultrasound is widely used for adult patients presenting with hydrocele, with the main aim to rule out more serious underlying pathologies like malignancy or testicular torsion. This paper analyzes the findings and the ...

  8. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) (United States)

    Moerman, N; van Dam, F S; Muller, M J; Oosting, H


    The purpose of the present study was to assess patients' anxiety level and information requirement in the preoperative phase. During routine preoperative screening, 320 patients were asked to assess their anxiety and information requirement on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Two hundred patients also completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State). Patients were able to complete the questionnaire in less than 2 min. On factor analysis, two factors emerged clearly: anxiety and the need for information. The anxiety scale correlated highly (0.74) with the STAI-State. It emerged that 32% of the patients could be considered as "anxiety cases" and over 80% of patients have a positive attitude toward receiving information. Moreover, results demonstrated that 1) women were more anxious that men; 2) patients with a high information requirement also had a high level of anxiety; 3) patients who had never undergone an operation had a higher information requirement than those who had. The APAIS can provide anesthesiologists with a valid, reliable, and easily applicable instrument for assessing the level of patients' preoperative anxiety and the need for information.

  9. A psychological preoperative program: effects on anxiety and cooperative behaviors. (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Larcan, Rosalba; Romeo, Carmelo; Turiaco, Nunzio; Dominici, Tiziana


    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychological preoperative program in reducing preoperative anxiety and in promoting compliance of pediatric participants with surgical procedures. Fifty children and their mothers were subjected to two conditions of treatment to investigate whether psychological preparation activities and psychologist's support during all phases of the operatory iter (group 1) were as efficient in reducing mothers' and child's anxiety and in increasing the child's compliance as distraction activities (group 2). The observed child anxiety was assessed using mYPAS; compliant behaviors with Induction Compliance Checklist; and mothers' anxiety with Amsterdam Pre-operative Anxiety and Information Scale. Children of the first group were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during anesthesia induction than in the other condition. The psychological program was also more efficient in reducing mothers' anxiety. Finally, the mothers of group 1 showed a significantly higher satisfaction and judged as significantly more effective the program proposed to prepare their children than the mothers of group 2. Preparing children through playful dramatization of the operative procedure, manipulation of medical instruments and psychologist's support may be useful in pediatric surgery structures. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Utility of 16-multidetector CT angiography in the preoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    detection of arterial or venous anomalies preoperatively has a great impact on the success of the surgical procedure [1,2]. The most cru- cial information to be gathered before open or laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is the vascular and colleting system anatomy of the donor kidney [3]. Until recently, potential renal donors ...

  11. Preoperative diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 12, 2013 ... presents a case of 66-year-old female with hydatid cyst of the breast diagnosed pre-operatively by core needle biopsy. Complete radiology workup ... replacement therapy, or family history of breast cancer. On physical ... more laminated wall, relative to a simple cyst, and a thin calcification layer within the.

  12. What are the benefits and the pitfalls of preoperative fasting? (United States)

    Webb, Katherine

    Preoperative fasting has been a traditional practice for many years to reduce the risk of aspiration while the patient is under general anaesthetic and to eliminate the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Although it is generally accepted that fasting is beneficial, the fasting regimens that patients undergo are not dependent on the individual patient or the timing of their operation.

  13. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptides in patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptides in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a cumulative meta-analysis. ... Journal Home > Vol 21, No 4 (2015) > ... Future investigation should focus on the clinical implications of these data and the application of these findings with regard to further investigation, optimisation and ...

  14. Pre-operative counselling for laryngectomy patients: a systematic review. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E; Perry, A


    This study aimed to undertake a systematic review of the literature about pre-operative counselling for laryngectomy patients, identify its practice and patient and (where possible) carer perceptions. A search strategy was formulated using a concept map and a Population, Intervention, Comparative Interaction and Outcomes ('PICO') schema. All publications from 1975 to 2015 reporting pre-operative counselling of laryngectomy patients were included. Papers were retrieved and critiqued, and those included were assigned a level of evidence (according to the Joanna Briggs Institute schema). Of the 56 papers retrieved, 21 were included in the review. The literature is limited: studies demonstrate bias and are of poor methodological quality. There are clear, persistent reports by patients and carers of shortfalls in clinical practice. Studies on pre-operative counselling for laryngectomees are flawed in design and represent weak levels of evidence. Pre-operative counselling has not been operationalised, resulting in differing paradigms being examined. Aggregation of data and/or results is not possible and the veracity of many studies is questioned.

  15. Pheochromocytoma : a review on preoperative treatment with phenoxybenzamine or doxazosin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, P A; de Boer, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346


    BACKGROUND: During surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma,`haemodynamic instability may occur. To prevent this, patients receive preoperative treatment with an alpha-blocker. Nowadays, some centres use phenoxybenzamine, while others use doxazosin. The purpose of this review is to analyse the current

  16. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide risk stratification: do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 11, 2012 ... Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide risk stratification: do postoperative indices add value? Rodseth RN, MBChB, FCA, MMed. Perioperative Research Group, Department of Anaesthetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, Ohio. Vasconcellos K, MBChB ...

  17. Obstetric spinal hypotension: Preoperative risk factors and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Obstetric spinal hypotension is a common and important problem during caesarean delivery. Identifying patients at risk for hypotension may guide clinical decision-making and allow timeous referral. Objective. Using preoperative risk factors, to develop a simple scoring system to predict systolic hypotension.

  18. A Survey of Preoperative Radiological Investigation Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-nine (60.4%) respondents do not bother about radiological investigation before surgical procedure while 19 (:39.6%) insisted on preoperative radiological investigations before surgery. Out ofthese 19 respondents, all recommend periapical x-ray while 5 (26.3%) had a cause to recommend .oblique lateral of the jaw ...

  19. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, Linda


    BACKGROUND: After cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease 20%-30% of the patients continue to have abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative variables could predict the symptomatic outcome after cholecystectomy. METHODS: One hundred and two patients w...

  20. Preoperative iodine staining may complicate the demarcation of esophageal carcinoma. (United States)

    Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Niimi, Keiko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Matsusaka, Keisuke; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko


    A 53-year-old man was suspected of having an esophageal neoplasm. An endoscopic examination including Lugol chromoendoscopy suggested an esophageal squamous cell neoplasm limited to the lamina propria. A targeted biopsy showed atypical squamous cells, and an endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed 22 days after the previous endoscopy. Although a single 40 mm unstained area was observed by preoperative Lugol chromoendoscopy, intraoperative endoscopy revealed a 25 mm iodine-unstained area, with small unstained areas scattered on the oral side. We included the small unstained areas in the extent of the resection through assessment by preoperative endoscopy. Histopathologically, the tumor extent appeared to coincide with the preoperative assessment. Tumor cells were found in the basal-parabasal layers of the mucosa, in which small unstained areas were scattered, although the superficial layers exhibited well-differentiated cells containing glycogen in the cytoplasm. Although Lugol chromoendoscopy, which can induce chemical esophagitis, is widely used, re-epithelialization after mucosal damage by preoperative iodine staining may complicate the intraoperative demarcation of tumors.

  1. Evaluation of Routine Preoperative Electrocardiogram-A Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients who are 40yrs and above are required to have routine preoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) prior to major elective surgery in our practice. This is aimed at detecting cardiac abnormalities that may contribute to peri- and post-operative morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of literature on this subject ...

  2. [The 'paper-based' preoperative evaluation: sometimes, a suitable alternative].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, M.J.L.; Wolff, A.P.; Scheffer, G.J.


    In the Netherlands, the majority of elective-surgery patients are evaluated by the anaesthesiologist at the preoperative assessment clinic. We believe that this visit can be omitted in selected patients as it has only minimal benefit, whereas its disadvantages can be substantial. Alternatively, the

  3. Pre-operative bladder irrigation with 1% Povidone iodine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing post transvesical prostatectomy surgical site infections. Study design: This was a prospective randomized cohort study with blinding of patients and outcome adjudicator regarding group ...

  4. Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mg than placebo. Conclusion: Preoperative gabapentin, when administered one hour prior to surgery in a dose of 1 200 mg, decreases postoperative pain scores at zero hour and the rescue analgesia requirement significantly over a period of 24 hours in patients undergoing lower limb surgery under spinal anaesthesia.

  5. Preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in severe Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; von Meyenfeldt, M. F.; Rouflart, M.; Soeters, P. B.


    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the results after surgical treatment of patients with severe Crohn's disease. Of 67 patients admitted with complications of Crohn's disease, 51 had severe active disease and abdominal masses, fistulas

  6. Preoperative HIV Screening in Guinness Eye Hospital Onitsha, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: HIV screening was carried out on 327(84.1%) of the 389 patients that had surgery within the period. Eighteen (5.5%) patients tested positive for HIV. Cataract was the commonest surgical eye disease for which patients were screened. Conclusion: Preoperative HIV screening should be carried out on all surgical ...

  7. Preoperative evaluation to predict technical difficulties of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the basis of histological inflammation findings on resected gallbladder. (United States)

    Sakuramoto, S; Sato, S; Okuri, T; Sato, K; Hiki, Y; Kakita, A


    No papers have heretofore documented histological studies of cases involving the inflammation of resected gallbladder or examined surgical difficulties on the basis of pathological findings. On the basis of the histological inflammation findings on the resected gallbladders of 437 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the factors affecting the technical difficulty of the operation were examined through preoperative clinical findings (13 items), diagnostic imaging (22 items), and blood test findings (6 items), using multivariate analysis. In accordance with the four-stage classification of inflammation findings for the resected gallbladder, the inflammation findings on the resected gallbladder indicated a higher correlation with the time required for gallbladder dissection (30.2 +/- 16.3 minutes) than with the operation time (77.6 +/- 32.7 minutes). Thus, the technical difficulty of the operation was judged according to the time required for gallbladder dissection. For the preoperative findings on 418 patients who underwent successful LC, the most influential factors on the time required for gallbladder dissection were the presence of abnormal findings on computed tomography, the degree of fever, obesity index, nonvisualized gallbladder cholangiography, and cystic duct length. According to the multiple regression equation of these five factors, the gallbladder dissection for the 19 patients who underwent conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC) due to extreme inflammation was calculated to require 61.9 +/- 12.3 minutes, and the patients who showed a gallbladder dissection time longer than 49.6 minutes were judged to have high technical difficulty predicted from the preoperative evaluation. In the preoperative evaluation, sensitivity was 79.6%, specificity was 97.6%, accuracy was 95.0%, positive predictive value was 85.0%, and negative predictive value was 96.6%. Next, each finding was scored on the basis of a multiple regression equation of five

  8. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference. (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E


    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. [Evaluation of preoperative anxiety in patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery]. (United States)

    Lemaitre, S; Blumen-Ohana, E; Akesbi, J; Laplace, O; Nordmann, J-P


    Preoperative anxiety is often expressed by patients requiring filtration surgery for their glaucoma. So far, there has been no scale for screening this group of patients for preoperative anxiety. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-evaluation questionnaire which has been used in specialties other than ophthalmology and which makes it possible to identify the adult patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety over an upcoming surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to estimate the preoperative anxiety in glaucoma patients requiring filtration surgery. We performed a prospective study of 36 adult patients with chronic glaucoma not responding to medical treatment and who were about to undergo filtration surgery (trabeculectomy or deep sclerectomy). The APAIS questionnaire was given to the patients after discussing the indication for surgery. A global anxiety score (ranging from 4 to 20) above 10 defined patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety. We attempted to identify among these patients the factors related to filtration surgery which caused them anxiety (lack of control of intraocular pressure, risk of blindness, presence of the filtering bleb). In our sample of patients, we found that glaucoma was a source of anxiety. That was also true for the surgical procedure, though most patients believe that once the decision had been made, their psychological status was not modified by the upcoming procedure. The patient-clinician relationship is important in any chronic disease, all the more so in glaucoma, since this disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. When filtration surgery is necessary, the patients are going to express less preoperative anxiety if they trust their physician and if individualized information has been given to them The French version of the APAIS is a quick scale, easily completed, that can be recommended for evaluating anxiety and patients' need for information prior to filtering

  10. The effect of spectrally selective filters on color perception and aviation performance (United States)

    Svec, Leedjia

    Color vision is within ourselves as well as the environment. Color vision is of extreme importance to pilots and in other occupations that require excellent color discrimination. Advancements in laser technology, however, have required the need for laser eye protection. Laser eye protection alters the spectral world that pilots and other professionals must work in. Understanding the effects of these alterations is necessary to prevent mishaps and further applied color vision knowledge. The present study experimentally manipulated the spectral environment and aviation tasks faced by military pilots. Several spectrally selective filters were used to modify the spectral environment. Subjects performed a wide and inclusive range of color vision and aviation tasks with the filters. The effects of these filters on color vision were modeled after current theories of color processing. The predicted results were compared with the actual results. It was found that color vision is both enhanced and decreased by spectrally selective filters, with certain filters safety is compromised when pilots are distracted, and computational modeling may offer predictive benefits in understanding filter and vision interactions. This research contributes to both applied and basic theories regarding the complex relationship between color vision, filters, and aviation.

  11. Immune reactivity to food coloring. (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene


    Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely

  12. Ion beam analysis of ancient Mexican colored teeth from archaeological sites in Mexico City (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M. A.; Román-Berrelleza, J. A.; Gallardo, M. L.; Grimaldi, D. M.; de Lucio, O. G.; Miranda, J.


    Infant teeth with extremely rare colored enamel regions white, blue-gray and brown, have been analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The teeth were part of human being sacrifices to deities of the Mexica culture, Mexico, corresponding to the Late Post-classic period (1325-1521 A.D.). Comparisons to normal teeth from the same historical period indicate that the colored ones present larger mean amounts of Mn and Fe, while Zn and Sr do not differ too much. Possible inorganic compounds responsible for the different colorations are indicated.

  13. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft


    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...



    Djordjevic, Dragan; SMELCEROVIC Miodrag; MICIC Aleksandra; AMIN Goran; Milic, Dragan


    The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin....

  15. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph


    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Preoperative anxiety in surgical patients - experience of a single unit. (United States)

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Samarasekera, Dharmanbandhu Nandadeva


    Preoperative anxiety has a significant effect on the outcome of anesthesia and surgery. At present, there is no published data on the preoperative anxiety levels in Sri Lankan patients. In the West, several validated questionnaires such as The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) are used. To measure the preoperative anxiety levels in patients using APAIS and to analyze the factors affecting anxiety and the role played by the anesthetist in allaying anxiety. One hundred patients scheduled for elective surgery were prospectively studied using the APAIS. The internal consistency was checked using Cronbach's alpha. The ages varied 25 to 72 years (mean=48.7 years, SD=13.6). Reliability of the APAIS was high; Cronbach's alpha=0.864 in the overall component and 0.84, 0.73 and 0.97 in the anxiety related to surgery, anesthesia and in the information desire components, respectively. Females were more anxious than males (p=0.02) and those who had never sustained surgery were more anxious than those who previously had surgery (p=0.05). An anesthetist's visit and premedication reduced total anxiety scores (Z=-3.07, p=0.002) and anesthesia related anxiety scores (Z=-3.45, p=0.001). The prevalence of anxiety is high among Sri Lankan patients. Females are more anxious than males and those who have never had surgery are more anxious than those who have had surgery. The anesthetist's visit could reduce anxiety. Sinhala version of the APAIS is highly reliable in assessing the preoperative anxiety levels. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Memory Loss, Alzheimer's Disease and General Anesthesia: A Preoperative Concern. (United States)

    Thaler, Adam; Siry, Read; Cai, Lufan; García, Paul S; Chen, Linda; Liu, Renyu


    The long-term cognitive effects of general anesthesia are under intense scrutiny. Here we present 5 cases from 2 academic institutions to analyze some common features where the patient's or the patient family member has made a request to address their concern on memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and general anesthesia before surgery. Records of anesthesia consultation separate from standard preoperative evaluation were retrieved to identify consultations related to memory loss and Alzheimer's disease from the patient and/or patient family members. The identified cases were extensively reviewed for features in common. We used Google® (http://www. to identify available online information using "anesthesia memory loss" as a search phrase. Five cases were collected as a specific preoperative consultation related to memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and general anesthesia from two institutions. All of the individuals either had perceived memory impairment after a prior surgical procedure with general anesthesia or had a family member with Alzheimer's disease. They all accessed public media sources to find articles related to anesthesia and memory loss. On May 2 nd , 2011, searching "anesthesia memory loss" in Google yielded 764,000 hits. Only 3 of the 50 Google top hits were from peer-reviewed journals. Some of the lay media postings made a causal association between general anesthesia and memory loss and/or Alzheimer's disease without conclusive scientific literature support. The potential link between memory loss and Alzheimer's disease with general anesthesia is an important preoperative concern from patients and their family members. This concern arises from individuals who have had history of cognitive impairment or have had a family member with Alzheimer disease and have tried to obtain information from public media. Proper preoperative consultation with the awareness of the lay literature can be useful in reducing patient and patient family member

  18. Color Energy Of A Unitary Cayley Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiga Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available Let G be a vertex colored graph. The minimum number χ(G of colors needed for coloring of a graph G is called the chromatic number. Recently, Adiga et al. [1] have introduced the concept of color energy of a graph Ec(G and computed the color energy of few families of graphs with χ(G colors. In this paper we derive explicit formulas for the color energies of the unitary Cayley graph Xn, the complement of the colored unitary Cayley graph (Xnc and some gcd-graphs.

  19. Modules Over Color Hom-Poisson Algebras


    Bakayoko, Ibrahima


    In this paper we introduce color Hom-Poisson algebras and show that every color Hom-associative algebra has a non-commutative Hom-Poisson algebra structure in which the Hom-Poisson bracket is the commutator bracket. Then we show that color Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of color Poisson algebras) turn to color Hom-Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of Color Hom-Poisson algebras) by twisting the color Poisson structure. Next we prove that modules over color Hom–associative algebr...

  20. [Effect of transparent yellow and orange colored contact lenses on color discrimination in the yellow color range]. (United States)

    Schürer, M; Walter, A; Brünner, H; Langenbucher, A


    Colored transparent filters cause a change in color perception and have an impact on the perceptible amount of different colors and especially on the ability to discriminate between them. Yellow or orange tinted contact lenses worn to enhance contrast vision by reducing or blocking short wavelengths also have an effect on color perception. The impact of the yellow and orange tinted contact lenses Wöhlk SPORT CONTRAST on color discrimination was investigated with the Erlangen colour measurement system in a study with 14 and 16 subjects, respectively. In relation to a yellow reference color located at u' = 0.2487/v' = 0.5433, measurements of color discrimination thresholds were taken in up to 6 different color coordinate axes. Based on these thresholds, color discrimination ellipses were calculated. These results are given in the Derrington, Krauskopf and Lennie (DKL) color system. Both contact lenses caused a shift of the reference color towards higher saturated colors. Color discrimination ability with the yellow and orange colored lenses was significantly enhanced along the blue-yellow axis in comparison to the reference measurements without a tinted filter. Along the red-green axis only the orange lens caused a significant reduction of color discrimination threshold distance to the reference color. Yellow and orange tinted contact lenses enhance the ability of color discrimination. If the transmission spectra and the induced changes are taken into account, these results can also be applied to other filter media, such as blue filter intraocular lenses.