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Sample records for extremely red object

  1. The Clustering of Extremely Red Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Palamara, David P; Jannuzi, Buell T; Dey, Arjun; Stern, Daniel; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Weiner, Benjamin J; Ashby, Matthew L N; Kochanek, C S; Gonzalez, Anthony; Brodwin, Mark; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Rieke, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    We measure the clustering of Extremely Red Objects (EROs) in ~8 deg^2 of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Bo\\"otes field in order to establish robust links between ERO z~1.2 and local galaxy z5.0 (28,724 galaxies), (I-K_s)>4.0 (22,451 galaxies) and (I-[3.6])>5.0 (64,370 galaxies). Magnitude-limited samples show the correlation length (r_0) to increase for more luminous EROs, implying a correlation with stellar mass. We can separate star-forming and passive ERO populations using the (K_s-[24]) and ([3.6]-[24]) colors to K_s=18.4 and [3.6]=17.5, respectively. Star-forming and passive EROs in magnitude limited samples have different clustering properties and host dark halo masses, and cannot be simply understood as a single population. Based on the clustering, we find that bright passive EROs are the likely progenitors of >4L^* elliptical galaxies. Bright EROs with ongoing star formation were found to occupy denser environments than star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, making these the likely progenitors ...

  2. THE CLUSTERING OF EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamara, David P.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jannuzi, Buell T.; Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Rieke, Marcia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Ashby, Matthew L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140, West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-Saclay-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-10

    We measure the clustering of extremely red objects (EROs) in Almost-Equal-To 8 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Booetes field in order to establish robust links between ERO (z Almost-Equal-To 1.2) and local galaxy (z < 0.1) populations. Three different color selection criteria from the literature are analyzed to assess the consequences of using different criteria for selecting EROs. Specifically, our samples are (R - K{sub s} ) > 5.0 (28, 724 galaxies), (I - K{sub s} ) > 4.0 (22, 451 galaxies), and (I - [3.6]) > 5.0 (64, 370 galaxies). Magnitude-limited samples show the correlation length (r {sub 0}) to increase for more luminous EROs, implying a correlation with stellar mass. We can separate star-forming and passive ERO populations using the (K{sub s} - [24]) and ([3.6] - [24]) colors to K{sub s} = 18.4 and [3.6] = 17.5, respectively. Star-forming and passive EROs in magnitude-limited samples have different clustering properties and host dark halo masses and cannot be simply understood as a single population. Based on the clustering, we find that bright passive EROs are the likely progenitors of {approx}> 4L* elliptical galaxies. Bright EROs with ongoing star formation were found to occupy denser environments than star-forming galaxies in the local universe, making these the likely progenitors of {approx}> L* local ellipticals. This suggests that the progenitors of massive {approx}> 4L* local ellipticals had stopped forming stars by z {approx}> 1.2, but that the progenitors of less massive ellipticals (down to L*) can still show significant star formation at this epoch.

  3. Properties of Extremely Red Objects in an Overdense Region

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, M; Barrientos, L F; Gladman, B; Mallén-Ornelas, G; Van den Bergh, S; Sawicki, Marcin; Stevenson, Matthew; Gladman, Brett; Mallen-Ornelas, Gabriela; Bergh, Sidney van den

    2005-01-01

    We use a serendipitously discovered overdensity of extremely red objects (EROs) to study the morphologies and cumulative surface number density of EROs in a dense environment. Our extremely deep imaging allows us to select very faint EROs, reaching Ks=21, or ~2 magnitudes fainter than the L* of passively evolving ellipticals at z=1.5. We find that the shape of the ERO cumulative surface number density in our overdense field mimics that of the field ERO population over all magnitudes down to Ks=21 but with a factor of 3-4 higher normalization. The excellent seeing in our images (0.4" in Ks and 0.6" in R) allows for morphological classification of the brighter (Ks<19) EROs and we find a mix of morphologies including interacting systems and disks; the fraction of pure bulges (at most 38%), galaxies with disks (at least 46%), and interacting systems (at least 21%) is consistent with morphological fractions in field ERO studies. The similarity in the shape of the cumulative surface density and morphological mix...

  4. Classification of Extremely Red Objects in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xu; Arimoto, Nobuo; Wang, Min

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the classification of z ~1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of HST/ACS, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes about 5300 EROs with i-Ks>2.45 (AB, equivalently I-Ks=4 in Vega) and Ks<=21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48 percentages of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52 percentages of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology para...

  5. Submillimetre Constraints on Hyper-Extremely Red Objects in the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Coppin, K; Scott, D; Marsden, G; Iwamuro, F; Maihara, T; Motohara, K; Totani, T; Coppin, Kristen; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Marsden, Gaelen; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Motohara, Kentaro; Totani, Tomonori

    2004-01-01

    We have mapped the submillimetre wavelength continuum emission from the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) at 450 and 850 microns with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) detector on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The near-IR image of the SDF is one of the deepest near-IR images available and contains four `hyper extremely red objects' (HEROs). These data allow us to test the connection between `extremely red objects' (EROs) found in IR surveys and the population of bright submillimetre sources found with SCUBA. We present a weak measurement of the average flux of the four K-band selected HEROs of 1.15 (+/-0.46) mJy, which fails to support the hypothesis that HEROs should be bright SCUBA sources. Our data are consistent with the HEROs being objects with SEDs like that of Arp220 out to z~1.7, however, the extinction in the HEROs must be about 1 magnitude greater in the J-band than is the case for Arp220 and they would need to be 1.7 times as luminous as Arp220. On the other hand, an evolution...

  6. On the colour-colour properties of the Extremely Red Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstrom, S; Bergstrom, Stefan; Wiklind, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    The colours of the galaxy class known as Extremely Red Objects (EROs; R-K>5) are considered to be consistent with two distinct galaxy populations at high redshift: evolved ellipticals or young dusty starbursts. In this paper the properties of EROs, spanned by the five photometric bands RIJHK, are investigated as to the possibility to distinguish between these two galaxy populations using only broad band photometry. The broad band colours of elliptical and starburst galaxies at redshifts up to 5 are computed from synthetic spectra obtained using the spectral evolution synthesis programme PEGASE.2. Two initial mass functions and a range of metallicities and extinctions are used. In order to be extremely red in the redshift range considered, the evolution of the R-K colour sets the requirement that ellipticals have to be less than 7-8 Gyr old, and that the starbursts must have colour excesses of E(B-V)>1, as derived from the nebular emission lines. In investigating the overlap in the different colour-colour plan...

  7. Hyper Extremely Red Objects in the Subaru Deep Field Evidence for Primordial Elliptical Galaxies in the Dusty Starburst Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T; Iwamuro, F; Maihara, T; Motohara, K; Totani, Tomonori; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Motohara, Kentaro

    2001-01-01

    We report observational analyses and theoretical interpretations of unusually red galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). A careful analysis of the SDF data revealed a population with unusually red near-infrared (NIR) colors of J - K >~ 3-4, with higher confidence than the previous SDF result. Their surface number density drastically increases at K >~ 22 and becomes roughly the same with that of dusty starburst galaxies detected by submillimeter observations in recent years. These colors are even redder than the known population of the extremely red objects (EROs), and too red to explain by passively evolving elliptical galaxies which are the largest population of EROs. Hence these hyper extremely red objects (HEROs) should be considered as a distinct population from EROs. We discuss several possible interpretations of these enigmatic objects, and we show that these red NIR colors, K-band and sub-mm flux, and surface number density are quantitatively best explained by primordial elliptical galaxies reddened ...

  8. Classification of extremely red objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Wen Fang; Xu Kong; Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the classification of Extremely Red Objects (EROs). The analysis is based on the multi-band spatial-and ground-based observa-tions (HST/ACS-BViz, HST/NICMOS-JH, VLT-JHK) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). Over a total sky area of 5.50 arcmin2 in the UDF, we select 24 EROs with the color criterion (i-K)vega 3.9, corresponding to (I-K)vega 4.0, down to KVega = 22. We develop four methods to classify EROs into Old passively evolving Galaxies (OGs) and Dusty star-forming Galaxies (DGs), including (i-K) vs. (J-K) color diagram,spectral energy distribution fitting method, Spitzer MIPS 24μm image matching, and nonparametric measure of galaxy morphology, and found that the classification results from these methods agree well. Using these four classification methods, we classify our EROs sample into 60Gs and 8 DGs to KVega < 20.5, and 80Gs and 16 DGs to KVega < 22, respectively. The fraction of DGs increases from 8/14 at KVega < 20.5to 16/24 at Kvega < 22. To study the morphology of galaxies with its wavelength, we measure the central concentration and the Gini coefficient for the 24 EROs in our sample in HST/ACS-i, z and HST/NICMOS-J, H bands. We find that the morphological param-eters of galaxies in our sample depend on the wavelength of observation, which suggests that caution is necessary when comparing single wavelength band images of galaxies at a variety of redshifts.

  9. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  10. Extremely Red Quasars in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual "wingless" line profiles, large NV/Lya, NV/CIV, SiIV/CIV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [OIII] 5007. Here we present a new catalog of CIV and NV emission-line data for 216,188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR color, secondarily on REW(CIV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a "core" sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 > 4.6 (AB) and REW(CIV) > 100 A at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity log L (ergs/s) ~ 47.1, sk...

  11. High-Redshift Extremely Red Objects in the HST Ultra Deep Field Revealed by the GOODS IRAC Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, H; Eisenhardt, P R M; Ferguson, H C; Grogin, N A; Paolillo, M; Chary, R R; Casertano, S; Stern, D; Reach, W T; Moustakas, L A; Fall, S M; Yan, Haojing; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Casertano, Stefano; Stern, Daniel; Reach, William T.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2004-01-01

    Using early data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, taken for the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), we identify and study objects that are well-detected at 3.6um, but are very faint (and in some cases, invisible) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) ACS and NICMOS images and in very deep VLT Ks-band imaging. We select a sample of 17 objects with f_nu(3.6um)/f_nu(z_{850})>20. The analysis of their spectral energy-distributions (SEDs) from 0.4 to 8.0um shows that the majority of these objects cannot be satisfactorily explained without a well-evolved stellar population. We find that most of them can be well fitted by a simple two-component model, where the primary component represents a massive, old population that dominates the strong IR emission, while the secondary component represents a low amplitude, on-going star-formation process that accounts for the weak optical fluxes. Their estimated photometric redshifts (z_p) range from 1.6 to 2.9, with the median a...

  12. Red Tide Frequency Analysis Using the Extreme Value Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the red tide erupted frequently, and caused a great economic loss. At present, most literatures emphasize the academic research on the growth mechanism of red tide alga. In order to find out the characters of red tide in detail and improve the precision of forecast, this paper gives some new approaches to dealing with the red tide. By the extreme values, we deal with the red tide frequency analysis and get the estimation of T-times red tide level U(T), which is the level once the consistence of red tide alga exceeds on the average in a period of T times.

  13. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  14. A Search for Extremely Young Stellar Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月芳; 王均智; 吴京文

    2003-01-01

    We have observed 22 sources in 13CO and C18O J = 1 - 0 lines with a 13.7-m telescope at Qinghai station of PMO, NAOC. The samples were chosen with new criteria so that the sources are much redder and fainter than those chosen before. All the 22 sources were detected with the pair lines of 13CO and C18O and are suitable for analysing star formation except one multiple emission source IRAS 20300+3909. Physical parameters were derived from the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The excitation temperature and column density of C18O are 13K and 1.5 × 1015 cm-2, respectively, on the average. 11 sources in the samples have line widths larger than 3 km/s. The IRAS colour indices are larger than those of class-O objects. The intermediate and farinfrared energy distributions show that the emission peaks of the samples fall in far infrared or longer wavelengths except IRAS 20149+3955, indicating that they may be very young stellar objects. Analyses of line widths and bolometric luminosity show that seven of those sources may be extremely young high or intermediate mass stellar objects.

  15. The extremely red host galaxy of GRB 080207

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Leslie; Rossi, Andrea; Savaglio, Sandra; Cresci, Giovanni; Klose, Sylvio; Michalowski, Michal; Pian, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the host galaxy of the dark gamma-ray burst GRB 080207. The host is faint, with extremely red optical-infrared colors ($R-K\\,=\\,6.3$, 24\\micron/$R-$band flux $\\sim1000$) making it an extremely red object (ERO) and a dust-obscured galaxy (DOG). The spectral energy distribution (SED) shows the clear signature of the 1.6 micron photometric "bump", typical of evolved stellar populations. We use this bump to establish the photometric redshift $z_{\\rm phot}$ as 2.2$^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$, using a vast library of SED templates, including M 82. The star-formation rate (SFR) inferred from the SED fitting is $\\sim$119\\msun\\,yr$^{-1}$, the stellar mass $3\\times10^{11}$\\,\\msun, and \\av\\ extinction from 1-2\\,mag. The ERO and DOG nature of the host galaxy of the dark GRB 080207 may be emblematic of a distinct class of dark GRB hosts, with high SFRs, evolved and metal-rich stellar populations, and significant dust extinction within the host galaxy.

  16. New Clues on the Nature of Extremely Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; Alighieri, S S; Pozzetti, L; Mannucci, F; Renzini, A; Oliva, E; Zamorani, G; Andreani, P; Röttgering, H J A

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared VLT-UT1+ISAAC spectroscopy of a sample of 9 extremely red galaxies (ERGs) with R-K>5 and K0.8. We discuss the general implications of our findings in relation with the problem of the formation of early type galaxies.

  17. Discovery of extreme [O III] λ5007 Å outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hamann, Fred; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-07-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z = 2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XSHOOTER on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z ˜ 2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ˜1047 erg s-1. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max = 2600-5000 km s-1), strongly blueshifted (by up to 1500 km s-1) [O III] λ5007 Å emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of type 2 and red quasars, [O III] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end in both [O III] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that at least 3 per cent of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. Photo-ionization estimates suggest that the [O III] emission might be extended on a few kpc scales, which would suggest that the extreme outflow is affecting the entire host galaxy of the quasar. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme form of quasar feedback at the peak epoch of galaxy formation, and may represent an active `blow-out' phase of quasar evolution.

  18. Discovery of extreme [OIII]5007A outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W N; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Ross, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z=2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XShooter on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z~2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ~10^47 erg/sec. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max= 2600-5000 km/sec), strongly blue-shifted (by up to 1500 km/sec) [OIII]5007A emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of obscured and red quasars, [OIII] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end both in [OIII] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that ~3% of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme ...

  19. Statistics of extreme objects in the Juropa Hubble Volume simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, W A; Diego, J M; Gottlöber, S; Knebe, A; Martínez-González, E; Yepes, G

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from the JUropa huBbLE volumE (Jubilee) project, based on the output from a large N-body, dark matter-only cosmological simulation with a volume of V=(6Gpc/h)^3, containing 6000^3 particles, performed within the concordance Lambda-CDM cosmological model. The simulation volume is sufficient to probe extremely large length scales in the universe, whilst at the same time the particle count is high enough so that dark matter haloes down to 1.5x10^12 M_sun/h can be resolved. At z = 0 we identify over 400 million haloes, and the first haloes in the simulation form at z = 11. We present an all-sky map of the Integrated Sachs Wolfe signal calculated from the gravitational potential in the box between z = 0-1.4. The cluster mass function is derived using three different halofinders and compared to fitting functions in the literature, with results being consistent with previous studies across most of the mass-range of the simulation. We compare simulated clusters of maximal mass across reds...

  20. Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Iwai, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-01-01

    .... Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest temperature required for an object to feel warm, indicating that a blue object is more likely to be judged as warm...

  1. Extremely Red Quasars from SDSS, BOSS and WISE: Classification of Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Nicholas P; Zakamska, Nadia L; Richards, Gordon T; Villforth, Carolin; Strauss, Michael A; Greene, Jenny E; Alexandroff, Rachael; Brandt, W Niel; Liu, Guilin; Myers, Adam D; Paris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Quasars with extremely red colours are an interesting population that can test ideas about quasar evolution as well as orientation and geometric effects in the so-called AGN unified model. To identify such a population we search the quasar catalogs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for quasars with extremely high infrared-to-optical ratios. We identify 65 objects with r(AB)-W4(Vega)>14 mag (i.e., F_nu(22um)/F_nu(r) > ~1000). This sample spans a redshift range of 0.282.6 objects that are detected in the W4-band but not W1 or W2 (i.e., "W1W2-dropouts"). The SDSS/BOSS spectra show that the majority of the objects are reddened Type 1 quasars, Type 2 quasars (both at low and high redshift) or objects with deep low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs) that suppress the observed r-band flux. In addition, we identify a class of Type 1 permitted broad-emission line objects at z~2-3 which are characterized by...

  2. Detecting Non-Dominated Extreme Points for Multiple Objective Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Tantawy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient extreme points in decision space of multiple objective linear programming (MOLP may not map to non dominated extreme points in objective space under the linear mapping, condition that efficient extreme points have a non dominated extreme is given, the important of this study is that the decision-Maker may depends on extreme points of the set of the objective space than that of the decision space since they have fewer extreme points.

  3. Single sided tomography of extremely large dense objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1993-03-24

    One can envision many circumstances where radiography could be valuable but is frustrated by the geometry of the object to be radiographed. For example, extremely large objects, the separation of rocket propellants from the skin of solid fuel rocket motor, the structural integrity of an underground tank or hull of a ship, the location of buried objects, inspection of large castings etc. The author has been investigating ways to do this type of radiography and as a result has developed a technique which can be used to obtain three dimensional radiographs using Compton scattered radiation from a monochromatic source and a high efficiency, high resolution germanium spectrometer. This paper gives specific details of the reconstruction technique and presents the results of numerous numerical simulations and compares these simulations to spectra obtained in the laboratory. In addition the author presents the results of calculations made for the development of an alternative single sided radiography technique which will permit inspection of the interior of large objects. As a benchmark the author seeks to obtain three dimensional images with a resolution of about one cubic centimeter in a concrete cube 30 centimeters on a side. Such a device must use photons of very high energy. For example 30 cm of concrete represents about 15 mean free paths for photons of 100 keV, whereas at 1 MeV the attenuation is down to about five mean free paths. At these higher energies Compton scattering becomes much more probable. Although this would appear to be advantageous for single sided imaging techniques, such techniques are hampered by two side effects. In this paper the results are given of numerous Monte Carlo calculations detailing the extent of the multiple scattering and the feasibility of a variety of imaging schemes is explored.

  4. Objective criteria accurately predict amputation following lower extremity trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, K; Daines, M; Howey, T; Helfet, D; Hansen, S T

    1990-05-01

    MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) is a simple rating scale for lower extremity trauma, based on skeletal/soft-tissue damage, limb ischemia, shock, and age. Retrospective analysis of severe lower extremity injuries in 25 trauma victims demonstrated a significant difference between MESS values for 17 limbs ultimately salvaged (mean, 4.88 +/- 0.27) and nine requiring amputation (mean, 9.11 +/- 0.51) (p less than 0.01). A prospective trial of MESS in lower extremity injuries managed at two trauma centers again demonstrated a significant difference between MESS values of 14 salvaged (mean, 4.00 +/- 0.28) and 12 doomed (mean, 8.83 +/- 0.53) limbs (p less than 0.01). In both the retrospective survey and the prospective trial, a MESS value greater than or equal to 7 predicted amputation with 100% accuracy. MESS may be useful in selecting trauma victims whose irretrievably injured lower extremities warrant primary amputation.

  5. The age of extremely red and massive galaxies at very high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Rodriguez, N

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present a determination of the intrinsic colors and ages of galaxies at very high redshift, in particular old galaxies (OGs) within extremely red objects (EROs). To date, the definition of EROs has been restricted to objects with z2.5). We therefore, refer to these objects as very high-redshift EROs (Z-EROS, herein). Methods. We analyze 63,550 galaxies selected in the XMM-LSS field. To obtain a reasonably sized sample of EROs, it is essential to consider a very wide area surveys. We identify targets within an area of 0.77 square degrees for which optical to mid-infrared data are available from SUBARU, UKIDSS, and Spitzer. We select Z-EROs based on their colors, and then perform a selection of only OGs. One of our novel innovations is to adapt the traditional method of EROs selection based on the filters I and K, to higher redshifts. Using our method, we identify 20 objects that satisfy the conditions required to be Z-EROs/OGs at redshifts 2.5~4.7. After including additional galaxies with z<2.5 ana...

  6. The peculiar object HD 44179 /'The red rectangle'/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Fawley, W. M.; Anderson, C. M.; Cowley, A.; Coyne, G. V.; Gull, T. R.; Harlan, E. A.; Herbig, G. H.; Holden, F.; Hudson, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    A strong infrared source detected in the AFCRL sky survey is confirmed, and is identified with the binary star HD 44179, embedded in a peculiar nebula. UBVRI and broad-band photometry between 2.2 and 27 microns are combined with blue, red, and near-infrared spectra, polarimetry and spectrophotometry of the star, and a range of direct and image-tube photographs of the nebula, to suggest a composite model of the system. In this model, the infrared radiation derives from thermal emission by dust grains contained in a disklike geometry about the central object, which appears to be of spectral type B9-A0 III and which may be in pre-main-sequence evolution. Two infrared emission features are found, peaking at 8.7 and 11.3 microns, the latter corresponding to the feature seen in the spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 7027. The complex nebular structure is discussed on the basis of photographs through narrow-band continuum and emission-line filters. The polarization data support the suggestion of a disk containing some large particles. No radio continuum emission is detected.

  7. Extreme Red Sea: Life in the deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tectonic splitting of the Arabian and African plates originated the Red Sea together with one of the most unique, remote, and extreme environments on Earth: deep-sea anoxic brine lakes. They combine multiple extremes namely increased salinity (7-fold), temperature (up to 70°C), concentration of heavy metals (1,000- to 10,000-fold), and hydrostatic pressure [1]. Despite such harsh conditions, they harbor an unexpectedly high biodiversity and are teeming with life. Increased i...

  8. Coralling a distant planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-01-01

    The four longest period Kuiper belt objects have orbital periods close to small integer ratios with each other. A hypothetical planet with orbital period $\\sim$17,117 years, semimajor axis $\\sim$665 AU, would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. The orbital geometries and dynamics of resonant orbits constrain the orbital plane, the orbital eccentricity and the mass of such a planet, as well as its current location in its orbital path.

  9. New Extreme Trans-Neptunian Objects: Towards a Super-Earth in the Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, Scott S

    2016-01-01

    We are conducting a wide and deep survey for extreme distant solar system objects. Our goal is to understand the high perihelion objects Sedna and 2012 VP113 and determine if an unknown massive planet exists in the outer solar system. The discovery of new extreme objects from our survey of some 1080 square degrees of sky to over 24th magnitude in the r-band are reported. Two of the new objects, 2014 SR349 and 2013 FT28, are extreme detached trans-Neptunian objects, which have semi-major axes greater than 150 AU and perihelia well beyond Neptune (q>40 AU). Both new objects have orbits with arguments of perihelia within the range of the clustering of this angle seen in the other known extreme objects. One of these objects, 2014 SR349, has a longitude of perihelion similar to the other extreme objects, but 2013 FT28, which may have more significant Neptune interactions, is about 180 degrees away or anti-aligned in its longitude of perihelion. We also discovered the first outer Oort cloud object with a perihelion...

  10. Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Iwai, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-07-03

    It is commonly believed that reddish colour induces warm feelings while bluish colour induces cold feelings. We, however, demonstrate an opposite effect when the temperature information is acquired by direct touch. Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest temperature required for an object to feel warm, indicating that a blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object of the same physical temperature. Experiment 2 showed that hand colour also affects temperature judgment, with the direction of the effect opposite to object colours. This study provides the first demonstration that colour can modulate temperature judgments when the temperature information is acquired by direct touch. The effects apparently oppose the common conception of red-hot/blue-cold association. We interpret this phenomenon in terms of "Anti-Bayesian" integration, which suggests that the brain integrates direct temperature input with prior expectations about temperature relationship between object and hand in a way that emphasizes the contrast between the two.

  11. ISO investigates the nature of extremely-red hard X-ray sources responsible for the X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, A; Césarsky, C J; Elbaz, D; Flores, H; Granato, G L; Franceschini, Alberto; Fadda, Dario; Cesarsky, Catherine; Elbaz, David; Flores, Hector; Granato, Gian Luigi

    2001-01-01

    We analyse very deep X-ray and mid-IR surveys in common areas of the Lockman Hole and the HDF North to study the sources of the X-ray background (XRB) and to test the standard obscured accretion paradigm. We detect with ISO a rich population of X-ray luminous sources with red optical colours, including a fraction identified with Extremely Red Objects (R-K > 5) and galaxies with SEDs typical of normal massive ellipticals or spirals at z ~ 1. The high 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosities of these objects (1E43-1E45 erg/s) indicate that the ultimate energy source is gravitational accretion, while the X-ray to IR flux ratios and the X-ray spectral hardness show evidence of photoelectric absorption at low X-ray energies. An important hint on the physics comes from the mid-IR data at 6.7 and 15 um, well reproduced by model spectra of completely obscured quasars under standard assumptions and l.o.s. optical depths tau ~ 30-40. Other predictions of the standard XRB picture, like the distributions of intrinsic bolometric lum...

  12. A Chemical and Dynamical Link Between Red Centaur Objects and the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2015-11-01

    We present new B-V, V-R, and B-R colors for 32 Centaurs objects using the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) near Happy Jack, AZ and the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ. Combining these new colors with our previously reported colors, we now have optical broad-band colors for 58 Centaur objects.Application of the non-parametric Dip Test to our previous sample of only 26 objects showed Centaurs split into gray and red groups at the 99.5% confidence level, and application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to the same sample showed that red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99% confidence level (Tegler et al., 2008, Solar System Beyond Neptune, U Arizona Press, pp. 105-114).Here we report application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to our sample of 58 Centaurs. We confirm red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99.7% level. In addition, we find that red Centaurs have a lower median inclination angle than gray Centaurs at the 99.5% confidence level. Because of their red colors and lower inclination angles, we suggest red Centaurs originate in the cold classical Kuiper belt. We thank the NASA Solar System Observations Program for its support.

  13. Network search method in the design of extreme ultraviolet lithographic objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, O.; Bociort, F.

    2007-01-01

    The merit function space of mirror system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is studied. Local minima situated in the multidimensional optical merit function space are connected via links that contain saddle points and form a network. We present networks for EUV lithographic objective designs

  14. GTC optical imaging of extremely red 5C radio galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Lagos, P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of seven unusual radio galaxies from the 5C catalogue that were previously known to have extremely red R-K colours, and for which emission lines were previously found to be weak or absent in their optical spectra. We present and discuss u, g, or r images of these radio galaxies, obtained using the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We have detected all seven targets in our g-band imaging. Their optical emission is extended, and we tentatively detect a radio-optical alignment effect in this sample. A subset of our sample (three sources) shows broad-band spectral energy distributions that flatten out near the wavelength range of the g-band, implying a dominant contribution there due to young stars and/or scattered or reprocessed radiation from the active nucleus.

  15. Biodiversity patterns of plankton assemblages at the extremes of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-01-07

    The diversity of microbial plankton has received limited attention in the main basin of the Red Sea. This study investigates changes in the community composition and structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes at the extremes of the Red Sea along cross-shelf gradients and between the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum. Using molecular methods to target both the 16S and 18S rRNA genes, it was observed that the dominant prokaryotic classes were Acidimicrobiia, Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, regardless of the region and depth. The eukaryotes Syndiniophyceae and Dinophyceae between them dominated in the north, with Bacillariophyceae and Mamiellophyceae more prominent in the southern region. Significant differences were observed for prokaryotes and eukaryotes for region, depth and distance from shore. Similarly, it was noticed that communities became less similar with increasing distance from the shore. Canonical correspondence analysis at the class level showed that Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae correlated with increased nutrients and chlorophyll a found in the southern region, which is influenced by the input of Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water.

  16. Bayesian objective classification of extreme UK daily rainfall for flood risk applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Little

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe an objective classification scheme for extreme UK daily precipitation to be used in flood risk analysis applications. We create a simplified representation of the spatial layout of extreme events based on a new digital archive of UK rainfall. This simplification allows a Bayesian clustering algorithm to compress these representations down to eight prototypical patterns of extreme falls. These patterns are then verified against a five-class, manual, subjective typing scheme, produced independently using known meteorological mechanisms, isohyetal maps and additional descriptive text from the archive. Compared against the manual scheme, the new objective scheme can reproduce the known meteorological conditions, both in terms of spatial layout and seasonal timing, and is shown to be of hydrological relevance when matched to several notable flooding events in the past century. Furthermore, it is computationally simple and straightforward to apply in classifying future extreme rainfall events. We discuss the practical use of this new typing scheme in flood simulations and climate change applications.

  17. Extremely Red Submillimeter Galaxies: New z ≳ 4-6 Candidates Discovered using ALMA and Jansky VLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2017-01-01

    We present the detailed characterization of two extremely red submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), ASXDF1100.053.1 and 231.1, with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Jansky Very Large Array. These SMGs were originally selected using AzTEC at 1100 μm, and are observed by Hersch

  18. Aspherical surfaces design for extreme ultraviolet lithographic objective with correction of thermal aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu

    2016-09-01

    At present, few projection objectives for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography pay attention to correct thermal aberration in optical design phase, which would lead to poor image quality in a practical working environment. We present an aspherical modification method for helping the EUV lithographic objective additionally correct the thermal aberration. Based on the thermal aberration and deformation predicted by integrated optomechanical analysis, the aspherical surfaces in an objective are modified by an iterative algorithm. The modified aspherical surfaces could correct the thermal aberration and maintain the initial high image quality in a practical working environment. A six-mirror EUV lithographic objective with 0.33-numerical aperture is taken as an example to illustrate the presented method. The results show that the thermal aberration can be corrected effectively, and the image quality of the thermally deformed system is improved to the initial design level, which proves the availability of the method.

  19. Analysis of an object assumed to contain “Red Mercury”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Blagus, Saša; Valković, Vladivoj

    2007-08-01

    After having been informed about an attempt of illicit trafficking, the Organized Crime Division of the Zagreb Police Authority confiscated in November 2003 a hand size metal cylinder suspected to contain "Red Mercury" (RM). The sample assumed to contain RM was analyzed with two nondestructive analytical methods in order to obtain information about the nature of the investigated object, namely, activation analysis with 14.1 MeV neutrons and EDXRF analysis. The activation analysis with 14.1 MeV neutrons showed that the container and its contents were characterized by the following chemical elements: Hg, Fe, Cr and Ni. By using EDXRF analysis, it was shown that the elements Fe, Cr and Ni were constituents of the capsule. Therefore, it was concluded that these three elements were present in the capsule only, while the content of the unknown material was Hg. Antimony as a hypothetical component of red mercury was not detected.

  20. Automatic cell object extraction of red tide algae in microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Ji, Guangrong; Zheng, Haiyong

    2017-03-01

    Extracting the cell objects of red tide algae is the most important step in the construction of an automatic microscopic image recognition system for harmful algal blooms. This paper describes a set of composite methods for the automatic segmentation of cells of red tide algae from microscopic images. Depending on the existence of setae, we classify the common marine red tide algae into non-setae algae species and Chaetoceros, and design segmentation strategies for these two categories according to their morphological characteristics. In view of the varied forms and fuzzy edges of non-setae algae, we propose a new multi-scale detection algorithm for algal cell regions based on border- correlation, and further combine this with morphological operations and an improved GrabCut algorithm to segment single-cell and multicell objects. In this process, similarity detection is introduced to eliminate the pseudo cellular regions. For Chaetoceros, owing to the weak grayscale information of their setae and the low contrast between the setae and background, we propose a cell extraction method based on a gray surface orientation angle model. This method constructs a gray surface vector model, and executes the gray mapping of the orientation angles. The obtained gray values are then reconstructed and linearly stretched. Finally, appropriate morphological processing is conducted to preserve the orientation information and tiny features of the setae. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove noise and accurately extract both categories of algae cell objects possessing a complete shape, regular contour, and clear edge. Compared with other advanced segmentation techniques, our methods are more robust when considering images with different appearances and achieve more satisfactory segmentation effects.

  1. Differential Binding of Colors to Objects in Memory: Red and Yellow Stick Better Than Blue and Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words versus pictures, task complexity (single objects versus multiple objects in visual scenes, and intentionality of encoding (intentional versus incidental learning. Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on type of color and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a purely automatic process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into a unitary memory representation. Rather, binding in memory seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that features of objects

  2. Total 3D imaging of phase objects using defocusing microscopy: application to red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Roma, P M S; Amaral, F T; Agero, U; Mesquita, O N

    2014-01-01

    We present Defocusing Microscopy (DM), a bright-field optical microscopy technique able to perform total 3D imaging of transparent objects. By total 3D imaging we mean the determination of the actual shapes of the upper and lower surfaces of a phase object. We propose a new methodology using DM and apply it to red blood cells subject to different osmolality conditions: hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. For each situation the shape of the upper and lower cell surface-membranes (lipid bilayer/cytoskeleton) are completely recovered, displaying the deformation of RBCs surfaces due to adhesion on the glass-substrate. The axial resolution of our technique allowed us to image surface-membranes separated by distances as small as 300 nm. Finally, we determine volume, superficial area, sphericity index and RBCs refractive index for each osmotic condition.

  3. Monte Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Morris, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics (AO) system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object AO system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte Carlo AO simulation tool, Durham adaptive optics simulation platform, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcsec per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcsec, that electron multiplying CCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is necessary, and that sky coverage can be improved by a slight reduction in natural guide star sub-aperture count without significantly affecting tomographic performance. We find that AO correction can be maintained across a wide field of view, up to 7 arcmin in diameter. We also recommend the use of at least four laser guide stars, and include ground-layer and multi-object AO performance estimates.

  4. Polarization sensitivity in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii enhances the detection of moving transparent objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Johnsen, Sönke

    2006-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polarization sensitivity enhances the detection of moving, transparent objects by examining the escape response of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard) from a visual threat. A transparent, birefringent target trans-illuminated by either partially linear polarized or unpolarized light was advanced toward individual crayfish. The optical axis of the target was aligned such that it would be conspicuous to a viewer with polarization sensitivity when trans-illuminated by polarized light. Under polarized light, significantly more crayfish retreated from the target than under unpolarized light of identical intensity (Pcrayfish Pasifastacus leniusculus (Dana), our results provide the first behavioral evidence for polarization sensitivity among crayfish. The ecological function of this ability is unclear, but it may enhance the detection of fish with silvered scales, transparent zooplankton or macroinvertebrates. Because escape responses are generally more reliably induced than other behaviors, the method employed in this study may prove useful for examining sensory capabilities in other species.

  5. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations in a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Ben W. P.; Apai, Daniel; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J.; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J.

    2016-10-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs, but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here, we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-K s = 2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy, we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20 ± 0.14 hr) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 μm than at 1.7 μm. This is the third-largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentative trend between the wavelength dependence of relative amplitude, possibly proxy for small dust grains lofted in the upper atmosphere, and the likelihood of large-amplitude variability. By assuming forsterite as a haze particle, we successfully explain the wavelength-dependent amplitude with submicron-sized haze particle sizes of around 0.4 μm. W0047 links the earlier spectral and later spectral type brown dwarfs in which rotational modulations have been observed; the large amplitude variations in this object make this a benchmark brown dwarf for the study of cloud properties close to the L/T transition.

  6. Extended Red Objects and Stellar Wind Bow Shocks in the Carina Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Remington O; Smith, Nathan; Babler, Brian L; Meade, Marilyn R; Rudolph, Alexander L

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of infrared photometry on 39 extended red objects (EROs) in the Carina Nebula, observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most EROs are identified by bright, extended 8.0 um emission, which ranges from 10'' to 40'' in size, but our sample also includes 4 EROs identified by extended 24 um emission. Of particular interest are nine EROs associated with late O or early B-type stars and characterized by arc-shaped morphology, suggesting dusty, stellar-wind bow shocks. These objects are preferentially oriented towards the central regions of the Carina Nebula, suggesting that these bow shocks are generally produced by the interactions of OB winds with the bulk expansion of the H II region rather than high proper motion. We identify preferred regions of mid-infrared color space occupied by our bow shock candidates, which also contain bow shock candidates in M17 and RCW 49 but are well-separated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or circumstellar discs. Color cuts identify an additiona...

  7. Corralling a distant unseen planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Volk, Kathryn; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-10-01

    Several recent studies have appealed to the clustering of the angular orbital elements of very distant, extreme Kuiper belt objects (eKBOs) to argue for the existence of a large planet in the distant solar system. We identify other properties of eKBOs that may support the existence of such an unseen planet. We observe that several eKBOs have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. These would be dynamically significant only if the eKBOs are in mean motion resonances (MMRs) with an unseen massive planet. If such MMRs are true, then their resonant dynamics can provide constraints on the planet's parameters and its current location in its orbital path. We calculate that a hypothetical planet with orbital period ~17,117 years (semimajor axis ~665 AU), could have small integer period ratios (of the form N/1 or N/2) with the four longest period eKBOs. Our calculations suggest two possibilities for the planet's orbit plane: a plane moderately close to the ecliptic (i~18°) or an inclined plane (i~48°). The former offers dynamical stability of the high-eccentricity eKBOs by means of libration of the relative longitudes, and the latter offers enhanced dynamical stability by means of additional libration of the argument of perihelion, ω. Standard theory of MMRs breaks down for the extremely high orbital eccentricities (~0.7-0.9) of the eKBOs. We developed asymptotic analytical approximations, supported by numerical analysis of the circular restricted three body problem, to estimate that a planet of mass >~10 M♀ has MMR widths large enough that the current orbital uncertainties of the eKBOs allow libration in the hypothesized MMRs, as well as libration of ω in the inclined planet case. Our calculations indicate that the planet's orbital eccentricity is unlikely to exceed ~0.3 for stable resonant librations of the eKBOs. Libration of critical resonant angles of the hypothesized MMRs of the eKBOs define exclusion zones of the current location of the planet

  8. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrovolskas, V; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O I] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O I] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Aims. We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Methods. We used high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH...

  9. Extremely Red Submillimeter Galaxies: New z ≳ 4-6 Candidates Discovered using ALMA and Jansky VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detailed characterization of two extremely red submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), ASXDF1100.053.1 and 231.1, with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Jansky Very Large Array. These SMGs were originally selected using AzTEC at 1100 μm, and are observed by Herschel to be faint at 100–500 μm. Their (sub)millimeter colors are as red as—or redder—than known z ≳ 5 SMGs; indeed, ASXDF1100.053.1 is redder than HFLS 3, which lies at z = 6.3. They are also faint and red in the near-/mid-infrared: ∼1 μJy at IRAC 4.5 μm and ALMA maps are ∼1 and ≲0.2 kpc (∼2–3 kpc for 90% of the total flux). Last, their surface infrared luminosity densities, ΣIR, are ∼1 × 1012 and ≳1.5 × 1013 L ⊙ kpc‑2, similar to values seen for local (U)LIRGs. These data suggest that ASXDF1100.053.1 and 231.1 are compact SMGs at z ≳ 4 and can plausibly evolve into z ≳ 3 compact quiescent galaxies.

  10. Investigation of red natural dyes used in historical objects by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis Diode Array Detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) method was utilized for the identification of coloring components of madder, Armenian and Mexican cochineal, lac dye, brazilwood, safflower and dragon blood--probably the most important red natural dyestuffs found in objects of the cultural heritage. UV-Vis detection limits in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng for carminic acid, alizarin and purpurin were achieved using a gradient elution of H2O-0.01% TFA and CH3CN-0.01% TFA. ESI mass spectrometer was also used, as a supportive detection method to the standard DAD, for further analysis of the tested materials, with the ability to analyze dyestuffs as small as one milligram. The presence of madder was revealed in two historical (Hellenistic and Roman period) samples, found in the Mediterranean area, by identifying purpurin in both of them. Munjistin was also identified in one of the samples (Hellenistic period) while alizarin was not detected, raising questions regarding the exact madder type, utilized in the historical samples.

  11. Responding to the Effects of Extreme Heat: Baltimore City's Code Red Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Heat response plans are becoming increasingly more common as US cities prepare for heat waves and other effects of climate change. Standard elements of heat response plans exist, but plans vary depending on geographic location and distribution of vulnerable populations. Because heat events vary over time and affect populations differently based on vulnerability, it is difficult to compare heat response plans and evaluate responses to heat events. This article provides an overview of the Baltimore City heat response plan, the Code Red program, and discusses the city's response to the 2012 Ohio Valley/Mid Atlantic Derecho, a complex heat event. Challenges with and strategies for evaluating the program are reviewed and shared.

  12. HESS J1943+213: a candidate extreme BL Lacertae object

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Colom, P.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Nguyen, N.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schönwald, A.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Burnett, T. H.; Hill, A. B.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array has been surveying the Galactic plane for new VHE (>100 GeV) gamma-ray sources. Aims: We report on a newly detected point-like source, HESS J1943+213. This source coincides with an unidentified hard X-ray source IGR J19443+2117, which was proposed to have radio and infrared counterparts. Methods: We combine new H.E.S.S., Fermi/LAT and Nançay Radio Telescope observations with pre-existing non-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of IGR J19443+2117 and discuss the likely source associations as well as the interpretation as an active galactic nucleus, a gamma-ray binary or a pulsar wind nebula. Results: HESS J1943+213 is detected at the significance level of 7.9σ (post-trials) at RA(J2000) = 19h 43m 55s ± 1^s_stat ± 1^s_sys, Dec(J2000) = +21° 18' 8'' ± 17''_stat ± 20 arcsec_sys. The source has a soft spectrum with photon index Γ = 3.1 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys and a flux above 470 GeV of (1.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.3sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. There is no Fermi/LAT counterpart down to a flux limit of 6 × 10-9 cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range (95% confidence upper limit calculated for an assumed power-law model with a photon index Γ = 2.0). The data from radio to VHE gamma-rays do not show any significant variability. Conclusions: The lack of a massive stellar counterpart disfavors the binary hypothesis, while the soft VHE spectrum would be very unusual in case of a pulsar wind nebula. In addition, the distance estimates for Galactic counterparts places them outside of the Milky Way. All available observations favor an interpretation as an extreme, high-frequency peaked BL Lac object with a redshift z > 0.14. This would be the first time a blazar is detected serendipitously from ground-based VHE observations, and the first VHE AGN detected in the Galactic Plane.

  13. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C. J.; Puech, M.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Cuby, J.-G.; Guenther, E.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S. L.; Afonso, J.; Amram, P.; Aussel, H.; Basden, A.; Bastian, N.; Battaglia, G.; Biller, B.; Bouché, N.; Caffau, E.; Charlot, S.; Clénet, Y.; Combes, F.; Conselice, C.; Contini, T.; Dalton, G.; Davies, B.; Disseau, K.; Dunlop, J.; Fiore, F.; Flores, H.; Fusco, T.; Gadotti, D.; Gallazzi, A.; Giallongo, E.; Gonçalves, T.; Gratadour, D.; Hill, V.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ibata, R.; Larsen, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lemasle, B.; Maraston, C.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Östlin, G.; Paumard, T.; Pello, R.; Pentericci, L.; Petitjean, P.; Roth, M.; Rouan, D.; Schaerer, D.; Telles, E.; Trager, S.; Welikala, N.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries

  14. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  15. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  16. The Abundance of Distant and Extremely Red Galaxies: The Role of AGN Feedback in Hierarchical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A; Salimbeni, S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of AGN feedback associated to the bright QSO phase onto the color distribution of galaxies from z=0 up to z=4. To this aim, we insert a blast-wave model of AGN feedback in our semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which includes the growth of supermassive black holes and the AGN activity triggered by interactions of the host galaxies. The AGN feedback is directly related to the impulsive, luminous quasar phase. We test our model by checking the consistency of its results against i) the QSO luminosity functions from z=0 to z=4; ii) the observed local relation between the black hole mass m_{BH} and the mass of the host galaxy. At low redshift the inclusion of AGN feedback enhances the number of red bright galaxies, so that the color distribution of M_r1.5) galaxies; at 0.52.5.

  17. Red-Green Versus Blue Tactical Light: A Direct, Objective Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Michelle; Ruiz, Frank; Lamari, Micaela; Hutchinson, Charles; Noyes, Brandon; Petrash, Mark; Calvano, Christopher J; La Porta, Anthony; Enzenauer, Robert W

    Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) depends on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty when under fire. There is no single light that has been deemed "ideal" for all SOFMED environments. We used the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) hue test to determine color vision of normal subjects under white, red-green, and blue flashlights to determine color discrimination. Then we used a timed color-determination visual test to determine how quickly normal subjects can identify color correctly. We had subjects perform a simulated surgery illuminated by a normal white-light source, then by red-green or blue light-emitting diode (LED) tactical light. The total error score for white light was 49.714, 272.923 for red/green light, and 531.4 for blue light. The subjective perception of simulated trauma wounds was not substantially different with red-green LED tactical light when compared with white LED light. However, simulated surgery under the blue LED was more difficult compared with simulated surgery under the red-green LED light. Red-green was a superior light source for SOFMED and military first responders in this study, especially, where light was required to allow accurate and efficient application of Tactical Combat Casualty Care to injured personnel. 2016.

  18. Video Object Discovery and Co-Segmentation with Extremely Weak Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Hua, Gang; Sukthankar, Rahul; Xue, Jianru; Niu, Zhenxing; Zheng, Nanning

    2017-10-01

    We present a spatio-temporal energy minimization formulation for simultaneous video object discovery and co-segmentation across multiple videos containing irrelevant frames. Our approach overcomes a limitation that most existing video co-segmentation methods possess, i.e., they perform poorly when dealing with practical videos in which the target objects are not present in many frames. Our formulation incorporates a spatio-temporal auto-context model, which is combined with appearance modeling for superpixel labeling. The superpixel-level labels are propagated to the frame level through a multiple instance boosting algorithm with spatial reasoning, based on which frames containing the target object are identified. Our method only needs to be bootstrapped with the frame-level labels for a few video frames (e.g., usually 1 to 3) to indicate if they contain the target objects or not. Extensive experiments on four datasets validate the efficacy of our proposed method: 1) object segmentation from a single video on the SegTrack dataset, 2) object co-segmentation from multiple videos on a video co-segmentation dataset, and 3) joint object discovery and co-segmentation from multiple videos containing irrelevant frames on the MOViCS dataset and XJTU-Stevens, a new dataset that we introduce in this paper. The proposed method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art in all of these experiments.

  19. The Extremely Red, Young L Dwarf PSO J318-22: A Free-Floating Planetary-Mass Analog to Directly Imaged Young Gas-Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Michael C; Deacon, Niall R; Allers, Katelyn N; Dupuy, Trent J; Kotson, Michael C; Aller, Kimberly M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Hodapp, K W; Jedicke, R; Kudritzki, R -P; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J S; Kaiser, N; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J

    2013-01-01

    We have used Pan-STARRS1 to discover an extremely red late-L dwarf, which has (J-K)_MKO = 2.84 and (J-K)_2MASS = 2.78, making it the reddest known field dwarf and second only to 2MASS J1207-39b among substellar companions. Near-IR spectroscopy shows a spectral type of L7 and reveals a triangular H-band continuum and weak alkali (K I and Na I) lines, hallmarks of low surface gravity. Near-IR astrometry from the Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program gives a distance of 24.6+/-1.4 pc and indicates a much fainter J-band absolute magnitude than field L dwarfs. The position and kinematics of PSO J318-22 point to membership in the beta Pictoris moving group. Evolutionary models give a temperature of 1160 (-40,+30) K and a mass of 6.5 (-1.0, +1.3) Mjup, making PSO J318-22 one of the lowest mass free-floating objects in the solar neighborhood. This object adds to the growing list of low-gravity field L dwarfs and is the first to be strongly deficient in methane relative to its estimated temperature. Comparing their spectra...

  20. Effects of extreme seasonality on community structure and functional group dynamics of coral reef algae in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Breeman, A. M.

    Spatial and temporal variation in the biomass of four functional groups of coral reef algae (canopy algae, foliose algae, turf algae and crustose corallines) was investigated in the southern Red Sea. This region is characterised by extremely high summer temperatures (ca. 35 degrees C). Strong

  1. Effects of extreme seasonality on community structure and functional group dynamics of coral reef algae in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Breeman, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the biomass of four functional groups of coral reef algae (canopy algae, foliose algae, turf algae and crustose corallines) was investigated in the southern Red Sea. This region is characterised by extremely high summer temperatures (ca. 35 degrees C). Strong season

  2. H 0323 + 022 - A new BL Lacertae object with extremely rapid variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Bradt, H.; McClintock, J.; Remillard, R.; Urry, C. M.; Tapia, S.; Geldzahler, B.; Johnston, K.; Romanishin, W.; Wehinger, P. A.; Wyckoff, S.; Madejski, G.; Schwartz, D. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Schaefer, B. E.

    1986-03-01

    H0323+022 is a highly variable X-ray source discovered in the HEAO 1 all-sky survey coincident with a 16th mag stellar object. Optical nebulosity around the object strongly suggests that it is a BL Lac object. This paper presents the results of a multiband, multiepoch series of observations that demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that H0323+022 is a remarkably variable BL Lac object. The optical nebulosity around the stellar object is confirmed, the stellar optical radiation is polarized, and the radio characteristics and the overall electromagnetic spectrum resemble those of other BL Lac objects. Variability is seen in all bands, including radio and broad-band optical variations in days, optical polarization changes on time scales of tens of minutes, and X-ray changes on time scales of ≡30 s. H0323+022 is thus an active galactic nucleus with much of the observed emission emerging from a region ⪉1012 - 1014cm in size.

  3. Obtaining mass parameters of compact objects from red-blue shifts emitted by geodesic particles around them

    CERN Document Server

    Becerril, Ricardo; Nucamendi, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The mass parameters of compact objects such as Boson Stars, Schwarzschild, Reissner Nordstrom and Kerr black holes are computed in terms of the measurable redshift-blueshift (zred, zblue) of photons emitted by particles moving along circular geodesics around these objects and the radius of their orbits. We found bounds for the values of (zred, zblue) that may be observed. For the case of Kerr black hole, recent observational estimates of SrgA\\* mass and rotation parameter are employed to determine the corresponding values of these red-blue shifts.

  4. Processing of Extreme Moving-Object Update and Query Workloads in Main Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    The efficient processing of workloads that interleave moving-object updates and queries is challenging. In addition to the conflicting needs for update-efficient versus query-efficient data structures, the increasing parallel capabilities of multi-core processors yield challenges. To prevent...

  5. Complex carbohydrates of red wine: characterization of the extreme diversity of neutral oligosaccharides by ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doco, Thierry; Williams, Pascale; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Cheynier, Véronique; Sommerer, Nicolas

    2015-01-21

    The major neutral oligosaccharides of a Carignan red wine have been characterized for the first time. The oligosaccharides were prepared after removal of phenolic compounds by polyamide chromatography and of polysaccharides by alcohol precipitation and then were fractionated by anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. In a second step, the glycosyl composition and linkages of wine oligosaccharides were determined. Oligosaccharide fractions were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and an ion trap mass analyzer after separation by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on a Nucleodur HILIC column (zwitterionic sulfoalkyl betaine stationary phase). Glycosyl residue composition analysis showed the predominant presence of arabinose, with galactose, rhamnose, and mannose in lower proportion. Neutral oligosaccharides were present at a concentration of 185 mg/L in this wine. The MS spectra in the negative ion mode of the oligosaccharide fractions showed a series of oligosaccharidic structures corresponding to oligo-arabinans often linked to the basic unit α-l-Rhap-(1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA. The wine oligosaccharides identified correspond to arabino-oligosaccharides, rhamno-arabino-oligosaccharides, and different rhamnogalacturonan-arabino-oligosaccharides with DP ranging from 5 to 49, resulting from the degradation of grape cell wall pectins. Oligosaccharides have an extreme diversity, with more than 100 peaks detected in HPLC-ESI-MS spectra corresponding each to at least one oligosaccharidic structure.

  6. Extreme Kuiper Belt Object 2001 QG298 and the Fraction of Contact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, S S; Sheppard, Scott S.; Jewitt, David

    2004-01-01

    Extensive time-resolved observations of Kuiper Belt object 2001 QG298 show a lightcurve with a peak-to-peak variation of 1.14 +-0.04 magnitudes and single-peaked period of 6.8872 +- 0.0002 hr. The mean absolute magnitude is 6.85 magnitudes which corresponds to a mean effective radius of 122 (77) km if an albedo of 0.04 (0.10) is assumed. This is the first known Kuiper Belt object and only the third minor planet with a radius > 25 km to display a lightcurve with a range in excess of 1 magnitude. We find the colors to be typical for a Kuiper Belt object (B-V = 1.00 +- 0.04, V-R = 0.60 +- 0.02) with no variation in color between minimum and maximum light. The large light variation, relatively long double-peaked period and absence of rotational color change argue against explanations due to albedo markings or elongation due to high angular momentum. Instead, we suggest that 2001 QG298 may be a very close or contact binary similar in structure to what has been independently proposed for the Trojan asteroid 624 Hek...

  7. A portrait of the extreme Solar System object 2012 DR30

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Cs; Horner, J; Conn, B C; Müller, T G; Vilenius, E; Sárneczky, K; Kiss, L L; Bannister, M; Bayliss, D; Pál, A; Góbi, S; Verebélyi, E; ~Lellouch, E; Santos-Sanz, P; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N

    2013-01-01

    2012 DR30 is a recently discovered Solar System object on a unique orbit, with a high eccentricity of 0.9867, a perihelion distance of 14.54 AU and a semi-major axis of 1109 AU, in this respect outscoring the vast majority of trans-Neptunian objects. We performed Herschel/PACS and optical photometry to uncover the size and albedo of 2012 DR30, together with its thermal and surface properties. The body is 185 km in diameter and has a relatively low V-band geometric albedo of ~8%. Although the colours of the object indicate that 2012 DR30 is an RI taxonomy class TNO or Centaur, we detected an absorption feature in the Z-band that is uncommon among these bodies. A dynamical analysis of the target's orbit shows that 2012 DR30 moves on a relatively unstable orbit and was most likely only recently placed on its current orbit from the most distant and still highly unexplored regions of the Solar System. If categorised on dynamical grounds 2012 DR30 is the largest Damocloid and/or high inclination Centaur observed so...

  8. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  9. Computational intelligence-based optimization of maximally stable extremal region segmentation for object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy E.; Bednar, Amy E.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Durst, Phillip J.; Anderson, Derek T.; Bethel, Cindy L.

    2017-05-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GAs) are two optimization techniques from the field of computational intelligence (CI) for search problems where a direct solution can not easily be obtained. One such problem is finding an optimal set of parameters for the maximally stable extremal region (MSER) algorithm to detect areas of interest in imagery. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a GA and PSO for optimizing MSER parameters to detect stop signs in imagery produced via simulation for use in an autonomous vehicle navigation system. Several additions to the GA and PSO are required to successfully detect stop signs in simulated images. These additions are a primary focus of this paper and include: the identification of an appropriate fitness function, the creation of a variable mutation operator for the GA, an anytime algorithm modification to allow the GA to compute a solution quickly, the addition of an exponential velocity decay function to the PSO, the addition of an "execution best" omnipresent particle to the PSO, and the addition of an attractive force component to the PSO velocity update equation. Experimentation was performed with the GA using various combinations of selection, crossover, and mutation operators and experimentation was also performed with the PSO using various combinations of neighborhood topologies, swarm sizes, cognitive influence scalars, and social influence scalars. The results of both the GA and PSO optimized parameter sets are presented. This paper details the benefits and drawbacks of each algorithm in terms of detection accuracy, execution speed, and additions required to generate successful problem specific parameter sets.

  10. PdBI Cold Dust Imaging of Two Extremely Red H-[4.5]>4 Galaxies Discovered with SEDS and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, Karina I; Krips, Melanie; Geach, James E; Ashby, Matthew L N; Huang, Jiasheng; Fazio, Giovanni G; Koekemoer, Anton M; Popping, Gergo; Spaans, Marco; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S; Fontana, Adriano; Santini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We report Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) 1.1 mm continuum imaging towards two extremely red H-[4.5]>4 (AB) galaxies at z>3, which we have previously discovered making use of Spitzer SEDS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) CANDELS ultra-deep images of the UDS field. One of our objects is detected on the PdBI map with a 4.3 sigma significance, corresponding to Snu(1.1mm)=(0.78 +/- 0.18) mJy. By combining this detection with the Spitzer 8 and 24 micron photometry for this source, and SCUBA2 flux density upper limits, we infer that this galaxy is a composite active galactic nucleus (AGN)/star-forming system. The infrared (IR)-derived star formation rate is SFR~(200 +/- 100) Msun/yr, which implies that this galaxy is a higher-redshift analogue of the ordinary ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) more commonly found at z~2-3. In the field of the other target, we find a tentative 3.1 sigma detection on the PdBI 1.1 mm map, but 3.7 arcsec away of our target position, so it likely corresponds to a different ...

  11. A Hubble Space Telescope Lensing Survey of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters A Multiply-imaged Extremely Red Galaxy at z=1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G P; Kneib, J P; Davis, C J; Takamiya, M; Ebeling, H; Czoske, O; Smith, Graham P.; Smail, Ian

    2002-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of EROJ003707+0909.5, the brightest of three gravitationally-lensed images of an Extremely Red Object (ERO) at z=1.6, in the field of the massive cluster A68 (z=0.255). We exploit the superlative resolution of our HST data and the enhanced spatial resolution and sensitivity afforded by the lens amplification to reconstruct the source-plane properties of this ERO. Our morphological and photometric analysis reveals that EROJ003707 is an L* early-type disk-galaxy and we estimate that ~10 per cent of EROs with (R-K)>=5.3 and K<=21 may have similar properties. The unique association of passive EROs with elliptical galaxies therefore appears to be too simplistic. We speculate on the evolution of EROJ003707: if gas continues to cool onto this galaxy in the manner predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models, then by the present day, EROJ003707 could evolve into a very luminous spiral galaxy.

  12. BL LAC OBJECT PKS B1144-379: AN EXTREME SCINTILLATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Shabala, S. S.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Cimo, G. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Rapid variability in the radio flux density of the BL Lac object PKS B1144-379 has been observed at four frequencies, ranging from 1.5 to 15 GHz, with the Very Large Array and the University of Tasmania's Ceduna antenna. Intrinsic and line-of-sight effects were examined as possible causes of this variability, with interstellar scintillation best explaining the frequency dependence of the variability timescales and modulation indices. This scintillation is consistent with a compact source 20-40 {mu}as or 0.15-0.3 pc in size. The inferred brightness temperature for PKS B1144-379 (assuming that the observed variations are due to scintillation) is 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} K at 4.9 GHz, with approximately 10% of the total flux in the scintillating component. We show that scintillation surveys aimed at identifying variability timescales of days to weeks are an effective way to identify the active galactic nuclei with the highest brightness temperatures.

  13. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  14. Application of USNO-B1.0 towards selecting objects with displaced blue and red components

    CERN Document Server

    Jayson, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a feasibility study to determine the effectiveness of using USNO-B1.0 data to preferentially detect objects with displaced red and blue components. A procedure was developed to search catalogue entries for such objects, which include M dwarfs paired with white dwarfs or with earlier main-sequence stars, and galaxies with asymmetric colour distributions. Residual differences between red and blue and infrared and blue scanned emulsion images define vectors, which, when appropriately aligned and of sufficient length, signal potential candidates. Test sample sets were analysed to evaluate the effective discrimination of the technique. Over 91,000 USNO-B1.0 catalogue entries at points throughout the celestial sphere were then filtered for acceptable combinations of entry observations and magnitudes and the resulting total of about 17,000 entries was winnowed down to a little more than 200 objects of interest. These were screened by visual examination of photo images to a final total of 146 candid...

  15. Assessment of Objective Ambulation in Lower Extremity Sarcoma Patients with a Continuous Activity Monitor: Rationale and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Gundle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to patient reported outcome measures, accelerometers may provide useful information on the outcome of sarcoma patients treated with limb salvage. The StepWatch (SW Activity Monitor (SAM is a two-dimensional accelerometer worn on the ankle that records an objective measure of walking performance. The purpose of this study was to validate the SW in a cross-sectional population of adult patients with lower extremity sarcoma treated with limb salvage. The main outcome was correlation of total steps with the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS. In a sample of 29 patients, a mean of 12 days of SW data was collected per patient (range 6–16, with 2767 average total steps (S.D. 1867; range 406–7437. There was a moderate positive correlation between total steps and TESS (r=0.56,  P=0.002. Patients with osseous tumors walked significantly less than those with soft tissue sarcoma (1882 versus 3715, P<0.01. This study supports the validity of the SAM as an activity monitor for the objective assessment of real world physical function in sarcoma patients.

  16. Excited State s-cis Rotamers Produced by Extreme Red Edge Excitation of all-trans-1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Møller, Søren; Goldbeck, Robert A.;

    1993-01-01

    The shapes of the fluorescence emission and lowest excited singlet-state absorption spectra of all-trans-1,4- diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in hydrocarbon solvents vary with excitation wavelength when exciting on the extreme red edge of the ground-state absorption spectrum. This contrasts with the wave......The shapes of the fluorescence emission and lowest excited singlet-state absorption spectra of all-trans-1,4- diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in hydrocarbon solvents vary with excitation wavelength when exciting on the extreme red edge of the ground-state absorption spectrum. This contrasts...... changes in DPB can be explained in terms of an excitation wavelength-dependent production of s-cis and s-trans rotamer populations in the excited state. The DPB fluorescence emission spectrum was resolved into s-cis and s-trans components. The vibronic structure of the s-cis fluorescence spectrum...

  17. PdBI cold dust imaging of two extremely red H – [4.5] > 4 galaxies discovered with SEDS and CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, K. I.; Popping, G.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Michałowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krips, M. [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Santini, P., E-mail: karina@astro.rug.nl [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    We report Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) 1.1 mm continuum imaging toward two extremely red H – [4.5] > 4 (AB) galaxies at z > 3, which we have previously discovered making use of Spitzer SEDS and Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS ultra-deep images of the Ultra Deep Survey field. One of our objects is detected on the PdBI map with a 4.3σ significance, corresponding to S{sub ν}(1.1 mm)=0.78±0.18 mJy. By combining this detection with the Spitzer 8 and 24 μm photometry for this source, and SCUBA2 flux density upper limits, we infer that this galaxy is a composite active galactic nucleus/star-forming system. The infrared (IR)-derived star formation rate is SFR ≈ 200 ± 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which implies that this galaxy is a higher-redshift analogue of the ordinary ultra-luminous infrared galaxies more commonly found at z ∼ 2-3. In the field of the other target, we find a tentative 3.1σ detection on the PdBI 1.1 mm map, but 3.7 arcsec away of our target position, so it likely corresponds to a different object. In spite of the lower significance, the PdBI detection is supported by a close SCUBA2 3.3σ detection. No counterpart is found on either the deep SEDS or CANDELS maps, so, if real, the PdBI source could be similar in nature to the submillimeter source GN10. We conclude that the analysis of ultra-deep near- and mid-IR images offers an efficient, alternative route to discover new sites of powerful star formation activity at high redshifts.

  18. The identification of extreme asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants in M33 with 24 μm variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Christopher B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Srinivasan, Sundar [Academica Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R. O. C. (China); Engelbracht, Charles W., E-mail: emonti2@lsu.edu [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the first detection of 24 μm variability in 24 sources in the Local Group galaxy M33. These results are based on 4 epochs of Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations, which are irregularly spaced over ∼750 days. We find that these sources are constrained exclusively to the Holmberg radius of the galaxy, which increases their chances of being members of M33. We have constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) ranging from the optical to the submillimeter to investigate the nature of these objects. We find that 23 of our objects are most likely heavily self-obscured, evolved stars, while the remaining source is the Giant H ii region, NGC 604. We believe that the observed variability is the intrinsic variability of the central star reprocessed through their circumstellar dust shells. Radiative transfer modeling was carried out to determine their likely chemical composition, luminosity, and dust production rate (DPR). As a sample, our modeling has determined an average luminosity of (3.8±0.9)×10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙} and a total DPR of (2.3±0.1)×10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Most of the sources, given the high DPRs and short wavelength obscuration, are likely extreme asymptotic giant branch (XAGB) stars. Five of the sources are found to have luminosities above the classical AGB limit (M{sub bol} <−7.1 mag, L > 54,000 L{sub ⊙}), which classifies them as probable red supergiants (RSGs). Almost all of the sources are classified as oxygen-rich. As also seen in the LMC, a significant fraction of the dust in M33 is produced by a handful of XAGB and RSG stars.

  19. Application of USNO-B1.0 towards selecting objects with displaced blue and red components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2016-03-01

    We have conducted a feasibility study to determine the effectiveness of using USNO-B1.0 data to preferentially detect objects with displaced red and blue components. A procedure was developed to search catalogue entries for such objects, which include M dwarfs paired with white dwarfs or with earlier main-sequence stars, and galaxies with asymmetric colour distributions. Residual differences between red and blue and infrared and blue scanned emulsion images define vectors, which, when appropriately aligned and of sufficient length, signal potential candidates. Test sample sets were analysed to evaluate the effective discrimination of the technique. Over 91 000 USNO-B1.0 catalogue entries at points throughout the celestial sphere were then filtered for acceptable combinations of entry observations and magnitudes and the resulting total of about 17 000 entries was winnowed down to a little more than 200 objects of interest. These were screened by visual examination of photo images to a final total of 146 candidates. About one quarter of these candidates coincide with SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) data. Those constituents fall into two groups, single and paired objects. SDSS identified several galaxies in the first group. Regarding the second group, at least half of its members were tentatively identified as main-sequence pairs, the greater portion being of widely separated spectral types. Two white dwarf-main-sequence pairs were also identified. Most importantly, the vectors formed from USNO-B1.0 residuals were in alignment with corresponding SDSS pair position angles, thereby supporting this work's central thesis.

  20. Statin alternatives or just placebo: an objective review of omega-3,red yeast rice and garlic in cardiovascular therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hean Teik Ong; Jin Seng Cheah

    2008-01-01

    Objective The alm of this review is to objectively access the trial evidence on the role of omega-3.red yeast rice and garlic in preventing clinical cardiovascular events.Given the large number of clinical trials favoring statin use in cardiovascular disease,it is important to see if evidence is available for these supplements and whether they could replace statin therapy.Data source A PubMed search was conducted using the keywords 'trial,omega-3,red yeast rice,xuezhikang,garlic, cholesterol,cardiovascular,outcomes';the resulting trials were reviewed together with the references quoted in the papers obtained.Study selection The studies selected are prospective,randomized,placebo-controlled studies with predefined clinical cardiovascular end-points recruiting at least 2000 patients,with a follow-up over 2 years.Results Modest dose omeqa-3 fatty acld has been shown in GiSSl-P(11324 patients,follow-up 3.5 years)to produce a reduction in sudden death of 45%,and in cardiac death of 35%,acting probably via an anti-arrhythmic effect.In JELILS (18645 patients,follow-up 4.6 years),high dose omega-3 given to Japanese patients on a high fish diet and already on statin treatment produced fu rther benefit with a 19%reduction of nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes;fatal cardiac events are not affected.CCSPS(4870 patients,follow-up 4 years),a secondary prevention trial using xuezhikang,a commercial red yeast rice preparation.produced a 46%reduction in nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary death.There has been no trial to show that garlic reduces clinical cardiovascular outcomes.A rigorous trial with constant assessment of chemicals in the study material in 192 patients found that over a 6-month follow-up.raw garlic and 2 commercial preparations do not significantly affect lipid levels.Conclusions Omega-3 in modest doses reduces cardiac deaths,and in high doses reduces nonfatal cardiovascular events.Red yeast rice reduces adverse cardiac events to a similar degree as the

  1. Science Case and Requirements for the MOSAIC Concept for a Multi-Object Spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Barbuy, B; Bonifacio, P; Cuby, J -G; Guenther, E; Hammer, F; Jagourel, P; Kaper, L; Morris, S L; Afonso, J; Amram, P; Aussel, H; Basden, A; Bastian, N; Battaglia, G; Biller, B; Bouché, N; Caffau, E; Charlot, S; Clenet, Y; Combes, F; Conselice, C; Contini, T; Dalton, G; Davies, B; Disseau, K; Dunlop, J; Fiore, F; Flores, H; Fusco, T; Gadotti, D; Gallazzi, A; Giallongo, E; Gonçalves, T; Gratadour, D; Hill, V; Huertas-Company, M; Ibata, R; Larsen, S; Fèvre, O Le; Lemasle, B; Maraston, C; Mei, S; Mellier, Y; Östlin, G; Paumard, T; Pello, R; Pentericci, L; Petitjean, P; Roth, M; Rouan, D; Schaerer, D; Telles, E; Trager, S; Welikala, N; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (>40 sq. arcmin) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of >100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of >10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MO...

  2. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (II): high electron temperature objects

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Morales-Luis, A B; Munoz-Tunon, C; Garcia-Benito, R; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F S

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12 + log[O/H] < 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the Universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time high electron temperature objects are selected; since metals are a main coolant of the gas, metal- poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies having particularly intense [OIII]4363 with respect to [OIII]5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample have mean stell...

  3. Monte-Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Morris, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object adaptive optics system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte-Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool, DASP, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcseconds per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcseconds, that EMCCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is necessary, and that sky coverage can be improved by a slight reduction in natural guide star sub-aperture count without significantly affecting tomographic performance. We find that adaptive optics correction can be maintained across a wide field of view, up to 7 arcminutes in diameter. We also recommend the use of at least 4 laser guide stars, and include ground-layer and multi-object adaptive optics performance estimates.

  4. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations In a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Ben W P; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Cowan, N B; Bedin,; R., L; Metchev, Stanimir A; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-Ks=2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20$\\pm$0.14 hours) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 micron than at 1.7 micron. This is the third largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentativ...

  5. 红移z≈1极红天体的研究进展%Research Progress on Extremely Red Ob jects at z≈1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方官文; 汪敏; 马仲阳; 陈洋; 孔旭

    2015-01-01

    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) are massive galaxies (M∗ > 1010.5 Mfl) char-acterized by extremely red optical-to-infrared colors (e.g., (i−K )AB > 2.45 mag or (I −K)Vega>4 mag) and high redshifts (z≈1). EROs are recognized to be primarily comprised of two interesting galaxy populations: Old passively evolving Galaxies (OGs) character-ized by old stellar populations, and Dusty star-forming Galaxies (DGs) reddened by a large amount of dust. EROs continue to be hot, on the one hand, the research in the literature suggests that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies. On the other hand, they can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Observations show that OGs and DGs have different physical properties and formation processes. OGs in appearance are very similar to local early-type galaxies, compared to DGs. For the morphological properties of DGs, the majority of them show disk or irregular structures, which is similar to late-type galaxies we see today. The results from literatures suggest that DGs become increasingly important at fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. Compared to DGs, major spectral features of OGs in-clude 4000˚A break, [Ca II]H,K absorption features and no emission lines in the observable wavelength range. Moreover, observations demonstrate that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies, the clustering amplitude of OGs is by a factor of ’ 2 larger than that of DGs. For a given stellar mass, the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ’ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at rest-frame optical wavelength (λrest ’ 6300˚A), implying that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of

  6. EVN Observations of HESS J1943+213: Evidence for an Extreme TeV BL Lac Object

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Nagai, Hiroshi; Giroletti, Marcello; Honma, Mareki

    2016-01-01

    We report on the 1.6 GHz (18 cm) VLBI observations of the unresolved, steady TeV source HESS J1943+213 located in the Galactic plane, performed with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in 2014. Our new observations with a nearly full EVN array provide the deepest image of HESS J1943+213 at the highest resolution ever achieved, enabling us to resolve the long-standing issues of the source identification. The milliarcsecond-scale structure of HESS J1943+213 has a clear asymmetric morphology, consisting of a compact core and a diffuse jet-like tail. This is broadly consistent with the previous e-EVN observations of the source performed in 2011, and re-analyzed in this work. The core component is characterized by the brightness temperature of $\\gtrsim1.8 \\times 10^9$ K, which is typical for low-luminosity blazars in general. Overall, radio properties of HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the source classification as an "extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object". Remarkably, we note that since HESS J1943+213 does n...

  7. Monte-Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object adaptive optics system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte-Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool, DASP, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcseconds per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcseconds, that EMCCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is nece...

  8. Predator protection or similar habitat selection in red-breasted goose nesting associations : extremes along a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, JL; Prop, J; Kokorev, Y; Black, JM

    2003-01-01

    We tested the predator protection and similar habitat hypotheses in relation to red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis, nesting associations. Geese began laying 1-3 weeks after all associated species. In almost all cases they nested on the mainland only if raptors were also present and always followe

  9. Multi-objective Optimization for the Robust Performance of Drinking Water Treatment Plants under Climate Change and Climate Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Rosario-Ortiz, F.; Summers, R. S.; Stewart, J.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    To promote public health, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and similar entities around the world enact strict laws to regulate drinking water quality. These laws, such as the Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP) Rules, come at a cost to water treatment plants (WTPs) which must alter their operations and designs to meet more stringent standards and the regulation of new contaminants of concern. Moreover, external factors such as changing influent water quality due to climate extremes and climate change, may force WTPs to adapt their treatment methods. To grapple with these issues, decision support systems (DSSs) have been developed to aid WTP operation and planning. However, there is a critical need to better address long-term decision making for WTPs. In this poster, we propose a DSS framework for WTPs for long-term planning, which improves upon the current treatment of deep uncertainties within the overall potable water system including the impact of climate on influent water quality and uncertainties in treatment process efficiencies. We present preliminary results exploring how a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search can be coupled with models of WTP processes to identify high-performing plans for their design and operation. This coupled simulation-optimization technique uses Borg MOEA, an auto-adaptive algorithm, and the Water Treatment Plant Model, a simulation model developed by the US EPA to assist in creating the D/DBP Rules. Additionally, Monte Carlo sampling methods were used to study the impact of uncertainty of influent water quality on WTP decision-making and generate plans for robust WTP performance.

  10. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper.

  11. The Identification of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars and Red Supergiants in M33 by 24 {\\mu}m Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, Edward J; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detection of 24 {\\mu}m variability in 24 sources in the Local Group galaxy M33. These results are based on 4 epochs of MIPS observations, which are irregularly spaced over ~750 days. We find that these sources are constrained exclusively to the Holmberg radius of the galaxy, which increases their chances of being members of M33. We have constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) ranging from the optical to the sub-mm to investigate the nature of these objects. We find that 23 of our objects are most likely heavily self-obscured, evolved stars; while the remaining source is the Giant HII region, NGC 604. We believe that the observed variability is the intrinsic variability of the central star reprocessed through their circumstellar dust shells. Radiative transfer modeling was carried out to determine their likely chemical composition, luminosity, and dust production rate (DPR). As a sample, our modeling has determined an average luminosity of (3.8 $\\pm$ 0.9) x 10$^4$ L$_\\odot$ and a ...

  12. THE EXTREMELY RED, YOUNG L DWARF PSO J318.5338–22.8603: A FREE-FLOATING PLANETARY-MASS ANALOG TO DIRECTLY IMAGED YOUNG GAS-GIANT PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Kotson, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We have discovered using Pan-STARRS1 an extremely red late-L dwarf, which has (J – K){sub MKO} = 2.78 and (J – K){sub 2MASS} = 2.84, making it the reddest known field dwarf and second only to 2MASS J1207–39b among substellar companions. Near-IR spectroscopy shows a spectral type of L7 ± 1 and reveals a triangular H-band continuum and weak alkali (K I and Na I) lines, hallmarks of low surface gravity. Near-IR astrometry from the Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program gives a distance of 24.6 ± 1.4 pc and indicates a much fainter J-band absolute magnitude than field L dwarfs. The position and kinematics of PSO J318.5–22 point to membership in the β Pic moving group. Evolutionary models give a temperature of 1160{sup +30}{sub -40} K and a mass of 6.5{sup +1.3}{sub -1.0} M {sub Jup}, making PSO J318.5–22 one of the lowest mass free-floating objects in the solar neighborhood. This object adds to the growing list of low-gravity field L dwarfs and is the first to be strongly deficient in methane relative to its estimated temperature. Comparing their spectra suggests that young L dwarfs with similar ages and temperatures can have different spectral signatures of youth. For the two objects with well constrained ages (PSO J318.5–22 and 2MASS J0355+11), we find their temperatures are ≈400 K cooler than field objects of similar spectral type but their luminosities are similar, i.e., these young L dwarfs are very red and unusually cool but not 'underluminous'. Altogether, PSO J318.5–22 is the first free-floating object with the colors, magnitudes, spectrum, luminosity, and mass that overlap the young dusty planets around HR 8799 and 2MASS J1207–39.

  13. Four IRAC Sources with an Extremely Red H-[3.6] Color: Passive or Dusty Galaxies at z>4.5?

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J -S; Rigopoulou, D; Magdis, G; Fazio, G G; Wang, T

    2011-01-01

    We report detection of four IRAC sources in the GOODS-South field with an extremely red color of H$-$[3.6]$>$4.5. The four sources are not detected in the deep HST WFC3 H-band image with H$_{limit}$=28.3 mag. We find that only 3 types of SED templates can produce such a red H$-$[3.6] color: a very dusty SED with the Calzetti extinction of A$_V$=16 mag at z=0.8; a very dusty SED with the SMC extinction of A$_V$=8 mag at z=2.0$\\sim$2.2; and an 1Gyr SSP with A$_V \\sim$0.8 at z=5.7. We argue that these sources are unlikely dusty galaxies at z$\\leq$2.2 based on absent strong MIPS 24$\\mu$m emission. The old stellar population model at z$>$4.5 remains a possible solution for the 4 sources. At z$>$4.5, these sources have stellar masses of Log(M$_*$/M$_{\\odot}$)=10.6$\\sim$11.2. One source, ERS-1, is also a type-II X-ray QSO with L$_{2-8keV}$=1.6$\\times 10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. One of the four sources is an X-ray QSO and another one is a HyperLIRG, suggesting a galaxy-merging scenario for the formation of these massive g...

  14. Iglesia y repoblación. La red parroquial de la Transierra extremeña (1142-1350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Montaña Conchiña, José Luis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The parish network of Extremadura can be characterised by its slow development. Once the conquest of the territory had taken place, it would not be until the end of the 13th century that the parish structure would acquire a certain development. This development basically would rely, in essence, on two realities. Firstly, we must point out the still inadequate ecclesiastical organization in a space full of difficulties and slow colonization. Secondly, the extreme scarcity of the population in many of the regions of Extremadura by the middle of the 13th century should be taken into consideration as well. Without a doubt, Extremadura's reality of a weak parish system, evident until the start of the 14th century, is closely related to an insufficient repopulation process and to an intense localization in which major contrasts can be seen between settled zones and practically uninhabited zones. At the beginning of the 14th century, a better parish network organization can be seen as the evident result of a general population increase in the totality of the territory of Extremadura.[fr] Le réseau paroissial d'Estrémadure se caractérise par son lent développement. Une fois superé le procès de la conquête du territoire, il ne sera qu'à la fin du XllIIᵉ siècle que la structure paroissiale acquerra une certaine apparence de développement, lequel est conditionné basiquement par une double réalité. En premier lieu, il faut signaler Torganisation ecclésiastique, toujours déficiente, dans un espace géographique plein de difficultés et une lente colonisation. En deuxième lieu, on doit considérer rextrôme pénurie de poblation que présentaient beaucoup de contrées d'Estrémadure très avancé le XllIᵉ siècle. Sans aucun doute, finconsistente réalité paroissiale d'Estrémadure, visible jusqu'au debut du XIVᵉ siècle, est très attachée à un procès de repeuplement insufisant et d'intense localisation dans lequel on détecte d

  15. XMS and NG1dF: extreme multiplex spectrographs for wide-field multi-object spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Barden, Sam; Becerril, Santiago; Boehm, Armin; Clark, Paul; Costillo, Pedro; Dubbeldam, C. Mark; Farrell, Tony; Glazebrook, Karl; Haynes, Roger; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Miziarski, Stan; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Prada, Luis Francisco; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Shanks, Tom; Sharples, Ray M.; Wagner, Karl

    2010-07-01

    Two feasibility studies for spectrographs that can deliver at least 4000 MOS slits over a 1° field at the prime focuses of the Anglo-Australian and Calar Alto Observatories have been completed. We describe the design and science case of the Calar Alto eXtreme Multiplex Spectrograph (XMS) for which an extended study, half way between feasibility study and phase-A, was made. The optical design is quite similar than in the AAO study for the Next Generation 1 degree Field (NG1dF) but the mechanical design of XMS is quite different and much more developed. In a single night, 25000 galaxy redshifts can be measured to z~0.7 and beyond for measuring the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and many other science goals. This may provide a low-cost alternative to WFMOS for example and other large fibre spectrographs. The design features four cloned spectrographs which gives a smaller total weight and length than a unique spectrograph to makes it placable at prime focus. The clones use a transparent design including a grism in which all optics are about the size or smaller than the clone rectangular subfield so that they can be tightly packed with little gaps between subfields. Only low cost glasses are used; the variations in chromatic aberrations between bands are compensated by changing a box containing the grism and two adjacent lenses. Three bands cover the 420nm to 920nm wavelength range at 10A resolution while another cover the Calcium triplet at 3A. An optional box does imaging. We however also studied different innovative methods for acquisition without imaging. A special mask changing mechanism was also designed to compensate for the lack of space around the focal plane. Conceptual designs for larger projects (AAT 2º field, CFHT, VISTA) have also been done.

  16. Parallaxes of southern extremely cool objects (parsec). II. Spectroscopic follow-up and parallaxes of 52 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marocco, F.; Andrei, A. H.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Lucas, P. W. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Smart, R. L.; Sozzetti, A.; Bucciarelli, B. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Day-Jones, A. C. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Penna, J. L. [Observatório Nacional/MCT, R. Gal. José Cristino 77, CEP20921-400 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy for 52 ultracool dwarfs, including two newly discovered late-M dwarfs, one new late-M subdwarf candidate, three new L, and four new T dwarfs. We also present parallaxes and proper motions for 21 of them. Four of the targets presented here have previous parallax measurements, while all the others are new values. This allow us to populate further the spectral sequence at early types (L0-L4). Combining the astrometric parameters with the new near-infrared spectroscopy presented here, we are able to investigate further the nature of some of the objects. In particular, we find that the peculiar blue L1 dwarf SDSS J133148.92–011651.4 is a metal-poor object, likely a member of the galactic thick disk. We discover a new M subdwarf candidate, 2MASS J20115649–6201127. We confirm the low-gravity nature of EROS-MP J0032–4405, DENIS-P J035726.9–441730, and 2MASS J22134491–2136079. We present two new metal-poor dwarfs: the L4pec 2MASS J19285196–4356256 and the M7pec SIPS2346–5928. We also determine the effective temperature and bolometric luminosity of the 21 targets with astrometric measurements, and we obtain a new polynomial relation between effective temperature and near-infrared spectral type. The new fit suggests a flattening of the sequence at the transition between M and L spectral types. This could be an effect of dust formation, which causes a more rapid evolution of the spectral features as a function of the effective temperature.

  17. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  18. Planck cold clumps in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex: I. Discovery of an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object and a proto-brown dwarf candidate in a bright rimmed clump PGCC G192.32-11.88

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Choi, Minho; Juvela, Mika; Thompson, Mark; Goldsmith, Paul F; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Naomi, Hirano; Koch, Patrick; Henkel, Christian; Sanhueza, Patricio; He, JinHua; Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Wang, Ke; Cunningham, Maria R; Tang, Ya-Wen; Lai, Shih-Ping; Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Di; Fuller, Gary; Kang, Miju; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye; Hirota, Tomoya; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Huei-Ru; Kwon, Woojin; Meng, FanYi; Zhang, Huawei; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Yi, Hee-Weon

    2015-01-01

    We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity ($\\sim0.8$ L$_{\\sun}$) and accretion rate (6.3$\\times10^{-7}$ M$_{\\sun}$~yr$^{-1}$) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g. PACS Bright Red sources (PBRs)) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity ($0.21\\pm0.01$ L$_{\\sun}$) and outflow velocity ($\\sim$14 km~s$^{-1}$) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N...

  19. Adapting photosynthesis to the near-infrared: non-covalent binding of phycocyanobilin provides an extreme spectral red-shift to phycobilisome core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Ding, Wen-Long; Zhao, Bao-Qing; Lu, Lu; Xu, Qian-Zhao; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins that bind bilins are organized as light-harvesting complexes, phycobilisomes, in cyanobacteria and red algae. The harvested light energy is funneled to reaction centers via two energy traps, allophycocyanin B and the core-membrane linker, ApcE1 (conventional ApcE). The covalently bound phycocyanobilin (PCB) of ApcE1 absorbs near 660 nm and fluoresces near 675 nm. In cyanobacteria capable of near infrared photoacclimation, such as Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, there exist even further spectrally red shifted components absorbing >700 nm and fluorescing >710 nm. We expressed the chromophore domain of the extra core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, ApcE2, in E. coli together with enzymes generating the chromophore, PCB. The resulting chromoproteins, PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and the more truncated PCB-ApcE2(24-245), absorb at 700 nm and fluoresce at 714 nm. The red shift of ~40 nm compared with canonical ApcE1 results from non-covalent binding of the chromophore by which its full conjugation length including the Δ3,3(1) double bond is preserved. The extreme spectral red-shift could not be ascribed to exciton coupling: dimeric PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and monomeric-ApcE2(24-245) absorbed and fluoresced similarly. Chromophorylation of ApcE2 with phycoerythrobilin- or phytochromobilin resulted in similar red shifts (absorption at 615 and 711 nm, fluorescence at 628 or 726 nm, respectively), compared to the covalently bound chromophores. The self-assembled non-covalent chromophorylation demonstrates a novel access to red and near-infrared emitting fluorophores. Brightly fluorescent biomarking was exemplified in E. coli by single-plasmid transformation.

  20. Configurable slit-mask unit of the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration for the Keck telescope: integration and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Giriens, Laurent; Henein, Simon; Lisowski, Leszek; O'Hare, Aidan; Onillon, Emmanuel; Schwab, Philippe; Theurillat, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    A Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) has been developed for the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) instrument to be installed on the Keck 1 Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. MOSFIRE will provide NIR multi-object spectroscopy over a field of view of 6.1' x 6.1'. The reconfigurable mask allows the formation of 46 optical slits in a 267 x 267 mm2 field of view. The mechanism is an evolution of a former prototype designed by CSEM and qualified for the European Space Agency (ESA) as a candidate for the slit mask on NIRSpec for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The CSU is designed to simultaneously displace masking bars across the field-of-view (FOV) to mask unwanted light. A set of 46 bar pairs are used to form the MOSFIRE focal plane mask. The sides of the bars are convoluted so that light is prevented from passing between adjacent bars. The slit length is fixed (5.1 mm) but the width is variable down to 200 μm with a slit positioning accuracy of +/- 18 μm. A two-bar prototype mechanism was designed, manufactured and cryogenically tested to validate the modifications from the JWST prototype. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 92 masking bars forming the optical mask. Original voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches. The design makes significant use of flexure structures.

  1. Neuritin reverses deficits in murine novel object associative recognition memory caused by exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian-Ru; Lu, Jun-Mei; Yao, Jin-Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Ling, Chen; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2015-07-03

    Animal studies have shown that electromagnetic field exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, thereby generating behavioral and cognitive disturbances. However, the underlying mechanisms and possible preventions are still unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF MFs) on a recognition memory task and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. The data showed that ELF MFs exposure (1 mT, 12 h/day) induced a time-dependent deficit in novel object associative recognition memory and also decreased hippocampal dendritic spine density. This effect was observed without corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity and was transient, which has only been seen after exposing mice to ELF MFs for 7-10 days. The over-expression of hippocampal neuritin, an activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector significantly increased the neuritin level and dendritic spine density. This increase was paralleled with ELF MFs exposure-induced deficits in recognition memory and reductions of dendritic spine density. Collectively, our study provides evidence for the association between ELF MFs exposure, impairment of recognition memory, and resulting changes in hippocampal dendritic spine density. Neuritin prevented this ELF MFs-exposure-induced effect by increasing the hippocampal spine density.

  2. Preliminary Identification of Red Pigment and Positive Correlation between the Contents of Red Pigment and Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling ZHAO; Zhongjian CHEN; Wenlong CHEN; Weite ZHI; Fugang WEI; Degong SONG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to identify red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits and explore the correlation between pigment content and total saponins of the fruits. [Method] The red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits was preliminarily identi- fied with specific color reactions and UV-vis spectra, and the contents of the pigment and total saponins were determined via spectrophotometry. [Result] The red hues of the fruits were contributed by anthocyanins and/or the anthocyanidins. The contents of anthocyanins and total saponins of the fruits both decreased along with thinning of the red hues. The content difference of the anthocyanins in fruits with different red hues reached extremely significant level, but that of total saponins just reached significant level. [Conclusion] The red pigment of P. notoginseng fruits is anthocyanins which are of extremely significant positive correlation with total saponins in contents.

  3. Associations between accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior, physical activity and objectively-measured cardiorespiratory fitness with red blood cell distribution width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-10-15

    Emerging work identifies red blood cell distribution width (RDW) as a unique biomarker independently associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Encouragingly, recent research demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with RDW. However, no study has evaluated their independent and combined associations on RDW, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N=627 adults 20-49yrs). Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test. Participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters, with a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score ranging from 0 to 3, indicating the participant number of these three positive characteristics. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess RDW. Only above median MVPA (OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.68) was independently associated with a reduced odds of having an elevated RDW. With regard to the additive model, and after adjustment, the odds ratio (95% CI) for the PACS score of 1 (vs. 0), 2 (vs. 0), and 3 (vs. 0), respectively, were 0.81 (0.45-1.45; P=0.46), 0.66 (0.44-0.99; P=0.04) and 0.35 (0.18-0.68; P=0.004). When considering sedentary behavior, MVPA, and cardiorespiratory fitness, only MVPA was associated with reduced odds of elevated RDW, but those with all three characteristics had the lowest odds of elevated RDW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-10-23

    The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as found in P. ulmi

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  8. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  9. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  10. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  11. The Association of Response to a Novel Object with Subsequent Performance and Feather Damage in Adult, Cage-Housed, Pure-Bred Rhode Island Red Laying Hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Komen, J.; Kemp, B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In laying hens, behavioral responses measured late in the laying period are associated with decreased performance. If measured early in the laying period, these behavioral responses could be used to predict performance later in life. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the ass

  12. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  13. ONLINE LEARNING OBJECTS MANAGEMENT BASED ON COMPETENCIES DEVELOPMENT GESTIÓN DE OBJETOS DE APRENDIZAJE A TRAVÉS DE LA RED, BASADO EN EL DESARROLLO DE COMPETENCIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erla Mariela Morales Morgado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large amount of virtual libraries and repositories of resources, where people can access an great variety of information in multiple fields of knowledge. One of these types of data is Learning Objects (LOs, which contain metadata to locate and recover them, according to the specific educational needs of users. Educational objectives are clearly oriented to skills development. Therefore, it is important to consider educational materials that promote their use. Due to the LOs characteristics as independent units that can be reused, we propose a guide to LOs design with the aim of developing these resources according to levels of knowledge required for competency development. In order to promote the learning objects management based on skill levels, we suggest that their metadata be cataloged by level of knowledge and competencies classification.Hoy en día existen una gran cantidad de bibliotecas virtuales y repositorios de recursos en general, donde es posible acceder a diverso tipo de información, destinado a múltiples áreas de conocimiento. Uno de esos tipos de información corresponde a los Objetos de Aprendizaje (OAs, los cuales a través de sus metadatos pueden ser localizados y recuperados según necesidades educativas específicas de los usuarios. Los objetivos educativos están claramente orientados al desarrollo de competencias, por tanto, es importante tener en cuenta materiales que puedan potenciarlas. Debido a la caracteristica de los OAs, como unidades independientes que puedan ser reutilizadas, se propone un modelo de diseño que oriente la creación de estos recursos según niveles de conocimiento necesarios para el desarrollo de competencias. Para promover la búsqueda de estos recursos en base a niveles de conocimiento, se presenta una propuesta para su catalogación a través de metadatos, que considere además de los niveles de conocimiento, su clasificación por competencias.

  14. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  15. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  16. Birthmarks - red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are 2 main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  17. Red Giant Atmospheres, through the Lens of UV Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2013-07-01

    UV spectra of normal red giants show many differences with the Sun. The usual high-excitation, coronal-related emissions like Si IV and C IV are weak or absent, but low-excitation species like O I and Mg II are conspicuous and often carry signatures of strong, chromospheric winds. In extreme cases, one even finds dusty molecule-rich circumstellar envelopes that absorb strongly in the FUV bands of CO. At higher energies -- X-rays -- the red giants are even more feeble, inhabiting was has been called the "coronal graveyard." One imagines that the general avoidance of high-energy emissions among the red giants is a consequence of lack of magnetic activity due to slow rotation. Indeed, if one considers tidally spun-up red giants in short-period binaries, such objects are among the most coronally active known. Still, even if the rotationally catalyzed "dynamo" is suppressed in the normal red giants, they should have some residual magnetic activity generated by surface convective processes. UV spectra can provide clues to where these putative fields are hiding; and their possible connection to the chromospheric winds.

  18. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  19. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono......) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three...

  20. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  1. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  2. The Mass-Loss Return from Evolved Stars to the Large Magellanic Cloud IV: Construction and Validation of a Grid of Models for Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars, Red Supergiants, and Extreme AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Benjamin A; Meixner, M

    2014-01-01

    To measure the mass loss from dusty oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we have constructed a grid of models of spherically-symmetric dust shells around stars with constant mass-loss rates using 2Dust. These models will constitute the O-rich model part of the "Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS" (GRAMS). This model grid explores 4 parameters - stellar effective temperature from 2100 K - 4700 K; luminosity from 10^3-10^6 L_Sun; dust shell inner radii of 3, 7, 11, and 15 R_Star; and 10.0 micron optical depth from 10^-4 to 26. From an initial grid of ~1200 2Dust models, we create a larger grid of ~69,000 models by scaling to cover the luminosity range required by the data. These models are offered to the public on a website. The matching in color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to observed O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) candidate stars from the SAGE and SAGE-Spec LMC samples and a small sample of OH/IR star...

  3. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile, Cerro Calan, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaw, John D. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17 D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr{sup -1} and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.{sup 0}2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J - K{sub s} 2.55 {+-} 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K{sub s} = 13.05 {+-} 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  4. RED HOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 在Jimi Hendrix的这首《Red House》中,我们可以领略到非常多紧密、连贯、经典的吉他乐句,尤其是乐曲中众多给人以胁迫感的乐句更是另人回味无常。 在我们学习这首《Red House》的时候,就像学习Jimi Hendrix的其他曲目一样,最有效的办法就是先用心聆听几遍这首歌曲,然后再拿起吉他跟随着原曲一起反复弹奏。无论何时学习Jimi的歌曲,我们一定要意识到

  5. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  6. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  7. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Complex of Uranyl and 3-Oxa-Glutaramide: An Extreme Red-Shift of the [O=U=O]²⁺ Asymmetric Stretch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, John K.; Hu, Hanshi; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Li, Jun

    2015-04-09

    The gas-phase complex UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺ (TMOGA = tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide) prepared by electrospray ionization was characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum from 700–1800 cm⁻¹ was interpreted using a computational study based on density functional theory. The predicted vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the measured values, with an average deviation of only 8 cm⁻¹ (<1%) and a maximum deviation of 21 cm⁻¹ (<2%). The only IR peak assigned to the linear uranyl moiety was the asymmetric ν₃ mode, which appeared at 965 cm⁻¹ and was predicted by DFT as 953 cm⁻¹. This ν₃ frequency is red-shifted relative to bare uranyl, UO₂²⁺, by ca. 150 cm⁻¹ due to electron donation from the TMOGA ligands. Based on the degree of red-shifting, it is inferred that two TMOGA oxygen-donor ligands have a greater effective gas basicity than the four monodentate acetone ligands in UO₂(acetone)₄²⁺. The uranyl ν₃ frequency was also computed for uranyl coordinated by two TMGA ligands, in which the central Oether of TMOGA has been replaced by CH₂. The computed ν₃ for UO₂(TMGA)₂²⁺, 950 cm⁻¹, is essentially the same as that for UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, suggesting that electron donation to uranyl from the Oether of TMOGA is minor. The computed ν₃ asymmetric stretching frequencies for the three actinyl complexes, UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, NpO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺ and PuO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, are comparable. This similarity is discussed in the context of the relationship between ν₃ and intrinsic actinide-oxygen bond energies in actinyl complexes.

  8. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  9. The ERE of the "Red Rectangle" revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Van Winckel, H; Gull, T R; Winckel, Hans Van; Cohen, Martin; Gull, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    We present in this paper high signal-to-noise long-slit optical spectra of the Extended Red Emission (ERE) in the "Red Rectangle" (RR) nebula. These spectra, obtained at different positions in the nebula, reveal an extremely complex emission pattern on top of the broad ERE continuum. It is well known that three features converge at large distance from the central object, in wavelength and profile to the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5797, 5849.8 and 6614 ang., (e.g. Sarre et al., 1995). In this paper we give a detailed inventory of all spectral subfeatures observed in the 5550--6850 ang. spectral range. Thanks to our high S/N spectra, we propose 5 new features in the RR that can be associated with DIBs. For the 5550--6200 ang. spectral range our slit position was on top of the NE spike of the X shaped nebula. A detailed description of the spatial profile-changes is given of the strongest features revealing that even far out in the nebula at 24 arcsec from the central star, there remains a small shift i...

  10. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  11. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  12. The Red Capitalist's Red Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROGER CHEUNG

    2008-01-01

    @@ A disastrous derivatives investment has seen Citic Pacific chairman Rong Zhijian lose hundreds of millions of dollars - not to mention his reputation Rong Zhijian may well go down in the history books as the last of China's "Red Capitalists," a group of pre-revolutionary tycoons who stayed on post-1949. His family owned one of China's largest private enterprises before 1949 and his father, Rong Yiren, who served as China's vice-president from 1993 to 1998, was hand-picked by Deng Xiaoping to oversee China's economic opening and reform during the 1980s.

  13. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron.

  14. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  15. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  16. Causing Factors for Extreme Precipitation in the Western Saudi-Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, M. M.; Leckebusch, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the western coast of Saudi Arabia the climate is in general semi-arid but extreme precipitation events occur on a regular basis: e.g., on 26th November 2009, when 122 people were killed and 350 reported missing in Jeddah following more than 90mm in just four hours. Our investigation will a) analyse major drivers of the generation of extremes and b) investigate major responsible modes of variability for the occurrence of extremes. Firstly, we present a systematic analysis of station based observations of the most relevant extreme events (1985-2013) for 5 stations (Gizan, Makkah, Jeddah, Yenbo and Wejh). Secondly, we investigate the responsible mechanism on the synoptic to large-scale leading to the generation of extremes and will analyse factors for the time variability of extreme event occurrence. Extreme events for each station are identified in the wet season (Nov-Jan): 122 events show intensity above the respective 90th percentile. The most extreme events are systematically investigated with respect to the responsible forcing conditions which we can identify as: The influence of the Soudan Low, active Red-Sea-Trough situations established via interactions with mid-latitude tropospheric wave activity, low pressure systems over the Mediterranean, the influence of the North Africa High, the Arabian Anticyclone and the influence of the Indian monsoon trough. We investigate the role of dynamical forcing factors like the STJ and the upper-troposphere geopotential conditions and the relation to smaller local low-pressure systems. By means of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis based on MSLP we investigate the possibility to objectively quantify the influence of existing major variability modes and their role for the generation of extreme precipitation events.

  17. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  18. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  19. Luminous Red Nova 2015 in the Galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    Goranskij, V P; Spiridonova, O I; Valeev, A F; Fatkhullin, T A; Moskvitin, A S; Vozyakova, O V; Cheryasov, D V; Safonov, B S; Zharova, A V; Hancock, T

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the study of the red nova PSN J14021678+5426205 based on the observations carried out with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) along with other telescopes of SAO RAS and SAI MSU. To investigate the nova progenitor, we used the data from the Digital Sky Survey and amateur photos available on the internet. In the period between April 1993 and July 2014, the brightness of the progenitor gradually increased by 2.2 mag in the V band. At the peak of the first outburst in mid-November of 2014, the star reached an absolute visual magnitude of -12.75 mag but was discovered later, in February 2015, in a repeated outburst at the absolute magnitude of -11.65 mag. The amplitude of the outburst was minimum among the red novae, only 5.6 mag in the V band. The H alpha emission line and the continuum of a cool supergiant with a gradually decreasing surface temperature were observed in the spectra. Such process is typical for red novae, although the object under study showed extreme parameters: maximum lu...

  20. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  1. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  2. The Discovery of Extremely Young Protostars in Orion with Herschel and APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia; Tobin, John; Stanke, Thomas; Megeath, Tom; Fischer, Will; Robitaille, Thomas; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Di Francesco, James; Furlan, Elise; Osorio, Mayra; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    We perform a census of the reddest, and potentially youngest, protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using 24 um - 870 um imaging obtained with the Spitzer, Herschel, and APEX telescopes as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). We find a sample of 15 new extremely red protostar candidates that can reliably identified as protostars (Stutz et al., 2013). Taking the previously known sample of 300 Spitzer protostars and the new sample of 15 Herschel identified protostars together, we find 18 extremely red protostars (i.e., log λFλ70 / λFλ24 > 1.65). These are the reddest protostars known in Orion and we name them "PACS Bright Red sources", or PBRS. Our analysis reveals that the PBRs sample is composed of Class 0 like sources with very red spectral energy distributions (SEDs; Tbol 0.6%). Modified blackbody fits to the SEDs provide lower limits to the envelope masses of 0.2 Msun - 2 Msun and luminosities of 0.7 Lsun - 10 Lsun. Based on these properties, and a comparison of the SEDs with radiative transfer models of protostars, we conclude that the PBRs are most likely extreme Class 0 objects distinguished by higher than typical envelope densities and possibly high mass infall rates. We estimate the ages of the PBRs to be between 5000 and 25000 years. We find that the fraction of PBRS is more than 5 times higher in the Orion B cloud than in Orion A; this may be due to differences in the star formation histories or in the star forming environment.

  3. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know You’re Safe – Use Red Cross App and Website » Returning Home – Use Red Cross Flood Safety Steps » Red Cross Relief Efforts in the Caribbean & Mexico » At-a-Glance: Red Cross Response to Harvey, ...

  4. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  5. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  6. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  7. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  8. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  9. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  10. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  11. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  12. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  13. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  14. New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.

  15. Perceived Organizational Red Tape and Organizational Performance in Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2017-01-01

    The claim that perceived organizational red tape hampers public services has become a central theme in public administration research. Surprisingly, however, few scholars have empirically examined the impact of perceived red tape on organizational performance. This study empirically analyzes how...... perceived organizational red tape among managers and frontline staff relates to objectively measured performance. The data consists of survey responses from teachers and principals at Danish upper secondary schools combined with grade-level administrative performance data. Based on theories of red tape...

  16. Evidence for resistance to carbaryl in poultry red mites from the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Pavlicevic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the efficiency of carbaryl under laboratory conditions, based on field populations of poultry red mites from throughout the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro over a period of 6 years (2001-2006. In 2001 samples, an excellent efficiency level of 95.7% at 0.1% carbaryl concentration after 30-minute exposure was found. The total pharmacological profile of carbaryl in relation to D. gallinae mites resulted in adequate control. However, by 2003 a significant decline in carbaryl’s efficiency was apparent. By 2005, a population of D. gallinae was discovered which showed no apparent susceptibility to carbaryl. Poultry red mite populations had by then developed extreme resistance.

  17. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  18. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  19. G10.472+0.027: An Extreme water maser outflow associated with a Massive Protostellar Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Titmarsh, A M; Breen, S L; Caswell, J L; Voronkov, M A

    2013-01-01

    An Australia Telescope Compact Array search for 22 GHz water masers towards 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) survey has resulted in the detection of extremely high velocity emission from one of the sources. The water maser emission associated with this young stellar object covers a velocity span of nearly 300 km/s. The highest velocity water maser emission is red-shifted from the systemic velocity by 250 km/s, which is a new record for high-mass star formation regions. The maser is associated with a very young late O, or early B star, which may still be actively accreting matter (and driving the extreme outflow). If that is the case future observations of the kinematics of this water maser will provide a unique probe of accretion processes in the highest mass young stellar objects and test models of water maser formation.

  20. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  1. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)... Hurricane Matthew: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent ... communities Port-au Prince, 3 November 2016 —Since Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti one month ago, the Haiti Re... ...

  2. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  3. Red salmon investigations: Kodiak red salmon studies, plan of operations, April 1966 to April 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The broad objective of the Karluk research program is to study those aspects of the life cycle and ecology of red salmon pertinent to explaining the long-term...

  4. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  5. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  6. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  7. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  8. Nonthermal nature of extremal Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, T

    2000-01-01

    Liberati, Rothman and Sonego have recently showed that objects collapsing into extremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes do not behave as thermal objects at any time in their history. In particular, a temperature, and hence thermodynamic entropy, are undefined for them. I demonstrate that the analysis goes through essentially unchanged for Kerr black holes.

  9. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  10. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  11. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  12. Upper Extremity Sports Injury: Risk Factors in Comparison to Lower Extremity Injury in More Than 25 000 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, R.; Dekker, R.; Dijkstra, P.U.; ten Duis, H.J.; van der Sluis, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting:

  13. Upper Extremity Sports Injury : Risk Factors in Comparison to Lower Extremity Injury in More Than 25 000 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; ten Duis, Hendrik J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting:

  14. Upper Extremity Sports Injury : Risk Factors in Comparison to Lower Extremity Injury in More Than 25 000 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; ten Duis, Hendrik J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting:

  15. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  16. Stripped red giants - Helium core white dwarf progenitors and their sdB siblings

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Some gaps in the mosaic of binary star evolution have recently been filled by the discoveries of helium-core white dwarf progenitors (often called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs) as stripped cores of first-giant branch objects. Two varieties can be distinguished. One class is made up by SB1 binaries, companions being white dwarfs as well, another class, the so-called EL CVn stars, are composite spectrum binaries, with A-Type companions. Pulsating stars are found among both classes. A riddle is posed by the apparently single objects. There is a one-to-one correspondence of the phenomena found for these new classes of star to those observed for sdB stars. In fact, standard evolutionary scenarios explain the origin of sdB stars as red giants that have been stripped close to the tip of first red giant branch. A subgroup of subluminous B stars can also be identified as stripped helium-cores of red giants. They form an extension of the ELM sequence to higher temperatures. Hence low mass white dwarfs of heliu...

  17. Stripped Red Giants - Helium Core White Dwarf Progenitors and their sdB Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2017-03-01

    Some gaps in the mosaic of binary star evolution have recently been filled by the discoveries of helium-core white dwarf progenitors (often called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs) as stripped cores of first-giant branch objects. Two varieties can be distinguished. One class is made up by SB1 binaries, companions being white dwarfs as well. Another class, the so-called EL CVn stars, are composite spectrum binaries, with A-Type companions. Pulsating stars are found among both classes. A riddle is posed by the apparently single objects. There is a one-to-one correspondence of the phenomena found for these new classes of star to those observed for sdB stars. In fact, standard evolutionary scenarios explain the origin of sdB stars as red giants that have been stripped close to the tip of first red giant branch. A subgroup of subluminous B stars can also be identified as stripped helium-cores of red giants. They form an extension of the ELM sequence to higher temperatures. Hence low mass white dwarfs of helium cores and sdB stars in binaries are close relatives in terms of stellar evolution.

  18. Facial redness, expression, and masculinity influence perceptions of anger and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D

    2016-12-29

    Past research has found that skin colouration, particularly facial redness, influences the perceived health and emotional state of target individuals. In the current work, we explore several extensions of this past research. In Experiment 1, we manipulated facial redness incrementally on neutral and angry faces and had participants rate each face for anger and health. Different red effects emerged, as perceived anger increased in a linear manner as facial redness increased. Health ratings instead showed a curvilinear trend, as both extreme paleness and redness were rated as less healthy than moderate levels of red. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings by manipulating the masculinity of both angry and neutral faces that varied in redness. The results found the effect of red on perceived anger and health was moderated by masculine face structure. Collectively, these results show that facial redness has context dependent effects that vary based on facial expression, appearance, and differentially impact ratings of emotional states and health.

  19. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  20. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W;

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing...... and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  1. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  2. Red cell hemolysis during processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apart from the visual assessment, measurement of plasma hemoglobin in the supernatant from red cell units provides an objective measure of the extent of hemolysis during storage. Study Design and Methods: Packed red cells (N=50, 25 units each in triple (CPD-A1 and SAGM and quadruple (CPD-A1 and ADSOL blood bags were evaluated for plasma hemoglobin by the tetramethylbenzidiene (TMB method on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of collection. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, LDH and potassium levels were also noted. Whole blood units (N=25 were used as controls. Results: Hemolysis increased in all the stored red cell units. Plasma hemoglobin increased significantly in the first week of storage. The hemolysis, LDH and potassium levels were found to be significantly higher in the red cell units harvested from the triple blood bags. However, on day 28 of storage, free hemoglobin in all the red cell units was much below the 0.8% hemolysis. Conclusion: Hemolysis of the red cells increases due to processing and during storage and is maximum during the first week. Adequate process control and proper storage facilities should be ensured to minimize the hemolysis of red cells during processing and storage.

  3. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  4. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  5. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  6. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  7. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  8. Statistics of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbel, E J

    2012-01-01

    This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.

  9. The Red Mansion Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the Red Mansion Banquet came from the famous Qing Dynasty classic novel, A Dream of Red Mansions. Each of its courses has, based on descriptions from the book, been carefully planned by the Grand View Garden Hotel chefs. Diners’ senses of sight, sound, and taste are thus regaled with the finest in food, wine and music.

  10. Red Sandalwood Treasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2003-01-01

    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  11. Extremal limits and Ba\\~nados-Silk-West effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    A fascinating property of extremal Kerr black hole (BH) is that it could be act as a particle accelerator with infinite high center-of-mass (CM) energy \\cite{bsw}. In this note, we would like to discuss about such fascinating result and to point out that this infinite energy at the event horizon comes solely due \\emph{to the singular nature of the extremal limit}. We also show that a non-extremal Kerr BH can \\emph{not} transform into extremal Kerr BH by the Ba\\~{n}ados-Silk-West mechanism. Moreover, we discuss about three possible geometries (near extremal, purely extremal and near horizon of extremal Kerr) of this mechanism. We further prove that near extremal geometry and near horizon geometry, precisely extremal geometry of extremal Kerr BHs are qualitatively different. Near extremal geometry and near horizon geometry gives the CM energy is finite, whereas precisely extremal geometry gives the diverging energy. Thus, we can argue that extremal Kerr BH and non-extremal Kerr BH are quite distinct objects. Fi...

  12. Physical properties of the extreme centaur and super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, A; Horner, J; Szakáts, R; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th G; Acosta-Pulido, J; Licandro, J; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Sárneczky, K; Szabó, Gy M; Thirouin, A; Sipőcz, B; Dózsa, Á; Duffard, R

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates of the basic physical properties -- including size and albedo -- of the extreme Centaur 2013 AZ60. These properties have been derived from optical and thermal infrared measurements. Our optical measurements revealed a likely full period of ~9.4 h with a shallow amplitude of 4.5%. By combining optical brightness information and thermal emission data, we are able to derive a diameter of 62.3 +/- 5.3 km and a geometric albedo of 2.9% -- corresponding to an extremely dark surface. Additionally, our finding of ~> 50 Jm^{-2}K^{-1}s^{-1/2} for the thermal inertia is also noticeably for objects in such a distance. The results of dynamical simulations yield an unstable orbit, with a 50% probability that the target will be ejected from the Solar System within 700,000 years. The current orbit of this object as well as its instability could imply a pristine cometary surface. This possibility is in agreement with the observed low geometric albedo and red photometric colour indices for the object, whic...

  13. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  14. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  15. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  16. Extreme Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will be assessed, again by a comparison with extremes from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall extremes and both local and remote SST anomalies.

  17. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  19. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  20. Rescue and treatment of severely injured lower extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qi-feng; XU Zhong-he

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a treatment approach for severely injured lower extremities. Methods: The data of 42 patients with severely traumatic lower extremities from 1989 to 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. According to MESS(mangled extremity severity score) the mean score of all the limbs was 6.24±1.45, 34 cases had MESS score<7 and 8 cases had MESS score≥7. Treatment approaches included microvascular anastomosis technique, compound tissue flap transplantation technique and compound bone tissue flap transplantation. Conclusions: Successful emergency treatment of severely injured lower extremities could be achieved by using microsurgery techniques and strict controlling of lower extremity salvagel indications.

  1. Weather and Climate Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Antarctica’s highest (New Zealand Antarctic Society, 1974). This extreme exceeded the record of 58°F (14.4°C) that occurred on 20 October 1956 at Esperanza ... Esperanza (also known as Bahia Esperanza , Hope Bay) was in operation from 1945 through the early 1960s. Meteorological/Climatological Factors: This extreme...cm) Location: Grand Ilet, La R’eunion Island [21°00’S, 55°30’E] Date: 26 January 1980 WORLD’S GREATEST 24-HOUR RAINFALL 72 in (182.5 cm

  2. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  3. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  4. Synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will provide a synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative and will highlight certain important elements of success. It will re-address the aims and objectives which were provided in Section 1 and also address some significant changes which...

  5. Method to reduce low temperature stress (LTS) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Norway and other Nordic regions, the floricanes of red raspberries often suffer 20 to 30 percent injury from exposures to extremely low temperatures. We studied from 2011 to 2014 to determine the effect of bending the floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7 red raspberries close to th...

  6. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  7. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable ext

  8. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  9. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tend to impact at arterial bifurcations, the commonest site being the ... Other ominous signs of advanced ischaemia include bluish ... Recommended standards for lower extremity ischaemia*. Doppler signals ... of the embolectomy procedure. An ... in a cath-lab or angio-suite under local ... We serially measure the aPTT and.

  10. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  11. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  12. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  13. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  14. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  15. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  16. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  17. Prediction Research of Red Tide Based on Improved FCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tides are caused by the combination effects of many marine elements. The complexity of the marine ecosystem makes it hard to find the relationship between marine elements and red tides. The algorithm of fuzzy c-means (FCM can get clear classification of things and expresses the fuzzy state among different things. Therefore, a prediction algorithm of red tide based on improved FCM is proposed. In order to overcome the defect of FCM which is overdependent on the initial cluster centers and the objective function, this paper gains the initial cluster centers through the principle of regional minimum data density and the minimum mean distance. The feature weighted cluster center is added to the objective function. Finally, the improved FCM algorithm is applied in the prediction research of red tide, and the results show that the improved FCM algorithm has good denoising ability and high accuracy in the prediction of red tides.

  18. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  19. Extremal periodic wave profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Groesen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to deterministic investigations into extreme fluid surface waves, in this paper wave profiles of prescribed period that have maximal crest height will be investigated. As constraints the values of the momentum and energy integrals are used in a simplified description with the KdV model. The result is that at the boundary of the feasible region in the momentum-energy plane, the only possible profiles are the well known cnoidal wave profiles. Inside the feasible region the extremal profiles of maximal crest height are "cornered" cnoidal profiles: cnoidal profiles of larger period, cut-off and periodically continued with the prescribed period so that at the maximal crest height a corner results.

  20. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  1. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  2. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  3. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  4. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  5. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  6. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  7. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  8. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing...... using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data...

  9. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  10. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  11. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  12. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  13. Instability of Extremal Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, P; Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question, ``Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?" in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal ($Q = M$) limit and the black hole limit ($R = R_+$). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach $Q = M$, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordtr\\"om black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, ...

  14. Flooding hazards from sea extremes and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Vognsen, Karsten; Broge, Niels

    2015-01-01

    If we do not understand the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR) we cannot live in low-lying coastal areas in the future. Permanent inundation may become a prevalent issue but more often floods related to extreme events have the largest damage potential, and the management of flooding...... hazards needs to integrate the water loading from various sources. Furthermore, local subsidence must be accounted for in order to evaluate current and future flooding hazards and management options. We present the methodology (Figure) and preliminary results from the research project “Coastal Flooding...... Hazards due to Storm Surges and Subsidence” (2014-2017) with the objective to develop and test a practice oriented methodology for combining extreme water level statistics and land movement in coastal flooding hazard mapping and in climate change adaptation schemes in Denmark. From extreme value analysis...

  15. Factors governing the deep ventilation of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.

    2015-11-19

    A variety of data based on hydrographic measurements, satellite observations, reanalysis databases, and meteorological observations are used to explore the interannual variability and factors governing the deep water formation in the northern Red Sea. Historical and recent hydrographic data consistently indicate that the ventilation of the near-bottom layer in the Red Sea is a robust feature of the thermohaline circulation. Dense water capable to reach the bottom layers of the Red Sea can be regularly produced mostly inside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Occasionally, during colder than usual winters, deep water formation may also take place over coastal areas in the northernmost end of the open Red Sea just outside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. However, the origin as well as the amount of deep waters exhibit considerable interannual variability depending not only on atmospheric forcing but also on the water circulation over the northern Red Sea. Analysis of several recent winters shows that the strength of the cyclonic gyre prevailing in the northernmost part of the basin can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or moderate the winter surface cooling. Upwelling associated with periods of persistent gyre circulation lowers the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme heat loss by the sea surface. In addition, the occasional persistence of the cyclonic gyre feeds the surface layers of the northern Red Sea with nutrients, considerably increasing the phytoplankton biomass.

  16. Structure and function of mycorrhizal fungus communities of the Red Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, A.C.; Miller, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A chronological study since 1977 in the Red Desert of Wyoming is enabling examination into the sequence of events coupling mycotrophy with revegetation following strip-mining activities. Observational data support the hypothesis that diversification in the plant community and structure is ensured with the establishment of the mycotrophic habit; thereby increasing resiliency of the community for recovery from perturbations. The objectives of this research were: (1) to identify the species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (MF) present and evaluate primary edaphic factors affecting the population dynamics of the MF; (2) to isolate native species of MF; and (3) to develop a model system for characterizing stresses such as extremes in moisture and temperature on the coupling and function (particularly the cost-benefit of mycotrophy to the host) of mycorrhizal symbionts. 2 tables.

  17. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  18. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  19. Red Emitting VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  20. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  1. Red Mud Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  2. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  3. Mycetoma of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahariah S

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of mycetoma of the lower extremity were seen and treated at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India, during the years 1973 to 1975. Six were treated by conservative method e.g. antibiotics, sulfonamides and immobilization of the part while remaining four were submitted t o surgery. Four out o f six from the first group had recurrence and has been put on second line of therapy. Recurrence occurred in only one case from the second group and he required an above knee amputation while the remaining three are free of disease and are well rehabilitated.

  4. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles.

  5. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  6. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  7. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  8. PACS and SPIRE Spectroscopy of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, P; Wesson, R; Barlow, M J; Polehampton, E T; Matsuura, M; Agundez, M; Blommaert, J A D L; Cernicharo, J; Cohen, M; Daniel, F; Degroote, P; De Meester, W; Exter, K; Feuchtgruber, H; Gear, W K; Gomez, H L; Groenewegen, M A T; Hargrave, P C; Huygen, R; Imhof, P; Ivison, R J; Jean, C; Kerschbaum, F; Leeks, S J; Lim, T; Lombaert, R; Olofsson, G; Posch, T; Regibo, S; Savini, G; Sibthorpe, B; Swinyard, B M; Vandenbussche, B; Waelkens, C; Witherick, D K; Yates, J A

    2010-01-01

    With a luminosity > 10^5 Lsun and a mass-loss rate of about 2.10-4 Msun/yr, the red supergiant VY CMa truly is a spectacular object. Because of its extreme evolutionary state, it could explode as supernova any time. Studying its circumstellar material, into which the supernova blast will run, provides interesting constraints on supernova explosions and on the rich chemistry taking place in such complex circumstellar envelopes. We have obtained spectroscopy of VYCMa over the full wavelength range offered by the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, i.e. 55 to 672 micron. The observations show the spectral fingerprints of more than 900 spectral lines, of which more than half belong to water. In total, we have identified 13 different molecules and some of their isotopologues. A first analysis shows that water is abundantly present, with an ortho-to-para ratio as low as 1.3:1, and that chemical non-equilibrium processes determine the abundance fractions in the inner envelope.

  9. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  10. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  11. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  12. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  13. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Kemper, F; Ling, B; Volk, K

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previ...

  14. International spinal cord injury upper extremity basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft.......iscos.org.uk). CONCLUSION: The International SCI Upper Extremity Basic Data Set will facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population....... of a SCI Upper Extremity Data Set was developed by an international working group. This was reviewed by many different organisations, societies and individuals over several months. A final version was created. VARIABLES: The final version of the International SCI Upper Extremity Data Set contains variables...

  15. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  16. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  17. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Orlov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Explicit dyonic dilaton black holes of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for two particular values of the dilaton coupling constant $a =1,\\sqrt{3}$, while for other $a$ numerical evidence was presented earlier about existence of extremal dyons in theories with the discrete sequence of dilaton couplings $a=\\sqrt{n(n+1)/2}$ with integer $n$. Apart from the lower members $n=1,\\,2$, this family of theories does not have motivation from supersymmetry or higher dimensions, and so far the above quantization rule has not been derived analytically. We fill this gap showing that this rule follows from analyticity of the dilaton at the $AdS_2\\times S^2$ event horizon with $n$ being the leading dilaton power in the series expansion. We also present generalization for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  18. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  19. Red Velvet Be Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    各种魅力全消化最近,以翻唱曲《Be Natural》展开回归活动的S.M新女团Red Velvet,在此次新歌中,展现了和出道曲《Happiness》中活泼可爱样子截然相反的成熟干练形象,如此极速的反差,吸引了大家的注意。作为一个刚出道的新人组合,Red Velvet此次不仅通过椅子舞表演完美地完成了高难度的打歌舞台,甚至在现场,也为大家展现了不输任何人的LIVE表演。

  20. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  1. The Extreme Climate Index: a novel and multi-hazard index for extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation we introduce the Extreme Climate Index (ECI): an objective, multi-hazard index capable of tracking changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events in African countries, thus indicating that a shift to a new climate regime is underway in a particular area. This index has been developed in the context of XCF (eXtreme Climate Facilities) project lead by ARC (African Risk Capacity, specialised agency of the African Union), and will be used in the payouts triggering mechanism of an insurance programme against risks related to the increase of frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events due to climate regimes' changes. The main hazards covered by ECI will be extreme dry, wet and heat events, with the possibility of adding region-specific risk events such as tropical cyclones for the most vulnerable areas. It will be based on data coming from consistent, sufficiently long, high quality historical records and will be standardized across broad geographical regions, so that extreme events occurring under different climatic regimes in Africa can be comparable. The first step to construct such an index is to define single hazard indicators. In this first study we focused on extreme dry/wet and heat events, using for their description respectively the well-known SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and an index developed by us, called SHI (Standardized Heat-waves Index). The second step consists in the development of a computational strategy to combine these, and possibly other indices, so that the ECI can describe, by means of a single indicator, different types of climatic extremes. According to the methodology proposed in this paper, the ECI is defined by two statistical components: the ECI intensity, which indicates whether an event is extreme or not; the angular component, which represent the contribution of each hazard to the overall intensity of the index. The ECI can thus be used to identify "extremes" after defining a

  2. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  3. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  4. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  5. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  6. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...

  7. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  8. Extremal almost-Kahler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lejmi, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of the Futaki invariant and extremal vector field to the general almost-Kahler case and we prove the periodicity of the extremal vector field when the symplectic form represents an integral cohomology class modulo torsion. We give also an explicit formula of the hermitian scalar curvature which allows us to obtain examples of non-integrable extremal almost-Kahler metrics saturating LeBrun's estimates.

  9. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  10. Mangled extremity severity score in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagelman, Mitchell F; Epps, Howard R; Rang, Mercer

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of the severely traumatized or mangled lower extremity poses significant challenges. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) is a scale that uses objective criteria to assist with acute management decisions. Most research on the MESS has been in adults or combined series with few children. The study was performed to investigate the MESS in children exclusively. The MESS was applied retrospectively to 36 patients with grades IIIB and IIIC open lower extremity fractures collected from two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. Patients were divided into limb salvage and primary amputation groups based on the decision of the treating surgeon. In the salvage group there were 18 grade IIIB fractures and 10 grade IIIC fractures. The MESS prediction was accurate in 93% of the injured limbs. In the amputation group eight limbs met the inclusion criteria; the MESS agreed with the treating surgeon in 63% of cases. These findings suggest the MESS should be considered when managing a child with severe lower extremity trauma.

  11. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  12. Pulsars as Fantastic Objects and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J L

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are fantastic objects, which show the extreme states of matters and plasma physics not understood yet. Pulsars can be used as probes for the detection of interstellar medium and even the gravitational waves. Here I review the basic facts of pulsars which should attract students to choose pulsar studies as their future projects.

  13. Hiding levitating objects above a ground plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    An approach to hiding objects levitating above a conducting sheet is suggested in this paper. The proposed device makes use of isotropic negative-refractive-index materials without extreme material parameters, and creates an illusion of a remote conducting sheet. Numerical simulations are perform...

  14. New algorithm for moving object detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljković Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, fast and effective method for moving object detection in outdoor environments, invariant to extreme illumination changes is presented as an improvement to the shading model method described in [8]. It is based on an analytical parameter introduced in the shading model, background updating technique and window processing.

  15. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  16. Extreme UV QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Herald, James E; Bressan, Alessandro; Martin, Cristopher

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of spectroscopically confirmed QSOs with FUV-NUV color (as measured by GALEX photometry) bluer than canonical QSO templates and than the majority of known QSOs. We analyze their FUV to NIR colors, luminosities and optical spectra. The sample includes a group of 150 objects at low redshift (z $<$ 0.5), and a group of 21 objects with redshift 1.7$<$z$<$2.6. For the low redshift objects, the "blue" FUV-NUV color may be caused by enhanced Ly$\\alpha$ emission, since Ly$\\alpha$ transits the GALEX FUV band from z=0.1 to z=0.47. Synthetic QSO templates constructed with Ly$\\alpha$ up to 3 times stronger than in standard templates match the observed UV colors of our low redshift sample. The H$\\alpha$ emission increases, and the optical spectra become bluer, with increasing absolute UV luminosity. The UV-blue QSOs at redshift about 2, where the GALEX bands sample restframe about 450-590A (FUV) and about 590-940A(NUV), are fainter than the average of UV-normal QSOs at similar redshift in NUV,...

  17. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  18. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  19. Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargar, M. (PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county

  20. Extreme Left Terrorism in Contemporary Europe: from “Communist Combatant Parties” to Militant Campaigns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategy and tactics of the of extreme left terrorism in Europe. Traditional red terrorist organizations (combatant communist parties like the RAF, the RB etc. have been replaced by small militant groups, by violent militancy campaigns, by anti-globalist violence or by “single-issue” terrorism. The militant extreme left may itself be both a direct and indirect ally to other forms of terrorism, including Islamist terrorism.

  1. ANNOTATION SUPPORTED OCCLUDED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking occluded objects at different depths has become as extremely important component of study for any video sequence having wide applications in object tracking, scene recognition, coding, editing the videos and mosaicking. The paper studies the ability of annotation to track the occluded object based on pyramids with variation in depth further establishing a threshold at which the ability of the system to track the occluded object fails. Image annotation is applied on 3 similar video sequences varying in depth. In the experiment, one bike occludes the other at a depth of 60cm, 80cm and 100cm respectively. Another experiment is performed on tracking humans with similar depth to authenticate the results. The paper also computes the frame by frame error incurred by the system, supported by detailed simulations. This system can be effectively used to analyze the error in motion tracking and further correcting the error leading to flawless tracking. This can be of great interest to computer scientists while designing surveillance systems etc.

  2. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  3. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  4. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  5. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  6. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules.

  8. Plasma Physics of Extreme Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2014-01-01

    Certain classes of astrophysical objects, namely magnetars and central engines of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), are characterized by extreme physical conditions not encountered elsewhere in the Universe. In particular, they possess magnetic fields that exceed the critical quantum field of 44 teragauss. Figuring out how these complex ultra-magnetized systems work requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). However, an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying physics to such an extent that many relevant plasma-physical problems call for building QED-based relativistic quantum plasma physics. In this review, after describing the extreme astrophysical systems of interest and identifying the key relevant plasma-physical problems, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We discuss how a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and outline the basic theoretical framework f...

  9. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  10. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  11. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  12. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  13. Anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin and its management following envenomation by Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Ramesh Bhoite; Girija Ramesh Bhoite; Dayanand N Bagdure; Himmatrao S Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting ...

  14. Col-OSSOS: A new ugrJ taxonomy for trans-Neptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michael; Pike, Rosemary E.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan D.; Delsanti, Audrey; Lehner, Matt J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Peixinho, Nuno; Vernazza, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    , exhibit extremely red (u-g) colours, roughly 0.5 magnitudes redder than the typical (u-g) of the red dynamically excited objects. These classes appear to exhibit a continuum in colour, rather than occupying similar mean colours for all class members.

  15. Fade to Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight. In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars. The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob. Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons. Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been

  16. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  17. Automatic object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  18. Calculation of extreme wind atlases using mesoscale modeling. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Badger, Jake

    This is the final report of the project PSO-10240 "Calculation of extreme wind atlases using mesoscale modeling". The overall objective is to improve the estimation of extreme winds by developing and applying new methodologies to confront the many weaknesses in the current methodologies...... as explained in Section 2. The focus has been put on developing a number of new methodologies through numerical modeling and statistical modeling....

  19. Extremal Black holes and the limits of the third law

    CERN Document Server

    Liberati, S; Sonego, S; Liberati, Stefano; Rothman, Tony; Sonego, Sebastiano

    2001-01-01

    Recent results of quantum field theory on a curved spacetime suggest that extremal black holes are not thermal objects and that the notion of zero temperature is ill-defined for them. If this is correct, one may have to go to a full semiclassical theory of gravity, including backreaction, in order to make sense of the third law of black hole thermodynamics. Alternatively, it is possible that we shall have to drastically revise the status of extremality in black hole thermodynamics.

  20. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  1. Rainfall variability and extremes over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will

  2. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  3. Application of U-fixed red wax mask in radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejia Liu; Jing Song; Rui Song; Zhiyong Liu; Gang Ni; Wei Ge

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to compared non-red wax compensator and adding red wax compensator in the treatment plans of the minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose and target surface dose, and compare the dose volume histograms (DVH) parameters and isodose distributions of two plans. Methods:From January 2009 to December 2010, 8 patients with superficial head and neck cancer and without surgery treatment were col ected. They al confirmed by cancer center, Tianmen First People’s Hospital. Topslane WiMRT was used to design the treatment plan of non-red wax compensa-tor and adding red wax compensator, with 6 MV photons using three-dimensional conformal irradiation mode design, the prescription dose was 50 Gy/25 times. Results:Compared non-red wax compensator with adding red wax compensator, its target minimum dose (t=-3.157, P0.05) and mean dose (t=-9.914, P>0.05) were considered no significant dif erence. Conclusion:The use of U-shaped mask fixed red wax film production in conformal radiotherapy tissue compensator can significantly improve the surface dose and dose distribution superficial planning target volume.

  4. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  5. Low Carbon sink capacity of Red Sea mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2017-08-22

    Mangroves forests of Avicennia marina occupy about 135 km2 in the Red Sea and represent one of the most important vegetated communities in this otherwise arid and oligotrophic region. We assessed the soil organic carbon (C-org) stocks, soil accretion rates (SAR; mm y(-1)) and soil C-org sequestration rates (g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)) in 10 mangrove sites within four locations along the Saudi coast of the Central Red Sea. Soil C-org density and stock in Red Sea mangroves were among the lowest reported globally, with an average of 4 +/- 0.3 mg Corg cm(-3) and 43 +/- 5 Mg C-org ha(-1) (in 1 m-thick soils), respectively. Sequestration rates of C-org, estimated at 3 +/- 1 and 15 +/- 1 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) for the long (millennia) and short (last century) temporal scales, respectively, were also relatively low compared to mangrove habitats from more humid bioregions. In contrast, the accretion rates of Central Red Sea mangroves soils were within the range reported for global mangrove forests. The relatively low C-org sink capacity of Red Sea mangroves could be due to the extreme environmental conditions such as low rainfall, nutrient limitation and high temperature, reducing the growth rates of the mangroves and increasing soil respiration rates.

  6. EPE The Extreme Physics Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael; Elvis, Martin; Bookbinder, Jay; Brenneman, Laura; Bulbul, Esra; Nulsen, Paul; Patnaude, Dan; Smith, Randall; Bandler, Simon; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Danner, Rolf; Daily, Dean; Fraser, George; Willingale, Richard; Miller, Jon; Turner, T. J.; Risalti, Guido; Galeazzi, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Physics Explorer (EPE) is a mission concept that will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics which are primary science objectives of IXO. The reach of EPE to the areas outlined in NASA RFI NNH11ZDA018L is shown as a table. The dark green indicates areas in which EPE can do the basic IXO science, and the light green areas where EPE can contribute but will not reach the full IXO capability. To address these science questions, EPE will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin in active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. EPE gives up the high resolution imaging of IXO in return for lightweight, high TRL foil mirrors which will provide >20 times the effective area of ASTRO-H and similar spatial resolution, with a beam sufficient to study point sources and nearby galaxies and clusters. Advances in micro-calorimeters allow improved performance at high rates with twice the energy resolution of ASTRO-H. A lower TRL option would provide 200 times the area of ASTRO-H using a micro-channel plate optic (MCPO) and a deployable optical bench. Both options are in the middle range of RFI missions at between $600M and $1000M. The EPE foil optic has direct heritage to ASTRO-H, allowing robust cost estimates. The spacecraft is entirely off the shelf and introduces no difficult requirements. The mission could be started and launched in this decade to an L2 orbit, with a three-year lifetime and consumables for 5 years. While ASTRO-H will give us the first taste of high-resolution, non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it will be limited to small numbers of objects in many categories. EPE will give us the first statistically significant samples in each of these categories.

  7. Extreme Thrombocytosis and Cardiovascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thrombocytosis is a major risk factor for excessive bleeding and for thrombosis, either of which can complicate cardiovascular surgical and interventional procedures. Extreme thrombocytosis can also cause an unusual syndrome, erythromelalgia, that results in a type of chronic microvascular occlusive arterial disease. We present the differential diagnosis of conditions that may lead to extreme thrombocytosis, 3 cases (each of which illustrates a different potential complication), and a review of the pertinent medical literature. Correcting excessive thrombocytosis is typically not difficult, whether electively or acutely, and effective therapy usually controls thrombosis and excessive hemorrhage postprocedurally. PMID:23304015

  8. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  9. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  10. BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS CONTROL IN TCP-RED SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of the TCP-RED congestion control system is of great importance. This study will help investigate the loss of stability in Internet and design a proper method for controlling bifurcation and chaos in such system. Methods Based on bifurcation diagram, the effect of parameter on system performance is discussed. By using the state feedback and parameter variation strategy, a simple real time control method is proposed to modify the existing RED scheme. Results With our control method, the parametric sensitivity of RED mechanism is attenuated. Moreover, a sufficient condition on the robust stability of the system is also derived to adjust the parameters in TCP-RED system. Conclusion The proposed method has the advantages of simple implementation and unnecessary knowledge of the exact system.

  11. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  12. Vancomycin induced Red Man Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drisyamol K.A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycoprotein antibiotic that has been associated with an anaphylactoid reaction termed the Red-man syndrome. It usually consists of erythema, flushing and pruritis of the face and upper torso and occasionally progresses to include dyspnoea, chest pain and hypotension. Red man syndrome (RMS is also known as “red neck syndrome. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can abort most of the reactions. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B, rifampcin and teicoplanin can potentially cause red man syndrome. The effects of red man syndrome can be relieved by antihistamines.

  13. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A

    2007-11-01

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  15. Instrumentation for the California Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Keith; McLean, Ian S.

    2003-03-01

    The Phase A study for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) Project has recently been completed. As part of this exercise a working group was set-up to evolve instrumentation strategies matched to the scientific case for the CELT facility. We report here on the proposed initial instrument suite which includes not only massively multiplexed seeing-limited multi-object spectroscopy but also on plans for wide-field adaptive optics fed integral-field spectroscopy and imaging at, or approaching, CELT's diffraction limit.

  16. Infill sampling criteria to locate extremes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, AG

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available concise statement of the single-sample, Gaussian-based, objective function: E\\[Z~,,+,,IS\\] = ~z~,>ts + W(~Cx))'Oz,,,,+s 596 Watson and Barnes where W( ) is the peculiar function W(~(x)) = ~(~(x)) + ~(x) 9 ,I,(~(x)) ~b...) and (3), not the "quick-and- Figure 1. Contours of exhaustive dataset: 625 observations on 25 x 25 grid. Sampling to Locate Extremes 601 Figure 2, Contours of log-transformed exhaustive data set: 625 observations on 25 x...

  17. Same Origin or Two Extreme---Using Jung’s Archetypal Criticism to Analyze the Similarity of Baochai and Daiyu in Dream of the Red Chamber%钗黛实为同根生从原型批评理论看“钗黛一体”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悟拿

    2014-01-01

    In the explicit representation of Dream of the Red Chamber,Lin Daiyu and Xue Baochai al-ways represent two kinds of life philosophies and values,which totally differ from each other.However, based on the analysis of persona,the author chooses the perspective of Carl Jung’s archetypal criticism, conducts a converse exploration of these two characters’different personalities,talents and destinies.Ret-rospecting the ultimate meaning of characters’personalities and artistic representation of characters’psy-chological meditation,this paper gives a clear explanation to show the reasons and procedures of the perso-na’s development.In conclusion,though Lin Daiyu and Xue Baochai look like two totally different charac-ters,they are essentially derived from the same origin.The conclusion also infers that in the process of probing into Cao Xueqin’s essential ingenuity,the study of Zhiyanzhai’s comments is of great significance.%在《红楼梦》的显性表达中,林黛玉和薛宝钗素来代表两种迥异的处世哲学和人生价值观,而若从荣格的原型批评理论入手,以分析人格面具为出发点,从性格、才能、命运的差异进行逆向探究,追溯人物性理的终极意义和心理积淀的艺术呈示,便能将其人格面具发展的原因和过程理出清晰脉络,最后论证出虽然钗黛看似二人,但是实为一体,也从侧面说明研究脂批对于探寻曹雪芹创作匠心的重要意义。

  18. Extreme hypertriglyceridemia managed with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuzar, Moe; Shenoy, Vasant V; Malabu, Usman H; Schrale, Ryan; Sangla, Kunwarjit S

    2014-01-01

    Extreme hypertriglyceridemia can lead to acute pancreatitis and rapid lowering of serum triglycerides (TG) is necessary for preventing such life-threatening complications. However, there is no established consensus on the acute management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of extreme hypertriglyceridemia with mean serum TG on presentation of 101.5 ± 23.4 mmol/L (8982 ± 2070 mg/dL) managed with insulin. Serum TG decreased by 87 ± 4% in 24 hours in those patients managed with intravenous insulin and fasting and 40 ± 8.4% in those managed with intravenous insulin alone (P = .0003). The clinical course was uncomplicated in all except 1 patient who subsequently developed a pancreatic pseudocyst. Thus, combination of intravenous insulin with fasting appears to be an effective, simple, and safe treatment strategy in immediate management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  20. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  1. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  2. ELTs Adaptive Optics for Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy Key Parameters and Design Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, B; Fusco, T; Gendron, E; Puech, M; Rousset, G; Hammer, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, new Adaptive Optics [AO] techniques have emerged to answer new astronomical challenges: Ground-Layer AO [GLAO] and Multi-Conjugate AO [MCAO] to access a wider Field of View [FoV], Multi-Object AO [MOAO] for the simultaneous observation of several faint galaxies, eXtreme AO [XAO] for the detection of faint companions. In this paper, we focus our study to one of these applications : high red-shift galaxy observations using MOAO techniques in the framework of Extremely Large Telescopes [ELTs]. We present the high-level specifications of a dedicated instrument. We choose to describe the scientific requirements with the following criteria : 40% of Ensquared Energy [EE] in H band (1.65um) and in an aperture size from 25 to 150 mas. Considering these specifications we investigate different AO solutions thanks to Fourier based simulations. Sky Coverage [SC] is computed for Natural and Laser Guide Stars [NGS, LGS] systems. We show that specifications are met for NGS-based systems at the cost of ...

  3. Overview of extremity arterial trauma in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heis, H A; Bani-Hani, K E; Elheis, M A

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to review etiologies of trauma, associated injuries, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with vascular injuries in the extremities and relate factors in their treatment to the outcome of the injured extremity. Data were collected retrospectively on 73 patients diagnosed to have upper and lower limbs arterial injuries at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between 2001 and 2006. Factors evaluated included demographic data, location of vessels injured, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, treatment, and outcome. Patients were predominantly males (54 patients). Isolated vascular trauma was present in 36 patients, while in the remaining 37 patients vascular trauma was aggravated by concomitant injuries. The most common etiology of vascular injuries in the upper and lower extremities was a penetrating injury found in 38 patients (52%). The vessels most commonly involved were the femoral and brachial arteries. Various associated injuries were identified mainly orthopedic in 21 patients (29%) and nerve injuries in 18 patients (25%). Autogenous vein graft interposition was mostly performed in 32 patients (44%). Permanent disability was seen in 8 patients (11%), limb amputation was performed in 5 patients (7%). Five patients died due to associated intraabdominal, thoracic, and head injuries giving a mortality rate of 7%. Delay in surgery, blunt trauma and extensive soft tissue defect in combined orthopedic and vascular injuries were associated with increased risk of amputation, while associated nerve injuries and bone injuries with extensive soft tissue damage are risk factors of poor quality outcome.

  4. Red fluorescent biofilm: the thick, the old, and the cariogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M.C. Volgenant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some dental plaque fluoresces red. The factors involved in this fluorescence are yet unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess systematically the effect of age, thickness, and cariogenicity on the extent of red fluorescence produced by in vitro microcosm biofilms. Design: The effects of biofilm age and thickness on red fluorescence were tested in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF by growing biofilms of variable thicknesses that received a constant supply of defined mucin medium (DMM and eight pulses of sucrose/day. The influence of cariogenicity on red fluorescence was tested by growing biofilm on dentin disks receiving DMM, supplemented with three or eight pulses of sucrose/day. The biofilms were analyzed at different time points after inoculation, up to 24 days. Emission spectra were measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (λexc405 nm and the biofilms were photographed with a fluorescence camera. The composition of the biofilms was assessed using 454-pyrosequecing of the 16S rDNA gene. Results: From day 7 onward, the biofilms emitted increasing intensities of red fluorescence as evidenced by the combined red fluorescence peaks. The red fluorescence intensity correlated with biofilm thickness but not in a linear way. Biofilm fluorescence also correlated with the imposed cariogenicity, evidenced by the induced dentin mineral loss. Increasing the biofilm age or increasing the sucrose pulsing frequency led to a shift in the microbial composition. These shifts in composition were accompanied by an increase in red fluorescence. Conclusions: The current study shows that a thicker, older, or more cariogenic biofilm results in a higher intensity of red fluorescence.

  5. Red fluorescent biofilm: the thick, the old, and the cariogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M.C.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob (Bob) M.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Some dental plaque fluoresces red. The factors involved in this fluorescence are yet unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to assess systematically the effect of age, thickness, and cariogenicity on the extent of red fluorescence produced by in vitro microcosm biofilms. Design The effects of biofilm age and thickness on red fluorescence were tested in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) by growing biofilms of variable thicknesses that received a constant supply of defined mucin medium (DMM) and eight pulses of sucrose/day. The influence of cariogenicity on red fluorescence was tested by growing biofilm on dentin disks receiving DMM, supplemented with three or eight pulses of sucrose/day. The biofilms were analyzed at different time points after inoculation, up to 24 days. Emission spectra were measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (λexc405 nm) and the biofilms were photographed with a fluorescence camera. The composition of the biofilms was assessed using 454-pyrosequecing of the 16S rDNA gene. Results From day 7 onward, the biofilms emitted increasing intensities of red fluorescence as evidenced by the combined red fluorescence peaks. The red fluorescence intensity correlated with biofilm thickness but not in a linear way. Biofilm fluorescence also correlated with the imposed cariogenicity, evidenced by the induced dentin mineral loss. Increasing the biofilm age or increasing the sucrose pulsing frequency led to a shift in the microbial composition. These shifts in composition were accompanied by an increase in red fluorescence. Conclusions The current study shows that a thicker, older, or more cariogenic biofilm results in a higher intensity of red fluorescence. PMID:27060056

  6. Deformations of extremal toric manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact toric extremal K\\"ahler manifold. Using the work of Sz\\'ekelyhidi, we provide a simple criterion on the fan describing $X$ to ensure the existence of complex deformations of $X$ that carry extremal metrics. As an example, we find new CSC metrics on 4-points blow-ups of $\\C\\P^1\\times\\C\\P^1$.

  7. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  8. Observed Statistics of Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    9 Figure 5. An energy stealing wave as a solution to the NLS equation . (From: Dysthe and...shown that nonlinear interaction between four colliding waves can produce extreme wave behavior. He utilized the NLS equation in his numerical ...2000) demonstrated the formation of extreme waves using the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) equation , which is valid in shallow water. It was shown in the

  9. Weather Extremes Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    or ever has occurred. According to M. A. Arkin, "... record extremes must be taken with a grain of salt .... Ř He explains that news of an extreme...the edge of the Danakil Depression, a salt desert. By averaging the annual mean daily maximum temperature of 106°F36 atid the annual mean daily...increased by orographic lifting.1" Asa result of these monsoon disturbances, which are still not fully understood, the eastern Himalayan 105 106

  10. New Scattered Disk Object and Centaur Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Melissa; Wilcox, P.; Stansberry, J.

    2013-10-01

    We report B, V, and R magnitudes for scattered disk objects and centaurs from observations taken in December 2011 and August 2013 using the Lowell Observatory Perkins Telescope with PRISM and observations taken in March 2012 at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Targeted scattered disk objects include 2002 CY224, 2003 UY117, 2006 QJ181, 2008 CT190, 2009 YG19, 2010 FD49, 2010 VZ98. Targeted centaurs include 2002 QX47, 2005 UJ438, 2006 UX184, and 2007 RH283. We will determine if the resultant centaur colors follow the bimodal distribution (B-R either red or gray) previously detected. We will also compare the resultant scattered disk object colors to those published for other scattered disk objects. This work is based on observations with the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and with the VATT: The Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  11. Defining Learning Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2014-01-01

    <正>This article attempts to introduce the teacher to developments in the area of specifying learning objectives.When you have studied this article carefully,you should be able to(a)distinguish between statements of aims and statements of objectives,(b)discuss the merits of writing objectives from the point of view of the learner,and(c)write both complete and abbreviated statements of learning objectives for different language skills,functions,and notions.

  12. [Historiography of medical objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  13. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  14. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  15. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  16. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  17. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  18. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  19. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  20. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...

  1. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  2. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  3. CTDO, ship ADCP and lowered ADCP data from the 2001 Red Sea Outflow Experiment plus from the Red Sea (NCEI Accession 0146147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The main objectives of REDSOX are: 1. To describe the pathways and downstream evolution of the descending outflow plumes of Red Sea Water in the western Gulf of...

  4. Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mujizat Kawaroe; Dahlia Wulan Sari; Junkwon Hwangbo; Joko Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Red macroalgae have the potential to be processed into bioethanol due to their high carbohydrate and low lignin content. Gelidium latifolium and Gracilaria verrucosa are red macroalgae commonly found in Indonesian seas. Sometimes an over-supply of red macroalgae is rejected by the food industry, which opens up opportunities for others uses, e.g. for producing bioethanol. The objectives of this research were to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of G. latifolium...

  5. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  6. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny

    2015-02-18

    Phytoplankton, at the base of the marine food web, represent a fundamental food source in coral reef ecosystems. The timing (phenology) and magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass are major determinants of trophic interactions. The Red Sea is one of the warmest and most saline basins in the world, characterized by an arid tropical climate regulated by the monsoon. These extreme conditions are particularly challenging for marine life. Phytoplankton phenological indices provide objective and quantitative metrics to characterize phytoplankton seasonality. The indices i.e. timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration are estimated here using 15 years (1997–2012) of remote sensing ocean-color data from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period), shows a significant increase in chlorophyll data coverage, especially in the southern Red Sea during the months of summer NW monsoon. In open and reef-bound coastal waters, the performance of OC-CCI chlorophyll data is shown to be comparable with the performance of other standard chlorophyll products for the global oceans. These features have permitted us to investigate phytoplankton phenology in the entire Red Sea basin, and during both winter SE monsoon and summer NW monsoon periods. The phenological indices are estimated in the four open water provinces of the basin, and further examined at six coral reef complexes of particular socio-economic importance in the Red Sea, including Siyal Islands, Sharm El Sheikh, Al Wajh bank, Thuwal reefs, Al Lith reefs and Farasan Islands. Most of the open and deeper waters of the basin show an apparent higher chlorophyll concentration and longer duration of phytoplankton growth during the winter period (relative to the summer

  7. Red Clump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  8. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  9. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  10. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects......This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  11. Words without Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Laycock

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just stuff.

  12. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  13. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  14. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  15. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  16. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W

    1995-01-01

    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  17. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  18. Nonthermal nature of incipient extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Stefano; Rothman, Tony; Sonego, Sebastiano

    2000-07-01

    We examine particle production from spherical bodies collapsing into extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes. Kruskal coordinates become ill defined in the extremal case, but we are able to find a simple generalization of them that is good in this limit. The extension allows us to calculate the late-time world line of the center of the collapsing star, thus establishing a correspondence with a uniformly accelerated mirror in Minkowski spacetime. The spectrum of created particles associated with such uniform acceleration is nonthermal, indicating that a temperature is not defined. Moreover, the spectrum contains a constant that depends on the history of the collapsing object. At first sight this points to a violation of the no-hair theorems; however, the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is zero and its variance vanishes as a power law at late times. Hence, both the no-hair theorems and the cosmic censorship conjecture are preserved. The power-law decay of the variance is in distinction to the exponential falloff of a nonextremal black hole. Therefore, although the vanishing of the stress tensor's expectation value is consistent with a thermal state at zero temperature, the incipient black hole does not behave as a thermal object at any time and cannot be regarded as the thermodynamic limit of a nonextremal black hole, regardless of the fact that the final product of collapse is quiescent.

  19. Surface composition and dynamical evolution of two retrograde objects in the outer solar system: 2008 YB3 and 2005 VD

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla-Alonso, N; Melita, M D; Lorenzi, V; Licandro, J; Carvano, J; Lazzaro, D; Carraro, G; Ali-Lagoa, V; Costa, E; Hasselmann, P H; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220030

    2013-01-01

    Most of the objects in the trans-Neptunian belt (TNb) and related populations move in prograde orbits with low eccentricity and inclination. However, the list of icy minor bodies moving in orbits with an inclination above 40 deg. has increased in recent years. The origin of these bodies, and in particular of those objects in retrograde orbits, is not well determined, and different scenarios are considered. In this paper, we present new observational and dynamical data of two objects in retrograde orbits, 2008 YB3 and 2005 VD. We find that the surface of these extreme objects is depleted of ices and does not contain the 'ultra-red' matter typical of some Centaurs. Despite small differences, these objects share common colors and spectral characteristics with the Trojans, comet nuclei, and the group of grey Centaurs. All of these populations are supposed to be covered by a mantle of dust responsible for their reddish- to neutral-color. To investigate if the surface properties and dynamical evolution of these bod...

  20. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    As noted by the Bureau of Meteorology, Canada, to examine whether such ... their local climate, a threshold considered extreme in one part of Australia could be ... (extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events.

  1. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function ...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...

  2. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  3. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a mountainous country, Nepal is most susceptible to precipitation extremes and related hazards, including severe floods, landslides and droughts that cause huge losses of life and property, impact the Himalayan environment, and hinder the socioeconomic development of the country. Given that the countrywide assessment of such extremes is still lacking, we present a comprehensive picture of prevailing precipitation extremes observed across Nepal. First, we present the spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI from 210 stations over the period of 1981–2010. Then, we analyze the temporal changes in the computed extremes from 76 stations, featuring long-term continuous records for the period of 1970–2012, by applying a non-parametric Mann−Kendall test to identify the existence of a trend and Sen’s slope method to calculate the true magnitude of this trend. Further, the local trends in precipitation extremes have been tested for their field significance over the distinct physio-geographical regions of Nepal, such as the lowlands, middle mountains and hills and high mountains in the west (WL, WM and WH, respectively, and likewise, in central (CL, CM and CH and eastern (EL, EM and EH Nepal. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of high-intensity precipitation extremes are quite different to that of annual or monsoonal precipitation. Lowlands (Terai and Siwaliks that feature relatively low precipitation and less wet days (rainy days are exposed to high-intensity precipitation extremes. Our trend analysis suggests that the pre-monsoonal precipitation is significantly increasing over the lowlands and CH, while monsoonal precipitation is increasing in WM and CH and decreasing in CM, CL and EL. On the other hand, post-monsoonal precipitation is significantly decreasing across all of Nepal while winter precipitation is decreasing

  4. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  5. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  6. Scaled-Free Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Grilliette, Will

    2010-01-01

    Several functional analysts and C*-algebraists have been moving toward a categorical means of understanding normed objects. In this work, I address a primary issue with adapting these abstract concepts to functional analytic settings, the lack of free objects. Using a new object, called a "crutched set", and associated categories, I devise generalized construction of normed objects as a left adjoint functor to a natural forgetful functor. Further, the universal property in each case yields a "scaled-free" mapping property, which extends previous notions of `"free" normed objects. In particular, I construct the following types of scaled-free objects: Banach spaces, Banach algebras, C*-algebras, operator spaces, and operator algebras. In subsequent papers, this scaled-free property, coupled with the associated functorial results, will give rise to a new view of presentation theory for C*-algebras, which inherits many properties and constructions from its algebraic counterpart.

  7. Conceivability Theses and Objections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the thesis is more fashionable in the current debate than defending conceivability as anything but one psychological heuristic device among others with which we form beliefs about modality. In this paper, I shall offer a way of demarcating conceivability theses in a way that offers a concise overview, and I...... will try to provide an overview also of the different objections that have been and are leveled at the conceivability theses. A number of these are problems for an epistemology of modality generally. I will focus on the objections that are peculiar to conceivability theses: the Standard Objection...... and the Uselessness Objection. The Standard Objection targets the second premise in an argument for possibility from conceivability, that what is conceived is possible, typically by offering counterexamples in the form of conceivable impossibilities. The Uselessness Objection targets the first premise in an argument...

  8. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  9. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Imine, Abdessamad

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

  10. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  11. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  12. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and anatomic assessment of femoral trochlea morphology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs. Sample-24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers. Procedures...

  13. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  14. Registration of ‘Sprinter’ hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grain protein concentration and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) resistance are important traits for hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objective of this research wa...

  15. Disorders of red cell membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies during the last three decades have enabled the development of detailed molecular insights into the structural basis of altered function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders...

  16. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  17. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  18. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  19. Red supergiants and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Groh, Jose; Granada, Anahí

    2013-01-01

    We review the significant role played by red supergiants (RSGs) in stellar populations, and some challenges and questions they raise for theoretical stellar evolution. We present how metallicity and rotation modify the way stars go to the red part of the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram or come back from it, and how RSGs might keep a trace of their main-sequence evolution. We compare theoretical popu- lation ratios with observed ones.

  20. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  1. Functional metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under extreme conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from extreme environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to extreme environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest.

  2. Mitochondriogenesis genes and extreme longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catalina; Garatachea, Nuria; Yvert, Thomas; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Genes of the proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A, also termed PGC1-α)-nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-mitochondrial transcription Factor A (TFAM) mitochondriogenesis pathway can influence health/disease phenotypes, yet their association with extreme longevity is not known. We studied the association of five common polymorphisms in genes of this pathway (rs2267668, rs8192678, rs6949152, rs12594956, rs1937) and extreme longevity using a case (107 centenarians)-control (284 young adults) design. We found no between-group differences in allele/genotype frequencies, except for CC genotype in rs1937 (p=0.003), with no representation in controls (0%), versus 2.8% in centenarians (2 men, 1 woman). In summary, the studied genetic variants of the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway were not associated with extreme longevity, yet a marginal association could exist for rs1937.

  3. The red neon, Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz, 1956, is able to survive in distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we report on the ecophysiological adaptation of the red neon toextremely low water hardness (nearly zero. Such adaptations of aquatic vertebrate species (either fishor frogs to extreme environmental conditions show a large plasticity of this group even if, by definition,the aquatic environment is quite stable and homogeneous.

  4. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  5. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  6. Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  8. Extreme project. Progress report 2006; Projet EXTREME. Rapport d'avancement 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyrolle, F.; Masson, O.; Charmasson, S

    2007-07-01

    The E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project introduced in 2005 to the S.E.S.U.R.E. / L.E.R.C.M. has for objectives to acquire data on the consequences of the extreme climatic meteorological episodes on the distribution of the artificial radioisotopes within the various compartments of the geosphere. This report presents the synthesis of the actions developed in 2006 in positioning and in co financing of the project by means of regional or national research programs (C.A.R.M.A., E.X.T.R.E.M.A., E.C.C.O.R.E.V.I.), of data acquisition, valuation and scientific collaboration. (N.C.)

  9. Satisfaction with upper extremity surgery in individuals with tetraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hanne; Lybæk, Mille; Lauge Johannesen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To supplement the scant information available regarding the satisfaction of patients with tetraplegia following upper extremity reconstructive surgery for such individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with questionnaire follow-up. SETTING: The Danish...... questions (P satisfaction with upper extremity surgery is high. It can have a positive impact on life in general, ability to perform ADL, as well as supplying an increased level of independence....... to strongly disagree regarding satisfaction. Forty patients completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Median time from first surgery was 13 years (2-36). Sixty-five percent of the sample had a C5-C6 SCI, with 64% experiencing complete injury. Initially, 76% of the sample expressed general satisfaction with life......OBJECTIVE: To supplement the scant information available regarding the satisfaction of patients with tetraplegia following upper extremity reconstructive surgery for such individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with questionnaire follow-up. SETTING: The Danish...

  10. Conscience and Conscientious Objections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Western countries conscientious objection is usually accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military conscription, medicine) and to some extent. It appears to be regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection. But why? This study argues that conscientious obje

  11. The objective image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galison, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In his work, Galison approaches the historical development of objectivity as an important factor that affects the way we experience and imagine ourselves in communities of knowledge and in democratic societies. Prof. Peter Galison has demonstrated that scientific objectivity has a history and he

  12. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  13. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  14. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  15. Composing Concurrent Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk

    1994-01-01

    Adopting the object-oriented paradigm for the development of large and complex software systems offers several advantages, of which increased extensibility and reusability are the most prominent ones. The object-oriented model is also quite suitable for modelling concurrent systems. However, it

  16. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...

  17. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  18. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  19. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  20. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  1. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... at hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  2. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  3. Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp.) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa K.

    2017-05-19

    The biodiversity of the Red Sea remains relatively understudied, particularly for invertebrate taxa. Documenting present patterns of biodiversity is essential for better understanding Red Sea reef ecosystems and how these ecosystems may be impacted by stressors (such as fishing and climate change). Several species of giant clams (genus Tridacna) are reported from the Red Sea, although the majority of research effort has occurred in the Gulf of Aqaba. We investigated the genetic diversity (16S rDNA) of the Tridacna species found in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We also investigated the genetic diversity (ITS rDNA) of symbiotic dinoflagellates Symbiodinium associated with these clams. Samples were collected from nine reefs on a cross-shelf gradient near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Two species, T. squamosa and T. maxima, were recorded, with the latter being the most abundant. Tridacna squamosina, a species recently reported in the northern Red Sea, was not found, suggesting that this species is not present or is very rare in our study region. All tridacnids sampled were found to harbor Symbiodinium grouped in Clade A, considered an opportunistic, heat-tolerant symbiont group in anemones and corals. The consistent association with Clade A Symbiodinium in central Red Sea tridacnids may reflect the consequence of adaptation to the relatively extreme conditions of the Red Sea. This study contributes to an ever-growing catalog of Red Sea biodiversity and serves as important baseline information for a region experiencing dynamic pressures.

  4. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This

  5. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Rix, H-W; Martig, M; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Ho, A Y Q

    2015-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the KEPLER and APOGEE surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to $\\sim$ 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to $\\sim$ 0.2 dex (40 percent). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 80,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center t...

  6. Tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  7. Current plate motions across the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dezhi; Gordon, Richard G.

    1998-11-01

    A new objective method is used to estimate precisely 64 rates of seafloor spreading since chron 2A (3.2 Ma) from all the Red Sea magnetic profiles available from 15.9° to 26°N. The fastest spreading rate, ~16 mm yr-1, occurs near 18°N, whereas the slowest rate, 10 mm yr-1, occurs at 25.5°N and is consistent with the rate predicted from Arabia-Nubia data to the south. The standard deviation of the spreading rates is 0.8 mm yr-1, much smaller than the median standard deviation of 4 mm yr-1 previously assigned to spreading rates in the global plate-motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al. 1990). The fit to the spreading rates, as well as the locations of earthquakes in and near the Red Sea, indicate that spreading south of approximately 17.7°N is less than the full rate of spreading between the Arabian and Nubian plates. The Red Sea spreading centre is instead usefully interpreted as the boundary between the Arabian Plate and a Danakil microplate that includes the subaerial Danakil block and a larger oceanic portion of lithosphere. Despite the absence of reliable azimuths of transform faults in the Red Sea, all components of the angular velocity of Arabia relative to Nubia are usefully constrained from just the 45 relevant spreading rates. The new compact 95 per cent confidence region of the angular velocity excludes prior estimates based on only four and two spreading rates by Chase (1978) and Jestin et al. (1994), respectively. 19 spreading rates in the southern Red Sea are used to estimate the angular velocity between the Danakil microplate and Arabia. An approach based on singular value decomposition shows that without slip vectors only two of the three components of the angular velocity of the Danakil microplate relative to Arabia or Nubia are usefully constrained, but that all three components are usefully constrained if one earthquake slip vector is included.

  8. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  9. Modelling of extreme gusts for design calculations (NewGusts)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierbooms, Wim; Cheng, Po-Weng; Larsen, Gunner;

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the Newgust project is to come to a realistic and verified description of extreme gusts based on the stochastic properties of the wind. The mean shape of the gusts, of certain amplitude, together with their probability of occurence can be used to obtain the distribution of t...

  10. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  11. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  12. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  13. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  14. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  15. Extreme cervical elongation after sacrohysteropexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.; Futterer, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of extreme cervical elongation with a cervix of 12 cm after an unusual operation in which the uterine corpus was directly fixed to the promontory, and which became symptomatic after 8 years. The possible pathophysiology of cervical elongation is discussed. Diagnosing a case of seve

  16. Applied extreme-value statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  17. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  18. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  19. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  20. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  1. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  2. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery plan for the California Red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this plan is to reduce threats and improve the population status of the California red-legged frog sufficiently to warrant delisting. Actions...

  4. Red salmon survival studies in Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island, 1957: Salmon survival investigations field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on red salmon survival in Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island. The objectives were to systematically isolate, study, and...

  5. Proposal for Red-shouldered Hawk inventory and monitoring Mississippi River- Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to conduct Red-shouldered Hawk inventory and monitoring research along the Mississippi River. Objectives of the proposed study include: (1)...

  6. Phenotypic characterization and genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare isolated from red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease and severely affects various freshwater aquaculture fish species worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the phenotypic characteristics and genetic variability among F. columnare isolates isolated from red tilapi...

  7. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  8. The Domesticating Method in the Translation of Red Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng

    2015-01-01

    The study of the samples selected from the English version of MoYan’s Red Sorghum demonstrate that domesticating method will still be a major strategy for Chinese novels’translation. The conclusion reached is based on the objective description of translation practice, which includes the purpose of translation, the decision-making in translation practice, and translation stan⁃dards. Nevertheless, whether Red Sorghum can win the English readership is determined by whether the hero and the culture in the novel are identified in the target culture system.

  9. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  10. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  11. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  12. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  13. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  14. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Red Cell Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; George J Christ; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the import...

  15. Extremal non-BPS black holes and entropy extremization

    CERN Document Server

    Lópes-Cardoso, G; Lust, D; Perz, J; Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Grass, Viviane; Lust, Dieter; Perz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    At the horizon, a static extremal black hole solution in N=2 supergravity in four dimensions is determined by a set of so-called attractor equations which, in the absence of higher-curvature interactions, can be derived as extremization conditions for the black hole potential or, equivalently, for the entropy function. We contrast both methods by explicitly solving the attractor equations for a one-modulus prepotential associated with the conifold. We find that near the conifold point, the non-supersymmetric solution has a substantially different behavior than the supersymmetric solution. We analyze the stability of the solutions and the extrema of the resulting entropy as a function of the modulus. For the non-BPS solution the region of attractivity and the maximum of the entropy do not coincide with the conifold point.

  16. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  17. Choosing for learning objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Responding to differences between students; (4) The joint development of learning materials together with other institutions or external parties; (5) Attuning to professional practice; (6) Attuning to...

  18. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a...

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cells Squeezing through Submicron Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Lu, Huijie

    2016-11-01

    A multiscale model is applied to study the dynamics of healthy red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis, and sickle cell disease squeezing through submicron slits. This study is motivated by the mechanical filtration of RBCs by inter-endothelial slits in the spleen. First, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results with experiments. Secondly, the deformation of the cytoskeleton in healthy RBCs is investigated. Thirdly, the mechanisms of damage in hereditary spherocytosis are investigated. Finally, the effects of cytoplasm and membrane viscosities, especially in sickle cell disease, are examined. The simulations results provided guidance for future experiments to explore the dynamics of RBCs under extreme deformation.

  20. BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS CONTROL IN TCP-RED SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Internet is heterogeneous in nature,and ex-tremely wide variations in parametric perturbationlead to a very rich world of dynamical behaviorsranging from s mooth,stable operation to rathercomplicated irregular patterns.In[1],the occur-rence of chaotic behavior in TCP has been reportedfor the first ti me.Since the seminal work of Mathisand Floyd[2-3],there have been increasing interestsin the dynamical characteristics of Internet.In theprevious work,TCP congestion control algorithmplus RED queue management m...

  1. Pensar la ciudad en red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El paradigma de la sociedad contemporánea es la red, como afirma Manuel Castells (1999 cuándo propone este concepto para que se piense el mundo frente a las tecnologías de información y comunicación. ¿Más como pensar la ciudad en red? Cuándo vemos una imagen aérea de una ciudad, con sus rutas que articulan puntos y regiones, tenemos una imagen perfecta de una red. Pero la evidencia absoluta entre la forma geométrica de una red no puede nos dejar iludirnos: esto no presupone el entendimiento de la sociedad urbana como red. El matemático Nikos Salingaros (2003 argumentó que “las fuerzas que hacen que la ciudad funcione son generadas por la diversidad y necesidad de cambio de información entre diferentes tipos de nodos”, y Gabriel Dupuy (1985 escribió que “si buscamos localizar partes de un sistema, debemos hacerlo en espacios abstractos, espacios topológicos, espacios de n dimensiones, inhabituales en el planeamiento y que no corresponden a la percepción inmediata de la ‘redes clásicas’. Así, las redes son, más que nada, una manera de pensar. Una manera de leer el mundo, una manera de actuar en el mundo.

  2. The epidemiology of extreme hiking injuries in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Heggie, Tracey M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the epidemiological literature for extreme hikers in volcanic environments and describe the incidence, nature and severity of injuries, the factors contributing to the injuries, and strategies for preventing injuries. Due to the relative newness of extreme hiking in volcanic environments, there are only a small handful of studies addressing the topic. Moreover, these studies are primarily focused on extreme hikers in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. These studies found that the majority of extreme hikers in volcanic environments are inexperienced and unfamiliar with the potential hazards present in volcanic environments. The studies found that upper respiratory irritation resulting from exposure to volcanic gases and dehydration and scrapes, abrasions, lacerations, and thermal burns to the extremities were common injuries. The severity of the injuries ranged from simple on-site treat-and-release incidents to more severe incidents and even death. This review reveals a need for well-designed epidemiologic research from volcanic destinations outside of Hawaii that identify the nature and severity of injuries along with the factors contributing to injury incidents. There is also a demonstrated need for studies identifying preventive measures that reduce both the occurrence and severity of extreme hiking incidents in volcanic environments.

  3. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    (chlorophyll and degradation products) were mostly at the lower limit of determination with up to 1.2 ng·cm -. Similarly the faunal components were rare. Meiofauna occured at abundances of up to 600 specimens·10 cm -2 (winter (February) when it attained 15 g wet weight · m -2 or 51,000 individuals · m -2 in the total 1850m water colunm, values which were a factor of 3 and 1.6 higher respectively than in autum (Weikert, 1980a, 1981). The zooplankton stock which is poor in species exhibits a conspicuous planktocline below 100m, which roughly corresponds to the bottom of the euphotic zone. In winter, the planktocline shifts some tens of metres towards the sea surface. A secondary zooplankton maximum which overlaps with the deep scattering layer, is situated between 300-600m, and is confined to the oxygen minimum layer (Weikert, 1980a,b). Below about 1100m, the planktonic standing crop is extremely low, for example at about 1450m the abundance of the 300 μm net plankton was organic matter must be transported to greater depths and to the bottom in the form of sinking particles. However, the quantities of organic material which sink to such depths will be small, because decomposition rates can be expected much higher than normal because of the high uniform temperatures (21.6°C) of the deep water (Weikert, 1982). 6. Respiration measurements and the determinations of electron transport system activity were conducted on small, undisturbed sediment samples. The data can be evaluated by comparison with results obtained from the Arctic and the Atlantic Oceans employing exactly the same methods. In the Red Sea, respiration and ETS activity were found to be high but standing stocks and biomasses were low; the reverse was observed in the Arctic and the Atlantic. We believe that this difference in the ratio of respiration to biomass is determined by the great contrasts in the temperatures of the environments studied: Arctic -1.5°C, Atlantic 2°C, Red Sea 21.5°C. Independent of the

  4. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  5. Observations of an extreme planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such extreme orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this extreme planetary system.

  6. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  7. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  8. Modeling and investigation of Gulf El-Zayt wind farm for stability studying during extreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noureldeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of extreme gust wind as a case of wind speed variation on a wind farm interconnected electrical grid. The impact of extreme gust wind speed variation on active and reactive power of the wind farms is studied for variable speed wind farm equipped with Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs. A simulation model of the under implementation 120 MW wind farm at Gulf El-Zayt region, Red Sea, Egypt, is simulated as a case study. A detailed model of extreme gust wind speed variation is implemented and simulated, using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox, based on International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-1 and climate characteristic of Gulf El-Zayt site. The simulation results show the influence of different extreme gust wind speed variations on the fluctuation of active power and reactive power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC of the studied wind farm.

  9. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  10. On causality of extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect both linear and non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task.

  11. Cacti with Extremal PI Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertex PI index PI(G=∑ xy∈E(G [n xy (x‎+‎n xy (y] PI(G=∑xy∈E(G[nxy(x‎+‎nxy(y] is a distance-based molecular structure descriptor‎, ‎where n xy (x nxy(x denotes the number of vertices which are closer to the vertex x x than to the vertex y y and which has been the considerable research in computational chemistry dating back to Harold Wiener in 1947‎. ‎A connected graph is a cactus if any two of its cycles have at most one common vertex‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we completely determine the extremal graphs with the greatest and smallest vertex PI indices mong all cacti with a fixed number of vertices‎. ‎As a consequence‎, ‎we obtain the sharp bounds with corresponding extremal cacti and extend a known result‎.

  12. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  13. On causality of extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  14. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  15. Estrategias de trabajo en red

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, María Cristina

    2006-01-01

    El presente informe fue elaborado en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Sentidos en las Estrategias de comunicación / Educación de las ONGs y el Estado dirigidas a los adolescentes de Viedma”. Aborda los debates en torno a las estrategias de intervención en lo social en trabajo en red, a partir de la experiencia de la Red Adolescencia Viedma. Además, de analizar las formas de participación, control e incidencia de la Sociedad Civil y el rol del Estado en las políticas sociales. Facult...

  16. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  17. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  18. Upper Extremity Injuries in Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Megan R; Avery, Daniel; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

    2017-02-01

    Gymnastics is a unique sport, which loads the wrist and arms as weight-bearing extremities. Because of the load demands on the wrist in particular, stress fractures, physeal injury, and overuse syndromes may be observed. This spectrum of injury has been termed "gymnast's wrist," and incorporates such disorders as wrist capsulitis, ligamentous tears, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, chondromalacia of the carpus, stress fractures, distal radius physeal arrest, and grip lock injury.

  19. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    example, one soldier has a picture of Martin Luther King ;. another has a picture of Ronald Reagan). What is legal, appropriate action? (1) The particular...degree requirements for the 46h Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course. 2 Virginia A. White, Killings Tied to Racism , FAYETTEVILLE OBSERVER-TIMES...causes to lure new members to their organizations. Lieutenant Colonel Edwin W. Anderson, Jr ., Right Wing Extremism in America and its Implications for

  20. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Ge...

  1. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  2. A model for globular cluster extreme anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2007-08-01

    In spite of the efforts made in recent years, there is still no comprehensive explanation for the chemical anomalies of globular cluster (GC) stars. Among these anomalies, the most striking is oxygen depletion, which reaches values down to [O/Fe] ~ -0.4 in most clusters, but in M13 it goes down to less than [O/Fe] ~ -1. In this work we suggest that the anomalies are due to the superposition of two different events, as follows. (i) Primordial self-enrichment; this is required to explain the oxygen depletion down to a minimum value [O/Fe] ~ -0.4. (ii) Extra mixing in a fraction of the stars already born with anomalous composition; these objects, starting with already low [O/Fe], will reduce the oxygen abundance down to the most extreme values. Contrary to other models that invoke extra mixing to explain the chemical anomalies, we suggest that this mixing is active only if there is a fraction of the stars in which the primordial composition is not only oxygen-depleted, but also extremely helium-rich (Y ~ 0.4), as found in a few GCs from their main-sequence multiplicity. We propose that the rotational evolution (and an associated extra mixing) of extremely helium-rich stars may be affected by the fact that they develop a very small or non-existent molecular weight barrier during the evolution. We show that extra mixing in these stars, having initial chemistry that has already been CNO processed, affects mainly the oxygen abundance, as well as (to a much smaller extent) the sodium abundance. The model also predicts a large fluorine depletion concomitant with the oxygen depletion, and a further enhancement of the surface helium abundance, which reaches values close to Y = 0.5 in the computed models. We stress that, in this tentative explanation, those stars that are primordially oxygen-depleted, but are not extremely helium-rich, do not suffer deep extra mixing.

  3. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  4. Invariance and Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  5. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  6. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  7. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology.

  8. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  10. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  11. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  12. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, M

    2015-01-01

    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  13. Sound Objects for SVG

    OpenAIRE

    Colbrant, Audrey; Lasorsa, Yohan; Lemordant, Jacques; Liodenot, David; Razafimahazo, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A sound object can be defined as a time structure of audio chunks whose duration is on the time scale of 100 ms to several seconds. Sound objects have heterogeneous and time-varying properties. They are the basic elements of any format for Interactive Audio (IA). We have designed an XML language, A2ML, for Interactive Audio which offers, concerning the sequencing of sounds, a level of capabilities similar to that of iXMF, the interactive audio file format defined by th...

  14. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  15. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  16. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  17. Study of extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extremely reddened AGB stars lose mass at high rates of >10^-5 Msun/yr. This is the very last stage of AGB evolution, in which stars in the mass range 2.0--4.0 Msun (for solar metallicity) should have been converted to C stars already. The extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge are however predominantly O-rich, implying that they might be either low-mass stars or stars at the upper end of the AGB mass range. Aims. To determine the mass range of the most reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge. Methods. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we constructed spectral energy distributions of a sample of 37 evolved stars in the Galactic bulge with extremely red IRAS colours. We fitted DUSTY models to the observational data to infer the bolometric fluxes. Applying individual corrections for interstellar extinction and adopting a common distance, we determined luminosities and mass-loss rates, and inferred the progenitor mass range from comparisons with AGB evolutionary models. Results. The observed ...

  18. A New Type of Extremely Metal Poor Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Christlieb, N; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Melendez, J; Reimers, L W D; Cohen, Judith G.; William, Andrew Mc; Christlieb, Norbert; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; Melendez, Jorge; Reimers, Lutz Wisotzki & Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis for the extremely metal poor star HE1424-0241 based on high dispersion spectra from HIRES at Keck. This star is a giant on the lower red giant branch with [Fe/H] ~ -4.0 dex. Relative to Fe, HE1424-0241 has normal Mg, but it shows a very large deficiency of Si, with epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Fe) ~ 1/10 and epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Mg) ~ 1/25 that of all previously known extremely metal poor giants or dwarfs. It also has a moderately large deficiency of Ca and a smaller deficit of Ti, combined with enhanced Mn and Co and normal or low C. We suggest that in HE1424-0241 we see the effect of a very small number of contributing supernovae, and that the SNII contributing to the chemical inventory of HE1424-0241 were biased in progenitor mass or in explosion characteristics so as to reproduce its abnormal extremely low Si/Mg ratio. HE1424-0241 shows a deficiency of the explosive alpha-burning elements Si, Ca and Ti coupled with a ratio [Mg/Fe] normal for EMP stars; Mg is produced via hydrostatic...

  19. Adaptive RED algorithm based on minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiaolong; Lei, Ling; Qian, Jingjing

    2007-11-01

    With more and more applications appearing and the technology developing in the Internet, only relying on terminal system can not satisfy the complicated demand of QoS network. Router mechanisms must be participated into protecting responsive flows from the non-responsive. Routers mainly use active queue management mechanism (AQM) to avoid congestion. In the point of interaction between the routers, the paper applies minority game to describe the interaction of the users and observes the affection on the length of average queue. The parameters α, β of ARED being hard to confirm, adaptive RED based on minority game can depict the interactions of main body and amend the parameter α, β of ARED to the best. Adaptive RED based on minority game optimizes ARED and realizes the smoothness of average queue length. At the same time, this paper extends the network simulator plat - NS by adding new elements. Simulation has been implemented and the results show that new algorithm can reach the anticipative objects.

  20. Violet-red discolouration of canned Palmyra palm during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchong, Montip; Tatidin, Yuporn; Misayan, Apinya

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to investigate the causes of the violet-red discolouration during processing of canned Palmyra palm and to identify preventive methods without the use of chemical additives. Palmyra palm flesh with (13-21 %) /without some peel left on was tested for the source of violet-red discolouration during blanching. It was found that blanching in distilled water had no effect on discolouration when blanching conditions were at 75, 85, and 95 °C for 7 min but the violet-red discolouration occurred only when tap water was used for blanching at 95 °C for 7 min. Moreover, the addition of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in distilled water to imitate higher alkalinity of tap water during blanching could contribute to the violet-red discolouration. Thus the observed cut off alkalinity of the blanching water wherein not to expect any discolouration was found to be about 100 ppm. After sterilization, there was no violet-red discolouration from Palmyra palm flesh without any peel left on even though it had a preceding treatment of blanching in highly alkaline tap water.

  1. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  2. Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Rightley, Shane

    2014-03-01

    Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in

  3. Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Rightley, Shane

    2014-03-01

    Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)—the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in

  4. The red optical afterglow of GRB 030725

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, G; Gorosabel, J; Jensen, B L; Fynbo, J P U; Hjorth, J; Jorgensen, S F; Monard, B; Vinter, C

    2005-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the optical counterpart of the long-duration Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) 030725, which triggered the HETE FREGATE and WXM instruments on July 25th, 2003, and lasted more than 160s. An optical counterpart was identified at the Bronberg Observatory in South Africa about 7 hours after the burst occurred. The optical afterglow (OA) was observed between 4 and 15 days after the burst with the 1.54m Danish telescope at La Silla in the V, Rc, and Ic bands. We fit a broken power law to the data and determine a break time in the light curve between 16 hours and 4.7 days after the first detection of the burst. The decay slope is alpha1 = -0.59 +0.59/-0.44 before and alpha2 = -1.43 +/- 0.06 after the break. A bump may be present in the light curve, only significant at the 2-sigma level, 13.9 days after the main burst. The spectral slope of the OA, measured 12 days after the burst, is -2.9 +/- 0.6 , i.e. it falls in the extreme red end of the distribution of previous OA spectral slopes. Observa...

  5. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    . The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  6. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  7. The Road to Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Harman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  8. The Road to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Harman

    2011-01-01

    Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO) differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  9. Common Object Library Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  10. Forecasters' Objectives and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinovic, Iván; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2013-01-01

    This chapter develops a unified modeling framework for analyzing the strategic behavior of forecasters. The theoretical model encompasses reputational objectives, competition for the best accuracy, and bias. Also drawing from the extensive lit- erature on analysts, we review the empirical evidenc...

  11. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  12. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...

  13. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.

  14. Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines. II. Anthocyanin derived pigments and their color evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2012-02-07

    Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.

  15. The REM Telescope Detecting the Near Infra-Red Counterparts of Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Prompt Behaviour of Their Optical Continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Zerbi, F M; Ghisellini, G; Rodono, M

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events are unanimously considered of paramount importance for GRB science and related cosmology. Such observations at NIR wavelengths are even more promising allowing one to monitor high-z Ly-alpha absorbed bursts as well as events occurring in dusty star-forming regions. In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K') camera dedicated to detecting the prompt IR afterglow. REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them. The REM telescope will simultaneously feed ROSS (REM Optical Slitless spectrograph) via a dichroic. ROSS will intensively monitor the prompt optical continuum of GRB afterglows. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena.

  16. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases : psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Joannes

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease

  17. Extremal Black Holes in Strong Magnetic Fields: Near-Horizon Geometries and Meissner Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hejda, Filip

    2016-01-01

    For extremal black holes, one can construct simpler, limiting spacetimes that describe the geometry near degenerate horizons. Since these spacetimes are known to have enhanced symmetry, the limiting objects coincide for different solutions. We show that this occurs for strongly magnetised Kerr-Newman solution, and how this is related to physical Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields from extremal black holes.

  18. Kinematic control of extreme jump angles in the red leg running frog (Kassina maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher Thomas; Porro, Laura Beatriz; Collings, Amber Jade

    2017-03-08

    The kinematic flexibility of frog hindlimbs enables multiple locomotor modes within a single species. Prior work has extensively explored maximum performance capacity in frogs; however, the mechanisms by which anurans modulate performance within locomotor modes remain unclear. We explored how Kassina maculata, a species known for both running and jumping abilities, modulates takeoff angle from horizontal to nearly vertical. Specifically, how do 3D motions of leg segments coordinate to move the center of mass (COM) upwards and forwards? How do joint rotations modulate jump angle? High-speed video was used to quantify 3D joint angles and their respective rotation axis vectors. Inverse kinematics was used to determine how hip, knee and ankle rotations contribute to components of COM motion. Independent of takeoff angle, leg segment retraction (rearward rotation) was twofold greater than adduction (downward rotation). Additionally, the joint rotation axis vectors reoriented through time suggesting dynamic shifts in relative roles of joints. We found two hypothetical mechanisms for increasing takeoff angle: Firstly, greater knee and ankle excursion increased shank adduction, elevating the COM. Secondly, during the steepest jumps the body rotated rapidly backwards to redirect the COM velocity. This rotation was not caused by pelvic angle extension, but rather by kinematic transmission from leg segments via reorientation of the joint rotation axes. We propose that K. maculata uses proximal leg retraction as the principal kinematic drive while dynamically tuning jump trajectory by knee and ankle joint modulation.

  19. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  20. Site curves for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Bishop; Floyd A. Johnson

    1958-01-01

    The increasing commercial importance of red alder (Alnus rubra) in the Pacific Northwest has created a demand for research on this species. Noting the lack of information on growth of alder, the Puget Sound Research Center Advisory Committee established a subcommittee in January 1956 to undertake construction of alder yield tables. Through the...