WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely small fraction

  1. Evaluation of extremely small horizontal emittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Okugi

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The KEK Accelerator Test Facility (KEK-ATF was constructed to develop technologies for producing a low-emittance beam which will be required by future linear colliders. The KEK-ATF consists of an injector linac, a damping ring, and a beam extraction line. The basic optical structure of the damping ring is a FOBO lattice, which reduces the horizontal dispersion at the center of the bending magnets and, as a consequence, can produce an extremely small emittance beam. To verify the performance of such a unique, low-emittance lattice, it is crucial to measure the horizontal emittance. The horizontal emittance was measured using wire scanners in the beam extraction line. Since the horizontal beam position was not stable, we established a method to correct the measured beam size for position fluctuation (“jitter” and we succeeded in the observation of the so far smallest horizontal emittance in any accelerator. The measured horizontal emittance was 1.37±0.03nm at a beam energy of 1.285 GeV and a bunch population of \\(3–5\\×10^{9}, in agreement with the design value of 1.27–1.34 nm at the beam energy and the bunch population.

  2. Extreme-value statistics of fractional Brownian motion bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Mathieu; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2016-11-01

    Fractional Brownian motion is a self-affine, non-Markovian, and translationally invariant generalization of Brownian motion, depending on the Hurst exponent H. Here we investigate fractional Brownian motion where both the starting and the end point are zero, commonly referred to as bridge processes. Observables are the time t_{+} the process is positive, the maximum m it achieves, and the time t_{max} when this maximum is taken. Using a perturbative expansion around Brownian motion (H=1/2), we give the first-order result for the probability distribution of these three variables and the joint distribution of m and t_{max}. Our analytical results are tested and found to be in excellent agreement, with extensive numerical simulations for both H>1/2 and H<1/2. This precision is achieved by sampling processes with a free end point and then converting each realization to a bridge process, in generalization to what is usually done for Brownian motion.

  3. The Estimation of Probability of Extreme Events for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, V. F.; Rodkin, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The most general approach to the study of rare extreme events is based on the extreme value theory. The fundamental General Extreme Value Distribution lies in the basis of this theory serving as the limit distribution for normalized maxima. It depends on three parameters. Usually the method of maximum likelihood (ML) is used for the estimation that possesses well-known optimal asymptotic properties. However, this method works efficiently only when sample size is large enough ( 200-500), whereas in many applications the sample size does not exceed 50-100. For such sizes, the advantage of the ML method in efficiency is not guaranteed. We have found that for this situation the method of statistical moments (SM) works more efficiently over other methods. The details of the estimation for small samples are studied. The SM is applied to the study of extreme earthquakes in three large virtual seismic zones, representing the regime of seismicity in subduction zones, intracontinental regime of seismicity, and the regime in mid-ocean ridge zones. The 68%-confidence domains for pairs of parameter (ξ, σ) and (σ, μ) are derived.

  4. Small Black Holes and Near-Extremal CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Nathan; Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Maloney, Alexander; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Pure theories of AdS$_3$ quantum gravity are conjectured to be dual to CFTs with sparse spectra of light primary operators. The sparsest possible spectrum consistent with modular invariance includes only black hole states above the vacuum. Witten conjectured the existence of a family of extremal CFTs, which realize this spectrum for all admissible values of the central charge. We consider the quantum corrections to the classical spectrum, and propose a specific modification of Witten's conjecture which takes into account the existence of "small" black hole states. These have zero classical horizon area, with a calculable entropy attributed solely to loop effects. Our conjecture passes various consistency checks, especially when generalized to include theories with supersymmetry. In theories with $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry, this "near-extremal CFT" proposal precisely evades the no-go results of Gaberdiel et al.

  5. Fake Superpotential for Large and Small Extremal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, S; Trigiante, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the fist order, gradient-flow, description of the scalar fields coupled to spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat black holes in extended supergravities. Using the identification of the fake superpotential with Hamilton's characteristic function we clarify some of its general properties, showing in particular (besides reviewing the issue of its duality invariance) that W has the properties of a Liapunov's function, which implies that its extrema (associated with the horizon of extremal black holes) are asymptotically stable equilibrium points of the corresponding first order dynamical system (in the sense of Liapunov). Moreover, we show that the fake superpotential W has, along the entire radial flow, the same flat directions which exist at the attractor point. This allows to study properties of the ADM mass also for small black holes where in fact W has no critical points at finite distance in moduli space. In particular the W function for small non-BPS black holes can always be computed anal...

  6. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was selected by NASA for flight in 2014 to make a sensitive search for X-ray polarization from a wide set of source classes, including stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Among the primary scientific objectives are determining the effects of the spin of black holes and the geometry of supermassive black hole accretion, determining the configurations of the magnetic fields and the X-ray emission of magnetars, and determining the magnetic structure of the supernova shocks in which cosmic rays are accelerated. GEMS will observe 23 targets during a 16 month prime mission, in observations that will be able to reach predicted levels of polarization. The mission can be extended to provide a guest observer phase. The GEMS instrument has time projection chamber polarimeters with high 2-10 keV efficiency at the focus of thin foil mirrors. The 4.5 m focal length mirrors will be deployed on an extended boom. The spacecraft with the instrument is rotated with a period of about 10 minutes to enable measurement and correction of systematic errors. A small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment takes advantage of this rotation to obtain a measurement at 0.5 keV. The design of the GEMS instrument and the mission, the expected performance and the planned science program will be discussed.

  7. Laws of small numbers extremes and rare events

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Michael; Hüsler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this seminar book in 1994, the theory and applications of extremes and rare events have enjoyed an enormous and still increasing interest. The intention of the book is to give a mathematically oriented development of the theory of rare events underlying various applications. This characteristic of the book was strengthened in the second edition by incorporating various new results on about 130 additional pages. Part II, which has been added in the second edition, discusses recent developments in multivariate extreme value theory. Particularly notable is a new spectral decomposition of multivariate distributions in univariate ones which makes multivariate questions more accessible in theory and practice. One of the most innovative and fruitful topics during the last decades was the introduction of generalized Pareto distributions in the univariate extreme value theory. Such a statistical modelling of extremes is now systematically developed in the multivariate fram...

  8. Small black holes and near-extremal CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, Nathan; Dyer, Ethan [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Boston University Physics Department,Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Maloney, Alexander [McGill Physics Department,3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Perlmutter, Eric [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Pure theories of AdS{sub 3} quantum gravity are conjectured to be dual to CFTs with sparse spectra of light primary operators. The sparsest possible spectrum consistent with modular invariance includes only black hole states above the vacuum. Witten conjectured the existence of a family of extremal CFTs, which realize this spectrum for all admissible values of the central charge. We consider the quantum corrections to the classical spectrum, and propose a specific modification of Witten’s conjecture which takes into account the existence of “small” black hole states. These have zero classical horizon area, with a calculable entropy attributed solely to loop effects. Our conjecture passes various consistency checks, especially when generalized to include theories with supersymmetry. In theories with N=2 supersymmetry, this “near-extremal CFT” proposal precisely evades the no-go results of Gaberdiel et al.

  9. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  10. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Expolorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy R.; Swank, J.; Jahoda, K.; GEMS Team

    2011-01-01

    Polarization is an inherently geometric quantity and provides information on source geometry inaccessible via spectroscopy or timing. To date, there have been reliable detections of X-ray polarization from only one object outside the solar system (the Crab nebula). Recent development of photoelectric polarimetry makes it possible to perform sensitive X-ray polarimetry with a modest mission. GEMS was recently selected by NASA to be the 13th Small Explorer mission with launch planned for 2014. GEMS will be 100× more sensitive than any previously flown X-ray polarimeter and should provide useful polarization measurements for dozens of sources, to lower than predicted levels. GEMS will lead to new insights into the nature of accreting black holes, highly magnetized neutron stars, and supernova remnants.

  11. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments.

  12. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y

    2015-11-23

    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5-20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ(7)Li values range from -14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, -22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and -4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ(7)Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ(7)Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ(7)Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data.

  13. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, β expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, γs expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  14. Centrifugal Step Emulsification can Produce Water in Oil Emulsions with Extremely High Internal Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Schuler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.

  15. How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese flora occupies a unique position in global plant diversity, but is severely threatened. Although biodiversity conservation in China has made significant progress over the past decades, many wild plant species have extremely small population sizes and therefore are in extreme danger of extinction. The concept of plant species with extremely small populations (PSESPs, recently adopted and widely accepted in China, lacks a detailed description of the methodology appropriate for conserving PSESPs. Strategies for seed sampling, reintroduction, protecting PSESP locations, managing interactions with the local human population, and other conservation aspects can substantially differ from those commonly applied to non-PSESPs. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed conservation methodology with realistic and easy-to-follow guidelines for PSESPs in China.

  16. A Novel Technology for Measurements of Dielectric Properties of Extremely Small Volumes of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity sensor for measurement radio frequency (RF dielectric permittivity of liquids is described. Interference is used and parasitic effects are cancellation, which makes the sensor can catch weak signals caused by liquids with extremely small volumes. In addition, we present the relationship between transmission coefficient and permittivity of liquids under test (LUT. Using this sensor, quantitative measurements of the dielectric properties at 5.8 GHz are demonstrated of LUTs. Experiments show that the proposed method only requires the volume of 160 nanoliters for liquids. Therefore, the technology can be used for RF spectroscopic analysis of biological samples and extremely precious liquids.

  17. EXTREME GAS FRACTIONS IN CLUMPY, TURBULENT DISK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bassett, Robert [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Bolatto, Alberto [Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 29742 (United States); Obreschkow, Danail [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Cooper, Erin Mentuch [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wisnioski, Emily [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Damjanov, Ivana [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Green, Andy [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 970, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); McGregor, Peter, E-mail: dfisher@swin.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby universe (z ∼ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Hα reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20%-30% and depletion times of t {sub dep} ∼ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky-Way-like α{sub CO}). These properties are unlike those expected for low-redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies break the degeneracy between gas fraction and redshift, and we show that the depletion time per specific star formation rate for galaxies is closely tied to gas fraction, independent of redshift. We also show that the gas dynamics of two of our local targets corresponds to those expected from unstable disks, again resembling the dynamics of high-z disks. These results provide evidence that DYNAMO galaxies are local analogs to the clumpy, turbulent disks, which are often found at high redshift.

  18. Confirmation of Small Dynamical and Stellar Masses for Extreme Emission Line Galaxies at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Maseda, Michael V; da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacifici, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F; Fumagalli, Mattia; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lundgren, Britt F; Marchesini, Danilo; Nelson, Erica J; Patel, Shannon G; Skelton, Rosalind E; Straughn, Amber N; Trump, Jonathan R; Weiner, Benjamin J; Whitaker, Katherine E; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (~50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 1. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Honda, Satoshi, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: tbeers@nd.edu, E-mail: honda@nhao.jp [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  20. Extreme gas fractions in clumpy, turbulent disk galaxies at z~0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David B; Bolatto, Alberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Mentuch-Cooper, Erin; Wisnioski, Emily; BAssett, Robert; Abraham, Roberto G; Damjanov, Ivana; Green, Andy; McGregor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby Universe (z ~ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Halpha reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20-30% and depletion times of tdep ~ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky Way-like CO conversion factor). These properties are unlike those expected for low- redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies brea...

  1. Pregnant woman with an extremely small uterus due to pelvic irradiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka; Usui, Rie; Mugishima, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2012-03-01

    A female cancer survivor, having suffered malignant lymphoma during childhood and received radio- and chemotherapy, became pregnant. Her uterus was extremely small and in the 22nd week of gestation, acute uterine contractions occurred, leading to preterm delivery and resulting in the death of the infant. Pelvic irradiation in childhood was considered to have caused a small uterus and thus brought on preterm delivery. The younger the patient, the more vulnerable the uterus is to irradiation. The exposure dose to the uterus in pediatric cancer patients should therefore be reduced, especially in younger patients. The cooperation of pediatric cancer specialists and obstetricians is necessary to preserve the future fertility of female cancer survivors.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: II. Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C; Honda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor, Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported three double-lined spectroscopic...

  3. COMPARISON OF THE FRACTIONS OF COD IN RAW WASTEWATER INFLUENT FOR SMALL AND LARGE SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

  4. Simulation paradoxes related to a fractional Brownian motion with small Hurst index

    OpenAIRE

    Makogin, Vitalii

    2016-01-01

    We consider the simulation of sample paths of a fractional Brownian motion with small values of the Hurst index and estimate the behavior of the expected maximum. We prove that, for each fixed $N$, the error of approximation $\\mathbf {E}\\max_{t\\in[0,1]}B^H(t)-\\mathbf {E}\\max_{i=\\overline{1,N}}B^H(i/N)$ grows rapidly to $\\infty$ as the Hurst index tends to 0.

  5. Influence of a Small Fraction of Individuals with Enhanced Mutations on a Population Genetic Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    It has been observed that a higher mutation load could be introduced into the genomes of children conceived by assisted reproduction technology (fertilization in-vitro). This generates two effects — slightly higher mutational pressure on the whole genetic pool of population and inhomogeneity of mutation distributions in the genetic pool. Computer simulations of the Penna ageing model suggest that already a small fraction of births with enhanced number of new mutations can negatively influence the whole population.

  6. Momentum Fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of proton structure functions at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D K; Kalita, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports analysis of momentum fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of Proton structure functions at small $x$. First, we analyze the model proposed by Lastovicka based on self-similarity sometime back. We then make a similar analysis for a second model based on the same notion which is also free from singularity in $x$ : $0small $x$, suggested by Block, Durand, Ha and McKay. The results are then compared with the corresponding study in perturbative and Lattice QCD.

  7. Extremely large fractionation of Li isotopes in a chromitite-bearing mantle sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Robinson, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    We report Li isotopic compositions of olivine from the mantle sequence of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. The olivine in the Luobusa ophiolite has Li concentrations from ~0.1 to 0.9 ppm and a broad range of δ7Li (+14 to −20‰). An inverse correlation of Li concentration and δ7Li in olivine from harzburgite suggests recent diffusive ingress of Li into the rock. Olivine from dunite enveloping podiform chromitites shows positive δ7Li values higher than those of MORB, whereas olivine from the chromitite has negative δ7Li values. Such variations are difficult to reconcile by diffusive fractionation and are thought to record the nature of the magma sources. Our results clearly indicate that the Luobusa chromitites formed from magmas with light Li isotopic compositions and that the dunites are products of melt-rock interaction. The isotopically light magmas originated by partial melting of a subducted slab after high degrees of dehydration and then penetrated the overlying mantle wedge. This study provides evidence for Li isotope heterogeneity in the mantle that resulted from subduction of a recycled oceanic component. PMID:26927333

  8. Small-sample likelihood inference in extreme-value regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Silvia L P

    2012-01-01

    We deal with a general class of extreme-value regression models introduced by Barreto- Souza and Vasconcellos (2011). Our goal is to derive an adjusted likelihood ratio statistic that is approximately distributed as \\c{hi}2 with a high degree of accuracy. Although the adjusted statistic requires more computational effort than its unadjusted counterpart, it is shown that the adjustment term has a simple compact form that can be easily implemented in standard statistical software. Further, we compare the finite sample performance of the three classical tests (likelihood ratio, Wald, and score), the gradient test that has been recently proposed by Terrell (2002), and the adjusted likelihood ratio test obtained in this paper. Our simulations favor the latter. Applications of our results are presented. Key words: Extreme-value regression; Gradient test; Gumbel distribution; Likelihood ratio test; Nonlinear models; Score test; Small-sample adjustments; Wald test.

  9. Discovery of Peculiar Periodic Spectral Modulations in a Small Fraction of Solar-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Trottier, Eric

    2016-11-01

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was carried out to detect periodic spectral modulations. Signals having the same period were found in only 234 stars overwhelmingly in the F2 to K1 spectral range. The signals cannot be caused by instrumental or data analysis effects because they are present in only a very small fraction of stars within a narrow spectral range and because signal-to-noise ratio considerations predict that the signal should mostly be detected in the brightest objects, while this is not the case. We consider several possibilities, such as rotational transitions in molecules, rapid pulsations, Fourier transform of spectral lines, and signals generated by extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). They cannot be generated by molecules or rapid pulsations. It is highly unlikely that they come from the Fourier transform of spectral lines because too many strong lines located at nearly periodic frequencies are needed. Finally, we consider the possibility, predicted in a previous published paper, that the signals are caused by light pulses generated by ETI to makes us aware of their existence. We find that the detected signals have exactly the shape of an ETI signal predicted in the previous publication and are therefore in agreement with this hypothesis. The fact that they are only found in a very small fraction of stars within a narrow spectral range centered near the spectral type of the Sun is also in agreement with the ETI hypothesis. However, at this stage, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed with further work. Although unlikely, there is also a possibility that the signals are due to highly peculiar chemical compositions in a small fraction of galactic halo stars.

  10. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Huajun Li; Haifeng Ji; Zhiyao Huang; Baoliang Wang; Haiqing Li; Guohua Wu

    2016-01-01

    Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Mach...

  11. An Extremely Rare Case of Advanced Metastatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Sinonasal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu Thar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC is a rare form of malignancy. It mainly presents as bronchogenic neoplasm, and the extrapulmonary form accounts for only 0.1% to 0.4% of all cancers. These extrapulmonary tumors have been described most frequently in the urinary bladder, prostate, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gall bladder, head and neck, cervix, and skin. Primary SNEC of the sinonasal tract is extremely rare with only less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of extreme rarity and aggressiveness of the tumor, the management for this entity varies considerably mandating multimodality approach. In this paper, we report a patient presented with left-sided facial swelling, and the histopathologic examination confirmed primary SNEC of left sinonasal tract. The tumor involved multiple paranasal sinuses with invasion into the left orbit and left infratemporal fossa and metastasized to cervical lymph nodes and bone. The patient encountered devastating outcome in spite of optimal medical management and treatment with palliative chemotherapy highlighting the necessity for further research of primary SNEC of head and neck.

  12. Discovery of peculiar periodic spectral modulations in a small fraction of solar type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Borra, E F

    2016-01-01

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was carried out to detect periodic spectral modulations. Signals having the same period were found in only 234 stars overwhelmingly in the F2 to K1 spectral range. The signals cannot be caused by instrumental or data analysis effects because they are present in only a very small fraction of stars within a narrow spectral range and because signal to noise ratio considerations predict that the signal should mostly be detected in the brightest objects, while this is not the case. We consider several possibilities, such as rotational transitions in molecules, rapid pulsations, Fourier transform of spectral lines and signals generated by Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI). They cannot be generated by molecules or rapid pulsations. It is highly unlikely that they come from the Fourier transform of spectral lines because too many strong lines located at nearly periodic frequencies are needed. Finally we consider the possibility, pre...

  13. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Ji, Haifeng; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing; Wu, Guohua

    2016-01-27

    Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow) are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers' works.

  14. Microchemostat array with small-volume fraction replenishment for steady-state microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaewon; Wu, Jianzhang; Polymenis, Michael; Han, Arum

    2013-11-07

    A chemostat is a bioreactor in which microorganisms can be cultured at steady-state by controlling the rate of culture medium inflow and waste outflow, thus maintaining media composition over time. Even though many microbial studies could greatly benefit from studying microbes in steady-state conditions, high instrument cost, complexity, and large reagent consumption hamper the routine use of chemostats. Microfluidic-based chemostats (i.e. microchemostats) can operate with significantly smaller reagent consumption while providing accurate chemostatic conditions at orders of magnitude lower cost compared to conventional chemostats. Also, microchemostats have the potential to significantly increase the throughput by integrating arrays of microchemostats. We present a microchemostat array with a unique two-depth culture chamber design that enables small-volume fraction replenishment of culture medium as low as 1% per replenishment cycle in a 250 nl volume. A system having an array of 8 microchemostats on a 40 × 60 mm(2) footprint could be automatically operated in parallel by a single controller unit as a demonstration for potential high throughput microbial studies. The model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, successfully reached a stable steady-state of different cell densities as a demonstration of the chemostatic functionality by programming the dilution rates. Chemostatic functionality of the system was further confirmed by quantifying the budding index as a function of dilution rate, a strong indicator of growth-dependent cell division. In addition, the small-volume fraction replenishment feature minimized the cell density fluctuation during the culture. The developed system provides a robust, low-cost, and higher throughput solution to furthering studies in microbial physiology.

  15. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L; Sander, P Martin

    2010-05-18

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>10(5) kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size.

  16. Excessive portal flow causes graft failure in extremely small-for-size liver transplantation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Sheng Wang; Tomohiro Narita; Hideyuki Yamaya; Atsushi Nakamura; Satoshi Sekiguchi; Naoki Kawagishi; Akira Sato; Susumu Satomi; Nobuhiro Ohkohchi; Yoshitaka Enomoto; Masahiro Usuda; Shigehito Miyagi; Takeshi Asakura; Hiroo Masuoka; Takashi Aiso; Keisuke Fukushima

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of a portocaval shunt on the decrease of excessive portal flow for the prevention of sinusoidal microcirculatory injury in extremely smallfor-size liver transplantation in pigs.METHODS: The right lateral lobe of pigs, i.e. the 25%of the liver, was transplanted orthotopically. The pigs were divided into two groups: graft without portocaval shunt (n = 11) and graft with portocaval shunt (n=11).Survival rate, portal flow, hepatic arterial flow, and histological findings were investigated.RESULTS: In the group without portocaval shunt, all pigs except one died of liver dysfunction within 24 h after transplantation. In the group with portocaval shunt,eight pigs survived for more than 4 d. The portal flow volumes before and after transplantation in the group without portocaval shunt were 118.2±26.9 mL/min/100 g liver tissue and 270.5±72.9 mL/min/100 g liver tissue,respectively. On the other hand, in the group with portocaval shunt, those volumes were 124.2±27.8 mL/min/100 g liver tissue and 42.7±32.3 mL/min/100 g liver tissue, respectively (P<0.01). As for histological findings in the group without portocaval shunt, destruction of the sinusoidal lining and bleeding in the peri-portal areas were observed after reperfusion, but these findings were not recognized in the group with portocaval shunt.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that excessive portal flow is attributed to post transplant liver dysfunction after extreme small-for-size liver transplantation caused by sinusoidal microcirculatory injury.

  17. The spatial distribution of threats to plant species with extremely small populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Jizhong; Qu, Hong; Mu, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-04-01

    Many biological conservationists take actions to conserve plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China; however, there have been few studies on the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP. Hence, we selected distribution data of PSESP and made a map of the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP in China. First, we used the weight assignment method to evaluate the threat risk to PSESP at both country and county scales. Second, we used a geographic information system to map the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP, and explored the threat factors based on linear regression analysis. Finally, we suggested some effective conservation options. We found that the PSESP with high values of protection, such as the plants with high scientific research values and ornamental plants, were threatened by over-exploitation and utilization, habitat fragmentation, and a small sized wild population in broad-leaved forests and bush fallows. We also identified some risk hotspots for PSESP in China. Regions with low elevation should be given priority for ex- and in-situ conservation. Moreover, climate change should be considered for conservation of PSESP. To avoid intensive over-exploitation or utilization and habitat fragmentation, in-situ conservation should be practiced in regions with high temperatures and low temperature seasonality, particularly in the high risk hotspots for PSESP that we proposed. Ex-situ conservation should be applied in these same regions, and over-exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be prevented. It is our goal to apply the concept of PSESP to the global scale in the future.

  18. The spatial distribution of threats to plant species with extremely small populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Jizhong; Qu, Hong; Mu, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2017-03-01

    Many biological conservationists take actions to conserve plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China; however, there have been few studies on the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP. Hence, we selected distribution data of PSESP and made a map of the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP in China. First, we used the weight assignment method to evaluate the threat risk to PSESP at both country and county scales. Second, we used a geographic information system to map the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP, and explored the threat factors based on linear regression analysis. Finally, we suggested some effective conservation options. We found that the PSESP with high values of protection, such as the plants with high scientific research values and ornamental plants, were threatened by over-exploitation and utilization, habitat fragmentation, and a small sized wild population in broad-leaved forests and bush fallows. We also identified some risk hotspots for PSESP in China. Regions with low elevation should be given priority for ex- and in-situ conservation. Moreover, climate change should be considered for conservation of PSESP. To avoid intensive over-exploitation or utilization and habitat fragmentation, in-situ conservation should be practiced in regions with high temperatures and low temperature seasonality, particularly in the high risk hotspots for PSESP that we proposed. Ex-situ conservation should be applied in these same regions, and over-exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be prevented. It is our goal to apply the concept of PSESP to the global scale in the future.

  19. Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP in China: A seed and spore biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Merrett Wade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one fifth of the world's plants are at risk of extinction. Of these, a significant number exist as populations of few individuals, with limited distribution ranges and under enormous pressure due to habitat destruction. In China, these most-at-risk species are described as ‘plant species with extremely small populations’ (PSESP. Implementing conservation action for such listed species is urgent. Storing seeds is one of the main means of ex situ conservation for flowering plants. Spore storage could provide a simple and economical method for fern ex situ conservation. Seed and spore germination in nature is a critical step in species regeneration and thus in situ conservation. But what is known about the seed and spore biology (storage and germination of at-risk species? We have used China's PSESP (the first group listing as a case study to understand the gaps in knowledge on propagule biology of threatened plant species. We found that whilst germination information is available for 28 species (23% of PSESP, storage characteristics are only known for 8% of PSESP (10 species. Moreover, we estimate that 60% of the listed species may require cryopreservation for long-term storage. We conclude that comparative biology studies are urgently needed on the world's most threatened taxa so that conservation action can progress beyond species listing.

  20. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kenward, David

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  1. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA. Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers’ works.

  2. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  3. Assessing future climatic changes of rainfall extremes at small spatio-temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    in relation to urban flooding. The present study focuses on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating sub-daily rainfall extremes. Temporal and spatial characteristics of output from three different RCM simulations with 25 km resolution are compared to point rainfall extremes estimated......Climate change is expected to influence the occurrence and magnitude of rainfall extremes and hence the flood risks in cities. Major impacts of an increased pluvial flood risk are expected to occur at hourly and sub-hourly resolutions. This makes convective storms the dominant rainfall type...

  4. Identifying neutrino mass hierarchy at extremely small theta13 through earth matter effects in a supernova signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2008-10-24

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations deep inside a supernova are sensitive to the neutrino mass hierarchy even at extremely small values of theta_(13). Exploiting this effect, we show that comparison of the antineutrino signals from a galactic supernova in two megaton class water Cherenkov detectors, one of which is shadowed by Earth, will enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies if sin(2)theta_(13) < or approximately 10(-5), where long baseline neutrino experiments would be ineffectual.

  5. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  6. Techniques for Determining Small Fractions of Oil Components in the Sea Water Flow by Rotation of Vibration Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the results of the effect of water-flow rate and air fraction component on intensity, I, are presented and discussed. The study which was carried out at Bergen University in Norway, presents the impact of monochromatic defects on polarization and measurements of small oil fractions of various crude oils are presented. When there was refraction, it was observed that in static sea-water &mustatic = 0.38 and in running water &muflow = 0.42 When refraction was eliminated by grafting windows in the pipe, &mustatic = 0, &muflow = 0.11 and in both cases &muflow was independent of the flow rate. Air fraction component, &alpha> = 0.12 reduced light intensity. With rate flow Q = 13.6m3/h and Q = 27.2 m3/h critical air fraction was found at &alphac = 0.18 and &alphac = 0.12 respectively. For &alphac = 0.18 up to &alpha 0.87 at Q = 13.6m3/h and &alphac = 0.12 up to &alpha = 0.78 at Q = 27.2 m3/h light intensity was found independent of &alpha. The highest rotation was found in Gullfaks crude oil, followed by Heidrun, the rotation is Statfjord crude oil was less than one in Heidrun and the least rotation was observed in 0A sg 0a rd crude oil. At 40ppm, the rotation was as follows: Gullfaks &empty = 27.0±0.20, Heidrun &empty = 23.9±0.20, Statfjord &empty = 20.0±0.20 and 0Asg 0ard &empty = 10.0±0.10. This method studys very well when small oil fractions from 5.0-70 ppm are in sea-water flow. This technique can be deployed to monitor the environment and to control the re-injected process water.

  7. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  8. A High Fraction of Ly-alpha-Emitters Among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Erb, Dawn K; Steidel, Charles C; Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Shapley, Alice E; Reddy, Naveen A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [OIII]/H-beta vs. [NII]/H-alpha diagnostic diagram, with low metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ~5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([NII]/H-alpha) = 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) 20 A. We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at Ly-alpha than those in the comparison sample, and have ~50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of Ly-alpha: in less dusty galaxies Ly-alpha photons are l...

  9. Extreme fractionation and micro-scale variation of sulphur isotopes during bacterial sulphate reduction in deep groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Whitehouse, Martin; Sandberg, Bertil; Blomfeldt, Thomas; Åström, Mats E.

    2015-07-01

    This study conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, SE Sweden, determines the extent and mechanisms of sulphur-isotope fractionation in permanently reducing groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. Two boreholes >400 m below the ground surface were investigated. In the 17-year-old boreholes, the Al instrumentation pipes had corroded locally (i.e., Al-[oxy]hydroxides had formed) and minerals (i.e., pyrite, iron monosulphide, and calcite) had precipitated on various parts on the equipment. By chemically and isotopically comparing the precipitates on the withdrawn instrumentation and the borehole waters, we gained new insight into the dynamics of sulphate reduction, sulphide precipitation, and sulphur-isotope fractionation in deep-seated crystalline-rock settings. An astonishing feature of the pyrite is its huge variability in δ34S, which can exceed 100‰ in total (i.e., -47.2 to +53.3‰) and 60‰ over 50 μm of growth in a single crystal. The values at the low end of the range are up to 71‰ lower than measured in the dissolved sulphate in the water (20-30‰), which is larger than the maximum difference reported between sulphate and sulphide in pure-culture experiments (66‰) but within the range reported from natural sedimentary settings. Although single-step reduction seems likely, further studies are needed to rule out the effects of possible S disproportionation. The values at the high end of the range (i.e., high δ34Spy) are much higher than could be produced from the measured sulphate under any biogeochemical conditions. This strongly suggests the development of closed-system conditions near the growing pyrite, i.e., the rate of sulphate reduction exceeds the rate of sulphate diffusion in the local fluid near the pyrite, causing the local aqueous phase (and thus the forming pyrite) to become successively enriched in heavy S (34S). Consequently, the δ34S values of the forming pyrite become exceptionally high and strongly decoupled from the δ34S

  10. Off like a shot: scaling of ballistic tongue projection reveals extremely high performance in small chameleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher V

    2016-01-04

    Stretching elastic tissues and using their recoil to power movement allows organisms to release energy more rapidly than by muscle contraction directly, thus amplifying power output. Chameleons employ such a mechanism to ballistically project their tongue up to two body lengths, achieving power outputs nearly three times greater than those possible via muscle contraction. Additionally, small organisms tend to be capable of greater performance than larger species performing similar movements. To test the hypothesis that small chameleon species outperform larger species during ballistic tongue projection, performance was examined during feeding among 20 chameleon species in nine genera. This revealed that small species project their tongues proportionately further than large species, achieving projection distances of 2.5 body lengths. Furthermore, feedings with peak accelerations of 2,590 m s(-2), or 264 g, and peak power output values of 14,040 W kg(-1) are reported. These values represent the highest accelerations and power outputs reported for any amniote movement, highlighting the previously underestimated performance capability of the family. These findings show that examining movements in smaller animals may expose movements harbouring cryptic power amplification mechanisms and illustrate how varying metabolic demands may help drive morphological evolution.

  11. A Ta-rich low-P peraluminous granite: the Rechla cupola (Hoggar, Algeria) and associated pegmatites, the result of extreme fractionation of a A2-type magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesraoui, M.; Marignac, C.; Hamis, A.; Cuney, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the c. 525 Ma RMG province of the Laouni terrane of the Pan-African Tuareg Shield (Hoggar), the small N20°E elliptic Rechla cupola (200x100 m) is particularized by a rim of Qtz-Kfs-Znw pegmatite. It is a medium-grained Na-Li-F granite, with quartz, albite (An01), rare microcline, topaz, Mn-lepidolite (≤ 8% MnO) and Hf-zircon, and: 71.4 % SiO2, 0.93% FeO+MgO+MnO (Mg # 0.19, Mg/Mg+Fe+Mn 0.09), 9.22% Na2O+K2O (Na # 0.7), Al-Na-K-2Ca from 55 to 85, and low P2O5 (0.05%) and ∑ REE (23 ppm) contents, with a pronounced tetrad effect and <0 Eu anomaly in the REE pattern. Such a composition is typical of a low-P peraluminous RMG deriving from highly potassic calcalkaline suites (A2 type) (Linnen & Cuney 2005), enriched in F (1.6%), Li (1,600 ppm), Zn (300 ppm), Be (7 ppm), Sn (740 ppm), W (40 ppm) and specially Ta (165 ppm, Ta/Nb between 2.4 and 2.6), the latter as columbo-tantalite and Mn-wodginite (Ta # 0.8). The pegmatite rim comprises, towards the intrusion (i) thick Kfs lenses (palissadic crystals ≥ 50 cm), (ii) a laminated quartz-zinnwaldite-(beryl) sequence , and (iii) a discontinuous band of fine-grained granite, with quartz, albite, topaz, Mn-lepidolite and beryl, equally fractionated: 69.4% SiO2, 0.85% FeO+MgO+MnO (Mg# 0.06, Mg/Mg+Fe+Mn 0.02), Al-Na-K-2Ca = 32, F 0.4%, Li 610 ppm, Ta 240 ppm (Ta/Nb = 2.4), Be 500 ppm. The laminated sequence overprints the Kfs lenses. It comprises thick (≤ 20 m) quartz lenses cross-cut by 10 cm-sized alternating bands of euhedral quartz and Mn-zinnwaldite (≤ 6.5% MnO). REE-patterns of the Mn-Znw display a clear inverse tetrad effect, symmetrical of the granite pattern. At the boundary with the fine-grained internal band, euhedral quartz crystals are projecting toward the inner wall. The Rechla body and its surrounding pegmatites are intrusive into a porphyritic biotite-granite representative of the evolved magmas of the A2-type Taourirt suite (Azzouni-Sekkal & Boissonnas 1993), with a classical "seagull" pattern and a

  12. Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal, Asiah, Nur; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-01

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (keff) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

  13. Seasonal occurrence of extreme events on example of long-term hydrometeorological observations from small catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznowska, Ewa; Hejduk, Agnieszka; Hejduk, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Periodical occurrence of floods and droughts is one of disadvantageous phenomenon of Polish climate. Forecasting of climate change for Poland in first half of the 21th century indicate a probability of more frequent occurrence of droughts, which will have the consequences in water deficits in significant areas of the country. Runoff characteristics are important indicators of water resources. Long-term observations carried out in small catchments are an important source of informations of water regime. The aim of the study was to analyze trends of occurrence floods and droughts in small, agricultural catchment of Zagożdżonka River, which is one of the few in Poland, with long-term records of rainfall and runoff. The catchment is located in central Poland, Mazovian Lowlands, about 100 km south form Warsaw. The area of the catchment till Płachty Stare station is 82 km2 and 23.4 km2 till Czarna station . The data used for statistical analysis of floods and droughts included 50 years (1963-2012) for Płachty Stare gauging station and the period of 22 years (1991-2012) for Czarna station. Based on daily hydrograph, floods and droughts were identified. In most cases the duration of floods and droughts is short (few days). Long-term floods occur in winter season and long-term drought occur in summer and autumn. In Płachty Stare decreased trend was indicated for number of days with flood discharge and increased trend was found for number of days with droughts. In Czarna gauging station opposite trends were found. Acknowledgment The paper has been prepared with financial support by grants NN 305 1445 40, NN 305 3168 40 both funded by National Science Center

  14. Fast synthesis and bioconjugation of (68) Ga core-doped extremely small iron oxide nanoparticles for PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellico, Juan; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Saiz-Alía, Marina; Del Rosario, Gilberto; Caja, Sergio; Montoya, María; Fernández de Manuel, Laura; Morales, M Puerto; Gutiérrez, Lucia; Galiana, Beatriz; Enríquez, Jose A; Herranz, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Combination of complementary imaging techniques, like hybrid PET/MRI, allows protocols to be developed that exploit the best features of both. In order to get the best of these combinations the use of dual probes is highly desirable. On this sense the combination of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles and 68Ga isotope is a powerful development for the new generation of hybrid systems and multimodality approaches. Our objective was the synthesis and application of a chelator-free 68Ga-iron oxide nanotracer with improved stability, radiolabeling yield and in vivo performance in dual PET/MRI. We carried out the core doping of iron oxide nanoparticles, without the use of any chelator, by a microwave-driven protocol. The synthesis allowed the production of extremely small (2.5 nm) 68Ga core-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The microwave approach allowed an extremely fast synthesis with a 90% radiolabeling yield and T1 contrast in MRI. With the same microwave approach the nano-radiotracer was functionalized in a fast and efficient way. We finally evaluated these dual targeting nanoparticles in an angiogenesis murine model by PET/MR imaging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. State-of-art methodology of marine natural products chemistry: structure determination with extremely small sample amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, M; Oishi, T; Yoshida, M

    2006-01-01

    Structure elucidation studies on natural products are reviewed emphasizing extremely small sample amounts. Previous studies on insect pheromones, periplanones, and bean-originating kairomones, glycinoeclepins, are described briefly. Recent examples are selected from marine natural products such as ciguatoxin, dolastatin-3, and aurisides. A more detailed description is given of a sperm-activating and attracting factor (SAAF), which may be the smallest sample amount used in the structure elucidation of novel non-peptidic natural products. SAAF was isolated from the eggs of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, and its structure was deduced with only approximately 4 microg (6 nmol) of sample. Based upon the proposed structure, two epimers were synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid in 17 steps, leading to the identification of SAAF as a novel sterol sulfate.

  16. Temporal changes in allele frequencies in a small marble trout Salmo marmoratus population threatened by extreme flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Vincenzi, S; Zane, L; Crivelli, A J

    2016-03-01

    The effect of extreme floods on the genetic composition of marble trout Salmo marmoratus living in Lipovscek, a tributary of the Soca River in Slovenia, which has been affected by multiple destructive flood events for centuries was investigated. By monitoring genetic variability during the period 2004-2011, apparent signatures of genetic erosion including a decline in observed and expected heterozygosities and allelic richness were observed. Contemporary effective population size was estimated between 11 and 55 individuals, which is congruent with census data. The data suggest asymmetric gene flow between the two sections of the river. The existence of substantial downstream migration (15-19%) was confirmed by paternity analysis. A small (1-3%) upstream migration was also suggested, which was confirmed by tagging data. Overall, low genetic diversity has not prevented the survival of the Lipovscek population, which might be a common feature of salmonid freshwater populations.

  17. A ten-year review of lower extremity burns in diabetics: small burns that lead to major problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus with its resulting neurovascular changes may lead to an increased risk of burns and impaired wound healing. The purpose of this article is to review 10 years of experience with foot and lower leg burns in patients with diabetes at a single adult burn center. Patients with lower extremity burns and diabetes mellitus, between May 1999 and December 2009, were identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons database, and their charts were reviewed for data related to their outcomes. Sixty-eight diabetic patients, 87% male, with a mean age of 54 years, sustained foot or lower extremity burns with 37 having burns resulting from insensate feet. The pathogenesis included walking on a hot or very cold surface (8), soaking feet in hot water (22), warming feet on or near something hot such as a heater (13), or spilling hot water (7). The majority of patients were taking insulin (59.6%) or oral hyperglycemic medications (34.6%). Blood sugar levels were not well controlled (mean glucose, 215.8 mg/dl; mean hemoglobin A1c, 9.08%). Renal disease was common with admission serum blood urea nitrogen (27.5 mg/dl) and creatinine (2.21 mg/dl), and 13 were on dialysis preinjury. Cardiovascular problems were common with 39 (57%) having hypertension or cardiac disease, 3 having peripheral vascular disease, and 9, previous amputations. The mean burn size was 4.2% TBSA (range, 0.5-15%) with 57% being full thickness. Despite the small burn, the mean length of stay was 15.2 days (range, 1-95), with 5.65 days per 1% TBSA. Inability to heal these wounds was evident in 19 patients requiring readmission (one required 10 operative procedures). At least one patient sustained more than one burn. There were 62 complications with 30 episodes of infection (cellulitis, 28; osteomyelitis, 4; deep plantar infections, 2; ruptured Achilles tendon, 1) and 3 deaths. Eleven patients needed amputations (7 below-knee amputations, 4 transmetatarsal amputations, and 20 toe

  18. Synthesis and characterization of extremely small gold nanoshells, and comparison of their photothermal conversion capacity with gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Meza, A. L.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, D. S.; Ruiz-Robles, J. F.; Bañuelos-Frías, A.; Segovia-González, X. F.; Longoria-Hernández, A. M.; Gomez, E.; Ruiz-García, J.

    2016-05-01

    The current methods for preparing gold nanoshells (AuNSs) produce shells with a diameter of approximately 40 nm or larger, with a relatively large polydispersity. However, AuNSs with smaller diameters and more monodispersity are better suited for biomedical applications. In this work, we present a modified method for the preparation of AuNSs, based on the use of sacrificial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We customized the Lee-Meisel method to prepare small and monodisperse AgNPs that were used as sacrificial nanoparticles to prepare extremely small monodispersed AuNSs with an average diameter from 17 to 25 +/- 4 nm. We found that these AuNSs are faceted, and that the oxidized silver likely dissolves out of the nanoparticles through some of the facets on the AuNSs. This leads to a silver oxide plug on the surface of the AuNSs, which has not been reported before. The smaller AuNSs, prepared under the best conditions, absorb in the near infrared region (NIR) that is appropriate for applications, such as photothermal therapy or medical imaging. The AuNSs showed absorption peaks in the NIR similar to those of gold nanorods (AuNRs) but with better photothermal capacity. In addition, because of their negative charge, these AuNSs are more biocompatible than the positively charged AuNRs. The synthesis of small, monodisperse, stable and biocompatible nanoparticles, like the ones presented in this work, is of prime importance in biomedical applications.The current methods for preparing gold nanoshells (AuNSs) produce shells with a diameter of approximately 40 nm or larger, with a relatively large polydispersity. However, AuNSs with smaller diameters and more monodispersity are better suited for biomedical applications. In this work, we present a modified method for the preparation of AuNSs, based on the use of sacrificial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We customized the Lee-Meisel method to prepare small and monodisperse AgNPs that were used as sacrificial nanoparticles to

  19. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Paphiopedilum spicerianum: An orchid with an extremely small population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paphiopedilum spicerianum  is listed as one of the country’s Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP. Procedures were developed for asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development aimed at producing seedlings for reintroduction. The highest germination was achieved in RECW with a 24 h dark cycle after pretreatment with 1% NaOCl for 40 min after 30 days from germination. However, these protocorms remained white and did not develop further. Although germination was lower under the same conditions in MSCW, it resulted in healthier and greener protocorms. Of four suitable media tested to promote seedling formation, Hyponex No 1 medium with 1.0mgl−1α-naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5gl−1 activated charcoal and 10% banana homogenate was the most effective. Advanced seedling development was seen in all six tested media during a 4 month growing period, with the highest leaf growth rate seen in the same media used for seedling formation, supplemented with 1.0mgl−16-benzyladenine added to promote leaf growth. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA tests on seeds showed that higher salt concentrations in the medium and longer duration of exposure to NaOCl reduce germination because of damaging effects on the testa and the embryo cells.

  20. A connection between extremely strong Damped Lyman-alpha Systems and Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at small impact parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Noterdaeme, P; Paris, I; Cai, Z; Finley, H; Ge, J; Pieri, M M; York, D G

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of ~100 high redshift (z~2-4) extremely strong damped Lyman-alpha systems (ESDLA, with N(HI)>0.5x10^22 cm^-2) detected in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey SDSS-III DR11. We study the neutral hydrogen, metal, and dust content of this elusive population of absorbers and confirm our previous finding that the high column density end of the N(HI) frequency distribution has a relatively shallow slope with power-law index -3.6, similar to what is seen from 21-cm maps in nearby galaxies. The stacked absorption spectrum indicates a typical metallicity ~1/20th solar, similar to the mean metallicity of the overall DLA population. The relatively small velocity extent of the low-ionisation lines suggests that ESDLAs do not arise from large-scale flows of neutral gas. The high column densities involved are in turn more similar to what is seen in DLAs associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows (GRB-DLAs), which are known to occur close to star forming regions. This indicates...

  1. A High Fraction of Lyα Emitters among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Strom, Allison L.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Shapley, Alice E.; Reddy, Naveen A.

    2016-10-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [O iii] λ5007/{{H}}β versus [N ii] λ6584/{{H}}α diagnostic diagram, with low-metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z∼ 2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ∼5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([N ii]/{{H}}α ) ≤slant -1.1 and log([O iii]/{{H}}β ) ≥slant 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12+{log}({{O/H}})≲ 8.0, when oxygen abundances are measured via the O3N2 diagnostic. We study the {Ly}α properties of the resulting sample of 14 galaxies. The mean (median) rest-frame {Ly}α equivalent width is 39 (36) Å, and 11 of the 14 objects (79%) are {Ly}α emitters (LAEs) with {W}{Lyα } \\gt 20 \\mathring{{A}} . We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 2.6 identified without regard to their optical line ratios; this sample has mean (median) {Ly}α equivalent width ‑1 (‑4) Å, and only 9% of these galaxies qualify as LAEs. The extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at {Ly}α than those in the comparison sample and have ∼50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of {Ly}α : in less dusty galaxies {Ly}α photons are less likely to be absorbed during multiple scatterings, while the harder ionizing spectrum and higher ionization parameter associated with strong, low-metallicity star formation may reduce the covering fraction or column density of neutral hydrogen, further easing {Ly}α escape. The use of nebular emission line ratios may prove useful in the identification of galaxies with low opacity to {Ly}α photons across a range of redshifts. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University

  2. Effects of fractionated abdominal irradiation on small intestinal motility. Studies in a novel in vitro animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, R.; Frisby, C.; Horowitz, M. [Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia). Dept. of Medicine; Schirmer, M.; Yeoh, E. [Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Blackshaw, A. [Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia). Dept. of Gastrointestinal Medicine; Langman, J.; Rowland, R. [Division of Tissue Pathology, Inst. of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Disordered small intestinal motility occurs frequently during acute radiation enteritis. However, the characteristics and time course of the motor dysfunction are poorly defined. These parameters were assessed in a novel animal model of radiation enteritis. Ileal pressures were recorded in vitro with perfused microanometric catheter using an arterially perfused ileal loop in 22 ferrets following fractionated abdominal irradiation (9 doses 2.50 Gz thrice weekly for 3 weeks). Tissue damage was graded histologically. Studies were performed 3 to 29 days after irradiation. Tissue from 7 control animals was also studied. All treated animals developed diarrhoea. Histology showed changes consistent with mild to moderate radiation enteritis. Following irradiation, there was an initial increase in frequency followed by a non-significant reduction in the frequency, but not the amplitude of ileal pressure waves. The frequency of pressure waves showed an inverse relationship with time after radiation (r=-0.634, p<0.002). There was no relationship between motility and histology. We conclude that abdominal irradiation is associated with a time-dependent reduction in ileal motility which does not correlate with light microscopic changes. (orig.).

  3. Extreme secular excitation of eccentricity inside mean motion resonance. Small bodies driven into star-grazing orbits by planetary perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Gabriele; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Lai, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Context. It is well known that asteroids and comets fall into the Sun. Metal pollution of white dwarfs and transient spectroscopic signatures of young stars like β-Pic provide growing evidence that extra solar planetesimals can attain extreme orbital eccentricities and fall into their parent stars. Aims: We aim to develop a general, implementable, semi-analytical theory of secular eccentricity excitation of small bodies (planetesimals) in mean motion resonances with an eccentric planet valid for arbitrary values of the eccentricities and including the short-range force due to General Relativity. Methods: Our semi-analytic model for the restricted planar three-body problem does not make use of series expansion and therefore is valid for any eccentricity value and semi-major axis ratio. The model is based on the application of the adiabatic principle, which is valid when the precession period of the longitude of pericentre of the planetesimal is much longer than the libration period in the mean motion resonance. In resonances of order larger than 1 this is true except for vanishingly small eccentricities. We provide prospective users with a Mathematica notebook with implementation of the model allowing direct use. Results: We confirm that the 4:1 mean motion resonance with a moderately eccentric (e' ≲ 0.1) planet is the most powerful one to lift the eccentricity of planetesimals from nearly circular orbits to star-grazing ones. However, if the planet is too eccentric, we find that this resonance is unable to pump the planetesimal's eccentricity to a very high value. The inclusion of the General Relativity effect imposes a condition on the mass of the planet to drive the planetesimals into star-grazing orbits. For a planetesimal at 1 AU around a solar mass star (or white dwarf), we find a threshold planetary mass of about 17 Earth masses. We finally derive an analytical formula for this critical mass. Conclusions: Planetesimals can easily fall into the central star

  4. Obstacles and Challenges in Preservice Teachers' Explorations with Fractions: A View from a Small-Scale Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osana, Helena P.; Royea, Diana A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we implemented one-on-one fractions instruction to eight preservice teachers. The intervention, which was based on the principle of Progressive Formalization (Freudenthal, 1983), was centered on problem solving and on progressively formalizing the participants' intuitive knowledge of fractions. The objectives of the study were to…

  5. Multifractal Analysis of the Small Time-Scale Boundary-Layer Characteristics of the Wind: the Anisotropy and Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, G. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    anisotropic over high frequencies, where u1 most scales as Bolgiano-Obukhov and u2 scales as Kolmogorov. The scaling law of the vertical shears of the horizontal wind in the array varied from Kolmogorov to Bolgiano-Obukhov with height depending on the condition of stability. We interpret the results with the UM anisotropic model that greatly enhances our understanding of the ABL structure. Comparing the two case studies we found in both cases the multifractality parameter of about 1.6, which remains close to the estimates obtained for the free atmosphere. From the UM parameters, the exponent of the power law of the distribution of the extremes can be predicted. Over small scales, this exponent is of about 7.5 for the wind velocity, which is a crucial result for applications within the field of wind energy.

  6. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  7. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are present in fractions related to exosomes released by EBV-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqar; Philip, Pretty S; Tariq, Saeed; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8), one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1) and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo). The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La), supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are present in fractions related to exosomes released by EBV-transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Ahmed

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2 are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8, one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1 and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo. The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La, supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes.

  10. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Ai, Masumi; Iwamoto, Asami; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Sei; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-10-26

    Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin.

  11. Radiobiological modeling analysis of the optimal fraction scheme in patients with peripheral non-small cell lung cancer undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Tian Huang; Jia-Yang Lu; Pei-Xian Lin; Jian-Zhou Chen; De-Rui Li; Chuang-Zhen Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal fraction scheme (FS) in patients with small peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with the 4 × 12 Gy scheme as the reference. CT simulation data for sixteen patients diagnosed with primary NSCLC or metastatic tumor with a single peripheral lesion ≤3 cm were used in this study. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were designed based on ten different FS of 1 × 25 Gy, 1 × 30 Gy, 1 × 34 Gy...

  12. Functional metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under extreme conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from extreme environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to extreme environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest.

  13. Extreme fractionation in a granite-pegmatite system documented by quartz chemistry: The case study of Tres Arroyos (Central Iberian Zone, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate-Olave, I.; Müller, A.; Roda-Robles, E.; Gil-Crespo, P. P.; Pesquera, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tres Arroyos granite-pegmatite system is located in the SW margin of the Nisa-Alburquerque Variscan batholith. Two granitic facies (monzogranite and marginal leucogranite) and three types of aplite-pegmatite dykes (barren, intermediate and highly evolved Li-rich), have been distinguished in the area, with a zoned distribution from the granite southwards. Trace elements in quartz from the five facies have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS in order to obtain information about the petrogenetic links among the different lithologies of this system, as well as to better understand the regional and individual fractionation processes that led to the distinct rocks. Aluminium, Ti, Li and Ge show continuous trends from the monzogranite, through the marginal granitic facies, the barren and intermediate aplite-pegmatites, up to the most evolved Li-rich dykes. Titanium and Ge contents, respectively, decrease and increase gradually with fractionation. In contrast, Al and Li show a more complex trend, with an initial descending trend to the marginal granitic facies, and then showing the highest Al and Li contents in the quartz from the most fractionated Li-rich aplite-pegmatites. This suggests the influence of different competing factors controlling the incorporation of these trace elements in quartz, such as the chemical composition of the melt, the P and T conditions and the rate of crystallization. Based on the good correlation between Al and Li, the substitution Si4 + ↔ Al3 + + Li+ seems to be the dominant mechanism of Li incorporation into quartz. The negligible amount of other trace elements suggests that the remaining Al was mainly compensated with H+ ions, via the Si4 + ↔ Al3 + + H+ substitution. A continuous fractionation trend from the monzogranite up to the most fractionated aplite-pegmatites is inferred from geochemical modelling by applying the Rayleigh equation for fractional crystallization. Fractionation rates over 50% are needed to obtain the marginal granite

  14. Distribution of metals in various particle-size fractions in topsoils of a small dry valley system (European Russia, forest zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    A detailed study of heavy metals distribution in various soil grain-size fractions helps to increase the knowledge about the complex nature of metals' occurrence and their distribution pathways in the environment. On the basis of particle size fractionation of topsoil horizons we examined the specific behavior of heavy metals in a small erosional landform located in the humid temperate zone of the Russian Plain. The object of the study is a 400 m small U-shaped dry valley (balka in Russian) with a catchment area of 32.8 ha located in the central part of the Protva river basin, 100 km southwest of Moscow. The uppermost parts of the landform are incised in Late Pleistocene loessial loams, which cover significant portions of interfluve area in the region, while the middle and the lower parts cut through Middle Pleistocene glacial sediments. A total of 50 samples were collected from topsoil horizons of different landform geomorphic units along three cross-sections as well as along the bottom of the landform and its detrital fan. Samples were analyzed for Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ti, Zr, and Fe content. Eleven samples were chosen for physical fractionation into 5 grain-size fractions (1-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.05 mm, 0.05-0.01 mm, 0.01-0.001 mm and units, the coarser (sand) fractions showed distinct spatial patterns in the elements' distribution, possibly related to migration processes, the depletion of metals in the landforms' slopes and their prevalent enrichment in the bottom unit is observed.

  15. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  16. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wai Peter; Petrino, Teresa R; Wallace, Robin A

    2004-01-01

    Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH) from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system). Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production) using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000). Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC) yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2)- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP)-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC) resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic) activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like) and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like), which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost. PMID:15040801

  17. The Superiority of Intraoperative O-arm Navigation-assisted Surgery in Instrumenting Extremely Small Thoracic Pedicles of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Jin, Mengran; Qiu, Yong; Yan, Huang; Han, Xiao; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the accuracy of O-arm navigation-assisted screw insertion in extremely small thoracic pedicles and to compare it with free-hand pedicle screw insertion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A total of 344 pedicle screws were inserted in apical region (defined as 2 vertebrae above and below the apex each) of 46 AIS patients (age range 13–18 years) with O-arm navigation and 712 screws were inserted in 92 AIS patients (age range 11–17 years) with free-hand technique. According to the narrowest diameter orthogonal to the long axis of the pedicle on a trajectory entering the vertebral body on preoperative computed tomography, the pedicles were classified into large (>3 mm) and small (≤3 mm) subgroups. Furthermore, a subset of extremely small pedicles (≤2 mm in the narrowest diameter) was specifically discussed. Screw accuracy was categorized as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: perforation by less than 2 mm, grade 2: perforation by 2 to 4 mm, grade 3: perforation over 4 mm. In the O-arm group, the mean thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.23 mm (range 0.7–2.9 mm) and 3.48 mm (3.1–7.1 mm) for small and large pedicles, respectively. In the free-hand group, the small and large thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.42 mm (range 0.6–2.9 mm) and 3.75 mm (3.1–6.9 mm), respectively. The overall accuracies of screw insertion in large and small thoracic pedicles (grade 0, 1) were significantly higher in O-arm group (large: 93.8%, 210/224, small: 91.7%, 110/120) than those of free-hand group (large: 84.9%, 353/416, small: 78.4%, 232/296) (P < 0.05). Importantly, the overall accuracy of screw placement in extremely small pedicles was significantly higher in the O-arm group (84.3%, 48/57) compared with 62.7% (79/126) in free-hand group (P < 0.05), and the incidence of medial perforation was significantly lower in O-arm group (11.1%, 1/9) compared with 17.0% (8/47) in free-hand group (P < 0.05). The O

  18. Gram-scale synthesis, thermal stability, magnetic properties, and microwave absorption application of extremely small Co-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Liang, Bingbing; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; Ma, Songshan; He, Jun; Wang, Shiliang

    2017-07-01

    Co-C core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized in large quantity (in grams) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with analytical cobalt (III) acetylacetonate as precursor. Extremely small nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 3 nm and a shell thickness of 1-2 nm, and relatively large nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 23 nm and a shell thickness of 5-20 nm were obtained, depending on the deposition regions. The 3 nm Co nanocores are thermally stable up to 200 °C in air atmosphere, and do not exhibit visible structural and morphological changes after exposure to air at room temperature for 180 d. The extremely small core-shell nanoparticles exhibit typical superparamagnetic behaviors with a small coercivity of 5 Oe, while the relative large nanoparticles are a typical ferromagnetic material with a high coercivity of 584 Oe. In the microwave absorption tests, a low reflection loss (RL) of  -80.3 dB and large effective bandwidth (frequency range for \\text{RL}≤slant -10~ dB) of 10.1 GHz are obtained in the nanoparticle-paraffin composites with appropriate layer thicknesses and particle contents. This suggests that the as-synthesized Co-C core-shell nanoparticles have a high potential as the microwave-absorbing materials.

  19. Whole Brain Irradiation and Hypo-fractionation Radiotherapy for the Metastases in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingting GU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% non-small cell lung cancer patients developed brain metastasis during progression. Multiple brain metastases are common in non-small cell lung cancer. The prognosis of brain metastasis is poor with median survival of less than 1 year. Radio therapy for brain metastases has gradually developed from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT to various radiation strategies. WBRT, surgery+WBRT, stereotactic radiotherapy+WBRT or WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB, etc. have better overall survival than those untreated patients. The damage of the cognitive function from WBRT has been realized recently, however, options of radiation strategies for long expected survival patients remain controversial. This paper will discuss different WBRT strategies and treatment side effects of non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.

  20. X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from Small-Sized Kr Clusters Irradiated by 150-fs Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 程元丽; 赵永蓬; 夏元钦; 陈建新; 肖亦凡

    2003-01-01

    x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from Kr clusters irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at the peak laser intensity of 5×1015W/cm2 was experimentally investigated. Strong transitions (10nm-13nm) from Kr X and Kr 1X were observed and some spectral lines from Kr ⅩⅢ and Kr ⅩⅣ, which have been predicted to be not produced by optical-field-ionization at the laser intensity used, also appeared. The laser energy absorption and the intensity of x-ray emission started to grow remarkably above the backing pressure of 0.5 MPa and to decrease at the backing pressure of 3 MPa. It is suggested that an optimum backing pressure may exist for Kr clusters heated by 150 fs laser pulses at a certain laser intensity to produce x-ray emission.

  1. A bioassay-guided fractionation system to identify endogenous small molecules that activate plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuli; Yang, Yongqing; Wu, Yujiao; Liu, Xiaohui; Lei, Xiaoguang; Guo, Yan

    2017-05-17

    Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is essential for plant growth and development. Various environmental stimuli regulate its activity, a process that involves many protein cofactors. However, whether endogenous small molecules play a role in this regulation remains unknown. Here, we describe a bio-guided isolation method to identify endogenous small molecules that regulate PM H+-ATPase activity. We obtained crude extracts from Arabidopsis seedlings with or without salt treatment and then purified them into fractions based on polarity and molecular mass by repeated column chromatography. By evaluating the effect of each fraction on PM H+-ATPase activity, we found that fractions containing the endogenous, free unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3) extracted from salt-treated seedlings stimulate PM H+-ATPase activity. These results were further confirmed by the addition of exogenous C18:1, C18:2, or C18:3 in the activity assay. The ssi2 mutant, with reduced levels of C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, displayed reduced PM H+-ATPase activity. Furthermore, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 directly bound to the C-terminus of the PM H+-ATPase AHA2. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the binding of free unsaturated fatty acids to the C-terminus of PM H+-ATPase is required for its activation under salt stress. The bio-guided isolation model described in this study could enable the identification of new endogenous small molecules that modulate essential protein functions, as well as signal transduction, in plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Si isotope fractionation between Si-poor metal and silicate melt at pressure-temperature conditions relevant to metal segregation in small planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempl, J.; Vroon, P. Z.; Zinngrebe, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental investigations of Si isotope fractionation between Si-bearing metal alloy and silicate phases have to date been limited to high pressure (1-7 GPa) and high temperature (1800-2200 °C) conditions at highly reducing conditions, to optimize applicability of results to early core formation processes in the Earth. Here, we assess the extent and mechanism of Si isotopic fractionation at conditions relevant to metal segregation in small (km-scale) planetary bodies, using samples obtained from an industrial-scale blast furnace of Tata Steel (IJmuiden, the Netherlands). During the low-pressure, high-temperature process of steelmaking inhomogeneous blast furnace burden consisting of pre- and untreated iron ore, iron silicates and coke is reduced to oxygen fugacities near the C-CO buffer, resulting in the segregation of a metal phase containing only ∼0.3 wt% Si. Seven sample sets, each comprising a metal alloy and a silicate slag, were taken during tapping of the blast furnace at tapping temperatures between 1400 °C and 1600 °C. We find large isotopic mass fractionation between metal and silicate, with Δ30Sisilicate-metal varying between 0.7‰ and 1.6‰, values that are as high as previously obtained in high-pressure, highly reduced experiments. A model for metal-silicate Si isotope fractionation in blast furnaces can explain both the sense and magnitude of fractionation, if the presence of SiO-bearing vapour is explicitly taken into account. Our data indicate that significant Si isotope fractionation can occur between metal and silicate at low-pressure, high-temperature and only mildly reducing conditions for which Si solubility in molten Fe-rich metal is low. This suggests an important role for SiO at low confining pressures. Our data can be applied to models of aubrite meteorite formation through high-temperature differentiation of an enstatite chondrite parent body. Our calculations suggest a far larger degree of rehomogenisation during differentiation

  3. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  4. Characterization of oxidized tannins: comparison of depolymerization methods, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhet, Aude; Dubascoux, Stéphane; Cabane, Bernard; Fulcrand, Hélène; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2011-09-01

    Condensed tannins are a major class of plant polyphenols. They play an important part in the colour and taste of foods and beverages. Due to their chemical reactivity, tannins are not stable once extracted from plants. A number of chemical reactions can take place, leading to structural changes of the native structures to give so-called derived tannins and pigments. This paper compares results obtained on native and oxidized tannins with different techniques: depolymerization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Upon oxidation, new macromolecules were formed. Thioglycolysis experiments showed no evidence of molecular weight increase, but thioglycolysis yields drastically decreased. When oxidation was performed at high concentration (e.g., 10 g L(-1)), the weight average degree of polymerization determined from SAXS increased, whereas it remained stable when oxidation was done at low concentration (0.1 g L(-1)), indicating that the reaction was intramolecular, yet the conformations were different. Differences in terms of solubility were observed; ethanol being a better solvent than water. We also separated soluble and non-water-soluble species of a much oxidized fraction. Thioglycolysis showed no big differences between the two fractions, whereas SAXS and AF4 showed that insoluble macromolecules have a weight average molecular weight ten times higher than the soluble ones.

  5. The application of the boundary element method in BEM++ to small extreme Chebyshev ice particles and the remote detection of the ice crystal number concentration of small atmospheric ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anthony J.; Groth, Samuel P.

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the shape and size distributions of small atmospheric ice particles (i.e. less than about 100 μm in size) is still an unresolved problem in atmospheric physics. This paper is composed of two parts, each addressing one of these measurements. In the first part, we report on an application of a new open-source electromagnetic boundary element method (BEM) called ;BEM++; to characterise the shape of small ice particles through the simulation of the two-dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns of extreme Chebyshev ice particles. Previous electromagnetic studies of Chebyshev particles have concentrated upon high Chebyshev orders, but with low Chebyshev deformation parameters. Here, we extend such studies by concentrating on the 2D light scattering properties of Chebyshev particles with extreme deformation parameters, up to 0.5, and with Chebyshev orders up to 16, at a size parameter of 15, in a fixed orientation. The results demonstrate the applicability of BEM++ to the study of the electromagnetic scattering properties of extreme particles and the usefulness of measuring the light scattering patterns of particles in 2D to mimic the scattering behaviours of highly irregular particles, such as dendritic atmospheric ice or hazardous biological and/or aerosol particles. In the second part, we demonstrate the potential application of remotely sensed very-high-resolution brightness temperature measurements of optically thin cirrus between wavelengths of about 8.0 and 12.0 μm to resolve the current atmospheric physics issue of determining the number concentration of small ice particles with size less than about 100 μm.

  6. Extreme fractionation of 234U /238U and 230Th /234U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils at the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Barney J.

    1982-09-01

    Isotopic fractionation as great as 1600% exists between 234U and 238U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils in the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri. The activity ratios of 234U /238U in five springs range from 7.2 to 16 in water which has been discharged for at least the past 30,000 years. The anomalies in 234U /238U ratio in deep water have potential usefulness in hydrologic investigations in southern Missouri. Clayey units overlying the spring bog sediments of Trolinger Spring are enriched in 230Th relative to their parent 234U by as much as 720%. The results indicate that both preferential displacement via alpha recoil ejection and the preferential emplacement via recoiling and physical entrapment are significant processes that are occurring in the geologic environment.

  7. Extreme fractionation of 234U 238U and 230Th 234U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils at the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation as great as 1600% exists between 234U and 238U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils in the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri. The activity ratios of 234U 238U in five springs range from 7.2 to 16 in water which has been discharged for at least the past 30,000 years. The anomalies in 234U 238U ratio in deep water have potential usefulness in hydrologic investigations in southern Missouri. Clayey units overlying the spring bog sediments of Trolinger Spring are enriched in 230Th relative to their parent 234U by as much as 720%. The results indicate that both preferential displacement via alpha recoil ejection and the preferential emplacement via recoiling and physical entrapment are significant processes that are occurring in the geologic environment. ?? 1982.

  8. A modelling approach to assess the hydrological response of small Mediterranean catchments to the variability of soil characteristics in a context of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study aiming at quantifying the possible impact of soil characteristics on the hydrological response of small ungauged catchments in a context of extreme events. The study focuses on the September 2002 event in the Gard region (South-Eastern France, which led to catastrophic flash-floods. The proposed modeling approach is able to take into account rainfall variability and soil profiles variability. Its spatial discretization is determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a soil map. The model computes infiltration, ponding and vertical soil water distribution, as well as river discharge. The model is set up without any calibration and the soil parameter specification is based on an existing soil database. To perform the simulations, radar rainfall estimations are used at a 1 km2 and 5 min resolution. To specify the soil hydraulic properties, two types of pedotransfer function (PTF are compared. It is shown that the PTF including information about soil structure reflects better the spatial variability that can be encountered in the field. The study is focused on four small ungauged catchments of less than 10 km2, which experienced casualties. Simulated specific peak discharges are found to be in agreement with estimations from a post-event in situ investigation. Examining the dynamics of simulated infiltration and saturation degrees, two different behaviors are shown which correspond to different runoff production mechanisms that could be encountered within catchments of less than 10 km2. They produce simulated runoff coefficients that evolve in time and highlight the variability of the infiltration capacity of the various soil types. Therefore, we propose a cartography distinguishing between areas prone to saturation excess and areas prone only to infiltration excess mechanisms. The questions raised by this modeling study will be useful to improve field observations, aiming at

  9. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  10. Stochastic spatial disaggregation of extreme precipitation to validate a Regional Climate Model and to evaluate climate change impacts over a small watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gagnon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional Climate Models (RCMs are valuable tools to evaluate impacts of climate change (CC at regional scale. However, as the size of the area of interest decreases, the ability of a RCM to simulate extreme precipitation events decreases due to the spatial resolution. Thus, it is difficult to evaluate whether a RCM bias on localized extreme precipitation is caused by the spatial resolution or by a misrepresentation of the physical processes in the model. Thereby, it is difficult to trust the CC impact projections for localized extreme precipitation. Stochastic spatial disaggregation models can bring the RCM precipitation data at a finer scale and reduce the bias caused by spatial resolution. In addition, disaggregation models can generate an ensemble of outputs, producing an interval of possible values instead of a unique discrete value. The objective of this work is to evaluate whether a stochastic spatial disaggregation model applied on annual maximum daily precipitation: (i enables the validation of a RCM for a period of reference, and (ii modifies the evaluation of CC impacts over a small area. Three simulations of the Canadian RCM (CRCM covering the period 1961–2099 are used over a small watershed (130 km2 located in southern Québec, Canada. The disaggregation model applied is based on Gibbs sampling and accounts for physical properties of the event (wind speed, wind direction, and convective available potential energy (CAPE, leading to realistic spatial distributions of precipitation. The results indicate that disaggregation has a significant impact on the validation. However it does not provide a precise estimate of the simulation bias because of the difference in resolution between disaggregated values (4 km and observations, and because of the underestimation of the spatial variability by the disaggregation model for the most convective events. Nevertheless, disaggregation permits to determine that the simulations used mostly

  11. Evidence of nuclear fusion neutrons in an extremely small plasma focus device operating at 0.1 Joules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavéz, Cristián; Moreno, José; Altamirano, Luis; Huerta, Luis; Barbaglia, Mario; Clausse, Alejandro; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2017-08-01

    We report on D-D fusion neutron emission in a plasma device with an energy input of only 0.1 J, within a range where fusion events have been considered very improbable. The results presented here are the consequence of scaling rules we have derived, thus being the key point to assure the same energy density plasma in smaller devices than in large machines. The Nanofocus (NF)—our device—was designed and constructed at the P4 Lab of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. Two sets of independent measurements, with different instrumentation, were made at two laboratories, in Chile and Argentina. The neutron events observed are 20σ greater than the background. The NF plasma is produced from a pulsed electrical discharge using a submillimetric anode, in a deuterium atmosphere, showing empirically that it is, in fact, possible to heat and compress the plasma. The strong evidence presented here stretches the limits beyond what was expected. A thorough understanding of this could possibly tell us where the theoretical limits actually lie, beyond conjectures. Notwithstanding, a window is thus open for low cost endeavours for basic fusion research. In addition, the development of small, portable, safe nonradioactive neutron sources becomes a feasible issue.

  12. Extreme patterns of variance in small populations: placing limits on human Y-chromosome diversity through time in the Vanuatu Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M

    2007-05-01

    Small populations are dominated by unique patterns of variance, largely characterized by rapid drift of allele frequencies. Although the variance components of genetic datasets have long been recognized, most population genetic studies still treat all sampling locations equally despite differences in sampling and effective population sizes. Because excluding the effects of variance can lead to significant biases in historical reconstruction, variance components should be incorporated explicitly into population genetic analyses. The possible magnitude of variance effects in small populations is illustrated here via a case study of Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity in the Vanuatu Archipelago. Deme-based modelling is used to simulate allele frequencies through time, and conservative confidence bounds are placed on the accumulation of stochastic variance effects, including diachronic genetic drift and contemporary sampling error. When the information content of the dataset has been ascertained, demographic models with parameters falling outside the confidence bounds of the variance components can then be accepted with some statistical confidence. Here I emphasize how aspects of the demographic history of a population can be disentangled from stochastic variance effects, and I illustrate the extreme roles of genetic drift and sampling error for many small human population datasets.

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Biological Effective Dose-Based Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Brain Tumors From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Tomohiko, E-mail: matsutomo_llp@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Kogo, Kasei [Kumamoto Radiosurgery Clinic, Kumamoto (Japan); Oya, Natsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) based on biological effective dose (BED), a novel approach to deliver a fixed BED irrespective of dose fractionation, for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and March 2009 we treated 299 patients with 1 to 5 lesions from NSCLC (573 total brain metastases) with FSRT using Novalis. The dose fractionation schedules were individually determined to deliver a peripheral BED10 (α/β ratio = 10) of approximately 80 Gy{sub 10}. The median number of fractions was 3 (range, 2-10), the median peripheral BED10 was 83.2 Gy (range, 19.1-89.6 Gy). Patients were followed up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies performed at 1- to 2-month intervals. The local tumor control rate and overall local progression-free and intracranial relapse-free survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Local control rates for all 573 lesions at 6 and 12 months were 96.3% and 94.5%, respectively. By multivariate analysis the tumor diameter was the only factor predictive of the local control rate (P=.001). The median overall survival, local progression-free survival, and intracranial relapse-free survival were 17.1, 14.9, and 4.4 months, respectively. The overall survival, local progression-free survival, and intracranial relapse-free survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 78.5% and 63.3%, 74.3% and 57.8%, and 41.0% and 21.8%, respectively. Six patients (2%) manifested progressive radiation injury to the brain even during therapy with corticosteroids; they underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and follow-up MRI showed improvement. Conclusions: This study showed that BED-based FSRT for brain metastases from NSCLC is a promising strategy that may yield excellent outcomes with acceptable toxicity. Criteria must be established to determine the optimal dose fractionation for individual patients.

  14. A modeling approach to assess the hydrological response of small mediterranean catchments to the variability of soil characteristics in a context of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study aiming at quantifying the possible impact of soil characteristics on the hydrological response of small ungauged catchments in a context of extreme events. The study focuses on the September 2002 event in the Gard region (South-Eastern France, which led to catastrophic flash-floods. The proposed modeling approach is able to take into account rainfall variability and soil profiles variability. Its spatial discretization is determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a soil map. The model computes infiltration, ponding and vertical soil water distribution, as well as river discharge. In order to be applicable to ungauged catchments, the model is set up without any calibration and the soil parameter specification is based on an existing soil database. The model verification is based on a regional evaluation using 17 estimated discharges obtained from an extensive post-flood investigation. Thus, this approach provides a spatial view of the hydrological response across a large range of scales. To perform the simulations, radar rainfall estimations are used at a 1 km2 and 5 min resolution. To specify the soil hydraulic properties, two types of pedotransfer function (PTF are compared. It is shown that the PTF including information about soil structure reflects better the spatial variability that can be encountered in the field. The study is focused on four small ungauged catchments of less than 10 km2, which experienced casualties. Simulated specific peak discharges are found to be in agreement with estimations from a post-event in situ investigation. Examining the dynamics of simulated infiltration and saturation degrees, two different behaviors are shown which correspond to different runoff production mechanisms that could be encountered within catchments of less than 10 km2. They produce simulated runoff coefficients that evolve in time and highlight the variability of the

  15. Study the effect of prolonged exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the α 1 adrenergic system in the small intestine of male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M jaafari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground & aim: In the recent years, the increasing use of electronic devices which generate electromagnetic fields, focused researchers’ attention to investigate the electromagnetic fields effects on human health. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of prolonged exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF on the adrenergic system in the small intestine of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 21 Adult male rats (wistar were divided into three groups: experimental group, which were exposed to ELF (50Hz, 1mT for 75 days, the sham-operated group, which were kept in similar conditions exception Off solenoid and the control group, which were kept in normal conditions. After 75 days, the rats were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/k. Then, the ileum tissue was dissected and divided into 1 cm strips. The strips were placed in organ baths containing oxygenated, pH=7.4 Krebs solution. Furthermore, the mechanical activity of the tissue was recorded with force transducer of bridge amplifier which was linked to A-D Instrument power lab in response to Phenylephrine(4 ×10-6 M. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA test. Results: Relaxation changes of isolated ileum tissue was displayed in two ileum strips with same length and in the same animal, According to the obtained results, the ileum relaxation in exposure to ELF (experimental compared to the control and sham groups significantly increased (p&le0.05. Accordingly, the relaxation changes of ileum in response to the phenylephrine at different times and after deducting the basic tension represented a significant increase (p&le0.05 of Ileum relaxation in the experimental group compared to the sham and control groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that prolonged exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may lead to increase of  the &alpha1-adrenergic receptors

  16. The Effect of Prolonged Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the β2 Adrenergic System Activity in the Small Intestine of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Khoshnam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Electromagnetic waves with the frequencies of 0–300 Hz and the intensity of 0.1–100 millitesla can affect several cellular activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of prolonged exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF on the adrenergic system in the small intestine. Materials & Methods: 21 adult male rats were divided into three groups. The first group was experimental group which exposed to ELF (50Hz, 1mT for 75 days in powered on solenoid. The second group was sham group which was kept in similar conditions as the first group but in powered off solenoid. The third group or the control group was kept in animal house condition. The isolated strips of the colon were inserted into organ bath and were linked to power lab A to D system force transducer and their mechanical activity were recorded in response to different doses of Isoproterenol (10-4 M and10-5 M. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Result: The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05 of ileum basal contractions in experimental group compared to control and sham groups. While the relaxation changes of ileum in response to the different doses of isoproterenol (β2 adrenergic receptors agonist in the experimental group compared to the sham and control groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that prolonged exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields may not affect β2 -adrenergic receptors activity.

  17. Added value of arterial enhancement fraction color maps for the characterization of small hepatic low-attenuating lesions in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Park

    Full Text Available To assess the added value of arterial enhancement fraction (AEF color maps for the differentiation of small metastases from hepatic benign lesions.We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent multiphasic liver CT imaging and had low-attenuating liver lesions smaller than 3 cm (123 total lesions; metastasis: benign = 32:91. AEF color maps of the liver were created from multiphasic liver CT images using dedicated software. Two radiologists independently reviewed multiphasic CT image sets alone and in combination with image sets with AEF color maps using a five-point scale. The additional diagnostic value of the color maps was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis.The area under the ROC curve (Az increased when multiphasic CT images were combined with AEF color map analysis as compared with evaluation based only on multiphasic CT images (from 0.698 to 0.897 for reader 1, and from 0.825 to 0.945 for reader 2; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. The increase Az was especially significant for lesions less than 1 cm (from 0.702 to 0.888 for reader 1, and from 0.768 to 0.958 for reader 2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively. The mean AEF of tumor-adjacent parenchyma (35.07 ± 27.2 was significantly higher than that of tumor-free liver parenchyma (27.3 ± 20.6 (P = 0.04.AEF color mapping can improve the diagnostic performance for small hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and may allow for the elimination of additional examinations.

  18. Starch and fiber fractions in selected food and feed ingredients affect their small intestinal digestibility and fermentability and their large bowel fermentability in vitro in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, G E; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-02-01

    The digestion of legumes, cereal grains, cereal and potato flours and grain-based foods in dogs was studied using two in vitro model systems. The first simulated the stomach and small intestine through the additions of acid and enzymes and large bowel fermentation through use of fecal inocula from dogs, and the second simulated small intestinal fermentation using canine ileal chyme as the bacterial source. All substrates were analyzed for total dietary fiber (TDF) including insoluble and soluble components, and starch fractions: rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, resistant starch (RS) and total starch. Legumes had high TDF and RS concentrations (mean 36.5 and 24.7%, respectively), resulting in lower ileal digestible starch and total digestible starch concentrations (mean 21 and 31%, respectively). Seventy-four percent of the TS in the cereal grains group was rapidly digestible starch plus slowly digestible starch compared with the flour group, where the corresponding value was 95%. This related to the processing of cereals to flours, in which TDF and RS concentrations were reduced markedly. This increased ileal digestible starch concentrations in the flour group (65%) versus the cereal grains group (60%). Ileal digestion of starch in grain-based food products like macaroni and spaghetti was high (96 and 92%, expressed as a percentage of TS, respectively). Fermentation of substrates with ileal microflora was influenced by substrate chemical composition, with the flour group exhibiting the highest organic matter disappearance values. The legume group had a high total short-chain fatty acid concentration (7.8 mmol/g organic matter fermented), perhaps as a result of fermentation of TDF as well as starch components. A database such as this one provides information about utilization of foods and feeds in the dog and potentially in humans.

  19. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  20. Optimization of dose and fractionation of endobronchial brachytherapy with or without external radiation in the palliative management of non-small cell lung cancer: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallick I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Endobronchial brachytherapy (EBBT is an established modality for the palliation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We compared three different schedules using EBBT with or without external radiation (XRT in this setting. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients were randomized to three treatment arms. Arm A received XRT to a dose of 30 Gy/ 10 fr/ 2 weeks and two sessions of EBBT 8 Gy each. Arm B received the same XRT and a single session of EBBT 10 Gy at 1 cm. Arm C received only a single fraction of brachytherapy to a dose of 15 Gy at 1 cm without XRT. Symptomatic response rates, duration of symptom palliation, obstruction scores, quality of life outcomes and complications were assessed and compared. Results: The overall symptomatic response rates were 91% for dyspnea, 84% for cough, 94% for hemoptysis and 83% for obstructive pneumonia. There was no significant difference between the arms. The median time to symptom relapse was 4-8 months for all symptoms and the median time to symptom progression was 6-11 months. The results were comparable between groups except for hemoptysis, where a shorter palliation was seen in Arm C that achieved statistical significance ( P < 0.01. Quality of life showed significant improvement, with maximum benefit in Arm A. Complication rates were low. Only one patient died of fatal hemoptysis. Conclusion: EBBT is thus a safe and effective palliative tool in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, either alone or in conjunction with XRT. The difference between the treatment arms were not statistically significant in most categories, but patients treated with XRT and two endobronchial sessions of 8 Gy had the most consistent benefit in terms of all the parameters studied.

  1. Herschel/HIFI observations of interstellar OH+ and H2O+ towards W49N: a probe of diffuse clouds with a small molecular fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, D A; Sonnentrucker, P; Black, J H; Pearson, J; Yu, S; Phillips, T G; Lis, D C; De Luca, M; Herbst, E; Rimmer, P; Gerin, M; Bell, T A; Boulanger, F; Cernicharo, J; Coutens, A; Dartois, E; Kazmierczak, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Geballe, T R; Giesen, T; Godard, B; Goldsmith, P F; Gry, C; Gupta, H; Hennebelle, P; Hily-Blant, P; Joblin, C; Ko\\los, R; Kre\\lowski, J; Mart\\in-Pintado, J; Menten, K M; Monje, R; Mookerjea, B; Perault, M; Persson, C; Plume, R; Salez, M; Schlemmer, S; Schmidt, M; Stutzki, J; Teyssier, D; Vastel, C; Cros, A; Klein, K; Lorenzani, A; Philipp, S; Samoska, L A; Shipman, R; Tielens, A G G M; Szczerba, R; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of absorption by interstellar hydroxyl cations and water cations, along the sight-line to the bright continuum source W49N. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 972 GHz N = 1 - 0 transition of OH+ and the 1115 GHz 1(11) - 0(00) transition of ortho-H2O+. The resultant spectra show absorption by ortho-H2O+, and strong absorption by OH+, in foreground material at velocities in the range 0 to 70 km/s with respect to the local standard of rest. The inferred OH+/H2O+ abundance ratio ranges from ~ 3 to ~ 15, implying that the observed OH+ arises in clouds of small molecular fraction, in the 2 - 8% range. This conclusion is confirmed by the distribution of OH+ and H2O+ in Doppler velocity space, which is similar to that of atomic hydrogen, as observed by means of 21 cm absorption measurements, and dissimilar from that typical of other molecular tracers. The observed OH+/H abundance ratio of a few E-8 suggests a cosmic ray ionization rate for atomic ...

  2. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  3. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate exp

  4. Quantification in the serum of the catalytic fraction of reverse telomerase: a useful prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy M; Ródenas, Vanessa; Blasco, Ana; Safont, María José; Garde, Javier; Juarez, Asuncion; Caballero, Cristina; Sanchez, Josie Javier; Taron, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to study the association between the quantity of free circulating DNA and clinical variables in 99 advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). The quantification in the serum of the gene of the catalytic fraction of telomerase (hTERT) by RT-PCR was used as a reference of the total amount of free DNA in blood. Patients were treated with cisplatin and docetaxel. The median hTERT level for patients in stage IIIB was 70.7 ng/ml vs. 53.1 ng/ml in patients in stage IV (p= 0.35). There was no association between hTERT values and therapy response, 53.9 ng/ml in the complete response (CR) + partial response (PR) group vs. 54.1 ng/ml in the stable disease (SD) + progressive disease (PD) group (p=0.23). In the multivariate analysis, hTERT was an independent predictive variable for time to progression (TTP) Hazard ratio (HR) 2.0, CI 95% 1.2-3.4, p=0.009) and overall survival (OS) (HR 2.4 CI 95% 1.3-4.3, p=0.004). The analysis of TTP and OS with a cut-off of hTERT at 40 ng/ml revealed that patients about this level had statistically poorer TTP (4 vs. 7 months, p= 0.009) and OS (5 vs. 15 months, p<0.0001). In conclusion, in advanced NSCLC, high serum hTERT levels may be a poor prognostic indicator for TTP and OS.

  5. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  6. The impact of water-rock interaction and vegetation on calcium isotope fractionation in soil- and stream waters of a small, forested catchment (the Strengbach case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Chabaux, F.; Lemarchand, D.; Schmitt, A.-D.; Pierret, M.-C.; Viville, D.; Bagard, M.-L.; Stille, P.

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to constrain the factors controlling the calcium isotopic compositions in surface waters, especially the respective role of vegetation and water-rock interactions on Ca isotope fractionation in a continental forested ecosystem. The approach is to follow changes in space and time of the isotopic composition and concentration of Ca along its pathway through the hydro-geochemical reservoirs from atmospheric deposits to the outlet of the watershed via throughfalls, percolating soil solutions and springs. The study is focused on the Strengbach catchment, a small forested watershed located in the northeast of France in the Vosges mountains. The δ 44/40Ca values of springs, brooks and stream waters from the catchment are comparable to those of continental rivers and fluctuate between 0.17 and 0.87‰. Soil solutions, however, are significantly depleted in lighter isotopes (δ 44/40Ca: 1.00-1.47‰), whereas vegetation is strongly enriched (δ 44/40Ca: -0.48‰ to +0.19‰). These results highlight that vegetation is a major factor controlling the calcium isotopic composition of soil solutions, with depletion in "light" calcium in the soil solutions from deeper parts of the soil compartments due to preferential 40Ca uptake by the plants rootsystem. However, mass balance calculations require the contribution of an additional Ca flux into the soil solutions most probably associated with water-rock interactions. The stream waters are marked by a seasonal variation of their δ 44/40Ca, with low δ 44/40Ca in winter and high δ 44/40Ca in spring, summer and autumn. For some springs, nourishing the streamlet, a decrease of the δ 44/40Ca value is observed when the discharge of the spring increases, with, in addition, a clear covariation between the δ 44/40Ca and corresponding H 4SiO 4 concentrations: high δ 44/40Ca values and low H 4SiO 4 concentrations at high discharge; low δ 44/40Ca values and high H 4SiO 4 concentrations at low discharge. These data imply

  7. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  8. Fractional Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  9. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  10. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  11. Fractional randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  12. A Preliminary Survey of Extremely Small Populations of Wild Plants in Bawangling,Hainan Island%海南岛霸王岭极小种群野生植物调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洋瑜; 罗文; 韩文涛; 彭慧

    2014-01-01

    According to the existing literature's analysis, there are 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants in Bawangling , through the survey of 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants, has got a preliminary understanding about the distribution of small populations in Bawangling ,and analyzed the correlation between the distribution of extremely small populations and the altitude, slope direction, slope, veg-etation habitat factors , the main threats factors. Found that the extremely small populations in Bawangling was at risk, which need protected timely, and at the same time put forward some suggestions for protection.%根据已有文献资料分析统计,霸王岭地区有分布记录的极小种群野生植物17种,通过对17种极小种群野生植物的调查,初步了解霸王岭地区极小种群的分布资源状况,并分析极小种群的分布与海拔、坡向、坡度、植被等生境因子的相关性以及所面临的主要威胁,据此可知霸王岭保护区的极小种群植物资源已处于亟待保护的危险状态,并提出了一些保护建议。

  13. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  14. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Bennett, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load...... of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning...... and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from...

  15. Small-angle neutron scattering from polystyrene-DVB networks containing a delta fraction of deuterated polystyrene: evidence for aggregation during polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Widmaier, J.M.; Wignall, G.D.; Sperling, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    Sample No. 1 yielded a mol wt of 70,000 g/mole and a Z-average radius of gyration of 121 A. The delta fraction of polystyrene of interest has a mol wt of 50,000-72,000 g/mole, depending on position, and suggestive of aggregation. Some speculation is made on the aggregation mechanism. (DLC)

  16. Accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Arya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While conventionally fractionated radiation therapy alone is an acceptable option for poor prognostic patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, we hypothesized that accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy will have similar efficacy without increasing toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 300 patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC treated between 1993 and 2009. Patients included in the study were medically or surgically inoperable, were free of metastatic disease at initial workup and did not receive concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 received 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (Accelerated Radiotherapy (ACRT while group 2 received 60-63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy 1 (STRT1 and group 3 received > 63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy (STRT2. Results There were 119 (39.7% patients in the ACRT group, 90 (30.0% in STRT1 and 91 (30.3% in STRT2. More patients in the ACRT group had KPS ≤ 60 (p 5% (p = 0.002, and had stage 3B disease (p Conclusions Despite the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our experience of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 15 fractions appears to be an acceptable treatment option for poor performance status patients with stage III inoperable tumors. Such a treatment regimen (or higher doses in 15 fractions should be prospectively evaluated using modern radiation technologies with the addition of sequential high dose chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC.

  17. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  18. Statistical analysis and ANN modeling for predicting hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios: the example of a small Mediterranean agro-watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Dokou, Zoi; Karatzas, George P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a modeling management tool for the simulation of extreme flow events under current and future climatic conditions. This tool is a combination of different components and can be applied in complex hydrogeological river basins, where frequent flood and drought phenomena occur. The first component is the statistical analysis of the available hydro-meteorological data. Specifically, principal components analysis was performed in order to quantify the importance of the hydro-meteorological parameters that affect the generation of extreme events. The second component is a prediction-forecasting artificial neural network (ANN) model that simulates, accurately and efficiently, river flow on an hourly basis. This model is based on a methodology that attempts to resolve a very difficult problem related to the accurate estimation of extreme flows. For this purpose, the available measurements (5 years of hourly data) were divided in two subsets: one for the dry and one for the wet periods of the hydrological year. This way, two ANNs were created, trained, tested and validated for a complex Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece. As part of the second management component a statistical downscaling tool was used for the creation of meteorological data according to the higher and lower emission climate change scenarios A2 and B1. These data are used as input in the ANN for the forecasting of river flow for the next two decades. The final component is the application of a meteorological index on the measured and forecasted precipitation and flow data, in order to assess the severity and duration of extreme events.

  19. 30 Gy or 34 Gy? Comparing 2 Single-Fraction SBRT Dose Schedules for Stage I Medically Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videtic, Gregory M.M., E-mail: videtig@ccf.org; Stephans, Kevin L.; Woody, Neil M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Zhuang, Tingliang; Magnelli, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To review outcomes of 2 single-fraction lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) schedules used for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients in our institution have been treated on and off protocols using single-fraction SBRT (30 Gy and 34 Gy, respectively). All patients had node-negative lung cancer measuring ≤5 cm and lying ≥2 cm beyond the trachea-bronchial tree and were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system with the ExactTrac positioning system for daily image guidance. Results: For the interval from 2009 to 2012, 80 patients with 82 lesions were treated with single-fraction lung SBRT. Fifty-five patients (69%) and 25 patients (31%) received 30 Gy and 34 Gy, respectively. In a comparison of 30 Gy and 34 Gy cohorts, patient and tumor characteristics were balanced and median follow-up in months was 18.7 and 17.8, respectively. The average heterogeneity-corrected mean doses to the target were 33.75 Gy and 37.94 Gy for the 30-Gy and 34-Gy prescriptions, respectively. Comparing 30-Gy and 34-Gy cohorts, 92.7% and 84.0% of patients, respectively, experienced no toxicity (P was not significant), and had neither grade 3 nor higher toxicities. For the 30-Gy and 34-Gy patients, rates of 1-year local failure, overall survival, and lung cancer-specific mortality were 2.0% versus 13.8%, 75.0% versus 64.0%, and 2. 1% versus 16.0%, respectively (P values for differences were not significant). Conclusions: This is the largest single-fraction lung SBRT series yet reported. and it confirms the safety, efficacy, and minimal toxicity of this schedule for inoperable early stage lung cancer.

  20. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  1. Small-scale Intensity Mapping: Extended Halos as a Probe of the Ionizing Escape Fraction and Faint Galaxy Populations during Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Dijkstra, Mark; Davies, Frederick B.; Stern, Jonathan; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2017-09-01

    We present a new method to quantify the value of the escape fraction of ionizing photons, and the existence of ultra-faint galaxies clustered around brighter objects during the epoch of cosmic reionization, using the diffuse Lyα, continuum, and Hα emission observed around galaxies at z∼ 6. We model the surface brightness profiles of the diffuse halos, considering the fluorescent emission powered by ionizing photons escaping from the central galaxies, and the nebular emission from satellite star-forming sources, by extending the formalisms developed in Mas-Ribas & Dijkstra and Mas-Ribas et al. The comparison between our predicted profiles and Lyα observations at z = 5.7 and z = 6.6 favors a low ionizing escape fraction, {f}{esc}{ion}∼ 5 % , for galaxies in the range -19≳ {M}{UV}≳ -21.5. However, uncertainties and possible systematics in the observations do not allow for firm conclusions. We predict Hα and rest-frame visible continuum observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and show that it will be able to detect extended (a few tens of kiloparsecs) fluorescent Hα emission powered by ionizing photons escaping from a bright, L≳ 5{L}* , galaxy. Such observations could differentiate fluorescent emission from nebular emission by satellite sources. We discuss how observations and stacking several objects may provide unique constraints on the escape fraction for faint galaxies and/or the abundance of ultra-faint radiation sources.

  2. Identification of a novel small cysteine-rich protein in the fraction from the biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 that mitigates Fusarium wilt symptoms and triggers defense responses in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Shcherbakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol effect of the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP, which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed.

  3. Identification of a Novel Small Cysteine-Rich Protein in the Fraction from the Biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum Strain CS-20 that Mitigates Fusarium Wilt Symptoms and Triggers Defense Responses in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Larisa A.; Odintsova, Tatyana I.; Stakheev, Alexander A.; Fravel, Deborah R.; Zavriev, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    The biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. PMID:26779237

  4. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrup, S. V.; Bennett, P. C.; Forkman, B.; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H. F.; Serpell, J. A.; Lund, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog’s personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems. PMID:28234931

  5. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  6. Polymer fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, A. F.

    1985-04-09

    Soluble polymers are fractionated according to molecular weight by cryogenically comminuting the polymer and introducing the polymer particles, while still in the active state induced by cryogenic grinding, into a liquid having a solvent power selected to produce a coacervate fraction containing high molecular weight polymer species and a dilute polymer solution containing lower molecular weight polymer species. The coacervate may be physically separated from the solution and finds use in the production of antimisting jet fuels and the like.

  7. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  8. Study on the Protection Countermeasures to Extremely Small Population of Wild Plant of Guangxi%广西极小种群野生植物保护对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎德丘; 彭定人

    2009-01-01

    This paper gave a full description of the current situation of 20 extremely small population of wild plant of population quantities and distribution in Guangxi. Based on the threat analysis of population decline and habitat loss were faced, some countermeasures to strengthen protection was discussed.%全面阐述了广西分布的20种极小种群野生植物的种群数量、分布等现状,在分析其面临的种群衰退、生境丧失等主要威胁的基础上,探讨了加强保护的对策.

  9. An optical method for carbon dioxide isotopes and mole fractions in small gas samples: tracing microbial respiration from soil, litter, and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Wenjuan Huang; Kenneth Hammel

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Carbon dioxide isotope (Δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a...

  10. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  11. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  12. Comparison of parameters influencing the behavior of concentration of nitrates and phosphates during different extreme rainfall-runoff events in small watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moravcová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of solute concentrations during storm events is completely different from their behaviour under normal conditions, and very often results in hysteresis. This study aim is to explore the relationship between the biogeochemical and hydrological parameters describing natural conditions and the reciprocal interactions between changes in concentration of selected indicators of water quality in water and the discharge dynamics during different types of extreme rainfall-runoff events in the Jenínský stream and the Kopaninský stream catchment (Czech Republic. The relationship between concentrations and runoffs is explained by concentration-discharge hysteretic loops. As the statistical method used for cross analyzing the impact of the parameters there was chosen the RDA analysis. The relationships between the particular parameters were examined separately by conditions of spring snow melt and summer storm events. The results than confirmed the very strong relationship between parameters describing water quality and percentage of stable parts of the catchment and also of infiltration vulnerable sites.

  13. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  14. Energy Contribution of OFMSW (Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy-Environmental Sustainability in Urban Areas at Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Matteo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban waste management is one of the most challenging issues in energy planning of medium and large cities. In addition to the traditional landfill method, many studies are investigating energy harvesting from waste, not as a panacea but as a foreseeable solution. Thermo-chemical conversion to biogas, or even bio-methane under certain conditions, could be an option to address this challenge. This study focuses on municipal solid waste conversion to biogas as a local energy supply for the cities. Three urban models and their subdivision into urban areas were identified along with a typical Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW matrix for each urban area. Then, an energy analysis was carried out to provide an optimization map for an informed choice by urban policy-makers and stakeholders. The results highlighted how the urban context and its use could affect the opportunity to produce energy from waste or to convert it in fuel. So, in this case, sustainability means waste turning from a problem to a renewable resource.

  15. Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z ˜ 2-8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input for Establishing Their Volume Density and UV Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Atek, H.; Lam, D.; Stefanon, M.

    2017-07-01

    We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. However, we cannot assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first size constraints with two new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy’s size. Only the most compact galaxies remain detectable in high-shear regions (versus a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 high-magnification (μ =10-100) z˜ 2-8 galaxies seen behind the first four HFF clusters. This can only be the case if faint (˜ -15 mag) galaxies have significantly smaller sizes than more luminous galaxies, i.e., ≲ 30 mas or 160-240 pc. As a second size probe, we rotate and stack 26 faint high-magnification sources along the major shear axis. Less elongation is found even for objects with an intrinsic half-light radius of 10 mas. Together, these results indicate that extremely faint z˜ 2-8 galaxies have near point-source profiles (half-light radii <30 mas and perhaps 5-10 mas). These results suggest smaller completeness corrections and hence shallower faint-end slopes for the z˜ 2-8 LFs than derived in some recent studies (by {{Δ }}α ≳ 0.1-0.3).

  16. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  17. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China); Luo, Cheng, E-mail: Luo58@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  18. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  19. An Extreme Analogue of ɛ Aurigae: An M-giant Eclipsed Every 69 Years by a Large Opaque Disk Surrounding a Small Hot Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Tang, Sumin; Kafka, Stella; Gaudi, B. Scott; Conroy, Kyle E.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2016-05-01

    , this system is poised to become an exemplar of a very rare class of systems, even more extreme in several respects than the well studied archetype ɛ Aurigae.

  20. Computational studies on ECE spectrum for ITER, in the presence of a small fraction of non-thermals and radial resolution evolution for oblique view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In tokamaks, the temperature measurement using different techniques like Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE, Thomson scattering etc. shows differences because of various phenomena. The physical reasons for this are not entirely understood. Thus to have comprehensive understanding of these difference, the contribution from each phenomenon needs to be individually understood. The phenomenon affecting radial temperature profile measurement includes harmonics overlap, relativistic down shifting, presence of non-thermals etc. For ITER like plasma, radial temperature profiles can be obtained from the first harmonics ordinary (O mode or second harmonic extra-ordinary(X mode of ECE spectrum. It is possible that, higher harmonics produced from the non-thermals can be relativistically downshifted to second harmonics and results a deviation in the measured temperature profile. We performed a parametric study on the effect of non-thermal electrons on measured ECE temperature for ITER scenario-2. All the numerical calculations reported in this paper are performed using NOTEC computer code which is capable of handling non-thermal populations. After proper validation of numerical methods using normal electron population (without non-thermals a parametric study with non-thermals is performed. In the parametric study radial locations of non-thermals, energy of non-thermals and fraction of non-thermals are considered. This study is initially performed for normal view and later extended in to oblique views. The range of deviation of temperature over the examined parametric regime as well as the possible physical reasons will be presented. The effect of parallel component of non-thermal energy is also examined. Finally results of one set of study for oblique view (where the detector is not exactly normal to the magnetic field with non-thermal electrons are also presented. In ITER apart from an Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE detector placed normal to magnetic field

  1. Calcium isotope systematics in small upland catchments affected by spruce dieback in the period of extreme acid rain (1970-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Farkas, Juraj; Holmden, Chris; Hruska, Jakub; Curik, Jan; Stepanova, Marketa; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Komarek, Arnost

    2017-04-01

    Recently, new isotope tools have become available to study the behavior of nutrients in stressed ecosystems. In this study, we focus on changes in the abundance ratio of calcium (Ca) isotopes accompanying biogeochemical processes in small forested catchments. We monitored del44Ca values in ecosystem pools and fluxes in four upland sites situated in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. A heavily acidified site in the Eagle Mts. (northern Czech Republic) experienced 13 times higher atmospheric Ca inputs, compared to the other three sites, which were less affected by forest decline. Industrial dust was responsible for the elevated Ca input. Del44Ca values of individual poos/fluxes were used to identify Ca sources for the bioavailable Ca soil reservoir and for runoff. The bedrock of the study sites differed (leucogranite, orthogneiss vs. serpentinite and amphibolite). Across the sites, mean del44Ca values increased in the order: spruce bark < fine roots < needles < soil < bedrock < canopy throughfall < open-area precipitation < runoff < soil water. Plant preferentially took up isotopically light Ca, while residual isotopically heavy Ca was sorbed to soil particles or exported via runoff. Even at sites with a low del44Ca values of bedrock, runoff had a high del44Ca value. At the base-poor site, most runoff came from atmospheric deposition and residual Ca following plant uptake. It appeared that bedrock weathering did not supply enough Ca to replenish the bioavailable Ca pool in the soil. Currently, we are analyzing Ca isotope composition of individual rock-forming minerals to better assess the effect of different weathering rates of minerals with low/high radiogenic 40Ca contents on runoff del44Ca.

  2. Fractional complex transforms for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim, Rabha W

    2012-01-01

    The fractional complex transform is employed to convert fractional differential equations analytically in the sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional operator and its generalization in the unit disk...

  3. Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan

    2010-01-01

    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...

  4. A model for globular cluster extreme anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2007-08-01

    In spite of the efforts made in recent years, there is still no comprehensive explanation for the chemical anomalies of globular cluster (GC) stars. Among these anomalies, the most striking is oxygen depletion, which reaches values down to [O/Fe] ~ -0.4 in most clusters, but in M13 it goes down to less than [O/Fe] ~ -1. In this work we suggest that the anomalies are due to the superposition of two different events, as follows. (i) Primordial self-enrichment; this is required to explain the oxygen depletion down to a minimum value [O/Fe] ~ -0.4. (ii) Extra mixing in a fraction of the stars already born with anomalous composition; these objects, starting with already low [O/Fe], will reduce the oxygen abundance down to the most extreme values. Contrary to other models that invoke extra mixing to explain the chemical anomalies, we suggest that this mixing is active only if there is a fraction of the stars in which the primordial composition is not only oxygen-depleted, but also extremely helium-rich (Y ~ 0.4), as found in a few GCs from their main-sequence multiplicity. We propose that the rotational evolution (and an associated extra mixing) of extremely helium-rich stars may be affected by the fact that they develop a very small or non-existent molecular weight barrier during the evolution. We show that extra mixing in these stars, having initial chemistry that has already been CNO processed, affects mainly the oxygen abundance, as well as (to a much smaller extent) the sodium abundance. The model also predicts a large fluorine depletion concomitant with the oxygen depletion, and a further enhancement of the surface helium abundance, which reaches values close to Y = 0.5 in the computed models. We stress that, in this tentative explanation, those stars that are primordially oxygen-depleted, but are not extremely helium-rich, do not suffer deep extra mixing.

  5. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  6. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Barnett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  7. Predictability of extreme values in geophysical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sterk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical models. We study whether finite-time Lyapunov exponents are larger or smaller for initial conditions leading to extremes. General statements on whether extreme values are better or less predictable are not possible: the predictability of extreme values depends on the observable, the attractor of the system, and the prediction lead time.

  8. Multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics of void fraction wave propagation for gas-liquid two-phase flows in small diameter pip e%小管径气液两相流空隙率波传播的多尺度相关性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟路生; 金宁德

    2016-01-01

    The void fraction wave is a special physical phenomenon in a gas-liquid two-phase flow system. Understanding the propagation of the void fraction wave is of great significance for uncovering the physical mechanisms in both flow pattern transition and the fluid velocity measurement. In this study, detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is used to investigate the multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics of the coupled ARFIMA processes. It is found that the DCCA can effectively reveal the multi-scale cross-correlation dynamical behaviors of complex system. Then, we carry out the experimental test in a vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow pipe with small inner diameter. The DCCA is used to detect the cross-correlation characteristics of the void fraction wave on multiple time scales, and the growth rate of the cross-correlation level for the void fraction wave is observed on low time scales. Additionally, the spatial attenuation factor (SAF) of the void fraction wave is calculated to investigate the instability of the wave propagation. The SAF is close to zero under the transitional flow patterns, which means that the void fraction wave is in a stable propagating state. For bubble flows, the void fraction wave presents the attenuation characteristics, whilst the void fraction wave shows the amplification characteristics under the slug and churn flow patterns. Interestingly, the instability behaviors of the void fraction wave are always associated with its multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics. Specifically, the increasing rate of the wave cross-correlation level on low scales is much higher for transitional flow patterns, which is corresponding to the stable propagating characteristic of the void fraction wave. However, when the void fraction wave exhibits attenuation or amplification characteristics under other flow patterns, the increasing rate of the wave cross-correlation level on low scales is much lower.

  9. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  10. How does public opinion become extreme?

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Marlon; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate ...

  11. Subcellular fractionation of rough microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, David D

    2014-09-02

    When eukaryotic cells are homogenized, the rough endoplasmic reticula are converted into small vesicles, called rough microsomes. Strategies for the isolation of rough microsomes are introduced here, as are methods for evaluating the purity and intactness of an isolated rough microsomal fraction.

  12. The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Amir; Berezin, Yehiel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies show that in interdependent networks a very small failure in one network may lead to catastrophic consequences. Above a critical fraction of interdependent nodes, even a single node failure can invoke cascading failures that may abruptly fragment the system, whereas below this critical dependency a failure of a few nodes leads only to a small amount of damage to the system. So far, research has focused on interdependent random networks without space limitations. However, many real systems, such as power grids and the Internet, are not random but are spatially embedded. Here we analytically and numerically study the stability of interdependent spatially embedded networks modelled as lattice networks. Surprisingly, we find that in lattice systems, in contrast to non-embedded systems, there is no critical dependency and any small fraction of interdependent nodes leads to an abrupt collapse. We show that this extreme vulnerability of very weakly coupled lattices is a consequence of the critical exponent describing the percolation transition of a single lattice.

  13. Laser Resurfacing: Full Field and Fractional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Jason N; DiBernardo, Barry E

    2016-07-01

    Laser resurfacing is a very popular procedure worldwide. Full field and fractional lasers are used in many aesthetic practices. There have been significant advances in laser resurfacing in the past few years, which make patient treatments more efficacious and with less downtime. Erbium and carbon dioxide and ablative, nonablative, and hybrid fractional lasers are all extremely effective and popular tools that have a place in plastic surgery and dermatology offices.

  14. Matrix fractional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  15. Predictability of extreme values in geophysical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.E.; Holland, M.P.; Rabassa, P.; Broer, H.W.; Vitolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small) values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical model

  16. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  17. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  18. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  19. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  20. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  1. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  2. Nature of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Aleksander; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we demonstrate how a binary system can easily form an extreme ULX source with the X-ray luminosity of L_x > 10^42 erg/s. Formation efficiencies and lifetimes of such objects are high enough to potentially explain all observed extreme ULXs. These systems are not only limited to binaries with stellar-origin black hole accretors. Noteworthy, we have also identified such objects with neutron stars. Typically, a 10 Msun black hole is fed by a massive (~10 Msun) Hertzsprung gap donor with Roche lobe overflow rate of ~10^-3 Msun/yr (~2600 Mdot_Edd). For neutron star systems the typical donors are evolved low-mass (~2 Msun) helium stars with Roche lobe overflow rate of ~10^-2 Msun/yr. We base our study purely on the available Roche lobe overflow rate in a binary system and show that if only even a small fraction (>10^-3) of the overflow reaches the BH, the source will be super-Eddington. Our study does not prove that any particular extreme ULX (e.g., HLX-1) is a regular binary system wi...

  3. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  4. Only a small fraction of high-grade cervical lesions are discovered after an interpretation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance when using imager-assisted, liquid-based papanicolaou tests and the Bethesda 2001 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kelly A; Smith, Debora A; Thrall, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    -grade dysplasia on routine Papanicolaou tests. Only a small fraction of histologically confirmed CIN 2/3 cases are found following a Papanicolaou test diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

  5. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.

  6. 树儿梁小流域坝地土壤颗粒的分形特征%THE FRACTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SOIL PARTICLE ABOUT DAM LAND IN SHUERLIANG SMALL RIVER VALLEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀珍; 李翔; 向云; 李静波; 毕如田; 牛越先

    2011-01-01

    Soil particle is one of the important physical properties of soil.In order to study the connotation of soil particle fractal dimension and the description soil properties by using soil particle fractal dimension, this study calculated the soil particle fractal dimension of dam land in Shuerliang small river valley, and analyzed the relation of fractal dimension and composition of various soil particle and nutrient.Results showed that the fractal dimensions of particle size distribution (PSD) of soils increased with the increase of soil clay content in dam land in Shuerliang, and the fractal dimensions of PSD in the front, the middle and the end of the dam respectively were 2.7278, 2.7184 and 2.685, which met the Stokes' rule.The overall difference of the various size particles content of particle constitution of dam land and the change range were very small, the changes in the vertical profile were very weak.There was significantly positive correlation between the fractal dimensions of PSD and the content of soil organic matter in dam land.The fractal dimensions of PSD were highly significantly positive-related with the soil cation exchange capacity, total potassium,slowly available potassium and readily available potassium.So it is positively significant to describe soil nature with the fractional dimension of soil particle.%土壤颗粒的分形维数是重要的土壤物理特性,为研究坝地土壤颗粒分形维数的内涵和利用土壤颗粒的分形维数来描述与土壤性质的关系,本研究计算了树儿梁小流域坝地土壤颗粒的分形维数,并分析了分形维数与各粒级组成及其土壤养分的关系.结果表明:树儿梁坝地土壤颗粒的分形维数随土壤黏粒的增加而增大,坝前、坝中、坝尾土壤颗粒的分形维数分别为2.7278、2.7184和2.685,符合Stokes沉降原理,坝地颗粒组成各粒级含量及变化范围整体差异较小,在垂直剖面上变化都很微弱.坝地土壤颗粒的分形维

  7. Efficiency Improvements of Antenna Optimization Using Orthogonal Fractional Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extremely efficient method for antenna design and optimization. Traditionally, antenna optimization relies on nature-inspired heuristic algorithms, which are time-consuming due to their blind-search nature. In contrast, design of experiments (DOE uses a completely different framework from heuristic algorithms, reducing the design cycle by formulating the surrogates of a design problem. However, the number of required simulations grows exponentially if a full factorial design is used. In this paper, a much more efficient technique is presented to achieve substantial time savings. By using orthogonal fractional experiments, only a small subset of the full factorial design is required, yet the resultant response surface models are still effective. The capability of orthogonal fractional experiments is demonstrated through three examples, including two tag antennas for radio-frequency identification (RFID applications and one internal antenna for long-term-evolution (LTE handheld devices. In these examples, orthogonal fractional experiments greatly improve the efficiency of DOE, thereby facilitating the antenna design with less simulation runs.

  8. A Fast Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Ong, Yew-Soon; Zheng, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a fast and accurate kernel-based supervised algorithm referred to as the Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (RKELM). In contrast to the work on Support Vector Machine (SVM) or Least Square SVM (LS-SVM), which identifies the support vectors or weight vectors iteratively, the proposed RKELM randomly selects a subset of the available data samples as support vectors (or mapping samples). By avoiding the iterative steps of SVM, significant cost savings in the training process can be readily attained, especially on Big datasets. RKELM is established based on the rigorous proof of universal learning involving reduced kernel-based SLFN. In particular, we prove that RKELM can approximate any nonlinear functions accurately under the condition of support vectors sufficiency. Experimental results on a wide variety of real world small instance size and large instance size applications in the context of binary classification, multi-class problem and regression are then reported to show that RKELM can perform at competitive level of generalized performance as the SVM/LS-SVM at only a fraction of the computational effort incurred.

  9. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  10. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  11. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  12. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  13. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  14. Detecting impacts of extreme events with ecological in situ monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mahecha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrometeorological conditions typically impact ecophysiological processes on land. Satellite-based observations of the terrestrial biosphere provide an important reference for detecting and describing the spatiotemporal development of such events. However, in-depth investigations of ecological processes during extreme events require additional in situ observations. The question is whether the density of existing ecological in situ networks is sufficient for analysing the impact of extreme events, and what are expected event detection rates of ecological in situ networks of a given size. To assess these issues, we build a baseline of extreme reductions in the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR, identified by a new event detection method tailored to identify extremes of regional relevance. We then investigate the event detection success rates of hypothetical networks of varying sizes. Our results show that large extremes can be reliably detected with relatively small networks, but also reveal a linear decay of detection probabilities towards smaller extreme events in log–log space. For instance, networks with  ≈  100 randomly placed sites in Europe yield a  ≥  90 % chance of detecting the eight largest (typically very large extreme events; but only a  ≥  50 % chance of capturing the 39 largest events. These findings are consistent with probability-theoretic considerations, but the slopes of the decay rates deviate due to temporal autocorrelation and the exact implementation of the extreme event detection algorithm. Using the examples of AmeriFlux and NEON, we then investigate to what degree ecological in situ networks can capture extreme events of a given size. Consistent with our theoretical considerations, we find that today's systematically designed networks (i.e. NEON reliably detect the largest extremes, but that the extreme event detection rates are not higher than would

  15. Methods and Techniques for Conserving Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations%极小种群野生植物保护的主要内容和技术要点*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文忠; 康洪梅; 向振勇; 张珊珊; 彭宗妮

    2014-01-01

    Saving wild plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) is crucial in biodiversity conserva-tion since it is a way to save many other ecologically-linked species .The first inventory of national key protected wild plant resources in 1997~2003 revealed that there was an urgent need to strengthen the protection of species on the brink of extinction in China .Thereafter PSESP concept , name list , and relevant measures were proposed to protect those species .In this paper we reviewed the processes of formation of PSESP concept , identification of PSESP name list , and formulation of conservation plans , along with the research progresses in rare and endangered plant conservation .We summarized main methods and techniques to conserve PSESP based in particular on experi -ences learnt from conservation practices of Nyssa yunnanensis and other species .Technical measures for rescuing and saving PSESP covers not only germplasm resources preservation through in situ, ex situ and in vitro conserva-tion , but also population rehabilitation and reestablishment through regeneration promoting , seedling raising , qua-si in situ conservation , reintroduction , and reinforcement .Our summarization attempts to provide guidance for for-mulating and implementing action plans of PSESP conservation .%拯救与保护极小种群野生植物是生物多样性保护的重要内容。在完成第一次全国重点保护野生植物资源调查后,为适应珍稀濒危植物保护的迫切需要,提出了极小种群野生植物的概念、名录和相关的保护措施。本文在回顾我国极小种群野生植物相关概念形成、物种名录确定和拯救保护计划制定过程的基础上,结合开展云南蓝果树毛枝五针松等的种群调查分析及拯救保护行动实践,基于国内外珍稀濒危野生植物保护的研究和实践,提出了极小种群野生植物保护的主要内容和技术要点。极小种群野生植物的拯救保护,

  16. Climate change increases the likelihood of catastrophic avian mortality events during extreme heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2010-04-23

    Severe heat waves have occasionally led to catastrophic avian mortality in hot desert environments. Climate change models predict increases in the intensity, frequency and duration of heat waves. A model of avian evaporative water requirements and survival times during the hottest part of day reveals that the predicted increases in maximum air temperatures will result in large fractional increases in water requirements (in small birds, equivalent to 150-200 % of current values), which will severely reduce survival times during extremely hot weather. By the 2080s, desert birds will experience reduced survival times much more frequently during mid-summer, increasing the frequency of catastrophic mortality events.

  17. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  18. Meaning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.

    2017-02-01

    Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.

  19. Fractional Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Edelman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...

  20. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  1. DIY Fraction Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  2. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  3. Dynamics with Low-Level Fractionality

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, V E; Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The notion of fractional dynamics is related to equations of motion with one or a few terms with derivatives of a fractional order. This type of equation appears in the description of chaotic dynamics, wave propagation in fractal media, and field theory. For the fractional linear oscillator the physical meaning of the derivative of order $\\alpha<2$ is dissipation. In systems with many spacially coupled elements (oscillators) the fractional derivative, along the space coordinate, corresponds to a long range interaction. We discuss a method of constructing a solution using an expansion in $\\epsilon=n-\\alpha$ with small $\\epsilon$ and positive integer $n$. The method is applied to the fractional linear and nonlinear oscillators and to fractional Ginzburg-Landau or parabolic equations.

  4. Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.

  5. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  7. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  8. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  9. The Fraction Hour: a small sociology of vampires in Mathematics Education A Hora da Fração: pequena sociologia dos vampiros na Educação Matemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Vianna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is drawn in this article between the imagination associated with vampire stories and the research and concerns of teachers related to the teaching of fractions, mainly with respect to early elementary education. It is proposed that fractions not be referred to in terms of representing the part-whole relation, as in this context, the object denominated “fraction” is not a number. Key-words: Fractions. Mathematics Education. Curriculum. Elementary Education.Este artigo traça uma analogia entre o imaginário associado às histórias de vampiro e as pesquisas e preocupações de professores relacionadas com o ensino das frações, principalmente no que diz respeito às séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. O artigo propõe a retirada das menções às frações como representação da relação parte-todo, advogando que neste contexto o objeto que recebe a denominação de ‘fração’ não é um número. Palavras-chave: Frações. Educação Matemática. Currículo. Ensino Fundamental.

  10. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  11. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  12. Design and Manufacturing of Extremely Low Mass Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Extremely small flight systems pose some unusual design and manufacturing challenges. The small size of the components that make up the system generally must be built with extremely tight tolerances to maintain the functionality of the assembled item. Additionally, the total mass of the system is extremely sensitive to what would be considered small perturbations in a larger flight system. The MUSES C mission, designed, built, and operated by Japan, has a small rover provided by NASA that falls into this small flight system category. This NASA-provided rover is used as a case study of an extremely small flight system design. The issues that were encountered with the rover portion of the MUSES C program are discussed and conclusions about the recommended mass margins at different stages of a small flight system project are presented.

  13. 36 CFR 254.34 - Mineral survey fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral survey fractions. 254... LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.34 Mineral survey fractions. (a) Mineral survey fractions subject to conveyance under this subpart are limited to those tracts which: (1) Cannot...

  14. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  15. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel

    CERN Document Server

    Gbur, Greg

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.

  16. Fractional Electromagnetic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J F; Bernal, J J; Tkach, V I; Guía, M

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.

  17. Interpretation of Extreme Scattering Events

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    2000-01-01

    Extreme Scattering Events are sometimes manifest in the light-curves of compact radio-quasars at frequencies of a few GHz. These events are not understood. The model which appears to offer the best explanation requires a new population of AU-sized, neutral gas clouds; these clouds would then make up a large fraction of the Galaxy's dark matter. Independent of the question of which theoretical model is correct, if we extrapolate the observed behaviour to low radio-frequencies, we expect that the sky should be criss-crossed by a network of narrow caustics, at frequencies below about 700 MHz. Consequently at these frequencies sources should typically manifest additional, faint images which are substantially delayed with respect to the primary image. Although some examples of this type of behaviour are already known, it is expected that these are just the tip of the iceberg, with strong selection biases having been imposed by the instrumentation employed to date.

  18. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  19. From anti-conformism to extremism

    CERN Document Server

    Weisbuch, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    We here present a model of the dynamics of extremism based on opinion dynamics in order to understand the circumstances which favour its emergence and development in large fractions of the general public. Our model is based on the bounded confidence hypothesis and on the evolution of initially anti-conformist agents to extreme positions. Numerical analyses demonstrate that a few anti-conformists are able to drag a large fraction of conformists agents to their position provided that they express their views more often than the conformists. The most influential parameter controlling the outcome of the dynamics is the uncertainty of the conformist agents; the higher their uncertainty, the higher is the influence of anti-conformists. Systematic scans of the parameter space show the existence of two regime transitions, one following the conformists uncertainty parameter and the other one following the anti-conformism strength.

  20. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determi

  1. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  2. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  3. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  4. Categories of Fractions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.

  5. On fractional programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajona-Xandri, C.; Martinez-Legaz, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    This paper studies the minimax fractional programming problem, assuming quasiconvexity of the objective function, under the lower subdifferentiability viewpoint. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions and dual properties are found. We present applications of this theory to find the Pareto efficient solutions of a multiobjective fractional problem and to solve several economic models.

  6. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W;

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing...... and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  7. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  8. Observation of curative effect of hypo-fractionated conformal radiotherapy for 12 patients with non-small cell lung cancer%大分割适形放射治疗非小细胞肺癌12例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗树春; 兰海涛; 吴琦

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察大分割适形放射治疗非小细胞肺癌的疗效和毒副反应.方法 对12例非小细胞肺癌采用三维适形放疗,6GY/次,5次/周,共60GY/10次.结果 近期疗效:完全缓解(CR)3例占25.0%,部分缓解(PR)5例占41.7%,稳定(SD)和疾病进展(PD)各2例,肿瘤客观缓解率(CR+PR)为66.7%,局部控制率(CR+PR+SD)83.3%.放射性肺炎0级8例、Ⅰ级3例、Ⅱ级1例;放射性食道炎0级9例、Ⅰ级2例、Ⅲ级1例.结论 大分割适形放射治疗非小细胞肺癌近期疗效较好,副反应未明显增加.%Objective To analyze the efficacy and complications of hypo-fractionated conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods Twelve patients with non-small cell lung cancer were treated with hypo-fraction conformal radiotherapy. A dose of 60 GY was given in 10 fractions,once a day,and 5 fractions a week. Results The short-term results showed that the complete re-sponse( CR)rate,the partial response( PR) rate, the overall response( CR+PR) rate and the local regional control rate( CR+PR+SD) were 25. 0% ,41. 7% ,66. 7% and 83. 3% Respectively. There patients suffered from radiation penumonitis of grade Ⅰ ,one patient had radiation penumonitis of gradeⅡ ,and no patient developed serious ( grade Ⅲ ) radiation penumonitis. Two cases suffered from radiation esophagitis of gradeⅠ , and one patient had radiation esophagitis of grade Ⅲ. Conclusions The hypo-fraction conformal radiotherapy may be good for non-small cell lung cancer without incensement of complications.

  9. The radiosurgery fractionation quandary: single fraction or hypofractionation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John P; Soltys, Scott G; Lo, Simon S; Beal, Kathryn; Shrieve, Dennis C; Brown, Paul D

    2017-04-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), typically administered in a single session, is widely employed to safely, efficiently, and effectively treat small intracranial lesions. However, for large lesions or those in close proximity to critical structures, it can be difficult to obtain an acceptable balance of tumor control while avoiding damage to normal tissue when single-fraction SRS is utilized. Treating a lesion in 2 to 5 fractions of SRS (termed "hypofractionated SRS" [HF-SRS]) potentially provides the ability to treat a lesion with a total dose of radiation that provides both adequate tumor control and acceptable toxicity. Indeed, studies of HF-SRS in large brain metastases, vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas, and gliomas suggest that a superior balance of tumor control and toxicity is observed compared with single-fraction SRS. Nonetheless, a great deal of effort remains to understand radiobiologic mechanisms for HF-SRS driving the dose-volume response relationship for tumors and normal tissues and to utilize this fundamental knowledge and the results of clinic studies to optimize HF-SRS. In particular, the application of HF-SRS in the setting of immunomodulatory cancer therapies offers special challenges and opportunities.

  10. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  11. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  12. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  13. Statistics of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbel, E J

    2012-01-01

    This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.

  14. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  15. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  16. Extremism without extremists: Deffuant model with emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2015-03-01

    The frequent occurrence of extremist views in many social contexts, often growing from small minorities to almost total majority, poses a significant challenge for democratic societies. The phenomenon can be described within the sociophysical paradigm. We present a modified version of the continuous bounded confidence opinion model, including a simple description of the influence of emotions on tolerances, and eventually on the evolution of opinions. Allowing for psychologically based correlation between the extreme opinions, high emotions and low tolerance for other people's views leads to quick dominance of the extreme views within the studied model, without introducing a special class of agents, as has been done in previous works. This dominance occurs even if the initial numbers of people with extreme opinions is very small. Possible suggestions related to mitigation of the process are briefly discussed.

  17. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some nonlinear time-fractional differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenjun Liu; Kewang Chen

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system. This method is extremely simple but effective for handling nonlinear time-fractional differential equations.

  18. Configuration Management for eXtreme Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Ekman, T.

    2003-01-01

    Extreme programming (XP) is a software development method that prescribes the use of 12 different practices. Four of these practices (collective code ownership, continuous integration, small releases and refactoring) can indeed be given good support by the use of simple configuration management (CM...

  19. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  20. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  1. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  2. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A. Amaral-Zettler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely acidic (pH<3 and extremely alkaline (pH>9 environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from 7 diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A total of 946 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER followed by Indicator OTU Analysis (IOA and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain’s Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  3. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  4. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  5. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  6. Do galaxies that leak ionizing photons have extreme outflows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J.; Orlitová, I.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Worseck, G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.

    2017-09-01

    Context. To reionize the early universe, high-energy photons must escape the galaxies that produce them. How these photons escape is debated because too many ionizing photons are absorbed even at small H i column densities. It has been suggested that stellar feedback drives galactic outflows out of star-forming regions, creating low density channels through which ionizing photons escape into the inter-galactic medium. Aims: We compare the galactic outflow properties of confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) leaking galaxies to a control sample of nearby star-forming galaxies to explore whether the outflows from leakers are extreme as compared to the control sample. Methods: We use data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the equivalent widths and velocities of Si ii and Si iii absorption lines, tracing neutral and ionized galactic outflows. We explore whether the leakers have similar outflow properties to the control sample, and whether the outflows from the leakers follow similar scaling relations with host galaxy properties as the control sample. We rederive the escape fraction of ionizing photons for each leaker, and study whether the outflow properties influence the LyC escape fractions. Results: We find that the Si ii and Si iii equivalent widths of the LyC leakers reside on the low-end of the trend established by the control sample. The leakers' velocities are not statistically different than the control sample, but their absorption line profiles have a different asymmetry: their central velocities are closer to their maximum velocities. This possibly indicates a more rapidly accelerated outflow due to the compact size of the leakers. The outflow kinematics and equivalent widths are consistent with the scaling relations between outflow properties and host galaxy properties - most notably metallicity - defined by the control sample. Additionally, we use the Lyα profiles to show that the Si ii equivalent width scales with the

  7. New Fractional Complex Transform for Conformable Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çenesiz Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations.

  8. Weather and Climate Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Antarctica’s highest (New Zealand Antarctic Society, 1974). This extreme exceeded the record of 58°F (14.4°C) that occurred on 20 October 1956 at Esperanza ... Esperanza (also known as Bahia Esperanza , Hope Bay) was in operation from 1945 through the early 1960s. Meteorological/Climatological Factors: This extreme...cm) Location: Grand Ilet, La R’eunion Island [21°00’S, 55°30’E] Date: 26 January 1980 WORLD’S GREATEST 24-HOUR RAINFALL 72 in (182.5 cm

  9. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  10. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  11. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  12. Hamiltonian theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect: Conserving approximation for incompressible fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2001-11-01

    A microscopic Hamiltonian theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect developed by Shankar and the present author based on the fermionic Chern-Simons approach has recently been quite successful in calculating gaps and finite-tempertature properties in fractional quantum Hall states. Initially proposed as a small-q theory, it was subsequently extended by Shankar to form an algebraically consistent theory for all q in the lowest Landau level. Such a theory is amenable to a conserving approximation in which the constraints have vanishing correlators and decouple from physical response functions. Properties of the incompressible fractions are explored in this conserving approximation, including the magnetoexciton dispersions and the evolution of the small-q structure factor as ν-->12. Finally, a formalism capable of dealing with a nonuniform ground-state charge density is developed and used to show how the correct fractional value of the quasiparticle charge emerges from the theory.

  13. Planejamento do controle estatístico de processos com baixa fração não conforme restrito a amostras pequenas Design of the statistical control of low fraction nonconforming processes restricted to small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Kahn Epprecht

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o planejamento não convencional de gráficos de np para o monitoramento de processos caracterizados por uma fração não conforme muito pequena e cujo procedimento de inspeção é custoso ou demorado, tornando proibitivo o exame de grandes amostras. Sob tais circunstâncias, a base para o planejamento do gráfico de controle é o "trade-off" entre a freqüência de alarmes falsos e a rapidez com que o gráfico sinaliza deteriorações no processo, já que nestes casos (dependendo do tamanho de amostra o gráfico de np convencional com limites "de três sigma" oferece pouca proteção contra alarmes falsos ou é lento para detectar perturbações no processo. Este estudo foi motivado pelo caso real de um processo de empacotamento de cadernos de jornais. O número nominal de cadernos no pacote depende da espessura do caderno, e pacotes com um número de cadernos diferente do nominal são considerados não conformes.We present the non-conventional design of np charts used for the surveillance of processes characterized by a very low fraction nonconforming, with a costly and/or time-consuming inspection procedure, which makes the inspection of large samples prohibitive. Under these circumstances, the trade-off between the false-alarm rate and the speed with which the chart signals process deteriorations is the basis to design the control chart, once (depending on the sample size the conventional np chart with "three-sigma" limits offers little protection against false alarms or is slow in detecting process disturbances. The study was motivated by the real case of a newspapers packaging process. The nominal number of newspapers in the package depends on the newspaper's breadth, and packages with a number of newspapers different from nominal are considered nonconforming.

  14. Fractional Vortices and Lumps

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter

    2009-01-01

    We study what might be called fractional vortices, vortex configurations with the minimum winding from the viewpoint of their topological stability, but which are characterized by various notable substructures in the transverse energy distribution. The fractional vortices occur in diverse Abelian or non-Abelian generalizations of the Higgs model. The global and local features characterizing these are studied, and we identify the two crucial ingredients for their occurrence - the vacuum degeneracy leading to non-trivial vacuum moduli M, and the BPS nature of the vortices. Fractional vortices are further classified into two kinds. The first type of such vortices appear when M has orbifold Z_n singularities; the second type occurs in systems in which the vacuum moduli space M possesses either a deformed geometry or some singularity. These general features are illustrated with several concrete models.

  15. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  16. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the nonrotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of κ-Minkowski spacetime. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between κ-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra.

  17. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Arzano, Michele; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the non-rotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of \\kappa-Minkowski. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power-law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between \\kappa-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra.

  18. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable ext

  19. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  20. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tend to impact at arterial bifurcations, the commonest site being the ... Other ominous signs of advanced ischaemia include bluish ... Recommended standards for lower extremity ischaemia*. Doppler signals ... of the embolectomy procedure. An ... in a cath-lab or angio-suite under local ... We serially measure the aPTT and.

  1. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  2. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  3. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  4. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  5. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C

    2015-10-05

    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented.

  6. Fractional standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-28

    Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed.

  7. Light within small particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iati, Maria Antonia [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31 - 98166 Messina (Italy)]. E-mail: maiati@unime.it; Saija, Rosalba [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31 - 98166 Messina (Italy); Giusto, Arianna [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Denti, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31 - 98166 Messina (Italy); Borghese, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31 - 98166 Messina (Italy); Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, 09012 Capoterra (CA) (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    We calculate the energy density distribution in the ultraviolet within small spheres containing concentric cavities, aimed at simulating interstellar dust grains. We explore the dependence on chemical composition by progressively changing, in an arbitrary way, the refractive index of the sphere material. We conclude that a significant fraction of the energy of the impinging radiation is trapped throughout the particle interior.

  8. Highly Efficient Full-Color Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Extremely Low Efficiency Roll-Off Utilizing a Host with Small Singlet-Triplet Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Chongguang; Zhang, Yunge; Song, Xiaozeng; Wei, Pengcheng; Cai, Minghan; Duan, Lian

    2017-02-08

    Numerous efforts have been devoted to boost the efficiency of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) devices; however, strategies to suppress the device efficiency roll-off are still in urgent need. Here, a general and effective approach to suppress the efficiency roll-off of TADF devices is proposed, that is, utilizing TADF materials as the hosts for TADF emitters. Bearing small singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) with donor and acceptor units, TADF materials as the hosts possess the potential to achieve matched frontier energy levels with the adjacent transporting layers, facilitating balanced charge injection as well as bipolar charge transport mobilities beneficial to the balanced charges transportation. Furthermore, an enhanced Förster energy transfer from the host to the dopant can be anticipated, helpful to reduce the exciton concentration. Based on the principles, a new TADF material based on indeno[2,1-b]carbazole/1,3,5-triazin derivation is synthesized and used as the universal host for the full-color TADF devices. Remarkable low efficiency roll-off was achieved with above 90% of the maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEmax's) maintained even at a brightness of 2000 cd/m(2), along with EQEmax's of 23.2, 21.0, and 19.2% for orange, green, and sky-blue TADF devices, respectively. Through computational simulation, we identified the suppressed exciton annihilation rates compared with devices adopting conventional hosts. The state-of-the-art low efficiency roll-off of those TADF devices manifests the great potential of such host design strategy, paving an efficient strategy toward their practical application.

  9. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  10. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  11. An extremely primitive halo star

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; François, P; Sbordone, L; Monaco, L; Spite, M; Spite, F; Ludwig, H -G; Cayrel, R; Zaggia, S; Hammer, F; Randich, S; Molaro, P; Hill, V; 10.1038/nature10377

    2012-01-01

    The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium1, almost all other elements were created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction, Z, of elements more massive than helium, is called "metallicity". A number of very metal poor stars have been found some of which, while having a low iron abundance, are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. For theoretical reasons and because of an observed absence of stars with metallicities lower than Z=1.5E-5, it has been suggested that low mass stars (M<0.8M\\odot, the ones that survive to the present day) cannot form until the interstellar medium has been enriched above a critical value, estimated to lie in the range 1.5E-8\\leqZ\\leq1.5E-6, although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist. Here we report the chemical composition of a star with a very low Z\\leq6.9E-7 (4.5E-5 of that of the Sun) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal poor stars, meaning without the enrichment of carbon, nitroge...

  12. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  13. Avoidance of Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathleen; Kerslake, Daphne

    The Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) and Strategies and Errors in Secondary Mathematics (SESM) research projects based at Chelsa College, England, have shown the marked reluctance of secondary school students to use fractions when solving mathematical problems, even though they have been taught the topic for a number of years.…

  14. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  15. Ramping up on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana C.; Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a technology-based and hands-on instructional intervention designed to advance middle school students' understandings of fractions. This problem-solving experience is based on the principles of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) and proved instructionally worthwhile and motivating to teachers and students in both inclusive …

  16. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  17. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  18. Fractional statistics and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  19. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  20. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  1. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential.

  2. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  3. Mineralogical Evolution in Extreme Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Young (10-200 Myr), luminous (fractional luminosity on the order of 1.E-2) extreme debris disks provide a unique opportunity to explore exo-asteriod and exo-planetesimal collisions during the oligarchic and chaotic phases of terrestrial planet-building. We propose to obtain low-resolution grism spectra of four extreme debris disks to document and characterize the mineralogy changes in the mid-IR region where strong peaks originating from silica and forsterite dust can be easily identified. The proposed observations will supplement our on-going warm Spitzer monitoring program studying disk variability at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, provide immediate insights on the long-term mineralogical evolution in comparison with the existing Spitzer IRS spectra, and will bridge to similar studies that JWST will provide in the near future.

  4. Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Nihar; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2007-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new paradigm for power control in decentralized wireless networks, termed fractional power control. Transmission power is chosen as the current channel quality raised to an exponent -s, where s is a constant between 0 and 1. Choosing s = 1 and s = 0 correspond to the familiar cases of channel inversion and constant power transmission, respectively. Choosing s in (0, 1) allows all intermediate policies between these two extremes to be evaluated, and we see that neither extreme is ideal. We prove that using an exponent of s = 1/2 optimizes the transmission capacity of an ad hoc network, meaning that the inverse square root of the channel strength is the optimal transmit power scaling. Intuitively, this choice achieves the optimal balance between helping disadvantaged users while making sure they do not flood the network with interference.

  5. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  6. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  7. Extremal periodic wave profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Groesen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to deterministic investigations into extreme fluid surface waves, in this paper wave profiles of prescribed period that have maximal crest height will be investigated. As constraints the values of the momentum and energy integrals are used in a simplified description with the KdV model. The result is that at the boundary of the feasible region in the momentum-energy plane, the only possible profiles are the well known cnoidal wave profiles. Inside the feasible region the extremal profiles of maximal crest height are "cornered" cnoidal profiles: cnoidal profiles of larger period, cut-off and periodically continued with the prescribed period so that at the maximal crest height a corner results.

  8. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  9. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  10. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  11. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  12. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  13. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  14. Extreme Hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of data suggests that hypofractionated radiation schedules, where a higher dose per fraction is delivered in a smaller number of sessions, may be superior to conventional fractionation schemes in terms of both tumour control and toxicity profile in the management of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. However, the optimal hypofractionation scheme is still the subject of scientific debate. Modern computer-driven technology enables the safe implementation of extreme hypo fractionation (often referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]. Several studies are currently being conducted to clarify the yet unresolved issues regarding treatment techniques and fractionation regimens. Recently, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO issued a model policy indicating that data supporting the use of SBRT for prostate cancer have matured to a point where SBRT could be considered an appropriate alternative for select patients with low-to-intermediate risk disease. The present article reviews some of the currently available data and examines the impact of tracking technology to mitigate intra-fraction target motion, thus, potentially further improving the clinical outcomes of extreme hypofractionated radiation therapy in appropriately selected prostate cancer patients. The Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (CCU’s currently ongoing Phase I feasibility study is described; it delivers 45 Gy in five fractions using prostate fixation via a rectal balloon, and urethral sparing via catheter placement with on-line intra-fractional motion tracking through beacon transponder technology.

  15. Study on the Effect of Small-incision Saphenous Vein Stripping Operation Combined With Foam Sclerotherapy Injection in Treatment of Varicose Veins of Lower Extremity%小切口大隐静脉剥脱术联合泡沫硬化剂注射治疗下肢浅静脉曲张的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 李谊佳; 陈昊泽

    2016-01-01

    Objective Effect of smal-incision saphenous vein stripping operation combined with foam sclerotherapy injection in treatment of varicose veins of lower extremity is to be studied.Methods Chose 52 patients with varicose veins of lower extremity who were treated in hospital from January to December 2015 and separated them into control group(small-incision saphenous vein stripping operation)and study group(small-incision saphenous vein stripping operation combined with foam sclerotherapy injection treatment)by drawing lottery and then compared treatment effects between two groups.Results Patients’every physical index was much better,treatment efficacy was higher and infection rate was much lower in study group than counterparts in control group,there was a differential between these two groups,and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). ConclusionSmal-incision saphenous vein stripping operation combined with foam sclerotherapy injection is quiet effective in treatment of varicose veins of lower extremity.%目的:研究小切口大隐静脉剥脱术联合泡沫硬化剂注射治疗下肢浅静脉曲张的疗效。方法研究年度2015年1~12月,研究对象为下肢浅静脉曲张患者52例,给予抽签分组。对照组(小切口大隐静脉剥脱术)和研究组(小切口大隐静脉剥脱术联合泡沫硬化剂注射),对比两组疗效。结果两组中研究组各项指标优,治疗有效率高,感染率低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论下肢浅静脉曲张采用小切口大隐静脉剥脱术联合泡沫硬化剂注射治疗,疗效确切。

  16. Creating, Naming, and Justifying Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Daniel; Gaskin, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    For students to develop meaningful conceptions of fractions and fraction operations, they need to think of fractions in terms other than as just whole-number combinations. In this article, we suggest two powerful images for thinking about fractions that move beyond whole-number reasoning. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  18. Orange You Glad I "Did" Say "Fraction Division"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Priewe, Melina D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how teachers address issues and tensions that students meet in learning division of fractions. First, students must make sense of division of fractions on their own by working individually and in small groups, using concrete or pictorial representations, inventing their own processes, and presenting and justifying their…

  19. Analytical Solution of the Time Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutradhar T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A nonperturbative approximate analytic solution is derived for the time fractional Fokker-Planck (F-P equation by using Adomian’s Decomposition Method (ADM. The solution is expressed in terms of Mittag- Leffler function. The present method performs extremely well in terms of accuracy, efficiency and simplicity.

  20. Fractional lattice charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2017-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  1. Fractions in elementary education

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

  2. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shchigolev, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  3. Testing fractional action cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  4. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  5. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  6. Present-day irrigation mitigates heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, David M.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. An evaluation of the model performance reveals that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Our results underline that irrigation has substantially reduced our exposure to hot temperature extremes in the past and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  7. Momentum Fractionation on Superstrata

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with mom...

  8. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  9. Conformal properties of the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperin, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The conformal structure of the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime is analysed using the extended conformal Einstein field equations. Initial data for an asymptotic initial value problem for the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime is obtained. Using the insights gained from the analysis of the reference spacetime we consider nonlinear perturbations close to the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime. We show that small enough perturbations of initial data for the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime, away from the singularity, give rise to a solution to the Einstein field equations which exists to the future and has an asymptotic structure similar to that of the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime. Similarly, we obtain an existence and stability result for asymptotic initial data close to that of the extremal Schwarzschild de-Sitter spacetime in the non-singular region.

  10. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  11. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  12. Mycetoma of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahariah S

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of mycetoma of the lower extremity were seen and treated at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India, during the years 1973 to 1975. Six were treated by conservative method e.g. antibiotics, sulfonamides and immobilization of the part while remaining four were submitted t o surgery. Four out o f six from the first group had recurrence and has been put on second line of therapy. Recurrence occurred in only one case from the second group and he required an above knee amputation while the remaining three are free of disease and are well rehabilitated.

  13. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles.

  14. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  15. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  16. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...

  17. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken' ichi, E-mail: c.kobayashi@herts.ac.uk [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  18. Gauge Invariant Fractional Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  19. A novel fractional technique for the modified point kinetics equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Aboanber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is derived and analyzed. An analytical method is used to solve the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations. This methodical technique is based on the representation of the neutron density as a power series of the relaxation time as a small parameter. The validity of the fractional model is tested for different cases of step, ramp and sinusoidal reactivity. The results show that the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is the best representation of neutron density for subcritical and supercritical reactors.

  20. Fractional Langevin equation and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau Fa, Kwok

    2007-10-01

    In this present work we consider a fractional Langevin equation with Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative which modifies the classical Newtonian force, nonlocal dissipative force, and long-time correlation. We investigate the first two moments, variances and position and velocity correlation functions of this system. We also compare them with the results obtained from the same fractional Langevin equation which uses the Caputo fractional derivative.

  1. Ultraconservation identifies a small subset of extremely constrained developmental enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Visel, Axel; Prabhakar, Shyam; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Shoukry, Malak; Lewis, Keith D.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-10-01

    While experimental studies have suggested that non-coding ultraconserved DNA elements are central nodes in the regulatory circuitry that specifies mammalian embryonic development, the possible functional relevance of their>200bp of perfect sequence conservation between human-mouse-rat remains obscure 1,2. Here we have compared the in vivo enhancer activity of a genome-wide set of 231 non-exonic sequences with ultraconserved cores to that of 206 sequences that are under equivalently severe human-rodent constraint (ultra-like), but lack perfect sequence conservation. In transgenic mouse assays, 50percent of the ultraconserved and 50percent of the ultra-like conserved elements reproducibly functioned as tissue-specific enhancers at embryonic day 11.5. In this in vivo assay, we observed that ultraconserved enhancers and constrained non-ultraconserved enhancers targeted expression to a similar spectrum of tissues with a particular enrichment in the developing central nervous system. A human genome-wide comparative screen uncovered ~;;2,600 non-coding elements that evolved under ultra-like human-rodent constraint and are similarly enriched near transcriptional regulators and developmental genes as the much smaller number of ultraconserved elements. These data indicate that ultraconserved elements possessing absolute human-rodent sequence conservation are not distinct from other non-coding elements that are under comparable purifying selection in mammals and suggest they are principal constituents of the cis-regulatory framework of mammalian development.

  2. Going Extreme For Small Solutions To Big Environmental Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Christopher E.

    2011-03-31

    This chapter is devoted to the scale, scope, and specific issues confronting the cleanup and long-term disposal of the U.S. nuclear legacy generated during WWII and the Cold War Era. The research reported is aimed at complex microbiological interactions with legacy waste materials generated by past nuclear production activities in the United States. The intended purpose of this research is to identify cost effective solutions to the specific problems (stability) and environmental challenges (fate, transport, exposure) in managing and detoxifying persistent contaminant species. Specifically addressed are high level waste microbiology and bacteria inhabiting plutonium laden soils in the unsaturated subsurface.

  3. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  4. Preheating with fractional powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We consider preheating in models in which the potential for the inflaton is given by a fractional power, as is the case in axion monodromy inflation. We assume a standard coupling between the inflaton field and a scalar matter field. We find that in spite of the fact that the oscillation of the inflaton about the field value which minimizes the potential is anharmonic, there is nevertheless a parametric resonance instability, and we determine the Floquet exponent which describes this instability as a function of the parameters of the inflaton potential.

  5. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step...

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  7. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  8. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  9. Body Fractions: A Physical Approach to Fraction Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Many students experience great difficulty understanding the meaning of fractions. For many students who have spent their early mathematics lessons focusing on counting (whole) numbers, recognising that there are many numbers between those whole numbers called fractional numbers, is quite revolutionary. The foundation of understanding fractions is…

  10. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.K. Shchigolev

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given.

  11. Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mellet, Antoine

    2010-08-20

    This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider situations in which the equilibrium distribution function is a heavy-tailed distribution with infinite variance. We then show that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a fractional diffusion equation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. The Geminga Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Gonthier, P L; Harding, Alice K.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Gonthier, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    Radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars like Geminga may account for a number of the unidentified EGRET sources in the Galaxy. The number of Geminga-like pulsars is very sensitive to the geometry of both the gamma-ray and radio beams. Recent studies of the shape and polarization of pulse profiles of young radio pulsars have provided evidence that their radio emission originates in wide cone beams at altitudes that are a significant fraction (1 -10%) of their light cylinder radius. Such wide radio emission beams will be visible at a much larger range of observer angles than the narrow core components thought to originate at lower altitude. Using 3D geometrical modeling that includes relativistic effects from pulsar rotation, we study the visibility of such radio cone beams as well as that of the gamma-ray beams predicted by slot gap and outer gap models. From the results of this study one can obtain revised predictions for the fraction of Geminga-like, radio quiet pulsars present in the gamma-ray pulsar population.

  13. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  14. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  15. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  16. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  17. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Orlov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Explicit dyonic dilaton black holes of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for two particular values of the dilaton coupling constant $a =1,\\sqrt{3}$, while for other $a$ numerical evidence was presented earlier about existence of extremal dyons in theories with the discrete sequence of dilaton couplings $a=\\sqrt{n(n+1)/2}$ with integer $n$. Apart from the lower members $n=1,\\,2$, this family of theories does not have motivation from supersymmetry or higher dimensions, and so far the above quantization rule has not been derived analytically. We fill this gap showing that this rule follows from analyticity of the dilaton at the $AdS_2\\times S^2$ event horizon with $n$ being the leading dilaton power in the series expansion. We also present generalization for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  18. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  19. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  20. A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JOYDIP BANERJEE; UTTAM GHOSH; SUSMITA SARKAR; SHANTANU DAS

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the fractional Schrödinger equation are then described for the case of particles in one-dimensional infinite potential well. One of the motivations for using fractional calculus in physical systems is that the space and time variables, which we often deal with, exhibit coarse-grained phenomena. This means infinite simal quantities cannot be arbitrarily taken to zero – rather they are non-zero with a minimum spread. This type of non-zero spread arises in the microscopic to mesoscopic levels of system dynamics, which means that, if we denote x as the point in space and t as the point in time, then limit of the differentials dx (and dt ) cannot be taken as zero. To take the concept of coarse graining into account, use the infinite simal quantities as $(\\Delta x)^\\alpha$ (and $(\\Delta t)^\\alpha$) with 0 < $\\alpha$ < 1; called as ‘fractional differentials’. For arbitrarily small $\\Delta x$ and $\\Delta t$ (tending towards zero), these ‘fractional’ differentials are greaterthan $\\Delta x$ (and $\\Delta t$), i.e. $(\\Delta x)^\\alpha$ > $\\Delta x$ and $(\\Delta t)^\\alpha$ > $\\Delta t$. This way of defining the fractional differentials helps us to use fractional derivatives in the study of dynamic systems.

  1. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  2. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  3. Experimental observation of fractional echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Siour, G.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2016-09-01

    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes, which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiples of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  4. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2016-07-14

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  5. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2006-08-04

    We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function.

  6. How Weird Are Weird Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  7. New explanation for extreme u-234 u-238 disequilibria in a dolomitic aquifer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kronfeld, J

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available in the fractionation process. The Wolkberg cave speleothems preserve a record of the uranium isotopic fractionations that evolved as water flowed through the aquifer. Extremely variable and elevated U-234/U-238 ratios (of 2-12) are characteristic. Individual caverns...

  8. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  9. Fractional Chemotaxis Diffusion Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langlands, T A M

    2010-01-01

    We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modelling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macro-molecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using Continuous Time Random Walk master equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macro-molecular crowding or other obstacles.

  10. Extreme Convective Weather in Future Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at Extreme Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in extreme weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of extreme convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will provide details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of extreme precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.

  11. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  12. On the Van Vleck theorem for regular C-fractions with limit-periodic coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buslaev, V I [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-31

    In this paper we investigate the convergence set of a regular C-fraction with limit-periodic coefficients. This investigation is based on a general assertion concerning the convergence of composites of linear-fractional transformations whose coefficients are limit-periodic functions depending holomorphically on a parameter. We show that the singularity set of such a C-fraction possesses an extremal property stated in terms of the transfinite diameter (capacity) of sets.

  13. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  14. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  15. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...

  16. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  17. Extremal almost-Kahler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lejmi, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of the Futaki invariant and extremal vector field to the general almost-Kahler case and we prove the periodicity of the extremal vector field when the symplectic form represents an integral cohomology class modulo torsion. We give also an explicit formula of the hermitian scalar curvature which allows us to obtain examples of non-integrable extremal almost-Kahler metrics saturating LeBrun's estimates.

  18. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  19. Plasma Physics of Extreme Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2014-01-01

    Certain classes of astrophysical objects, namely magnetars and central engines of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), are characterized by extreme physical conditions not encountered elsewhere in the Universe. In particular, they possess magnetic fields that exceed the critical quantum field of 44 teragauss. Figuring out how these complex ultra-magnetized systems work requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). However, an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying physics to such an extent that many relevant plasma-physical problems call for building QED-based relativistic quantum plasma physics. In this review, after describing the extreme astrophysical systems of interest and identifying the key relevant plasma-physical problems, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We discuss how a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and outline the basic theoretical framework f...

  20. Extreme Achalasia Presenting as Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Goldsmith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Achalasia may lead to cachexia if not diagnosed in an early stage. Surgery in cachectic patients is hazardous and complications may result in a protracted recovery or even death. Different treatment options have been described. In this paper, we report a stepwise surgical laparoscopic approach which appears to be safe and effective. Methods. Over a one-year period, a patient with a body mass index (BMI below 17 being treated for anorexia nervosa was referred with dysphagia. Because of the extreme cachexia, a laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy (LFJ was fashioned to enable long-term home enteral feeding. The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM when the BMI was normal. Results. The patient recovered well following this stepwise approach. Conclusion. Patients with advanced achalasia usually present with extreme weight loss. In this small group of patients, a period of home enteral nutrition (HEN via a laparoscopically placed feeding jejunostomy allows weight gain prior to safe definitive surgery.

  1. Fractional Calculus: Integral and Differential Equations of Fractional Order

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenflo, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the linear operators of fractional integration and fractional differentiation in the framework of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus. Particular attention is devoted to the technique of Laplace transforms for treating these operators in a way accessible to applied scientists, avoiding unproductive generalities and excessive mathematical rigor. By applying this technique we shall derive the analytical solutions of the most simple linear integral and differential equations of fractional order. We show the fundamental role of the Mittag-Leffler function, whose properties are reported in an ad hoc Appendix. The topics discussed here will be: (a) essentials of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus with basic formulas of Laplace transforms, (b) Abel type integral equations of first and second kind, (c) relaxation and oscillation type differential equations of fractional order.

  2. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  3. An improved fractional divider for fractional-N frequency synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yongqi

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an improved fractional divider used in 1.8~2GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizers. A new clock setting for delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is proposed to prevent the potential problems of traditional fractional dividers: the DSM output would be wrongly loaded and the action of DSM circuit may affect the phase-detection of phase-frequency-detector (PFD). Simulation result shows the effectiveness of this improvement.

  4. A Statistical Treatment of Bioassay Pour Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The binomial probability distribution is used to treat the statistics of a microbiological sample that is split into two parts, with only one part evaluated for spore count. One wishes to estimate the total number of spores in the sample based on the counts obtained from the part that is evaluated (pour fraction). Formally, the binomial distribution is recharacterized as a function of the observed counts (successes), with the total number (trials) an unknown. The pour fraction is the probability of success per spore (trial). This distribution must be renormalized in terms of the total number. Finally, the new renormalized distribution is integrated and mathematically inverted to yield the maximum estimate of the total number as a function of a desired level of confidence ( P(fraction. The extension to recovery efficiency corrections is also presented. Now the product of recovery efficiency and pour fraction may be small enough that the likely value may be much larger than the usual calculation: the number of spores divided by that product. The use of this analysis would not be limited to microbiological data.

  5. Propagation of precipitation extremes into discharge extremes in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Monica; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Deidda, Roberto; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean basins are characterized by high precipitation variability, which presents strong seasonality, large inter-annual fluctuations and spatial variations during single events, and by wide spatial differences of terrain and surface properties. As a consequence, these catchments are often prone to the occurrence of hydro-meteorological extremes, including storms, floods and flash-floods. Several climate projections in this area predict a general exacerbation of intensity and frequency of extreme events, thus requiring further analyses to evaluate their impact at the land surface, especially in relatively small watersheds. In this study, we used climate and hydrologic simulations produced within the Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins (CLIMB) research project to analyze how precipitation extremes propagate into discharge extremes under changing climate conditions in the Rio Mannu basin (472.5 km2), an agricultural watershed located in Sardinia, Italy. The basin response to climate forcings in a reference (1971-2000; REF) and a future (2041-2070; FUT) period was simulated by using four combinations of global and regional climate models (CMs), statistical downscaling techniques, and a process based distributed hydrologic model. We first conducted statistical analyses based on the General Extreme Value (GEV) distribution on precipitation annual maxima at different durations (daily and hourly), extracted from the grids of the four selected CMs. Results show high uncertainties in climate projections, with GEV parameters differing among CMs, REF and FUT periods, and time duration. Subsequently, we fitted the GEV distribution to the series of maximum annual discharge data at daily and hourly duration, simulated by the hydrologic model at distributed basin locations. The analyses reveal that sub-basins characterized by lower slope and dominated by more impermeable soils have higher probabilities of extreme event occurrence than steeper

  6. Instability of the extreme Kerr-Newman black-holes

    OpenAIRE

    Reiris, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using black-hole inequalities and the increase of the horizon's areas, we show that there are arbitrarily small electro-vacuum perturbations of the standard initial data of the extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole that, (by contradiction), cannot decay in time into any extreme Kerr-Newman black-hole. This proves the expectation that the family of extreme Kerr-Newman black-holes is unstable. It remains of course to be seen whether the whole family of charged black-holes, including those extre...

  7. Wind simulation for extreme and fatigue loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Larsen, G.C.; Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hansen, K.S.; Pedersen, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric turbulence have been studied and found to deviate from a Gaussian process, in particular regarding the velocity increments over small time steps, where the tails of the pdf are exponential rather than Gaussian. Principles for extreme event counting and the occurrence of cascading events are presented. Empirical extreme statistics agree with Rices exceedence theory, when it is assumed that the velocity and its time derivative are independent. Prediction based on the assumption that the velocity is a Gaussian process underpredicts the rate of occurrence of extreme events by many orders of magnitude, mainly because the measured pdf is non-Gaussian. Methods for simulation of turbulent signals have been developed and their computational efficiency are considered. The methods are applicable for multiple processes with individual spectra and probability distributions. Non-Gaussian processes are simulated by the correlation-distortion method. Non-stationary processes are obtained by Bezier interpolation between a set of stationary simulations with identical random seeds. Simulation of systems with some signals available is enabled by conditional statistics. A versatile method for simulation of extreme events has been developed. This will generate gusts, velocity jumps, extreme velocity shears, and sudden changes of wind direction. Gusts may be prescribed with a specified ensemble average shape, and it is possible to detect the critical gust shape for a given construction. The problem is formulated as the variational problem of finding the most probable adjustment of a standard simulation of a stationary Gaussian process subject to relevant event conditions, which are formulated as linear combination of points in the realization. The method is generalized for multiple correlated series, multiple simultaneous conditions, and 3D fields of all velocity components. Generalization are presented for a single non-Gaussian process subject to relatively

  8. Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Bayin, S S

    2014-01-01

    Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered.

  9. Proton Fraction in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰收; 陈列文

    2001-01-01

    The proton fraction in β-stable neutron stars is investigated within the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction for the first time. The calculated results show that the proton fraction disappears at high density, which implies that the pure neutron matter may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The incompressibility of the nuclear equation-of-state is shown to be more important to determine the proton fraction. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the addition of muons in neutron stars will change the proton fraction. It is also found that the higher-order terms of the nuclear symmetry energy have obvious effects on the proton fraction and the parabolic law of the nuclear symmetry energy is not enough to determine the proton fraction.

  10. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  11. 小细胞肺癌脑转移全脑放疗失败后挽救性分次立体定向放疗疗效分析%Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for recurrent small cell lung cancer brain metastases after whole brain radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥攀; 李晔雄; 肖建平; 陈秀军; 姜雪松; 张烨; 徐英杰; 郇福奎; 方浩; 万宝

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evaluation the Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (FSRT) for the patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after the whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) failure.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 35 patients with brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer treated with linear accelerator FSRT after the WBRT failure. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significant prognostic factor related to survival.Results The following-up rate was 100%.The median following-up time was 11 months.The median over-all survival (OS) time was 10.3( 1 -30) months after FSRT.Controlled extra cranial disease was the only identified significant predictor of increased median OS time (χ2 =4.02,P =0.045 ).The median OS time from the diagnosis of brain metastasis was 22 (6 - 134 )months.14 patients died from brain metastasis,14 from extra-cranial progression,1 from leptomeningeal metastases,and 3 from other causes. Local control at 6 months and 12 months was 91% and 76%,respectively.No significant late complications.New brain metastases outside of the treated area developed in 17% of patients at a median time of 4(2 -20) months; all patients had received previous WBRT.Conclusions Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy was safe and effective treatment for recurrent small-cell lung carcinoma brain metastases.%目的 评价小细胞肺癌( SCLC)全脑放疗(WBRT)后颅内失败分次立体定向放疗(FSRT)挽救的价值.方法 回顾分析WBRT失败后使用FSRT挽救的35例SCLC脑转移患者的生存情况,多因素分析确定和生存相关的预后因素.结果 随访率为100%,中位随访时间11个月.全组总中位生存期为10.3个月,多因素分析显示颅外疾病控制状态和患者的生存相关(χ2=4.02,P=0.045).自诊断脑转移开始中位生存期为22.0个月,未发现严重晚期不良反应.6、12个月局部控制率分别为91%、76%.6例局部未控患者中3例行二程FSRT挽救,挽救治疗后生存时间分别为3、9

  12. Number line representations of fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Wagner, Sigrid

    1982-01-01

    The study explored students' interpretations of representations of fractions on number lines and the effect of instruction on those interpretations. Subjects were five fourth-graders, and instruction was a four-day unit on the use of number lines. A 16-item, multiple-choice pre- and posttest was used along with videotaped interviews. Performance improved except when students had to associate a reduced fraction symbol with an equivalent, unreduced fraction representation on a number line. The ...

  13. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites...... are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...

  14. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  15. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  16. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  17. The effect of dose fractionation on overall survival in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer%局限期小细胞肺癌不同剂量分割模式放疗的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冰; 陈桂园; 蔡旭伟; 赵建东; 杨焕军; 樊旼; 赵快乐; 傅小龙

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different dose fractionation on overall survival in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Methods LS-SCLC patients treated with radical combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) between January 2001 and Dec 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. According to the dose fractionation schemes, patients were divided into three groups:conventional fractionated RT (1. 8 -2.0 Gy,once daily), hyperfractionated RT (1.4 Gy, twice daily) and hypofractionated RT (2. 5 Gy,once daily). Overall survival, disease free survival and pattern of failures of the three groups were compared. A total of 177 patients were enrolled, including 63 patients in conventional fractionated RT group, 79 in hyperfractionated RT group and 35 in hypofractionated RT group. Results The overall follow-up rate was 96. 6%. The patient numbers with follow-up of more than 2 and 5 years were 153 and 92, respectively. The median survival time of the entire group was 22. 4 months, and the 2-and 5-year survival rates were 43.4% and 23. 5%, respectively. The 2-year survival rates for three groups were 31%, 46% and 59% (x2 =7.94,P=0.019), respectively. The 2-year disease free survival for three groups were 20%, 31% and 40% ( x2 = 4. 86, P = 0. 088 ), respectively. In the pairwise comparisons,patients in hypofractionated RT group have better survival than those in conventional fractionated RT group ( x2 = 7. 81, P = 0. 005 ), the effect of hyperfractionated RT group lies between the hypo-and the conventional fractionated RT groups, but no significant differences were detected ( x2 = 2. 31, P = 0. 128; x2 = 2. 95, P =0. 086). The mildest side effect was found in the hypofractionated RT group. No statistically significant differences were found in the patterns of first failure. Conclusion The hypofractionated RT scheme showed potential survival benefits for patients with LS-SCLC and should be considered in the setting of randomized clinical trials.%目的 比较

  18. Configuration Management for eXtreme Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Ekman, T.

    2003-01-01

    Extreme programming (XP) is a software development method that prescribes the use of 12 different practices. Four of these practices (collective code ownership, continuous integration, small releases and refactoring) can indeed be given good support by the use of simple configuration management (CM...... on those CM aspects that are related to co-ordination and release. Furthermore, we found that even a simple CM tool will do as long as it supports the copy-merge model to allow and support parallel work. Overall none of the four CM-related XP practices caused any particular problems to the developers...

  19. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  20. Comment on "Fractional quantum mechanics" and "Fractional Schroedinger equation"

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    In this comment, we point out some shortcomings in two papers "Fractional quantum mechanics" [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3135 (2000)] and "Fractional Schroedinger equation" [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056108 (2002)]. We prove that the fractional uncertainty relation does not hold generally. The probability continuity equation in fractional quantum mechanics has a missing source term, which leads to particle teleportation, i.e., a particle can teleport from one place to another. Since the relativistic kinetic energy can be viewed as an approximate realization of the fractional kinetic energy, the particle teleportation should be an observable relativistic effect in quantum mechanics. With the help of this concept, superconductivity could be viewed as the teleportation of electrons from one side of a superconductor to another and superfluidity could be viewed as the teleportation of helium atoms from one end of a capillary tube to the other. We also point out how to teleport a particle to a destination.

  1. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  2. Finite escape fraction for ultrahigh energy collisions around Kerr naked singularity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandar Patil; Pankaj S Joshi

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the issue of observability of high-energy collisions around Kerr naked singularity and show that results are in contrast with the Kerr black hole case. We had shown that it would be possible to have ultrahigh energy collisions between the particles close to the location = M around the Kerr naked singularity if the Kerr spin parameter transcends unity by an infinitesimally small amount → 1+. The collision is between initially ingoing particle that turns back as an outgoing particle due to angular momentum barrier, with another ingoing particle. We assume that two massless particles are produced in such a collision and their angular distribution is isotropic in the centre-of-mass frame. We calculated the escape fraction for the massless particles to reach infinity. We showed that the escape fraction is finite and approximately equal to half for the ultrahigh energy collisions. Therefore, the particles produced in high-energy collisions would escape to infinity providing the signature of the nature of basic interactions at those energies. This result is in contrast with the case of extremal Kerr black hole where almost all particles produced in high-energy collisions are absorbed by the black hole rendering collisions unobservable.

  3. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  4. Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, André

    2016-12-12

    In 1990, Woese et al. divided the Tree of Life into three separate domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea were originally perceived as little more than “odd bacteria” restricted to extreme environmental niches, but later discoveries challenged this assumption. Members of this domain populate a variety of unexpected environments (e.g. soils, seawater, and human bodies), and we currently witness ongoing massive expansions of the archaeal branch of the Tree of Life. Archaea are now recognized as major players in the biosphere and constitute a significant fraction of the earth’s biomass, yet they remain underexplored. An ongoing surge in exploration efforts is leading to an increase in the (a) number of isolated strains, (b) associated knowledge, and (c) utilization of Archaea in biotechnology. They are increasingly employed in fields as diverse as biocatalysis, biocomputing, bioplastic production, bioremediation, bioengineering, food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles. We explore aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology. Current and future trends in mining for applications are discussed.

  5. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation is to split the raw material in sever

  6. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with mult

  7. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  8. Approximations of fractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuqiang; 10.3150/10-BEJ319

    2012-01-01

    Approximations of fractional Brownian motion using Poisson processes whose parameter sets have the same dimensions as the approximated processes have been studied in the literature. In this paper, a special approximation to the one-parameter fractional Brownian motion is constructed using a two-parameter Poisson process. The proof involves the tightness and identification of finite-dimensional distributions.

  9. Investigations on Multiplication of Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Khoo Phon; Inder, Walter R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three different models with continuous materials, discontinuous materials, and number lines were used to study the operation concept in six investigations on multiplication with fractions with pupils aged 11-12 in a Penang International School. All approaches could be understood by pupils, but they preferred the area and fractional models. (MNS)

  10. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  11. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction ( ... failure This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  12. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to…

  13. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  14. Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform.

  15. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  16. Stability of extremal metrics under complex deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann; Tipler, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Let $(\\mathcal {X},\\Omega)$ be a closed polarized complex manifold, $g$ be an extremal metric on $\\mathcal X$ that represents the K\\"ahler class $\\Omega$, and $G$ be a compact connected subgroup of the isometry group $Isom(\\mathcal{X},g)$. Assume that the Futaki invariant relative to $G$ is nondegenerate at $g$. Consider a smooth family $(\\mathcal{M}\\to B)$ of polarized complex deformations of $(\\mathcal{X},\\Omega)\\simeq (\\mathcal{M}_0,\\Theta_0)$ provided with a holomorphic action of $G$. Then for every $t\\in B$ sufficiently small, there exists an $h^{1,1}(\\cX)$-dimensional family of extremal K\\"ahler metrics on $\\mathcal{M}_t$ whose K\\"ahler classes are arbitrarily close to $\\Theta_t$. We apply this deformation theory to analyze the Mukai-Umemura 3-fold and its complex deformations. In particular, we prove that there are certain complex deformation of the Mukai-Umemura 3-folds which have extremal metric of non constant scalar curvature with Kaehler class $c_1$.

  17. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  18. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, J., E-mail: fujioka@fisica.unam.mx; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  19. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  20. Extreme Thrombocytosis and Cardiovascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thrombocytosis is a major risk factor for excessive bleeding and for thrombosis, either of which can complicate cardiovascular surgical and interventional procedures. Extreme thrombocytosis can also cause an unusual syndrome, erythromelalgia, that results in a type of chronic microvascular occlusive arterial disease. We present the differential diagnosis of conditions that may lead to extreme thrombocytosis, 3 cases (each of which illustrates a different potential complication), and a review of the pertinent medical literature. Correcting excessive thrombocytosis is typically not difficult, whether electively or acutely, and effective therapy usually controls thrombosis and excessive hemorrhage postprocedurally. PMID:23304015

  1. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunino, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, C.C. 124 Correo Central, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Perez, D.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: dario.perez@ucv.cl; Martin, M.T. [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Argentina' s National Council (CCT-CONICET), C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: mtmartin@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Garavaglia, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, C.C. 124 Correo Central, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: garavagliam@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Plastino, A. [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Argentina' s National Council (CCT-CONICET), C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Rosso, O.A. [Centre for Bioinformatics, Biomarker Discovery and Information-Based Medicine, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: oarosso@fibertel.com.ar

    2008-06-30

    We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays.

  2. Extreme event statistics in a drifting Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Farina; Hohmann, Michael; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Widera, Artur

    2017-07-01

    We analyze extreme event statistics of experimentally realized Markov chains with various drifts. Our Markov chains are individual trajectories of a single atom diffusing in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Based on more than 500 individual atomic traces we verify the applicability of the Sparre Andersen theorem to our system despite the presence of a drift. We present detailed analysis of four different rare-event statistics for our system: the distributions of extreme values, of record values, of extreme value occurrence in the chain, and of the number of records in the chain. We observe that, for our data, the shape of the extreme event distributions is dominated by the underlying exponential distance distribution extracted from the atomic traces. Furthermore, we find that even small drifts influence the statistics of extreme events and record values, which is supported by numerical simulations, and we identify cases in which the drift can be determined without information about the underlying random variable distributions. Our results facilitate the use of extreme event statistics as a signal for small drifts in correlated trajectories.

  3. Structural extremes in a cretaceous dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffrey A; Witmer, Lawrence M; Whitlock, John A; Maga, Abdoulaye; Ide, Oumarou; Rowe, Timothy A

    2007-11-21

    Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character data to obtain the best estimate of phylogenetic relationships among diplodocoid sauropods. Nigersaurus taqueti shows extreme adaptations for a dinosaurian herbivore including a skull of extremely light construction, tooth batteries located at the distal end of the jaws, tooth replacement as fast as one per month, an expanded muzzle that faces directly toward the ground, and hollow presacral vertebral centra with more air sac space than bone by volume. A cranial endocast provides the first reasonably complete view of a sauropod brain including its small olfactory bulbs and cerebrum. Skeletal and dental evidence suggests that Nigersaurus was a ground-level herbivore that gathered and sliced relatively soft vegetation, the culmination of a low-browsing feeding strategy first established among diplodocoids during the Jurassic.

  4. Structural extremes in a cretaceous dinosaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character data to obtain the best estimate of phylogenetic relationships among diplodocoid sauropods. Nigersaurus taqueti shows extreme adaptations for a dinosaurian herbivore including a skull of extremely light construction, tooth batteries located at the distal end of the jaws, tooth replacement as fast as one per month, an expanded muzzle that faces directly toward the ground, and hollow presacral vertebral centra with more air sac space than bone by volume. A cranial endocast provides the first reasonably complete view of a sauropod brain including its small olfactory bulbs and cerebrum. Skeletal and dental evidence suggests that Nigersaurus was a ground-level herbivore that gathered and sliced relatively soft vegetation, the culmination of a low-browsing feeding strategy first established among diplodocoids during the Jurassic.

  5. A new analytical approach to solve some of the fractional-order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafian, Jalil; Lakestani, Mehrdad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present an analytical method for the time fractional biological population model, time fractional Burgers, time fractional Cahn-Hilliard, space-time fractional Whitham-Broer-Kaup, space-time fractional Fokas equations by using the generalized tanh-coth method. The fractional derivative is described in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivatives. The method gives an analytic solution in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components, requiring no linearization or small perturbation. We have obtained the exact solutions for the aforementioned nonlinear fractional equations. A generalized fractional complex transform is appropriately used to convert these fractional equations to ordinary differential equations which subsequently resulted into number of exact solutions.

  6. A new analytical approach to solve some of the fractional-order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafian, Jalil; Lakestani, Mehrdad

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present an analytical method for the time fractional biological population model, time fractional Burgers, time fractional Cahn-Hilliard, space-time fractional Whitham-Broer-Kaup, space-time fractional Fokas equations by using the generalized tanh-coth method. The fractional derivative is described in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivatives. The method gives an analytic solution in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components, requiring no linearization or small perturbation. We have obtained the exact solutions for the aforementioned nonlinear fractional equations. A generalized fractional complex transform is appropriately used to convert these fractional equations to ordinary differential equations which subsequently resulted into number of exact solutions.

  7. Extreme precipitation and extreme streamflow in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydro-meteorological events have become the focus of more and more studies in the last decade. Due to the complexity of the spatial pattern of changes in precipitation processes, it is still hard to establish a clear view of how precipitation has changed and how it will change in the future. In the present study, changes in extreme precipitation and streamflow processes in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China are investigated. It was shown that little change is observed in annual extreme precipitation in terms of various indices, but some significant changes are found in the precipitation processes on a monthly basis. The result indicates that when detecting climate changes, besides annual indices, seasonal variations in extreme events should be considered as well. Despite of little change in annual extreme precipitation series, significant changes are detected in several annual extreme flood flow and low-flow series, mainly at the stations along the main channel of Dongjiang River, which are affected significantly by the operation of several major reservoirs. The result highlights the importance of evaluating the impacts of human activities in assessing the changes of extreme streamflows. In addition, three non-parametric methods that are not-commonly used by hydro-meteorology community, i.e., Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Levene's test and quantile test, are introduced and assessed by Monte Carlo simulation in the present study to test for changes in the distribution, variance and the shift of tails of different groups of dataset. Monte Carlo simulation result shows that, while all three methods work well for detecting changes in two groups of data with large data size (e.g., over 200 points in each group and big difference in distribution parameters (e.g., over 100% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution, none of them are powerful enough for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points and small distribution

  8. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  9. Extreme hypertriglyceridemia managed with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuzar, Moe; Shenoy, Vasant V; Malabu, Usman H; Schrale, Ryan; Sangla, Kunwarjit S

    2014-01-01

    Extreme hypertriglyceridemia can lead to acute pancreatitis and rapid lowering of serum triglycerides (TG) is necessary for preventing such life-threatening complications. However, there is no established consensus on the acute management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of extreme hypertriglyceridemia with mean serum TG on presentation of 101.5 ± 23.4 mmol/L (8982 ± 2070 mg/dL) managed with insulin. Serum TG decreased by 87 ± 4% in 24 hours in those patients managed with intravenous insulin and fasting and 40 ± 8.4% in those managed with intravenous insulin alone (P = .0003). The clinical course was uncomplicated in all except 1 patient who subsequently developed a pancreatic pseudocyst. Thus, combination of intravenous insulin with fasting appears to be an effective, simple, and safe treatment strategy in immediate management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  11. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  12. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  13. Risks of nuclear waste disposal in space. III - Long-term orbital evolution of small particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study of long term risks is presented that treats an additional pathway that could result in earth reentry, namely, small radioactive particles released in solar orbit due to payload fragmentation by accidental explosion or meteoroid impact. A characterization of such an event and of the initial mass size distribution of particles is given for two extremes of waste form strength. Attention is given to numerical results showing the mass-time distribution of material and the fraction of initial mass intercepted by earth. It is concluded that it appears that program planners need not be to concerned about the risks of this particular failure mechanism and return pathway.

  14. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  15. Extreme events in total ozone over the northern mid-latitudes: A case study based on long-term data sets from 5 ground-based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    (factor of 2.5), and Hohenpeissenberg and Belsk (both about a factor of 2). In general the reduction of trend is strongest during winter and spring. Throughout all stations the influence of ELOs on observed trends is larger than those of EHOs. Especially from the 1990s on ELOs dominate the picture as only a relatively small fraction of EHOs can be observed in the records (due to strong influence of Mt. Pinatubo eruption and polar vortex ozone loss contributions). Additionally it is evidenced that the number of observed mini-holes can be estimated highly accurate by the GPD-model. Overall the results of this thesis show that extreme events play a major role in total ozone and the "ozone extremes concept" provides deeper insight in the influence of chemical and physical features on column ozone. References: Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer Series in Statistics, ISBN:1852334592, Springer, Berlin, 2001. Ribatet, M.: POT: Modelling peaks over a threshold, R News, 7, 34-36, 2007. Rieder ,H.E., Staehelin, J., Maeder, J.A., Ribatet, M., Stübi, R., Weihs, P., Holawe, F., Peter, T., and A.D., Davison (2010): Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part I: Application of extreme value theory, to be submitted to ACPD. Rieder, H.E., Staehelin, J., Maeder, J.A., Ribatet, M., Stübi, R., Weihs, P., Holawe, F., Peter, T., and A.D., Davison (2010): Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part II: Fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and effects on mean values and long-term changes, to be submitted to ACPD.

  16. Deformations of extremal toric manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact toric extremal K\\"ahler manifold. Using the work of Sz\\'ekelyhidi, we provide a simple criterion on the fan describing $X$ to ensure the existence of complex deformations of $X$ that carry extremal metrics. As an example, we find new CSC metrics on 4-points blow-ups of $\\C\\P^1\\times\\C\\P^1$.

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  18. Observed Statistics of Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    9 Figure 5. An energy stealing wave as a solution to the NLS equation . (From: Dysthe and...shown that nonlinear interaction between four colliding waves can produce extreme wave behavior. He utilized the NLS equation in his numerical ...2000) demonstrated the formation of extreme waves using the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) equation , which is valid in shallow water. It was shown in the

  19. Weather Extremes Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    or ever has occurred. According to M. A. Arkin, "... record extremes must be taken with a grain of salt .... Ř He explains that news of an extreme...the edge of the Danakil Depression, a salt desert. By averaging the annual mean daily maximum temperature of 106°F36 atid the annual mean daily...increased by orographic lifting.1" Asa result of these monsoon disturbances, which are still not fully understood, the eastern Himalayan 105 106

  20. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  1. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  2. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  3. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.

  4. EPE The Extreme Physics Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael; Elvis, Martin; Bookbinder, Jay; Brenneman, Laura; Bulbul, Esra; Nulsen, Paul; Patnaude, Dan; Smith, Randall; Bandler, Simon; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Danner, Rolf; Daily, Dean; Fraser, George; Willingale, Richard; Miller, Jon; Turner, T. J.; Risalti, Guido; Galeazzi, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Physics Explorer (EPE) is a mission concept that will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics which are primary science objectives of IXO. The reach of EPE to the areas outlined in NASA RFI NNH11ZDA018L is shown as a table. The dark green indicates areas in which EPE can do the basic IXO science, and the light green areas where EPE can contribute but will not reach the full IXO capability. To address these science questions, EPE will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin in active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. EPE gives up the high resolution imaging of IXO in return for lightweight, high TRL foil mirrors which will provide >20 times the effective area of ASTRO-H and similar spatial resolution, with a beam sufficient to study point sources and nearby galaxies and clusters. Advances in micro-calorimeters allow improved performance at high rates with twice the energy resolution of ASTRO-H. A lower TRL option would provide 200 times the area of ASTRO-H using a micro-channel plate optic (MCPO) and a deployable optical bench. Both options are in the middle range of RFI missions at between $600M and $1000M. The EPE foil optic has direct heritage to ASTRO-H, allowing robust cost estimates. The spacecraft is entirely off the shelf and introduces no difficult requirements. The mission could be started and launched in this decade to an L2 orbit, with a three-year lifetime and consumables for 5 years. While ASTRO-H will give us the first taste of high-resolution, non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it will be limited to small numbers of objects in many categories. EPE will give us the first statistically significant samples in each of these categories.

  5. 全基因组表达谱芯片筛选非小细胞肺癌常规分割和大分割放疗差异基因的初步研究*%Identifying the genetic pattern of conventional fractionated and hypofractionated radiotherapy using whole genome expression microarray in a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 刘宁波; 曲晨慧; 王宝虎; 郭华; 王平

    2013-01-01

    目的:获得稳定的非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)放射抗拒细胞系,明确常规分割和大分割放疗后肿瘤基因表达改变。方法:采用A549细胞系,6MV X线常规照射(2 Gy×17 f)和大分割照射(4 Gy×7 f),克隆形成实验和γ-H2AX免疫荧光染色结合共聚焦显微镜验证细胞的放射抗拒特性。提取mRNA,全基因组表达谱芯片检测差异基因表达,分析2倍以上改变的基因(P<0.05),同时对芯片结果行Pathway分析(Q<0.05)。结果:获得了2株放疗抗拒细胞系A549R2Gy-R和A549R4Gy-R。表达谱芯片显示,A549与A549R2Gy-R相比,差异表达基因为1701个(357个上调,1344个下调);A549与A549R4Gy-R相比,944个基因上调,2602个基因下调。A549R2Gy-R与A549R4Gy-R相比,318个基因上调,699个基因下调。常规分割照射与大分割照射的pathway显著性富集分析显示,PI3K和Erb B通路等多条信号通路激酶出现显著性差异。结论:多种基因和信号通路参与了NSCLC常规分割和大分割放疗抗拒过程,进一步研究能明确NSCLC放射抗拒机制和为放疗增敏药物开发提供新靶点。%Objective:To obtain stable radioresistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and identify the genetic pattern of conventional fractioned and hypofractionated radiotherapy. Methods:A549 NSCLC cells were treated with 6 MV of x-rays through conventional fractionated (2 Gy, 17 f) and hypofractionated irradiation (4 Gy, 7 f) to establish a radiation resistance cell model. Tumor cell radioresistance was determined using a clonogenic assay andγ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining combined with confocal microscopy. After extracting total mRNA from the cells, a whole genome expression microarray was applied to detect differential gene expression. The genes with at least a twofold increase in expression (P<0.05) were analyzed, and the pathway (Q<0.05) methods were used to further analyze the chip results

  6. Extreme Dependence in Asset Markets Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Markwat (Thijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe dependence between large stock returns is higher than the dependence between small to moderate stock returns. This is defined as extreme dependence, and it is particularly observed for large negative returns. Therefore, diversification gains calculated from the overall dependence

  7. Extreme Dependence in Asset Markets Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Markwat (Thijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe dependence between large stock returns is higher than the dependence between small to moderate stock returns. This is defined as extreme dependence, and it is particularly observed for large negative returns. Therefore, diversification gains calculated from the overall dependence wil

  8. Argon isotope fractionation induced by stepwise heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieloff, Mario; Falter, Martina; Buikin, Alexei I.; Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Altherr, Rainer

    2005-03-01

    Noble gas isotopes are widely used to elucidate the history of the rocks in which they have been trapped, either from distinct reservoirs or by accumulation following radioactive decay. To extract noble gases from their host rocks, stepwise heating is the most commonly used technique to deconvolve isotopically different components, e.g., atmospheric, in situ radiogenic, or excess radiogenic from mantle or crustal reservoirs. The accurate determination of the isotopic composition of these different components is of crucial importance, e.g., for ages obtained by 40Ar- 39Ar stepheating plateaus. However, diffusion theory-based model calculations predict that the stepwise thermal extraction process from mineral phases induces isotope fractionation and, hence, adulterates the original composition. Such effects are largely unconsidered, as they are small and a compelling experimental observation is lacking. We report the first unequivocal evidence for significant mass fractionation of argon isotopes during thermal extraction, observed on shungite, a carbon-rich Precambrian sedimentary rock. The degree of fractionation, as monitored by 38Ar/ 36Ar and 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios, very well agrees with theoretical predictions assuming an inverse square root dependence of diffusion coefficient and atomic mass, resulting in easier extraction of lighter isotopes. Hence, subatmospheric 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios obtained for argon extracted at low temperatures may not represent paleoatmospheric argon. Shungite argon resembles modern atmospheric composition, but constraints on the timing of trapping appear difficult to obtain, as shungites are multicomponent systems. In 40Ar- 39Ar stepwise heating, the isotope fractionation effect could cause systematic underestimations of plateau ages, between 0.15 and 0.4% depending on age, or considerably higher if samples contain appreciable atmospheric Ar. The magnitude of this effect is similar to the presently achieved uncertainties of this increasingly

  9. Solutions of fractional diffusion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of majorant functions, we prove the existence and uniqueness of holomorphic solutions to nonlinear fractional diffusion problems. The analytic continuation of these solutions is studied and the singularity for two cases are posed.

  10. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  11. Fractional Dynamics of Relativistic Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2011-01-01

    Fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is discussed. Derivatives of fractional orders with respect to proper time describe long-term memory effects that correspond to intrinsic dissipative processes. Relativistic particle subjected to a non-potential four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u_{\\mu} u^{\\mu}+c^2=0, where c is a speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, the fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is described as non-Hamiltonian and dissipative. Conditions for fractional relativistic particle to be a Hamiltonian system are considered.

  12. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  13. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  14. Concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lian-Kun

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes the concept of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation (CFEC) in a multi-phase magmatic system in light of experimental results on diffusivities of elements and other species in minerals and melts. A group of equations are presented to describe how the concentrations of an element or isotope change in fractionated solid, equilibrated solid, melt, liquid, and gas phases, as well as in magma, as a function of distribution coefficients and mass fractions during the CFEC process. CFEC model is a generalised and unified formulation that is valid, not only for pure fractional crystallisation (FC) and perfect equilibrium crystallisation (EC) singly, as two of its limiting end-member cases, but also for the geologically more important process of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation. The concept that both fractional and equilibrium crystallisation can operate concurrently in a magmatic system, for a given element, among different minerals, and even within different-sized crystal grains of the very same mineral phase, is of fundamental importance in deepening our current understanding of magmatic differentiation processes. CFEC probably occurs more frequently in the natural world than either pure fractional or perfect equilibrium crystallisation alone, as a result of the interplay of varying diffusivities of elements under diverse physicochemical conditions, different residence time and growth rates of mineral phases in magmas, and varying grain sizes within each phase and among different phases. The marked systematic variations in trace element concentrations in the melts of the Bishop Tuff have long been perplexing and difficult to reconcile with existing models of differentiation. CFEC, which is able to better explain the scatter trends in a systematic way than fractional crystallisation, is considered to be the cause.

  15. The Periodogram of fractional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyse asymptotic properties of the discrete Fourier transform and the periodogram of time series obtained through (truncated) linear filtering of stationary processes. The class of filters contains the fractional differencing operator and its coefficients decay at an algebraic rate, implying long-range-dependent properties for the filtered processes when the degree of integration α is positive. These include fractional time series which are nonstationary for any value of the memory param...

  16. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  17. Observation of the effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation dose fractionation treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer%三维适形放疗不同剂量分割治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宗毅; 贾立娟; 刘永利; 刘江涛; 贾彦丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨三维适形放射不同剂量分割治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌( NSCLC)的近期疗效.方法 148例NSCLC随机采用三维适形放疗(3DCRT)(观察组,75例)和常规分割照射治疗(对照组,73例),观察近期疗效和不良反应,随访患者治疗后1、2、3年生存情况.结果 对照组总有效47例(64.4%),观察组总有效60例(80.0%),两组差异有统计学意义(x2=4.50,P<0.05).对照组1、2、3年生存率为50.7%、24.7%、8.2%,中位生存期为13个月;观察组分别为73.3%、45.3%、20.0%,中位生存期为19个月.两组生存率差异有统计学意义(x2=8.07、6,94、4.22,均P<0.05).观察组血液系统副反应发生率明显低于对照组(x2=4.73,P<0.05),两组急性放射性肺炎、放射性食管炎发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 3 DC RT对晚期NSCLC近期疗效好,且治疗不良反应低,值得在临床上推广应用.%Objective To explore the effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation dose fractionation treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods 75 NSCLC patients were treated with hypofractionated 3DCRT( observation group),while 73 cases were treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy (control group).The efficacy and adverse reactions were observed;Survival after treatment were followed up in 1,2,3 years.Lung function was detected before and after radiotherapy treatment,including FVC,FEV1 and CLCO.Results The total effective cases of control group were 47 cases patients ( 64.4% ),observation group's was 60 cases ( 80.0% ),total effective rate had statistically significant difference ( x2 =4.50,P < 0.05 ).Survival of control group after treatment in 1,2,3year were 50.7%,24.7%,8.2%,the median survival was 13 months,observation group's were 73.3%,45.3%,20.0%,and 19 months.The survival of these two groups was statistically different (x2 =8.07,6,94,4.22,all P < 0.05 ).The patients blood system side effects of

  18. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K; Pollack, J B; Kasting, J F

    1990-01-01

    The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and Earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. We begin with Ozima and Nakazawa's hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals. We point out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. We show that enough fractionated Xe to supply the Earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, our hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula. The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system.

  19. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  20. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    As noted by the Bureau of Meteorology, Canada, to examine whether such ... their local climate, a threshold considered extreme in one part of Australia could be ... (extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events.

  1. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a mountainous country, Nepal is most susceptible to precipitation extremes and related hazards, including severe floods, landslides and droughts that cause huge losses of life and property, impact the Himalayan environment, and hinder the socioeconomic development of the country. Given that the countrywide assessment of such extremes is still lacking, we present a comprehensive picture of prevailing precipitation extremes observed across Nepal. First, we present the spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI from 210 stations over the period of 1981–2010. Then, we analyze the temporal changes in the computed extremes from 76 stations, featuring long-term continuous records for the period of 1970–2012, by applying a non-parametric Mann−Kendall test to identify the existence of a trend and Sen’s slope method to calculate the true magnitude of this trend. Further, the local trends in precipitation extremes have been tested for their field significance over the distinct physio-geographical regions of Nepal, such as the lowlands, middle mountains and hills and high mountains in the west (WL, WM and WH, respectively, and likewise, in central (CL, CM and CH and eastern (EL, EM and EH Nepal. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of high-intensity precipitation extremes are quite different to that of annual or monsoonal precipitation. Lowlands (Terai and Siwaliks that feature relatively low precipitation and less wet days (rainy days are exposed to high-intensity precipitation extremes. Our trend analysis suggests that the pre-monsoonal precipitation is significantly increasing over the lowlands and CH, while monsoonal precipitation is increasing in WM and CH and decreasing in CM, CL and EL. On the other hand, post-monsoonal precipitation is significantly decreasing across all of Nepal while winter precipitation is decreasing

  2. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  3. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  4. Fractional characteristic times and dissipated energy in fractional linear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas-Armijo, Natalia; Di Paola, Mario; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2016-08-01

    In fractional viscoelasticity the stress-strain relation is a differential equation with non-integer operators (derivative or integral). Such constitutive law is able to describe the mechanical behavior of several materials, but when fractional operators appear, the elastic and the viscous contribution are inseparable and the characteristic times (relaxation and retardation time) cannot be defined. This paper aims to provide an approach to separate the elastic and the viscous phase in the fractional stress-strain relation with the aid of an equivalent classical model (Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell). For such equivalent model the parameters are selected by an optimization procedure. Once the parameters of the equivalent model are defined, characteristic times of fractional viscoelasticity are readily defined as ratio between viscosity and stiffness. In the numerical applications, three kinds of different excitations are considered, that is, harmonic, periodic, and pseudo-stochastic. It is shown that, for any periodic excitation, the equivalent models have some important features: (i) the dissipated energy per cycle at steady-state coincides with the Staverman-Schwarzl formulation of the fractional model, (ii) the elastic and the viscous coefficients of the equivalent model are strictly related to the storage and the loss modulus, respectively.

  5. 极重度脊柱侧后凸患者的后路一期小切口撑开联合二期全脊柱截骨术治疗%Surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliokyphosis by posterior approach:distraction at the ifrst stage by small incisions combined with total spinal osteotomy at the second stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭荣; 马华松; 吴继功; 陈晓明; 陈志明; 汪东; 刘涛; 崔凯

    2015-01-01

    .33° ( range: 98°-175° ) for scoliosis and 133.33° ( 96°-170° ) for kyphosis. The surgical procedures were performed by two stages. The ifrst stage surgery was performed with posterior small incisions and distraction technique. Partial corrections of the scoliosis and kyphosis were achieve. The second stage surgery was performed 3-6 months after the ifrst stage surgery by posterior correction with total spinal osteotomy, shave abnormality excision and fusion. The mean follow-up period was 22 months ( range:12-34 months ). Radiographs and clinical data were recorded preoperatively, after the ifrst surgery, before the second surgery, after the second surgery and in the latest follow-up. Perioperative complications were noted.Results All surgeries went smoothly. The average curve magnitude was reduced 61.43° ( 43.4% ) after the ifrst stage surgery and reduced 25.49 ( 34.45% ) after the second stage surgery. The lost of correction between two surgeries was 3.13%. The total major coronal curve correction was 61.8%. Loss of correction averaged 2.92% for major coronal curve and the ifnal correction rate was averaged 58.83%. The average major sagittal curve magnitude was 133.33° ( range: 95°-175° ). The average total major sagittal curve was 79.69° after the ifrst stage surgery, 45° after the second stage surgery, and 47.26° in the latest follow up. Trunk and shoulder imbalance was signiifcantly improved. No severe complications in the spinal cord and respiratory system were noted.Conclusions Two-stage surgery is a safe and effective strategy for extremely severe kyphoscoliosis, which can improve the tolerance of patients to the second operation, reduce the risks and dififculties of the surgery and raise the correction rate and surgery safety.

  6. Individual Differences in Students' Knowing and Learning about Fractions: Evidence from an In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…

  7. Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2014-08-28

    Snowfall is an important element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are important, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing climate, however, is unclear. Here I show that in simulations with climate models under a scenario of high emissions of greenhouse gases, by the late twenty-first century there are smaller fractional changes in the intensities of daily snowfall extremes than in mean snowfall over many Northern Hemisphere land regions. For example, for monthly climatological temperatures just below freezing and surface elevations below 1,000 metres, the 99.99th percentile of daily snowfall decreases by 8% in the multimodel median, compared to a 65% reduction in mean snowfall. Both mean and extreme snowfall must decrease for a sufficiently large warming, but the climatological temperature above which snowfall extremes decrease with warming in the simulations is as high as -9 °C, compared to -14 °C for mean snowfall. These results are supported by a physically based theory that is consistent with the observed rain-snow transition. According to the theory, snowfall extremes occur near an optimal temperature that is insensitive to climate warming, and this results in smaller fractional changes for higher percentiles of daily snowfall. The simulated changes in snowfall that I find would influence surface snow and its hazards; these changes also suggest that it may be difficult to detect a regional climate-change signal in snowfall extremes.

  8. Mitochondriogenesis genes and extreme longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catalina; Garatachea, Nuria; Yvert, Thomas; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Genes of the proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A, also termed PGC1-α)-nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-mitochondrial transcription Factor A (TFAM) mitochondriogenesis pathway can influence health/disease phenotypes, yet their association with extreme longevity is not known. We studied the association of five common polymorphisms in genes of this pathway (rs2267668, rs8192678, rs6949152, rs12594956, rs1937) and extreme longevity using a case (107 centenarians)-control (284 young adults) design. We found no between-group differences in allele/genotype frequencies, except for CC genotype in rs1937 (p=0.003), with no representation in controls (0%), versus 2.8% in centenarians (2 men, 1 woman). In summary, the studied genetic variants of the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway were not associated with extreme longevity, yet a marginal association could exist for rs1937.

  9. Boundary value problemfor multidimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasambiev Mokhammad Vakhaevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent time there is a very great interest in the study of differential equations of fractional order, in which the unknown function is under the symbol of fractional derivative. It is due to the development of the theory of fractional integro-differential theory and application of it in different fields.The fractional integrals and derivatives of fractional integro-differential equations are widely used in modern investigations of theoretical physics, mechanics, and applied mathematics. The fractional calculus is a very powerful tool for describing physical systems, which have a memory and are non-local. Many processes in complex systems have nonlocality and long-time memory. Fractional integral operators and fractional differential operators allow describing some of these properties. The use of the fractional calculus will be helpful for obtaining the dynamical models, in which integro-differential operators describe power long-time memory by time and coordinates, and three-dimensional nonlocality for complex medium and processes.Differential equations of fractional order appear when we use fractal conception in physics of the condensed medium. The transfer, described by the operator with fractional derivatives at a long distance from the sources, leads to other behavior of relatively small concentrations as compared with classic diffusion. This fact redefines the existing ideas about safety, based on the ideas on exponential velocity of damping. Fractional calculus in the fractal theory and the systems with memory have the same importance as the classic analysis in mechanics of continuous medium.In recent years, the application of fractional derivatives for describing and studying the physical processes of stochastic transfer is very popular too. Many problems of filtration of liquids in fractal (high porous medium lead to the need to study boundary value problems for partial differential equations in fractional order.In this paper the

  10. Teachers' views of practical work in the teaching of fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graphic

    Although this was a small-scale, qualitative study, interesting ob- servations were .... proposed should predominantly consist of organizing or mathematising subject ... cated that these teachers attached a strong value to the role of practical work ..... positive attitudes towards practical fraction teaching looks like a continuation.

  11. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  12. Analysis of climate variability in mainland Portugal using a combined Climate Extremes Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito Santo, Fátima; de Lima, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring changes in climate extremes is important because of their potential severe impacts on the environment and the society. Due to its geographical situation, mainland Portugal shows important spatial gradients in precipitation and air temperature and is prone to the occurrence of extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves, droughts and floods. Thus, there is a need to understand regional specificities in the changes of occurrence of these events in the territory that could require special attention in the prospect of operational climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, to be adopted at the regional scale. For this purpose, a modified combined Climate Extremes Index (CEI) is proposed here, for mainland Portugal. This index consists of five component indicators of air temperature and precipitation extremes and was developed to measure the percentage of area affected by these extremes. Therefore, we use this index to analyse changes in the fraction of the country experiencing extremes (cold, hot, dry, wet), at the annual and seasonal scales, after 1941. At the annual scale, results show an increase in the extent of hot and dry extremes and a decrease in the extent of cold and wet extremes over the whole country, although only the results obtained for the air temperature are statistically significant. Since the mid-1970s, the fraction of the area of mainland Portugal experiencing maximum and minimum temperatures much above normal has increased significantly. An increasing trend in the area experiencing drought conditions and with a much greater-than-normal number of dry days is also noted in the last decades. At the seasonal scale, spring, summer and winter show a significant increase in the extent of hot extremes and a decrease in the extent of cold extremes. For all seasons, the fraction of the area experiencing drought conditions increased, whereas in spring and autumn the fraction of the area experiencing wet conditions decreased. In

  13. From fractional Fourier transformation to quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠红; 范洪义; 李东韡

    2015-01-01

    By converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the fractional Fourier transformation to the hy-perbolic function, i.e., tanα→tanhα, sinα→sinhα, we find quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation (FrST) which satisfies additivity. By virtue of the integration technique within ordered product of operators (IWOP) wederive the unitary operator responsible for the FrST, which is composite and is made of eiπa†a/2 and exp[ iα2 (a2+a†2)]. The FrST may be implemented in combinations of quadratic nonlinear crystals with different phase mismatches.

  14. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  15. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  16. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  17. Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  19. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  20. FRACTIONAL TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baosheng WU; Albert MOLINAS; Anping SHU

    2003-01-01

    A new method based on the Transport Capacity Fraction (TCF) concept is proposed to compute the fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures in sand-bed channels. The TCF concept is derived from the understanding that the measurements and predictions of bed-material load are more accurate and reliable than the measurements and predictions of fractional loads. First the bed-material load is computed using an appropriate equation, then the fractional transport rates are determined by distributing the bed-material load into size groups through a transport capacity distribution function. For the computation of bed-material loads, the Aekers and White, Engelund and Hansen, and Yang equations are used in this study. Two new transport capacity distribution functions are developed for flows in sand-bed channels. The new expressions presented in this paper account for the sheltering and exposure effects that exist in mixtures. Comparisons with measured data show that the proposed method can significantly improve the predictions of fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures.

  1. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; LPME, Launaea procumbens ... 1, non treated control; 2, n-hexane fraction; 3, ethyl acetate fraction; ... fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and distilled ...

  2. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  3. The epidemiology of extreme hiking injuries in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Heggie, Tracey M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the epidemiological literature for extreme hikers in volcanic environments and describe the incidence, nature and severity of injuries, the factors contributing to the injuries, and strategies for preventing injuries. Due to the relative newness of extreme hiking in volcanic environments, there are only a small handful of studies addressing the topic. Moreover, these studies are primarily focused on extreme hikers in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. These studies found that the majority of extreme hikers in volcanic environments are inexperienced and unfamiliar with the potential hazards present in volcanic environments. The studies found that upper respiratory irritation resulting from exposure to volcanic gases and dehydration and scrapes, abrasions, lacerations, and thermal burns to the extremities were common injuries. The severity of the injuries ranged from simple on-site treat-and-release incidents to more severe incidents and even death. This review reveals a need for well-designed epidemiologic research from volcanic destinations outside of Hawaii that identify the nature and severity of injuries along with the factors contributing to injury incidents. There is also a demonstrated need for studies identifying preventive measures that reduce both the occurrence and severity of extreme hiking incidents in volcanic environments.

  4. Fractional Progress Toward Understanding the Fractional Diffusion Limit: The Electromagnetic Response of Spatially Correlated Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C. J.; Beskardes, G. D.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation we review the observational evidence for anomalous electromagnetic diffusion in near-surface geophysical exploration and how such evidence is consistent with a detailed, spatially-correlated geologic medium. To date, the inference of multi-scale geologic correlation is drawn from two independent methods of data analysis. The first of which is analogous to seismic move-out, where the arrival time of an electromagnetic pulse is plotted as a function of transmitter/receiver separation. The "anomalous" diffusion is evident by the fractional-order power law behavior of these arrival times, with an exponent value between unity (pure diffusion) and 2 (lossless wave propagation). The second line of evidence comes from spectral analysis of small-scale fluctuations in electromagnetic profile data which cannot be explained in terms of instrument, user or random error. Rather, the power-law behavior of the spectral content of these signals (i.e., power versus wavenumber) and their increments reveals them to lie in a class of signals with correlations over multiple length scales, a class of signals known formally as fractional Brownian motion. Numerical results over simulated geology with correlated electrical texture - representative of, for example, fractures, sedimentary bedding or metamorphic lineation - are consistent with the (albeit limited, but growing) observational data, suggesting a possible mechanism and modeling approach for a more realistic geology. Furthermore, we show how similar simulated results can arise from a modeling approach where geologic texture is economically captured by a modified diffusion equation containing exotic, but manageable, fractional derivatives. These derivatives arise physically from the generalized convolutional form for the electromagnetic constitutive laws and thus have merit beyond mere mathematical convenience. In short, we are zeroing in on the anomalous, fractional diffusion limit from two converging

  5. Extreme Kuiper Belt Object 2001 QG298 and the Fraction of Contact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, S S; Sheppard, Scott S.; Jewitt, David

    2004-01-01

    Extensive time-resolved observations of Kuiper Belt object 2001 QG298 show a lightcurve with a peak-to-peak variation of 1.14 +-0.04 magnitudes and single-peaked period of 6.8872 +- 0.0002 hr. The mean absolute magnitude is 6.85 magnitudes which corresponds to a mean effective radius of 122 (77) km if an albedo of 0.04 (0.10) is assumed. This is the first known Kuiper Belt object and only the third minor planet with a radius > 25 km to display a lightcurve with a range in excess of 1 magnitude. We find the colors to be typical for a Kuiper Belt object (B-V = 1.00 +- 0.04, V-R = 0.60 +- 0.02) with no variation in color between minimum and maximum light. The large light variation, relatively long double-peaked period and absence of rotational color change argue against explanations due to albedo markings or elongation due to high angular momentum. Instead, we suggest that 2001 QG298 may be a very close or contact binary similar in structure to what has been independently proposed for the Trojan asteroid 624 Hek...

  6. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.

  7. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes.

  8. Is climate change modifying precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Alberto; Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2016-04-01

    The title of the present contribution is a relevant question that is frequently posed to scientists, technicians and managers of local authorities. Although several research efforts were recently dedicated to rainfall observation, analysis and modelling, the above question remains essentially unanswered. The question comes from the awareness that the frequency of floods and the related socio-economic impacts are increasing in many countries, and climate change is deemed to be the main trigger. Indeed, identifying the real reasons for the observed increase of flood risk is necessary in order to plan effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. While mitigation of climate change is an extremely important issue at the global level, at small spatial scales several other triggers may interact with it, therefore requiring different mitigation strategies. Similarly, the responsibilities of administrators are radically different at local and global scales. This talk aims to provide insights and information to address the question expressed by its title. High resolution and long term rainfall data will be presented, as well as an analysis of the frequency of their extremes and its progress in time. The results will provide pragmatic indications for the sake of better planning flood risk mitigation policies.

  9. Optical encryption with cascaded fractional wavelet transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Liang-hua; CHEN Lin-fei; ZHAO Dao-mu

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of fractional wavelet transform, we propose a new method called cascaded fractional wavelet transform to encrypt images. It has the virtues of fractional Fourier transform and wavelet transform. Fractional orders, standard focal lengths and scaling factors are its keys. Multistage fractional Fourier transforms can add the keys easily and strengthen information security. This method can also realize partial encryption just as wavelet transform and fractional wavelet transform. Optical realization of encryption and decryption is proposed. Computer simulations confirmed its possibility.

  10. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  11. Extreme cervical elongation after sacrohysteropexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.; Futterer, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of extreme cervical elongation with a cervix of 12 cm after an unusual operation in which the uterine corpus was directly fixed to the promontory, and which became symptomatic after 8 years. The possible pathophysiology of cervical elongation is discussed. Diagnosing a case of seve

  12. Applied extreme-value statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  13. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  14. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  15. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  16. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  17. Uranium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with aragonite and calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinming; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Herrmann, Achim D.; Wasylenki, Laura E.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2016-09-01

    Natural variations in 238U/235U of marine calcium carbonates might provide a useful way of constraining redox conditions of ancient environments. In order to evaluate the reliability of this proxy, we conducted aragonite and calcite coprecipitation experiments at pH ∼7.5 and ∼8.5 to study possible U isotope fractionation during incorporation into these minerals. Small but significant U isotope fractionation was observed in aragonite experiments at pH ∼8.5, with heavier U isotopes preferentially enriched in the solid phase. 238U/235U of dissolved U in these experiments can be fit by Rayleigh fractionation curves with fractionation factors of 1.00007 + 0.00002/-0.00003, 1.00005 ± 0.00001, and 1.00003 ± 0.00001. In contrast, no resolvable U isotope fractionation was observed in an aragonite experiment at pH ∼7.5 or in calcite experiments at either pH. Equilibrium isotope fractionation among different aqueous U species is the most likely explanation for these findings. Certain charged U species are preferentially incorporated into calcium carbonate relative to the uncharged U species Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), which we hypothesize has a lighter equilibrium U isotope composition than most of the charged species. According to this hypothesis, the magnitude of U isotope fractionation should scale with the fraction of dissolved U that is present as Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq). This expectation is confirmed by equilibrium speciation modeling of our experiments. Theoretical calculation of the U isotope fractionation factors between different U species could further test this hypothesis and our proposed fractionation mechanism. These findings suggest that U isotope variations in ancient carbonates could be controlled by changes in the aqueous speciation of seawater U, particularly changes in seawater pH, PCO2 , Ca2+, or Mg2+ concentrations. In general, these effects are likely to be small (<0.13‰), but are nevertheless potentially significant because of the small natural range of

  18. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  19. Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, C

    2007-01-01

    Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss the relevant dynamical aspects and resulting estimated event rates of EMRIs. Subjects considered include the loss-cone treatment of inspiral sources; mass segregation; resonant relaxation; and alternative routes to EMRI formation such as tidal binary disruptions, stellar formation in disks and tidal capture of massive main sequence stars. The EMRI event rate is estimated to be of order few \\times 10^2/Gyr per MBH, giving excellent prospects for observation by LISA.

  20. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  1. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  2. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T logT . For mode......We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  3. Fractional Boundaries for Fluid Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bayin, S; Krisch, J P; Bayin, Selcuk; Krisch, Jean P.

    2006-01-01

    A single Israel layer can be created when two metrics adjoin with no continuous metric derivative across the boundary. The properties of the layer depend only on the two metrics it separates. By using a fractional derivative match, a family of Israel layers can be created between the same two metrics. The family is indexed by the order of the fractional derivative. The method is applied to Tolman IV and V interiors and a Schwarzschild vacuum exterior. The method creates new ranges of modeling parameters for fluid spheres. A thin shell analysis clarifies pressure/tension in the family of boundary layers.

  4. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  5. The functional variable method for solving the fractional Korteweg–de Vries equations and the coupled Korteweg–de Vries equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Matinfar; M Eslami; M Kordy

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the exact solutions for the fractional Korteweg–de Vries equations and the coupled Korteweg–de Vries equations with time-fractional derivatives using the functional variable method. The fractional derivatives are described in the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative sense. It is demonstrated that the calculations involved in the functional variable method are extremely simple and straightforward and this method is very effective for handling nonlinear fractional equations.

  6. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  7. Extremal non-BPS black holes and entropy extremization

    CERN Document Server

    Lópes-Cardoso, G; Lust, D; Perz, J; Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Grass, Viviane; Lust, Dieter; Perz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    At the horizon, a static extremal black hole solution in N=2 supergravity in four dimensions is determined by a set of so-called attractor equations which, in the absence of higher-curvature interactions, can be derived as extremization conditions for the black hole potential or, equivalently, for the entropy function. We contrast both methods by explicitly solving the attractor equations for a one-modulus prepotential associated with the conifold. We find that near the conifold point, the non-supersymmetric solution has a substantially different behavior than the supersymmetric solution. We analyze the stability of the solutions and the extrema of the resulting entropy as a function of the modulus. For the non-BPS solution the region of attractivity and the maximum of the entropy do not coincide with the conifold point.

  8. Predicting Predictable about Natural Catastrophic Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    By definition, an extreme event is rare one in a series of kindred phenomena. Usually (e.g. in Geophysics), it implies investigating a small sample of case-histories with a help of delicate statistical methods and data of different quality, collected in various conditions. Many extreme events are clustered (far from independent) and follow fractal or some other "strange" distribution (far from uniform). Evidently, such an "unusual" situation complicates search and definition of reliable precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. Making forecast/prediction claims reliable and quantitatively probabilistic in the frames of the most popular objectivists' viewpoint on probability requires a long series of "yes/no" forecast/prediction outcomes, which cannot be obtained without an extended rigorous test of the candidate method. The set of errors ("success/failure" scores and space-time measure of alarms) and other information obtained in such a control test supplies us with data necessary to judge the candidate's potential as a forecast/prediction tool and, eventually, to find its improvements. This is to be done first in comparison against random guessing, which results confidence (measured in terms of statistical significance). Note that an application of the forecast/prediction tools could be very different in cases of different natural hazards, costs and benefits that determine risks, and, therefore, requires determination of different optimal strategies minimizing reliable estimates of realistic levels of accepted losses. In their turn case specific costs and benefits may suggest a modification of the forecast/prediction tools for a more adequate "optimal" application. Fortunately, the situation is not hopeless due to the state-of-the-art understanding of the complexity and non-linear dynamics of the Earth as a Physical System and pattern recognition approaches applied to available geophysical evidences, specifically, when intending to predict

  9. Extreme weather: Subtropical floods and tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.

    Extreme weather events have a large effect on society. As such, it is important to understand these events and to project how they may change in a future, warmer climate. The aim of this thesis is to develop a deeper understanding of two types of extreme weather events: subtropical floods and tropical cyclones (TCs). In the subtropics, the latitude is high enough that quasi-geostrophic dynamics are at least qualitatively relevant, while low enough that moisture may be abundant and convection strong. Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent, and large latent heat release. In the first part of this thesis, I examine the possible triggering of convection by the large-scale dynamics and investigate the coupling between the two. Specifically two examples of extreme precipitation events in the subtropics are analyzed, the 2010 and 2014 floods of India and Pakistan and the 2015 flood of Texas and Oklahoma. I invert the quasi-geostrophic omega equation to decompose the large-scale vertical motion profile to components due to synoptic forcing and diabatic heating. Additionally, I present model results from within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A single column model and cloud-revolving model are forced with the large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation with input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. It is found that convection was triggered primarily by mechanically forced orographic ascent over the Himalayas during the India/Pakistan flood and by upper-level Potential Vorticity disturbances during the Texas/Oklahoma flood. Furthermore, a climate attribution analysis was conducted for the Texas/Oklahoma flood and it is found that anthropogenic climate change was responsible for a small amount of rainfall during the event but the

  10. Are extreme events (statistically) special? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I. G.; Naylor, M.; Greenhough, J.; Touati, S.; Bell, A. F.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-12-01

    We address the generic problem of testing for scale-invariance in extreme events, i.e. are the biggest events in a population simply a scaled model of those of smaller size, or are they in some way different? Are large earthquakes for example ‘characteristic’, do they ‘know’ how big they will be before the event nucleates, or is the size of the event determined only in the avalanche-like process of rupture? In either case what are the implications for estimates of time-dependent seismic hazard? One way of testing for departures from scale invariance is to examine the frequency-size statistics, commonly used as a bench mark in a number of applications in Earth and Environmental sciences. Using frequency data however introduces a number of problems in data analysis. The inevitably small number of data points for extreme events and more generally the non-Gaussian statistical properties strongly affect the validity of prior assumptions about the nature of uncertainties in the data. The simple use of traditional least squares (still common in the literature) introduces an inherent bias to the best fit result. We show first that the sampled frequency in finite real and synthetic data sets (the latter based on the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence model) converge to a central limit only very slowly due to temporal correlations in the data. A specific correction for temporal correlations enables an estimate of convergence properties to be mapped non-linearly on to a Gaussian one. Uncertainties closely follow a Poisson distribution of errors across the whole range of seismic moment for typical catalogue sizes. In this sense the confidence limits are scale-invariant. A systematic sample bias effect due to counting whole numbers in a finite catalogue makes a ‘characteristic’-looking type extreme event distribution a likely outcome of an underlying scale-invariant probability distribution. This highlights the tendency of ‘eyeball’ fits to unconsciously (but

  11. Extreme Gravitational Lensing near Rotating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, K; Beckwith, Kris; Done, Chris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new approach to calculating photon trajectories and gravitational lensing effects in the strong gravitational field of the Kerr black hole. These techniques are applied to explore both the imaging and spectral properties of photons that perform multiple orbits of the central mass before escaping to infinity. Viewed at large inclinations, these higher order photons contribute $\\sim 20 %$ of the total luminosity of the system for a Schwarzschild hole, whilst for an extreme Kerr black hole this fraction rises to $\\sim 60 %$. In more realistic models these photons will be re-absorbed by the disc at large distances from the hole, but this returning radiation could provide a physical mechanism to resolve the discrepancy between the predicted and observed optical/UV colours in AGN. Conversely, at low inclinations, higher order images re-intercept the disc plane close to the black hole, so need not be absorbed by the disc if this is within the plunging region. These photons form a bright ring carrying a...

  12. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  13. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Treumann, R A

    2014-01-01

    A form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  14. Working with a fractional object:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bodil Just; Hillersdal, Line; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    constitutes ‘appetite’ was a key concern, as each discipline has its particular definition and operationalization of the term. In response, a material-semiotic approach was chosen which allowed for a reconceptualization of appetite as a ‘fractional object’, engaged in multiple relations and enacted...

  15. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    developed in a number of signif- icant ways in the recent past. Sokolov et al. [1] maintain that this calculus was restricted to the field of mathematics... Sokolov , J. Klafter, and A. Blumen, “Fractional kinetics,” Physics Today, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 48–54, 2002. [2] V. Seshadri and B. J. West, “Fractal

  16. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  17. A note on fractional supersolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Korvenpaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a class of equations driven by nonlocal, possibly degenerate, integro-differential operators of differentiability order $s\\in (0,1$ and summability growth $p>1$, whose model is the fractional $p$-Laplacian with measurable coefficients. We prove that the minimum of the corresponding weak supersolutions is a weak supersolution as well.

  18. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  19. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  20. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  1. Fractional diffusion: recovering the distributed fractional derivative from overposed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, W.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable recent study in ‘subdiffusion’ models that replace the standard parabolic equation model by a one with a fractional derivative in the time variable. There are many ways to look at this newer approach and one such is to realize that the order of the fractional derivative is related to the time scales of the underlying diffusion process. This raises the question of what order α of derivative should be taken and if a single value actually suffices. This has led to models that combine a finite number of these derivatives each with a different fractional exponent {αk} and different weighting value c k to better model a greater possible range of time scales. Ultimately, one wants to look at a situation that combines derivatives in a continuous way—the so-called distributional model with parameter μ ≤ft(α \\right) . However all of this begs the question of how one determines this ‘order’ of differentiation. Recovering a single fractional value has been an active part of the process from the beginning of fractional diffusion modeling and if this is the only unknown then the markers left by the fractional order derivative are relatively straightforward to determine. In the case of a finite combination of derivatives this becomes much more complex due to the more limited analytic tools available for such equations, but recent progress in this direction has been made, (Li et al 2015 Appl. Math. Comput. 257 381–97, Li and Yamamoto 2015 Appl. Anal. 94 570–9). This paper considers the full distributional model where the order is viewed as a function μ ≤ft(α \\right) on the interval (0, 1]. We show existence, uniqueness and regularity for an initial-boundary value problem including an important representation theorem in the case of a single spatial variable. This is then used in the inverse problem of recovering the distributional coefficient μ ≤ft(α \\right) from a time trace of the solution and a uniqueness result is

  2. Galaxy Cluster Baryon Fractions Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2013-11-01

    We measure the baryons contained in both the stellar and hot-gas components for 12 galaxy clusters and groups at z ~ 0.1 with M = 1-5 × 1014 M ⊙. This paper improves upon our previous work through the addition of XMM-Newton X-ray data, enabling measurements of the total mass and masses of each major baryonic component—intracluster medium, intracluster stars, and stars in galaxies—for each system. We recover a mean relation for the stellar mass versus halo mass, M_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.52+/- 0.04}, that is 1σ shallower than in our previous result. We confirm that the partitioning of baryons between the stellar and hot-gas components is a strong function of M 500; the fractions of total mass in stars and X-ray gas within a sphere of radius r 500 scale as f_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.45+/- 0.04} and f_{gas}\\propto M_{500}^{0.26+/- 0.03}, respectively. We also confirm that the combination of the brightest cluster galaxy and intracluster stars is an increasingly important contributor to the stellar baryon budget in lower halo masses. Studies that fail to fully account for intracluster stars typically underestimate the normalization of the stellar baryon fraction versus M 500 relation by ~25%. Our derived stellar baryon fractions are also higher, and the trend with halo mass weaker, than those derived from recent halo occupation distribution and abundance matching analyses. One difference from our previous work is the weak, but statistically significant, dependence here of the total baryon fraction upon halo mass: f_{bary}\\propto M_{500}^{0.16+/- 0.04}. For M 500 >~ 2 × 1014, the total baryon fractions within r 500 are on average 18% below the universal value from the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) analysis, or 7% below for the cosmological parameters from the Planck analysis. In the latter case, the difference between the universal value and cluster baryon fractions is less than the systematic uncertainties associated with

  3. Fractional flux quanta in superconducting solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-03-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new topology. The topology is that of a superconducting wire that winds N times around a fixed axis and has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the solenoid, provided that its cross-section radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical topology is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0.

  4. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  5. Radial fractional Laplace operators and Hessian inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we deduce a formula for the fractional Laplace operator $(-\\Delta)^{s}$ on radially symmetric functions useful for some applications. We give a criterion of subharmonicity associated with $(-\\Delta)^{s}$, and apply it to a problem related to the Hessian inequality of Sobolev type: $$\\int_{\\mathbb{R}^n}|(-\\Delta)^{\\frac{k}{k+1}} u|^{k+1} dx \\le C \\int_{\\mathbb{R}^n} - u \\, F_k[u] \\, dx, $$ where $F_k$ is the $k$-Hessian operator on $\\mathbb{R}^n$, $1\\le k < \\frac{n}{2}$, under some restrictions on a $k$-convex function $u$. In particular, we show that the class of $u$ for which the above inequality was established in \\cite{FFV} contains the extremal functions for the Hessian Sobolev inequality of X.-J. Wang \\cite{W1}. This is proved using logarithmic convexity of the Gaussian ratio of hypergeometric functions which might be of independent interest.

  6. Solving the Fractional Rosenau-Hyman Equation via Variational Iteration Method and Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yulita Molliq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fractional Rosenau-Hynam equations is considered. We implement relatively new analytical techniques, the variational iteration method and the homotopy perturbation method, for solving this equation. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The two methods in applied mathematics can be used as alternative methods for obtaining analytic and approximate solutions for fractional Rosenau-Hynam equations. In these schemes, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The present methods perform extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity.

  7. Effect of extreme data loss on long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Qianli D Y; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how extreme loss of data affects the scaling behavior of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals applying the DFA method. We introduce a segmentation approach to generate surrogate signals by randomly removing data segments from stationary signals with different types of correlations. These surrogate signals are characterized by: (i) the DFA scaling exponent $\\alpha$ of the original correlated signal, (ii) the percentage $p$ of the data removed, (iii) the average length $\\mu$ of the removed (or remaining) data segments, and (iv) the functional form of the distribution of the length of the removed (or remaining) data segments. We find that the {\\it global} scaling exponent of positively correlated signals remains practically unchanged even for extreme data loss of up to 90%. In contrast, the global scaling of anti-correlated signals changes to uncorrelated behavior even when a very small fraction of the data is lost. These observations are confirmed on the examples of human g...

  8. Climate change impacts on hydrological extremes in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An increase of hydro-climatic extremes can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic extremes in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.

  9. Barotrauma with extreme pressures in sport: from scuba to skydiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James H; Deaton, Travis G

    2014-01-01

    The human body is well adapted to dealing with small variations in atmospheric pressure. However when our pursuit of sport and recreation takes us to extreme altitudes or ocean depths, the change in surrounding pressure has the potential to cause significant morbidity. Sports with more extreme changes in atmospheric pressure such as skydiving and scuba diving commonly place the athlete at risk for barotrauma injuries, especially in the middle ear and sinuses. Middle ear barotrauma occurs when a pressure differential develops between the middle ear and the pressure outside of the tympanic membrane. Early symptoms include ear pain, dizziness, and muffled hearing. When extreme pressure gradients are not relieved, middle ear effusions and rupture of the tympanic membrane can occur. A similar mechanism and injury pattern occurs in the sinuses as well. With proper training and prevention strategies, athletes in these sports can protect themselves from most barotrauma injuries.

  10. Extreme Growth of Enstrophy on 2D Bounded Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sliwiak, Adam

    2016-11-01

    We study the vortex states responsible for the largest instantaneous growth of enstrophy possible in viscous incompressible flow on 2D bounded domain. The goal is to compare these results with estimates obtained using mathematical analysis. This problem is closely related to analogous questions recently considered in the periodic setting on 1D, 2D and 3D domains. In addition to systematically characterizing the most extreme behavior, these problems are also closely related to the open question of the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system. We demonstrate how such extreme vortex states can be found as solutions of constrained variational optimization problems which in the limit of small enstrophy reduce to eigenvalue problems. Computational results will be presented for circular and square domains emphasizing the effect of geometric singularities (corners of the domain) on the structure of the extreme vortex states. Supported by an NSERC (Canada) Discovery Grant.

  11. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2010-08-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2°C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2°C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  12. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Aquatic exercise and lower-extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, M C; Nicholson, C; Binder, H; White, P H

    1991-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on lower-extremity range of motion, gait, balance, and functional mobility in children with juvenile arthritis. Eleven patients, aged 4-13, with lower-extremity joint involvement, diagnosed as functional class I-III, completed a 6-week program of aquatic exercise aimed at increasing lower-extremity range of motion and strength. Despite the small sample size and short duration of the study program, significant improvement was noted in external and internal hip rotation, bilaterally (p Aquatic exercises performed in a group setting can serve as an enjoyable and beneficial part of therapy for children with arthritis. Further investigation is recommended to determine fully the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on mobility and fitness in children with juvenile arthritis.

  13. On causality of extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect both linear and non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task.

  14. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  15. Cacti with Extremal PI Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertex PI index PI(G=∑ xy∈E(G [n xy (x‎+‎n xy (y] PI(G=∑xy∈E(G[nxy(x‎+‎nxy(y] is a distance-based molecular structure descriptor‎, ‎where n xy (x nxy(x denotes the number of vertices which are closer to the vertex x x than to the vertex y y and which has been the considerable research in computational chemistry dating back to Harold Wiener in 1947‎. ‎A connected graph is a cactus if any two of its cycles have at most one common vertex‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we completely determine the extremal graphs with the greatest and smallest vertex PI indices mong all cacti with a fixed number of vertices‎. ‎As a consequence‎, ‎we obtain the sharp bounds with corresponding extremal cacti and extend a known result‎.

  16. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  17. On causality of extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  18. Use of Monomer Fraction Data in the Parametrization of Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2010-01-01

    “improved” model parameters can be obtained if monomer fraction data are included in the parameter estimation together with vapor pressures and liquid densities. The expression “improved” implies parameters which can represent several pure compound properties as well as monomer fraction data for pure......, liquid densities and monomer fractions of water and alcohols. The 4C scheme is the best choice for water, while for methanol there is small difference between the 2B and 3B association schemes....

  19. Lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of doubly ionized tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Johanning, M.; Schnabel, R.; Kock, M. [Inst. fuer Atom- and Molekuelphysik, Abt. Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany); Kling, R. [Inst. fuer Atom- and Molekuelphysik, Abt. Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany); National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Li, Z.; Lundberg, H. [Dept. of Physics, Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden); Johansson, S. [Atomic Spectroscopy, Dept. of Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    A first small set of W III oscillator strengths has been obtained from combined lifetime and branching fraction measurements. The branching fractions in the wavelength region of 154-334 nm were measured with a Penning discharge and a Fourier transform spectrometer. Three levels have been calibrated and absolute scales with lifetimes measured with the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. The f-values derived have uncertainties of about 8% at best. A comparison with Cowan-code calculations is given since no other data are available in the literature. (orig.)

  20. The quantum chaos conjecture and generalized continued fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustyl'nikov, L. D.

    2003-04-01

    The proof of the quantum chaos conjecture is given for a class of systems including as a special case the model of a rotating particle under the action of periodic impulse perturbations. (The distribution of the distances between adjacent energy levels is close to the Poisson distribution and differs from it by terms of the third order of smallness.) The proof reduces to a result in number theory on the distribution of the distances between adjacent fractional parts of values of a polynomial, while the estimate of the remainder term is based on the new theory of generalized continued fractions for vectors.