WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely powerful tools

  1. The power tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment

  2. Java Power Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2008-01-01

    All true craftsmen need the best tools to do their finest work, and programmers are no different. Java Power Tools delivers 30 open source tools designed to improve the development practices of Java developers in any size team or organization. Each chapter includes a series of short articles about one particular tool -- whether it's for build systems, version control, or other aspects of the development process -- giving you the equivalent of 30 short reference books in one package. No matter which development method your team chooses, whether it's Agile, RUP, XP, SCRUM, or one of many other

  3. X Power Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This book puts you in charge of the most flexible and adaptable graphical interface in the computer industry. The X Window System underlies graphical desktops on Linux and Unix systems, and supports advanced features of modern graphics cards. This unique inside look at X gives you a lot of useful ways to harness the power of this system effectively.

  4. A training tool for lower extremity amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neutelings, I.M.P.; Hengeveld, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with a prosthetic limb miss a sense of touch at this particular part of their body. The work described in this paper focuses on providing people with a lower extremity amputation with an alternative sensory stimulus in order to help them experience what they can no longer feel. To

  5. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, T. S.

    This poster describes the status as of April 2012 of the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 \\Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a meso scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with a statistical tool in order to better predict short...... term power variation from off shore wind farms, as well as to conduct forecast error assessment studies in preparation for later implementation of such a feature in an existing simulation model. The addition of a forecast error estimation feature will further increase the value of this tool, as it...

  6. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    model to be developed in collaboration with ENFOR A/S; a danish company that specialises in forecasting and optimisation for the energy sector. This integrated prediction model will allow for the description of the expected variability in wind power production in the coming hours to days, accounting......This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...

  7. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity

  8. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  9. Extremal dependencies and rank correlations in power law networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.; Jie, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze dependencies in complex networks characterized by power laws (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical techniques from the extreme value theory and the theory of multivariate regular variation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  10. Probabilistic forecasting of wind power generation using extreme learning machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    an extreme learning machine (ELM)-based probabilistic forecasting method for wind power generation. To account for the uncertainties in the forecasting results, several bootstrapmethods have been compared for modeling the regression uncertainty, based on which the pairs bootstrap method is identified......Accurate and reliable forecast of wind power is essential to power system operation and control. However, due to the nonstationarity of wind power series, traditional point forecasting can hardly be accurate, leading to increased uncertainties and risks for system operation. This paper proposes...... with the best performance. Consequently, a new method for prediction intervals formulation based on theELMand the pairs bootstrap is developed.Wind power forecasting has been conducted in different seasons using the proposed approach with the historical wind power time series as the inputs alone. The results...

  11. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  12. Social media as a marketing tool for extreme-sport oriented companies

    OpenAIRE

    Korosuo, Saku

    2013-01-01

    Marketing in social media has been studied extensively in recent years, but not specifically for extreme-sport oriented companies. Even though most of the extreme-oriented companies are using social media for marketing, only a few pay special attention to its risks and possibilities. The purpose of this study is to identify extreme-sport oriented companies' practices to use social media as a marketing tool. I interviewed eight extreme- oriented companies and athletes. In addition to interview...

  13. An automated tool for solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsheh, E.M.; Natsheh, A.R.; Albarbar, AH

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a novel model of smart grid-connected solar power system is developed. The model is implemented using MatLab/SIMULINK software package. Artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The dynamic behavior of the proposed model is examined under different operating conditions. Solar irradiance, and temperature data are gathered from a grid connected, 28.8 kW solar power system located in central Manchester. The developed system and its control strategy exhibit excellent performance with tracking efficiency exceed 94.5%. The proposed model and its control strategy offer a proper tool for smart grid performance optimization. (author)

  14. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  15. A model for extremely powerful extragalactic water masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ying-Cheng; Alcock, C.

    1988-08-01

    The reasons for the differences between extremely powerful extragalatic water masers (EPEWMs) and strong Galactic H 2 O masers are discussed. This model quite successfully explains many important characteristics of EPEWMs; the rapid time variations, the broad range and random velocity distribution, the extremely high luminosities, the various heights or widths of features in spectra, the strong infrared radiation from the galaxies, how an active nucleus contributes to an EPEWM, how some parts of EPEWMs producing strong features are pumped, why this pump mechanism can work, and why EPEWMs are different from strong Galactic H 2 O masers. Recent observations of extragalactic water masers which have extremely high luminosities raise the possibility that the stimulated emission rate in the maser emission line in these regions is much higher than in Galactic masers. It is possible that the local stimulated emission rate exceeds the local bandwidth for the radiation. In this case the standard expression relating the photon emission rate to the profile averaged mean intensity does not apply. A new expression for the photon emission rate is derived

  16. A model for extremely powerful extragalactic water masers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ying-Cheng; Alcock, C.

    1988-08-01

    The reasons for the differences between extremely powerful extragalatic water masers (EPEWMs) and strong Galactic H/sub 2/O masers are discussed. This model quite successfully explains many important characteristics of EPEWMs; the rapid time variations, the broad range and random velocity distribution, the extremely high luminosities, the various heights or widths of features in spectra, the strong infrared radiation from the galaxies, how an active nucleus contributes to an EPEWM, how some parts of EPEWMs producing strong features are pumped, why this pump mechanism can work, and why EPEWMs are different from strong Galactic H/sub 2/O masers. Recent observations of extragalactic water masers which have extremely high luminosities raise the possibility that the stimulated emission rate in the maser emission line in these regions is much higher than in Galactic masers. It is possible that the local stimulated emission rate exceeds the local bandwidth for the radiation. In this case the standard expression relating the photon emission rate to the profile averaged mean intensity does not apply. A new expression for the photon emission rate is derived.

  17. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The VulnerabilityFrontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-10-17

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide aclose bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a gridto the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes theboundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance interms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, tothe number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulnessof this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and presentresults for larger systems.

  18. Computer Aided Design Tools for Extreme Environment Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to provide Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency...

  19. Integrating Philips' extreme UV source in the alpha-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankert, Joseph; Apetz, Rolf; Bergmann, Klaus; Derra, Guenther; Janssen, Maurice; Jonkers, Jeroen; Klein, Jurgen; Kruecken, Thomas; List, Andreas; Loeken, Michael; Metzmacher, Christof; Neff, Willi; Probst, Sven; Prummer, Ralph; Rosier, Oliver; Seiwert, Stefan; Siemons, Guido; Vaudrevange, Dominik; Wagemann, Dirk; Weber, Achim; Zink, Peter; Zitzen, Oliver

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes recent progress in the development of the Philips's EUV source. Progress has been realized at many frontiers: Integration studies of the source into a scanner have primarily been studied on the Xe source because it has a high degree of maturity. We report on integration with a collector, associated collector lifetime and optical characteristics. Collector lifetime in excess of 1 bln shots could be demonstrated. Next, an active dose control system was developed and tested on the Xe lamp. Resulting dose stability data are less than 0.2% for an exposure window of 100 pulses. The second part of the paper reports on progress in the development of the Philips' Sn source. First, the details of the concept are described. It is based on a Laser triggered vacuum arc, which is an extension with respect to previous designs. The source is furbished with rotating electrodes that are covered with a Sn film that is constantly regenerated. Hence by the very design of the source, it is scalable to very high power levels, and moreover has fundamentally solved the notorious problem of electrode erosion. Power values of 260 W in 2p sr are reported, along with a stable, long life operation of the lamp. The paper also addresses the problem of debris generation and mitigation of the Sn-source. The problem is attacked by a combined strategy of protection of the collector by traditional means (e.g. fields, foiltraps... ), and by designing the gas atmosphere according to the principles of the well known halogen cycles in incandescent lamps. These principles have been studied in the Lighting industry for decades and rely on the excessively high vapor pressures of metal halides. Transferred to the Sn source, it allows pumping away tin residues that would otherwise irreversibly deposit on the collector.

  20. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  1. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  2. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  3. PROMOTION OF PRODUCTS AND ANALYSIS OF MARKET OF POWER TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Rakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the general situation of power tools on the market, both in Russia and in the world. A comparative analysis of competitors, market structure analysis of power tools, as well as assessment of competitiveness of some major product lines. Also the analysis methods of promotion used by companies selling tools, competitive analysis range Bosch, the leader in its segment, power tools available on the market in Russia.

  4. Numerical tools to predict the environmental loads for offshore structures under extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the extreme waves were generated using the open source computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools — OpenFOAM and Waves2FOAM — using linear and nonlinear NewWave input. They were used to conduct the numerical simulation of the wave impact process. Numerical tools based on first-order (with and without stretching) and second-order NewWave are investigated. The simulation to predict force loading for the offshore platform under the extreme weather condition is implemented and compared.

  5. Integration of modern statistical tools for the analysis of climate extremes into the web-GIS “CLIMATE”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanova, A. A.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.

    2017-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence and magnitude of precipitation and temperature extreme events show positive trends in several geographical regions. These events must be analyzed and studied in order to better understand their impact on the environment, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. For this purpose, we augmented web-GIS called “CLIMATE” to include a dedicated statistical package developed in the R language. The web-GIS “CLIMATE” is a software platform for cloud storage processing and visualization of distributed archives of spatial datasets. It is based on a combined use of web and GIS technologies with reliable procedures for searching, extracting, processing, and visualizing the spatial data archives. The system provides a set of thematic online tools for the complex analysis of current and future climate changes and their effects on the environment. The package includes new powerful methods of time-dependent statistics of extremes, quantile regression and copula approach for the detailed analysis of various climate extreme events. Specifically, the very promising copula approach allows obtaining the structural connections between the extremes and the various environmental characteristics. The new statistical methods integrated into the web-GIS “CLIMATE” can significantly facilitate and accelerate the complex analysis of climate extremes using only a desktop PC connected to the Internet.

  6. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  7. Multidisciplinary Modelling Tools for Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad

    in reliability assessment of power modules, a three-dimensional lumped thermal network is proposed to be used for fast, accurate and detailed temperature estimation of power module in dynamic operation and different boundary conditions. Since an important issue in the reliability of power electronics...... environment to be used for optimization of cooling system layout with respect to thermal resistance and pressure drop reductions. Finally extraction of electrical parasitics in the multi-chip power modules will be investigated. As the switching frequency of power devices increases, the size of passive...... components are reduced considerably that leads to increase of power density and cost reduction. However, electrical parasitics become more challenging with increasing the switching frequency and paralleled chips in the integrated and denser packages. Therefore, electrical parasitic models are analyzed based...

  8. Core safety of Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of course, the accidents led to release of radioactivity due to probable melt down of reactor ... advances in technology and a better understanding of the nuclear power, the ..... PHWR system offers certain intrinsic advantages (Narora Atomic Power ...... system, Non Active Process Water System (NAPWS), Service Water Sys-.

  9. PRA: a powerful engineering decision tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de.

    1988-03-01

    The probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is studied and its historical development is briefly presented. Human factors, sofware and guides, improvement of utility management of nuclear power operations are discussed. The development of a standardized LWR design, optimized for safety, reliability and economy is studied. The impact of risk assessments in public acceptance of nuclear power is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of...

  11. Stopping power of K electrons at extreme relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.T.; Rustgi, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The recent work of Anholt on K-vacancy production by relativistic projectiles has been applied to calculate the stopping power of the K electrons. The results show that for protons of energy approx.10 3 GeV and heavy target elements, the relativistic contributions to the stopping power amount to several times the resuls due to the longitudinal terms obtained from Walske's work

  12. Summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to trace the development of extreme load criteria as it applies to earthquakes, extreme wind, high energy system rupture (LOCA), floods and other manmade and natural external hazards, from 1965 until the present, in the leading nuclear power nations throughout the world. (Author)

  13. Data and Tools | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    -energy estimates for grid-connected power projects based on installation and operating costs and system ) is an economic cash flow model designed to assess projects, design cost-based incentives (e.g., feed

  14. Computer- Aided Design in Power Engineering Application of Software Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stojkovic, Zlatan

    2012-01-01

    This textbooks demonstrates the application of software tools in solving a series of problems from the field of designing power system structures and systems. It contains four chapters: The first chapter leads the reader through all the phases necessary in the procedures of computer aided modeling and simulation. It guides through the complex problems presenting on the basis of eleven original examples. The second chapter presents  application of software tools in power system calculations of power systems equipment design. Several design example calculations are carried out using engineering standards like MATLAB, EMTP/ATP, Excel & Access, AutoCAD and Simulink. The third chapters focuses on the graphical documentation using a collection of software tools (AutoCAD, EPLAN, SIMARIS SIVACON, SIMARIS DESIGN) which enable the complete automation of the development of graphical documentation of a power systems. In the fourth chapter, the application of software tools in the project management in power systems ...

  15. A hybrid fuzzy logic and extreme learning machine for improving efficiency of circulating water systems in power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Liyana Afiqah Abdul; Siah Yap, Keem; Afif Bunyamin, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach of the fault detection for improving efficiency of circulating water system (CWS) in a power generation plant using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) neural network. The FLS is a mathematical tool for calculating the uncertainties where precision and significance are applied in the real world. It is based on natural language which has the ability of "computing the word". The ELM is an extremely fast learning algorithm for neural network that can completed the training cycle in a very short time. By combining the FLS and ELM, new hybrid model, i.e., FLS-ELM is developed. The applicability of this proposed hybrid model is validated in fault detection in CWS which may help to improve overall efficiency of power generation plant, hence, consuming less natural recourses and producing less pollutions.

  16. A hybrid fuzzy logic and extreme learning machine for improving efficiency of circulating water systems in power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Nur Liyana Afiqah Abdul; Yap, Keem Siah; Bunyamin, Muhammad Afif

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of the fault detection for improving efficiency of circulating water system (CWS) in a power generation plant using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) neural network. The FLS is a mathematical tool for calculating the uncertainties where precision and significance are applied in the real world. It is based on natural language which has the ability of c omputing the word . The ELM is an extremely fast learning algorithm for neural network that can completed the training cycle in a very short time. By combining the FLS and ELM, new hybrid model, i.e., FLS-ELM is developed. The applicability of this proposed hybrid model is validated in fault detection in CWS which may help to improve overall efficiency of power generation plant, hence, consuming less natural recourses and producing less pollutions.

  17. User-friendly Tool for Power Flow Analysis and Distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    AKOREDE et al: TOOL FOR POWER FLOW ANALYSIS AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION OPTIMISATION. 23 ... greenhouse gas emissions and the current deregulation of electric energy ..... Visual composition and temporal behaviour of GUI.

  18. Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press ...

  19. Mastering C pointers tools for programming power

    CERN Document Server

    Traister, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    If you don't fully understand C pointers and how they are used, you're not getting the most out of C programming. This book features complete coverage on using and controlling C language pointers to make C applications more powerful and expressive. This new edition is completely updated and revised to reflect the changes that have been brought about with the full adoption of ANSI C. All discussions and program examples have been updated, and reading materials necessary for any modern ANSI C programmer have also been added.Includes one 3 1/2"" disk containing all of the working programs and m

  20. GANGA powerful job submission and management tool

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andrew; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo; Muraru, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The computational and storage capability of the Grid are attracting several research communities, also beyond HEP. Ganga is a lightweight Grid job management tool developed at CERN. It is a key component in the distributed Data Analysis for ATLAS and LHCb. Ganga`s open and general framework allows to plug-in applications, which has attracted users from other domains outside HEP. In addition, Ganga interfaces to a variety of Grid and non-Grid backends using the same, simple end-user interface Ganga has already gained widespread use, the incomplete list of applications using Ganga include: Imaging processing and classification (developed by Cambridge Ontology Ltd.), Theoretical physics (Lattice QCD, Feynman-loop evaluation), Bio-informatics (Avian Flu Data Challenge), Geant4 (Monte Carlo package), HEP data analysis (ATLAS, LHCb). All these communities have different goals and requirements and the main challenge is the creation of a standard and general software infrastructure for the immersion of these communit...

  1. Simulation Tools for Power Electronics Courses Based on Java Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesin, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Flavio A. S.; Sampaio, Leonardo P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents interactive power electronics educational tools. These interactive tools make use of the benefits of Java language to provide a dynamic and interactive approach to simulating steady-state ideal rectifiers (uncontrolled and controlled; single-phase and three-phase). Additionally, this paper discusses the development and use of…

  2. Digital Portfolios: Powerful Marketing Tool for Communications Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A digital portfolio is a powerful marketing tool for young people searching for employment in the communication or interactive media fields. With a digital portfolio, students can demonstrate their skills at working with software tools, demonstrate appropriate use of materials, explain technical procedures, show an understanding of processes and…

  3. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  4. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  5. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H

  6. A powerful tool for plant specific simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.; Ofstun, R.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, special emphasis has been placed by the Utilities and Safety Authorities on the training of plant operators and engineers to make them more familiar with the dynamic behavior of the plant in post-accident conditions. With a view to providing transient response under realistic operating conditions, concerns were raised over: the use of conservative safety analysis models for analyzing operational and accident transients; the ability to dynamically simulate the expected operator actions, and the need to simulate the plant during long term cooling recovery. To meet these requirements, an interactive, user friendly, cost efficient dynamic model capable of simulating two-phase conditions is needed. In response to these post-TMI concerns, Westinghouse has developed, the Transient Real-Time Engineering Analysis Tool (TREAT) which is a general purpose interactive thermal-hydraulic network code for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis. The applications of TREAT are numerous and range from engineering studies to plant operator training using the newly developed TREAT SIMULATOR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the TREAT program and potential applications. Special emphasis will be drawn at a plant specific training application performed for a French 4-loop plant

  7. DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING – EFFICIENT TOOL FOR POWER SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMO A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper isfocusing on dynamic programming use for power system expansion planning (EP – transmission network (TNEP and distribution network (DNEP. The EP problem has been approached from the retrospective and prospective point of view. To achieve this goal, the authors are developing two software-tools in Matlab environment. Two techniques have been tackled: particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA. The case study refers to Test 25 buses test power system developed within the Power Systems Department.

  8. Artificial intelligence tool development and applications to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel efforts are being performed at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to help the electric utility industry take advantage of the expert system technology. The first effort is the development of expert system building tools, which are tailored to electric utility industry applications. The second effort is the development of expert system applications. These two efforts complement each other. The application development tests the tools and identifies additional tool capabilities that are required. The tool development helps define the applications that can be successfully developed. Artificial intelligence, as demonstrated by the developments described is being established as a credible technological tool for the electric utility industry. The challenge to transferring artificial intelligence technology and an understanding of its potential to the electric utility industry is to gain an understanding of the problems that reduce power plant performance and identify which can be successfully addressed using artificial intelligence

  9. Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric G.; Chang, George W.; Chen, Fannie C.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) simulates a spacecraft power subsystem including the power source (solar array and/or radioisotope thermoelectric generator), bus-voltage control, secondary battery (lithium-ion or nickel-hydrogen), thermostatic heaters, and power-consuming equipment. It handles multiple mission types including heliocentric orbiters, planetary orbiters, and surface operations. Being parametrically driven along with its user-programmable features can reduce or even eliminate any need for software modifications when configuring it for a particular spacecraft. It provides multiple levels of fidelity, thereby fulfilling the vast majority of a project s power simulation needs throughout the lifecycle. It can operate in a stand-alone mode with a graphical user interface, in batch mode, or as a library linked with other tools. This software can simulate all major aspects of a spacecraft power subsystem. It is parametrically driven to reduce or eliminate the need for a programmer. Added flexibility is provided through user-designed state models and table-driven parameters. MMPAT is designed to be used by a variety of users, such as power subsystem engineers for sizing power subsystem components; mission planners for adjusting mission scenarios using power profiles generated by the model; system engineers for performing system- level trade studies using the results of the model during the early design phases of a spacecraft; and operations personnel for high-fidelity modeling of the essential power aspect of the planning picture.

  10. ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index for water vapor transport: A forecast tool for atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David S.; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-11-01

    In winter, heavy precipitation and floods along the west coasts of midlatitude continents are largely caused by intense water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) within the atmospheric river of extratropical cyclones. This study builds on previous findings that showed that forecasts of IVT have higher predictability than precipitation, by applying and evaluating the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT in ensemble forecasts during three winters across Europe. We show that the IVT EFI is more able (than the precipitation EFI) to capture extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase; conversely, the precipitation EFI is better during the negative NAO phase and at shorter leads. An IVT EFI example for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlights its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes, which may prove useful to the user and forecasting communities.

  11. Development and content validation of the power mobility training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Cain, Brett; King, Emily; VandenBerg, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This paper outlines the development and content validation of the power mobility training tool (PMTT), an observational tool designed to assist therapists in developing power mobility training programs for children who have multiple, severe impairments. Initial items on the PMTT were developed based on a literature review and in consultation with therapists experienced in the use of power mobility. Items were trialled in clinical settings, reviewed, and refined. Items were then operationalized and an administration manual detailing scoring for each item was created. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to establish content validity via a 15 member, international expert panel. The content validity ratio (CVR) was determined for each possible item. Of the 19 original items, 10 achieved minimum required CVR values and were included in the final version of the PMTT. Items related to manoeuvring a power mobility device were merged and an item related to the number of switches used concurrently to operate a power mobility device were added to the PMTT. The PMTT may assist therapists in developing training programs that facilitate the acquisition of beginning power mobility skills in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation The Power Mobility Training Tool (PMTT) was developed to help guide the development of power mobility intervention programs for children who have multiple, severe impairments. The PMTT can be used with children who access a power mobility device using either a joystick or a switch. Therapists who have limited experience with power mobility may find the PMTT to be helpful in setting up and conducting power mobility training interventions as a feasible aspect of a plan of care for children who have multiple, severe impairments.

  12. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  13. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  14. Changes in lower extremity movement and power absorption during forefoot striking and barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D S Blaise; Green, Douglas H; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3-dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as compared to the knee.

  15. Computational tool for simulation of power and refrigeration cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Tuta, E.; Reyes Orozco, M.

    2016-07-01

    Small improvement in thermal efficiency of power cycles brings huge cost savings in the production of electricity, for that reason have a tool for simulation of power cycles allows modeling the optimal changes for a best performance. There is also a big boom in research Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), which aims to get electricity at low power through cogeneration, in which the working fluid is usually a refrigerant. A tool to design the elements of an ORC cycle and the selection of the working fluid would be helpful, because sources of heat from cogeneration are very different and in each case would be a custom design. In this work the development of a multiplatform software for the simulation of power cycles and refrigeration, which was implemented in the C ++ language and includes a graphical interface which was developed using multiplatform environment Qt and runs on operating systems Windows and Linux. The tool allows the design of custom power cycles, selection the type of fluid (thermodynamic properties are calculated through CoolProp library), calculate the plant efficiency, identify the fractions of flow in each branch and finally generates a report very educational in pdf format via the LaTeX tool.

  16. Solar PV Power Forecasting Using Extreme Learning Machine and Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre , Hélène; Aravena , Ignacio; Papavasiliou , Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the ag-gregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, to evaluate ...

  17. Solar PV power forecasting using extreme machine learning and experts advice fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre, Hélène; Aravena Solís, Ignacio Andrés; Papavasiliou, Anthony; European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning

    2015-01-01

    We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the aggregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, to evaluate the algorithm performance...

  18. WPPT, a tool for on-line wind power prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov Nielsen, T. [Dept. of Mathematical Modelling (IMM-DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Madsen, H. [Dept. of Mathematical Modelling (IMM-DTU) Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Toefting, J. [Elsam, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    This paper dsecribes VPPT (Wind Power Prediction Tool), an application for assessing the future available wind power up to 36 hours ahead in time. WPPT has been installed in the Eltra/Elsam central dispatch center since October 1997. The paper describes the prediction model used, the actual implementation of WPPT as well as the experience gained by the operators in the dispatch center (au)

  19. Tools used by the insurance industry to assess risk from hydroclimatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephanie; McMullan, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Probabilistic catastrophe models are widely used within the insurance industry to assess and price the risk of natural hazards to individual residences through to portfolios of millions of properties. Over the relatively short period that catastrophe models have been available (almost 30 years), the insurance industry has built up a financial resilience to key natural hazards in certain areas (e.g. US tropical cyclone, European extra-tropical cyclone and flood). However, due the rapidly expanding global population and increase in wealth, together with uncertainties in the behaviour of meteorological phenomena introduced by climate change, the domain in which natural hazards impact society is growing. As a result, the insurance industry faces new challenges in assessing the risk and uncertainty from natural hazards. As a catastrophe modelling company, AIR Worldwide has a toolbox of options available to help the insurance industry assess extreme climatic events and their associated uncertainty. Here we discuss several of these tools: from helping analysts understand how uncertainty is inherently built in to probabilistic catastrophe models, to understanding alternative stochastic catalogs for tropical cyclone based on climate conditioning. Through the use of stochastic extreme disaster events such as those provided through AIR's catalogs or through the Lloyds of London marketplace (RDS's) to provide useful benchmarks for the loss probability exceedence and tail-at-risk metrics outputted from catastrophe models; to the visualisation of 1000+ year event footprints and hazard intensity maps. Ultimately the increased transparency of catastrophe models and flexibility of a software platform that allows for customisation of modelled and non-modelled risks will drive a greater understanding of extreme hydroclimatic events within the insurance industry.

  20. Decision-support tools for Extreme Weather and Climate Events in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Lowery, M.; Whelchel, A.

    2013-12-01

    Decision-support tools were assessed for the 2013 National Climate Assessment technical input document, "Climate Change in the Northeast, A Sourcebook". The assessment included tools designed to generate and deliver actionable information to assist states and highly populated urban and other communities in assessment of climate change vulnerability and risk, quantification of effects, and identification of adaptive strategies in the context of adaptation planning across inter-annual, seasonal and multi-decadal time scales. State-level adaptation planning in the Northeast has generally relied on qualitative vulnerability assessments by expert panels and stakeholders, although some states have undertaken initiatives to develop statewide databases to support vulnerability assessments by urban and local governments, and state agencies. The devastation caused by Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 has raised awareness of the potential for extreme weather events to unprecedented levels and created urgency for action, especially in coastal urban and suburban communities that experienced pronounced impacts - especially in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. Planning approaches vary, but any adaptation and resiliency planning process must include the following: - Knowledge of the probable change in a climate variable (e.g., precipitation, temperature, sea-level rise) over time or that the climate variable will attain a certain threshold deemed to be significant; - Knowledge of intensity and frequency of climate hazards (past, current or future events or conditions with potential to cause harm) and their relationship with climate variables; - Assessment of climate vulnerabilities (sensitive resources, infrastructure or populations exposed to climate-related hazards); - Assessment of relative risks to vulnerable resources; - Identification and prioritization of adaptive strategies to address risks. Many organizations are developing decision-support tools to assist in the urban

  1. Randomized Controlled Trials: The Most Powerful Tool In Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be said to be one of the simplest but most powerful tool of research. It is the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment. Through the randomization, bias will be avoided ...

  2. Bildung as a Powerful Tool in Modern University Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Mogens Noergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how powerful "Bildung" is as a tool in modern university teaching. The concept of "Bildung" was originally introduced by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (Kant 1787, 1798, 1804) and the Prussian lawyer and politician Wilhelm von Humboldt (Humboldt 1792, Bohlin 2008). From 1810…

  3. Introducing AC Inductive Reactance with a Power Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance…

  4. Your School's Web Site-A Powerful Tool for Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Michael W.; Collier, Karen J.; Hoya, Charlotte, G.

    2001-01-01

    A successful marketing plan requires a conceptual framework, the ability to target an audience effectively, and the strategy for positioning the school organization appropriately. A website can be a powerful marketing tool if it focuses on what users want and provides it in an organized, accessible fashion. (MLH)

  5. EnergiTools(R) - a power plant performance monitoring and diagnosis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancion, P.V.; Bastien, R.; Ringdahl, K.

    2000-01-01

    Westinghouse EnergiTools(R) is a performance diagnostic tool for power generation plants that combines the power of on-line process data acquisition with advanced diagnostics methodologies. The system uses analytical models based on thermodynamic principles combined with knowledge of component diagnostic experts. An issue in modeling expert knowledge is to have a framework that can represent and process uncertainty in complex systems. In such experiments, it is nearly impossible to build deterministic models for the effects of faults on symptoms. A methodology based on causal probabilistic graphs, more specifically on Bayesian belief networks, has been implemented in EnergiTools(R) to capture the fault-symptom relationships. The methodology estimates the likelihood of the various component failures using the fault-symptom relationships. The system also has the ability to use neural networks for processes that are difficult to model analytically. An application is the estimation of the reactor power in nuclear power plant by interpreting several plant indicators. EnergiTools(R) is used for the on-line performance monitoring and diagnostics at Vattenfall Ringhals nuclear power plants in Sweden. It has led to the diagnosis of various performance issues with plant components. Two case studies are presented. In the first case, an overestimate of the thermal power due to a faulty instrument was found, which led to a plant operation below its optimal power. The paper shows how the problem was discovered, using the analytical thermodynamic calculations. The second case shows an application of EnergiTools(R) for the diagnostic of a condenser failure using causal probabilistic graphs

  6. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  7. Using PROGUMBEL to predict extreme external hazards during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diburg, S.; Hoelscher, N.; Niemann, H.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Safety considerations concerning the construction of power plants, supporting structure planning, safety concept and structural design require reliable data on external events, their incidence probability and characteristic parameters. The basis for supporting structure calculations based on probabilistic reliability considerations is the knowledge on the statistical distribution or the incidence frequency of specific phenomena and their characteristic basic variables. The extreme value statistics software PRO GUMBEL is the extended version of the original GUMBEL software used for seismic assessments. The authors describe the features of the software, that covers seismic events, flooding and extreme storms.

  8. Solar photovoltaic power forecasting using optimized modified extreme learning machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoja Kumar Behera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of photovoltaic power is a significant research area using different forecasting techniques mitigating the effects of the uncertainty of the photovoltaic generation. Increasingly high penetration level of photovoltaic (PV generation arises in smart grid and microgrid concept. Solar source is irregular in nature as a result PV power is intermittent and is highly dependent on irradiance, temperature level and other atmospheric parameters. Large scale photovoltaic generation and penetration to the conventional power system introduces the significant challenges to microgrid a smart grid energy management. It is very critical to do exact forecasting of solar power/irradiance in order to secure the economic operation of the microgrid and smart grid. In this paper an extreme learning machine (ELM technique is used for PV power forecasting of a real time model whose location is given in the Table 1. Here the model is associated with the incremental conductance (IC maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique that is based on proportional integral (PI controller which is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. To train single layer feed-forward network (SLFN, ELM algorithm is implemented whose weights are updated by different particle swarm optimization (PSO techniques and their performance are compared with existing models like back propagation (BP forecasting model. Keywords: PV array, Extreme learning machine, Maximum power point tracking, Particle swarm optimization, Craziness particle swarm optimization, Accelerate particle swarm optimization, Single layer feed-forward network

  9. Application of extreme value distribution function in the determination of standard meteorological parameters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haimei; Liu Xinjian; Qiu Lin; Li Fengju

    2014-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data from weather stations around several domestic nuclear power plants, the statistical results of extreme minimum temperatures, minimum. central pressures of tropical cyclones and some other parameters are calculated using extreme value I distribution function (EV- I), generalized extreme value distribution function (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution function (GP), respectively. The influence of different distribution functions and parameter solution methods on the statistical results of extreme values is investigated. Results indicate that generalized extreme value function has better applicability than the other two distribution functions in the determination of standard meteorological parameters for nuclear power plants. (authors)

  10. Windows Developer Power Tools Turbocharge Windows development with more than 170 free and open source tools

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, James

    2007-01-01

    Software developers need to work harder and harder to bring value to their development process in order to build high quality applications and remain competitive. Developers can accomplish this by improving their productivity, quickly solving problems, and writing better code. A wealth of open source and free software tools are available for developers who want to improve the way they create, build, deploy, and use software. Tools, components, and frameworks exist to help developers at every point in the development process. Windows Developer Power Tools offers an encyclopedic guide to m

  11. Methods and tools for analysis and optimization of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen

    2000-09-01

    The most noticeable advantage of the introduction of the computer-aided tools in the field of power generation, has been the ability to study the plant's performance prior to the construction phase. The results of these studies have made it possible to change and adjust the plant layout to match the pre-defined requirements. Further development of computers in recent years has opened up for implementation of new features in the existing tools and also for the development of new tools for specific applications, like thermodynamic and economic optimization, prediction of the remaining component life time, and fault diagnostics, resulting in improvement of the plant's performance, availability and reliability. The most common tools for pre-design studies are heat and mass balance programs. Further thermodynamic and economic optimization of plant layouts, generated by the heat and mass balance programs, can be accomplished by using pinch programs, exergy analysis and thermoeconomics. Surveillance and fault diagnostics of existing systems can be performed by using tools like condition monitoring systems and artificial neural networks. The increased number of tools and their various construction and application areas make the choice of the most adequate tool for a certain application difficult. In this thesis the development of different categories of tools and techniques, and their application area are reviewed and presented. Case studies on both existing and theoretical power plant layouts have been performed using different commercially available tools to illuminate their advantages and shortcomings. The development of power plant technology and the requirements for new tools and measurement systems have been briefly reviewed. This thesis contains also programming techniques and calculation methods concerning part-load calculations using local linearization, which has been implemented in an inhouse heat and mass balance program developed by the author

  12. Current summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of extreme load design criteria both as to rate and depth within any national jurisdiction as applied to nuclear power plant design is a function of several factors. The prime factor is the number of nuclear power plant facilities which are operating, under construction or planned in a given country. The second most important factor seems to be the degree of development of a domestic independent nuclear steam system supplier, NSSS vendor. Finally, countries whose domestic NSSS firms are active in the export market appear to have more active criteria development programs or at least they appear more visible to the foreign observer. For the purposes of this paper, extreme loads are defined as those loads having probability of occurence less than 10 -1 /yr and whose occurence could result in radiological consequences in excess of those permitted by national health standards. The specific loads considered include earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), airplane crash, detonation, and high energy system rupture. The paper identifies five national centers for extreme load criteria development; Canada, Great Britian, USA, USSR, and West Germany with both France and Japan also about to appear as independent centers of criteria development. Criteria under development by each national center are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  13. Risk management: A tool for improving nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This technical document on risk management as a tool for improving nuclear power plant (NPP) operations is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other reports developed through this project have identified overall strategies and techniques that NPP operating organization managers can use to succeed in more competitive energy markets. For example, in IAEA-TECDOC-1123, Strategies for Competitive Nuclear Power Plants, one of the most important strategies identified was integrated risk management. This publication provides a recommended structure for risk management along with examples of how NPP operating organizations are using this tool to help them integrate safety, operational and economic related risks in a changing business environment

  14. Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments Isik C. Kizilyalli (1), Robert J. Kaplar (2), O. Aktas (1), A. M. Armstrong (2...electronics applications. In this paper vertical p-n diodes and transistors fabricated on pseudo bulk low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) GaN substrates are...discussed. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and being able to control doping has allowed the realization of vertical

  15. Periodic table as a powerful tool for radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi; Osanai, Yuko; Uchiumi, Fumiko; Tsushima, Kazuko; Kamayachi, Tei; Kudo, Michiko

    2005-01-01

    The periodic tables ordinarily start with an element of atomic number 1, hydrogen. Hydrogen atoms, however, are derived from neutrons by way of β decay. Consequently, neutron should be located at a zero position of atomic number, which corresponds to the left side and above helium. A periodic table, especially with the zero position for neutron, is essential from present view of matter and serves as a powerful tool for radiation education. (author)

  16. Smartphones - a powerful Tool for Tourism. Romanian Travel Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Rusu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are an integral part of everyday life, and more people buy the latest technology, including tourists. Technology evolves at an exponential pace, smartphones are increasingly becoming an indispensable accessory and less a luxury item, like it might have been considered before. The smartphones are now a powerful tool for tourists and travelers, thanks to the mobile applications that help so much the independent travelers.

  17. Power-law scaling of extreme dynamics near higher-order exceptional points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Khajavikhan, M.; Makris, K. G.; El-Ganainy, R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extreme dynamics of non-Hermitian systems near higher-order exceptional points in photonic networks constructed using the bosonic algebra method. We show that strong power oscillations for certain initial conditions can occur as a result of the peculiar eigenspace geometry and its dimensionality collapse near these singularities. By using complementary numerical and analytical approaches, we show that, in the parity-time (PT ) phase near exceptional points, the logarithm of the maximum optical power amplification scales linearly with the order of the exceptional point. We focus in our discussion on photonic systems, but we note that our results apply to other physical systems as well.

  18. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  19. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  20. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  1. Extreme meteorological events in nuclear power plant siting, excluding tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the extremes of meteorological variables and the extreme meteorological phenomena in accordance with the general criteria of the Code. The Guide outlines a procedure based on the following steps: (1) The meteorological phenomena and variables are described and classified, according to their effects on safety. (2) Data sources are identified, and data are collected. (3) Meteorological variables such as air temperature are analysed to determine their design bases; and the design basis event in case of phenomena such as the design basis tornado is identified. (4) As appropriate, the design basis value for the variable, or the design basis for the phenomena (such as pressure drop and maximum wind speed of the design basis tornado), is defined. In the following sections, the general procedure for evaluating the design bases of extreme meteorological variables and phenomena is outlined. The procedure is then presented in detail for each variable or phenomenon considered. The variables characterizing the meteorological environment dealt with in this Guide are wind speed, atmospheric precipitation, and temperature. The extreme meteorological phenomena discussed here are the tornado and, briefly, the tropical cyclone, which is discussed more extensively in the Safety Guide on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B)

  2. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  3. A Learning Aid Tool for Power Electronics Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouketir

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that power electronics and its related subjects are not easy to understand for students taking them for first time. This is due to nature of the subjects which involve many areas and disciplines. The introduction of general purpose simulation package has helped the student a step further in understanding this subject. However, because of the generality of these tools and their drag-and drop and ad-hoc features, the students still face problems in designing a converter circuit. In this paper, the problem above is addressed by introducing a learning aid tool that guides the student over prescribed steps to design a power electronics circuit. The tool is knowledge-based system where its knowledge base encompasses two types of knowledge; topologies and switching devices. The first step in the design procedure is the selection of the application of the desired circuit. Then few steps are to be followed to come out with the appropriate topology with the optimum switching devices and parameters. System structure, its different modules and the detailed design procedure are explained in this paper

  4. Analysis of extreme hydrometric values in the nuclear power plants siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.R.; Maggio, G.E.; Tripoli, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The atucha nuclear power plants are located on the right shore of the Parana de las Palmas river in the entire transition between a fluvial regime and other of tides. Since the disponibility of cooling water is one of the factors to take into account when choosing the nuclear power plant site, it is essential to perform a probabilistic study of extreme hydrometric values. Deterministic and historical analysis should be done to complete the studies already mentioned, in order to establish the values of probable maximum floods. From the application of these methods, it is concluded that the site of the Atucha nuclear power plants constitutes a hydrometric singularity, so that, an optimization has been obtained from that point of view. (Author) [es

  5. Optimized Extreme Learning Machine for Power System Transient Stability Prediction Using Synchrophasors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized extreme learning machine- (ELM- based method for power system transient stability prediction (TSP using synchrophasors is presented in this paper. First, the input features symbolizing the transient stability of power systems are extracted from synchronized measurements. Then, an ELM classifier is employed to build the TSP model. And finally, the optimal parameters of the model are optimized by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The novelty of the proposal is in the fact that it improves the prediction performance of the ELM-based TSP model by using IPSO to optimize the parameters of the model with synchrophasors. And finally, based on the test results on both IEEE 39-bus system and a large-scale real power system, the correctness and validity of the presented approach are verified.

  6. Adequacy of current systems for monitoring extremity exposures at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.D.; Harty, R.

    1985-01-01

    In general, only a small portion of workers at commercial nuclear power plants are limited by extremity exposures, and these workers can be readily identified. There seems to be no need for increased badging among the radiation workers. However, those workers who are extremity limited may not be receiving adequate dosimetry. For workers handling compact sources, unless contrary information is available, the tip of the thumb of the dominant hand can be assumed to be the limiting site, and dose to the thumb tip averaged over one square centimeter at the basal layer of the skin should be measured or estimated. As discussed briefly in this paper, the assessment of dose in high gradient fields can be a difficult task. The particular dosimeter studied is a band-aid type composed of a thermoluminescent material embedded in a carbon matrix under 4 mils of plastic. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed

  7. Study on extreme high temperature of cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fan; Jiang Ziying

    2012-01-01

    In order to protect aquatic life from the harmful effects of thermal discharge, the appropriate water temperature limits or the scope of the mixing zone is a key issue in the regulatory control of the environmental impact of thermal discharge. Based on the sea surface temperature in the Chinese coastal waters, the extreme value of the seawater temperature change was analyzed by using the Gumbel model. The limit of the design temperature rise of cooling water in the outfall is 9 ℃, and the limit of the temperature rise of cooling water in the edge of the mixing zone is 4 ℃. The extreme high temperature of the cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant is 37 ℃ in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and is 40 ℃ in East China Sea, South China Sea. (authors)

  8. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  9. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is

  10. Design of a Power Tool Attachment for Sawing Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Appaiah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Design of a Power Tool Attachment for Sawing Operation is discussed. First, the Target Specifications are established. The Design work is carried out, especially that of the Main Shaft and Support Tube. Calculations and Finite Element Analysis (FEA are also done. The Prototype is fabricated and assembled. The Testing of the prototype is done, by Sawing commercial plywood of maximum thickness 25mm. Weight of the Attachment is 1.3 kg, and the Machine is easy to use, benefitting unskilled users.

  11. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  12. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  13. Assessing functional mobility in survivors of lower-extremity sarcoma: reliability and validity of a new assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Victoria G; Rai, Shesh N; Carlson, Claire A; Hinds, Pamela S; Spearing, Elena M; Zhang, Lijun; Callaway, Lulie; Neel, Michael D; Rao, Bhaskar N; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2007-08-01

    Reliability and validity of a new tool, Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA), were examined in patients with lower-extremity sarcoma. FMA requires the patients to physically perform the functional mobility measures, unlike patient self-report or clinician administered measures. A sample of 114 subjects participated, 20 healthy volunteers and 94 patients with lower-extremity sarcoma after amputation, limb-sparing, or rotationplasty surgery. Reliability of the FMA was examined by three raters testing 20 healthy volunteers and 23 subjects with lower-extremity sarcoma. Concurrent validity was examined using data from 94 subjects with lower-extremity sarcoma who completed the FMA, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), Short-Form 36 (SF-36v2), and Toronto Extremity Salvage Scale (TESS) scores. Construct validity was measured by the ability of the FMA to discriminate between subjects with and without functional mobility deficits. FMA demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC [2,1] >or=0.97). Moderate correlations were found between FMA and SF-36v2 (r = 0.60, P < 0.01), FMA and MSTS (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), and FMA and TESS (r = 0.62, P < 0.01). The patients with lower-extremity sarcoma scored lower on the FMA as compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). The FMA is a reliable and valid functional outcome measure for patients with lower-extremity sarcoma. This study supports the ability of the FMA to discriminate between patients with varying functional abilities and supports the need to include measures of objective functional mobility in examination of patients with lower-extremity sarcoma.

  14. New tool for integration of wind power forecasting into power system operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubina, Andrej F.; Keane, Andrew; Meibom, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology that has been developed for transmission system operators (TSOs) of Republic of Ireland, Eirgrid, and Northern Ireland, SONI the TSO in Northern Ireland, to study the effects of advanced wind power forecasting on optimal short-term power system scheduling....... The resulting schedules take into account the electricity market conditions and feature optimal reserve scheduling. The short-term wind power prediction is provided by the Anemos tool, and the scheduling function, including the reserve optimisation, by the Wilmar tool. The proposed methodology allows...... for evaluation of the impacts that different types of wind energy forecasts (stochastic vs. deterministic vs. perfect) have on the schedules, and how the new incoming information via in-day scheduling impacts the quality of the schedules. Within the methodology, metrics to assess the quality of the schedules...

  15. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D

    1976-04-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria.

  16. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria. (Auth.)

  17. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  18. Financial tools to induce cooperation in power asymmetrical water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2017-04-01

    In multi-purpose water systems, power asymmetry is often responsible of inefficient and inequitable water allocations. Climate Change and anthropogenic pressure are expected to exacerbate such disparities at the expense of already disadvantaged groups. The intervention of a third party, charged with redefining water sharing policies to give greater consideration to equity and social justice, may be desirable. Nevertheless, to be accepted by private actors, this interposition should be coupled with some form of compensation. For a public agency, compensation measures may be burdensome, especially when the allowance is triggered by natural events whose timing and magnitude are subject to uncertainty. In this context, index based insurance contracts may represent a viable alternative option and reduce the cost of achieving socially desirable outcomes. In this study we explore soft measures to achieve global change mitigation by designing a hybrid coordination mechanism composed of i) a direct normative constraint and ii) an indirect financial compensatory tool. The performance of an index-based insurance (i.e. hedging) contract to be used as a compensation tool is evaluated relative to more traditional alternatives. First, the performance of the status quo system, or baseline (BL), is contrasted to an idealized scenario in which a central planner (CP) maximizes global efficiency. Then, the CP management is analyzed in order to identify an efficient water rights redistribution to be legally imposed on the advantaged stakeholders in the BL scenario. Finally, a hedging contract is designed to compensate those stakeholders more negatively affected by the legal constraint. The approach is demonstrated on a multi-purpose water system in Italy, where different decision makers individually manage the same resource. The system is characterized by a manifest power asymmetry: the upstream users, i.e., hydropower companies, are free to release their stored water in time

  19. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Carolynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome, upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049, regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03. Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03. MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05. Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p p

  20. Engineering of Impulse Mechanism for Mechanical Hander Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich Drozdov, Anatoliy

    2018-03-01

    The solution to the problem of human security in cities should be considered on the basis of an integrated and multidisciplinary approach, including issues of security and ecology in the application of technical means used to ensure the viability and development of technocracy. In this regard, an important task is the creation of a safe technique with improved environmental properties with high technological characteristics. This primarily relates to mechanised tool — the division of technological machines with built in engines is that their weight is fully or partially perceived by the operator’s hands, making the flow and control of the car. For this subclass of machines is characterized by certain features: a built-in motor, perception of at least part of their weight by the operator during the work, the implementation of feeding and management at the expense of the muscular power of the operator. Therefore, among the commonly accepted technical and economic characteristics, machines in this case, important ergonomic (ergonomics), regulation of levels which ensures the safety of the operator. To ergonomics include vibration, noise characteristics, mass, and force feeding machine operator. Vibration is a consequence of the dynamism of the system operator machine - processed object (environment) in which the engine energy is redistributed among all the structures, causing their instability. In the machine vibration caused by technological and constructive (transformative mechanisms) unbalance of individual parts of the drive, the presence of technological and design (impact mechanisms) clearances and other reasons. This article describes a new design of impulse mechanism for hander power tools (wrenches, screwdrivers) with enhanced torque. The article substantiates a simulation model of dynamic compression process in an operating chamber during impact, provides simulation results and outlines further lines of research.

  1. A vulnerability tool for adapting water and aquatic resources to climate change and extremes on the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J.; Joyce, L. A.; Armel, B.; Bevenger, G.; Zubic, R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change introduces a significant challenge for land managers and decision makers managing the natural resources that provide many benefits from forests. These benefits include water for urban and agricultural uses, wildlife habitat, erosion and climate control, aquifer recharge, stream flows regulation, water temperature regulation, and cultural services such as outdoor recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. The Forest Service has responded to this challenge by developing a national strategy for responding to climate change (the National Roadmap for Responding to Climate Change, July 2010). In concert with this national strategy, the Forest Service's Westwide Climate Initiative has conducted 4 case studies on individual Forests in the western U.S to develop climate adaptation tools. Western National Forests are particularly vulnerable to climate change as they have high-mountain topography, diversity in climate and vegetation, large areas of water limited ecosystems, and increasing urbanization. Information about the vulnerability and capacity of resources to adapt to climate change and extremes is lacking. There is an urgent need to provide customized tools and synthesized local scale information about the impacts to resources from future climate change and extremes, as well as develop science based adaptation options and strategies in National Forest management and planning. The case study on the Shoshone National Forest has aligned its objectives with management needs by developing a climate extreme vulnerability tool that guides adaptation options development. The vulnerability tool determines the likely degree to which native Yellowstone cutthroat trout and water availability are susceptible to, or unable to cope with adverse effects of climate change extremes. We spatially categorize vulnerability for water and native trout resources using exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicators that use minimum and maximum climate and GIS data. Results

  2. 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE). Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER 201326

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    USER GUIDE 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in...Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER-201326 OCTOBER 2017 Rob Hinchee Integrated Science...Technology, Inc. 1509 Coastal Highway Panacea, FL 32346 8/8/2013 - 8/8/2018 10-2017 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening

  3. A Tool for Rating the Resilience of Critical Infrastructures in Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for Structural Steel - Efectis Nederland Report – 2008-Efectis-R0695, Fire Testing Procedure for Concrete...extreme fire conditions such as ASTM E1529 [5], NFPA 502 [8], UL 1709 [4] and Efectis Nederland BV report [9]. One of the critical features of a

  4. An Extreme Meteorological Events Analysis For Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Siting Project at Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiadi, Deni; S, Yarianto Sugeng B.; Sriyana; Anzhar, Kurnia; Suntoko, Hadi

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of meteorological phenomena in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) area of interest are identified and the extreme values of the possible resulting hazards associated which such phenomena are evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the NPP. The appropriate design bases shall be determined according to the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (Bapeten) applicable regulations, which presently do not indicate quantitative criteria for purposes of determining the design bases for meteorological hazards. These meteorological investigations are also carried out to evaluate the regional and site specific meteorological parameters which affect the transport and dispersion of radioactive effluents on the environment of the region around the NPP site. The meteorological hazards are to be monitored and assessed periodically over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained throughout the full lifetime of the facility.

  5. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  6. Extremal edges: a powerful cue to depth perception and figure-ground organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Ghose, Tandra

    2008-01-01

    Extremal edges (EEs) are projections of viewpoint-specific horizons of self-occlusion on smooth convex surfaces. An ecological analysis of viewpoint constraints suggests that an EE surface is likely to be closer to the observer than the non-EE surface on the other side of the edge. In two experiments, one using shading gradients and the other using texture gradients, we demonstrated that EEs operate as strong cues to relative depth perception and figure-ground organization. Image regions with an EE along the shared border were overwhelmingly perceived as closer than either flat or equally convex surfaces without an EE along that border. A further demonstration suggests that EEs are more powerful than classical figure-ground cues, including even the joint effects of small size, convexity, and surroundedness.

  7. Powered mobility intervention: understanding the position of tool use learning as part of implementing the ALP tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Durkin, Josephine

    2017-10-01

    To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature. A core category learning tool use and a new theory of cognizing tool use, with its interdependent properties: motivation, confidence, permissiveness, attentiveness and co-construction has emerged which explains in greater depth what enables the application of the ALP tool. The scientific knowledge base on tool use learning and the new theory conveys the information necessary for practitioner's cognizing how to apply the learning approach of the ALP tool in order to enable tool use learning through powered mobility practice as a therapeutic intervention in its own right. This opens up the possibility for more children and adults to have access to learning through powered mobility practice. Implications for rehabilitation Tool use learning through powered mobility practice is a therapeutic intervention in its own right. Powered mobility practice can be used as a rehabilitation tool with individuals who may not need to become powered wheelchair users. Motivation, confidence, permissiveness, attentiveness and co-construction are key properties for enabling the application of the learning approach of the ALP tool. Labelling and the use of language, together with honing observational skills through viewing video footage, are key to developing successful learning partnerships.

  8. Undersampling power-law size distributions: effect on the assessment of extreme natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of undersampling on estimating the size of extreme natural hazards from historical data is examined. Tests using synthetic catalogs indicate that the tail of an empirical size distribution sampled from a pure Pareto probability distribution can range from having one-to-several unusually large events to appearing depleted, relative to the parent distribution. Both of these effects are artifacts caused by limited catalog length. It is more difficult to diagnose the artificially depleted empirical distributions, since one expects that a pure Pareto distribution is physically limited in some way. Using maximum likelihood methods and the method of moments, we estimate the power-law exponent and the corner size parameter of tapered Pareto distributions for several natural hazard examples: tsunamis, floods, and earthquakes. Each of these examples has varying catalog lengths and measurement thresholds, relative to the largest event sizes. In many cases where there are only several orders of magnitude between the measurement threshold and the largest events, joint two-parameter estimation techniques are necessary to account for estimation dependence between the power-law scaling exponent and the corner size parameter. Results indicate that whereas the corner size parameter of a tapered Pareto distribution can be estimated, its upper confidence bound cannot be determined and the estimate itself is often unstable with time. Correspondingly, one cannot statistically reject a pure Pareto null hypothesis using natural hazard catalog data. Although physical limits to the hazard source size and by attenuation mechanisms from source to site constrain the maximum hazard size, historical data alone often cannot reliably determine the corner size parameter. Probabilistic assessments incorporating theoretical constraints on source size and propagation effects are preferred over deterministic assessments of extreme natural hazards based on historic data.

  9. Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this project is model-based design (MBD) tools for predicting the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and...

  10. Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this Phase I project is to prove the feasibility of using model-based design (MBD) tools to predict the performance and useful life of...

  11. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, repairs or work involving welding or burning, or the use of power-actuated tools or appliances which may...

  12. Tools and tool application for the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Brennilis in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienia, Harald; Welbers, Philipp; Krueger, Peter; Noll, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The EL-4 reactor in the NPP Brennilis in France is a CO2 cooled heavy water moderated test reactor with net power of 70 MW, the reactor started operation in 1967 and was decommissioned in 1985. Due to the construction features it was not necessary to enter the reactor area during operation, therefore the reactor pressure vessel and the surrounding piping systems are built in a very compact way. The dismantling procedures are therefore different from German BWR or PWR systems, the remote cutting and handling tools have to be adapted to the different features. Because of the high local dosage rate in the reactor hall it is also necessary to perform the erection of the dismantling equipment by robot systems. For cutting of the piping system a new plasma cutting technique, the hot wire method will be used. Other mechanical cutting techniques have to be used for instance for zircaloy containing components due to fire prevention purposes. The required time for tool and manipulator changes, including wearing part replacements constitute a significant part of the dismantling schedule. The suction/exhaust system for radioactive dust removal allowed a reduction of the total personal dose by one third of the allowed dose.

  13. Relativistic electron-atom scattering in an extremely powerful laser field: Relevance of spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, P.; Kaminski, J.Z.; Ehlotzky, F.

    2002-01-01

    We reconsider the relativistic scattering of electrons by an atom, being approximated by a static potential, in an extremely powerful electromagnetic plane wave of frequency ω and linear polarization ε. Since to a first order of approximation spin effects can be neglected, we first describe the scattered electron by the Gordon solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. Then we investigate the same scattering process by including the spin effects, using for the electron the Volkov solution of the Dirac equation. For sufficiently energetic electrons, the first-order Born approximation can be employed to represent the corresponding scattering matrix element. We compare the results of the differential cross sections of induced and inverse bremsstrahlung, evaluated from both approximations, for various parameter values and angular configurations and we find that in most cases the spin effects are marginal, even at very high laser power. On the other hand, we recover the various asymmetries in the angular distributions of the scattered electrons and their respective energies due to the laser-induced drift motion of the electrons in the direction of propagation of the radiation field, thus confirming the findings of our previous work [Phys. Rev. A 59, 2105 (1999); Laser Physics 10, 163 (2000)

  14. Spacetime algebra as a powerful tool for electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, Justin, E-mail: prof.justin.dressel@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bliokh, Konstantin Y. [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Theoretical Science Research Group (iTHES), RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-08

    We present a comprehensive introduction to spacetime algebra that emphasizes its practicality and power as a tool for the study of electromagnetism. We carefully develop this natural (Clifford) algebra of the Minkowski spacetime geometry, with a particular focus on its intrinsic (and often overlooked) complex structure. Notably, the scalar imaginary that appears throughout the electromagnetic theory properly corresponds to the unit 4-volume of spacetime itself, and thus has physical meaning. The electric and magnetic fields are combined into a single complex and frame-independent bivector field, which generalizes the Riemann–Silberstein complex vector that has recently resurfaced in studies of the single photon wavefunction. The complex structure of spacetime also underpins the emergence of electromagnetic waves, circular polarizations, the normal variables for canonical quantization, the distinction between electric and magnetic charge, complex spinor representations of Lorentz transformations, and the dual (electric–magnetic field exchange) symmetry that produces helicity conservation in vacuum fields. This latter symmetry manifests as an arbitrary global phase of the complex field, motivating the use of a complex vector potential, along with an associated transverse and gauge-invariant bivector potential, as well as complex (bivector and scalar) Hertz potentials. Our detailed treatment aims to encourage the use of spacetime algebra as a readily available and mature extension to existing vector calculus and tensor methods that can greatly simplify the analysis of fundamentally relativistic objects like the electromagnetic field.

  15. Spacetime algebra as a powerful tool for electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2015-08-01

    We present a comprehensive introduction to spacetime algebra that emphasizes its practicality and power as a tool for the study of electromagnetism. We carefully develop this natural (Clifford) algebra of the Minkowski spacetime geometry, with a particular focus on its intrinsic (and often overlooked) complex structure. Notably, the scalar imaginary that appears throughout the electromagnetic theory properly corresponds to the unit 4-volume of spacetime itself, and thus has physical meaning. The electric and magnetic fields are combined into a single complex and frame-independent bivector field, which generalizes the Riemann-Silberstein complex vector that has recently resurfaced in studies of the single photon wavefunction. The complex structure of spacetime also underpins the emergence of electromagnetic waves, circular polarizations, the normal variables for canonical quantization, the distinction between electric and magnetic charge, complex spinor representations of Lorentz transformations, and the dual (electric-magnetic field exchange) symmetry that produces helicity conservation in vacuum fields. This latter symmetry manifests as an arbitrary global phase of the complex field, motivating the use of a complex vector potential, along with an associated transverse and gauge-invariant bivector potential, as well as complex (bivector and scalar) Hertz potentials. Our detailed treatment aims to encourage the use of spacetime algebra as a readily available and mature extension to existing vector calculus and tensor methods that can greatly simplify the analysis of fundamentally relativistic objects like the electromagnetic field.

  16. The entropy concept. A powerful tool for multiphase flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2007-01-01

    This work summarizes the system of partial differential equations describing multiphase, multi-component flows in arbitrary geometry including porous structures with arbitrary thermal and mechanical interactions among the fields and between each field and the structure. Each of the fluids is designed as a universal mixture of miscible and immiscible component. The system contains the rigorously derived entropy equations which are used instead of the primitive form of the energy conservation. Based on well established mathematical theorems the equations are local volume and time averaged. The so called volume conservation equation allowing establishing close coupling between pressure and density changes of all of the participating velocity fields is presented. It replaces one of the mass conservation equations. The system is solved within the computer code system IVA together with large number of constitutive relationships for closing it in arbitrary geometry. The extensive validation on many hundreds of simple- and complex experiments, including the many industrial applications, demonstrates the versatility and the power of this analytical tool for designing complex processes in the industry and analyzing complex processes in the nature. (author)

  17. Extreme external events in the design and assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The analysis of feedback experience from the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the past 20 years shows few cases of degradation of the plant safety initiated by external events. However, when these have occurred, the consequences have been serious, involving challenges to the defence in depth of the plant. Part of the problem involves the definition of the design basis parameters for some scenarios and differences among regulators on the methods for the protection of operational NPPs in relation to external events. This results in different engineering practices in Member States for the siting and design of NPPs. In the framework of the present revision of the IAEA safety standards on siting and design of NPPs, many initiatives have been implemented by the IAEA in recent years aimed at a systematic analysis of engineering practices in Member States. The most recent event in this connection was a Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Structural Safety of NPPs in Relation to Extreme External Loads, organized with the specific objective of evaluating the state of the art of NPP design in relation to external events. Such an analysis provided a technical background for the development of a common technical basis for an integrated approach in site evaluation, design and operation in relation to extreme external events. The scope included new and existing plants, as they are required to meet the same general safety principles, in spite of their peculiarities. The objective of this publication is to provide a technical background to drive regulators, plant owners and designers in the definition of a consistent strategy in selected safety issues on site evaluation, design and operation in relation to extreme external events. This publication is also of support to the IAEA in the development of safety standards since many Safety Guides dealing with related topics are under periodic review. Four major tasks were identified to comply with these general objectives

  18. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time whil...

  19. Testing tool for software concerning nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulc'h, J.; Le Meur, M.; Collart, J.M.; Segalard, J.; Uberschlag, J.

    1984-11-01

    In the present case, softwares to be analyzed are all written in assembler language. This paper presents the study and the realization of a tool to analyze softwares which have an important role for nuclear reactor protection and sauvegarde: principles of the tool design, working principle, realization and evolution of dynamic analyze tool [fr

  20. Going Google: Powerful Tools for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covili, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Google is more than a search engine--it offers many tools that give people the opportunity to work virtually from anywhere, with anyone, at any time they choose. And these tools are available to teachers and students for free. This book for K-12 educators explores the wide array of Google tools and shows how to use them in the classroom to foster…

  1. Tool and its management for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Rui

    2000-01-01

    The tool and its management are a necessary part for the operation and maintenance of NPP.And NPP tool management is,in fact.a process of study, allocation, development, procurement, utilization, decontamination and scrap of the tools needed in the operation and outage, and also includes the organization, coordination and control of the whole process. NPP shall strengthen the scientific management of the process from procurement to scrap. According to its scale and characteristics, NPP may, implement unified and centralized management policy, establish necessary tool management organization, define the responsibilities of the management departments, make relevant management regulations and perfect tool quality assurance system to bring the tools into full play.Furthermore, the development and application of special management software provides a quite efficient means for the realization of scientific management of tools in NPP

  2. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period 1994-2001 at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Dole, M.L.; Nankar, D.P.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    In the design of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand such situations. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site for the period 1994 -2001 is described. The parameters considered are maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum wind speed and gust, and maximum rainfall in a month, in a day, in an hour and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that annual rainfall, maximum monthly rainfall, minimum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 10 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -1 distribution whereas maximum daily rainfall, maximum hourly rainfall, maxinlum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 30 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -2 distribution function. There is no difference in correlation coefficients and fit both extreme value distribution function. Co-efficients of the distribution functions for each variable are established. Extreme values of parameters corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are derived. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in and around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. (author)

  3. Extreme earthquake response of nuclear power plants isolated using sliding bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar@iitgn.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar 382355 (India); Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of a nuclear power plant (NPP) isolated using sliding bearings. • Two models of the NPP, five friction models and four seismic hazard levels considered. • Isolation system displacement can be obtained using a macro NPP model subjected to only horizontal ground motions. • Temperature dependence of friction should be considered in isolation-system displacement calculations. • The effect of friction model on floor spectral ordinates is rather small, especially near the basemat. - Abstract: Horizontal seismic isolation is a viable approach to mitigate risk to structures, systems and components (SSCs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ground shaking. This paper presents a study on an NPP seismically isolated using single concave Friction Pendulum™ (FP) bearings subjected to ground motions representing seismic hazard at two US sites: Diablo Canyon and Vogtle. Two models of the NPP, five models to describe friction at the sliding surface of the FP bearings, and four levels of ground shaking are considered for response-history analysis, which provide insight into the influence of 1) the required level of detail of an NPP model, 2) the vertical component of ground motion on response of isolated NPPs, and 3) the pressure-, temperature- and/or velocity-dependencies of the coefficient of friction, on the response of an isolated NPP. The isolation-system displacement of an NPP can be estimated using a macro model subjected to only the two orthogonal horizontal components of ground motion. The variation of the coefficient of friction with temperature at the sliding surface during earthquake shaking should be accounted for in the calculation of isolation-system displacements, particularly when the shaking intensity is high; pressure and velocity dependencies are not important. In-structure floor spectra should be computed using a detailed three-dimensional model of an isolated NPP subjected to all three components of

  4. Platelet-rich Preparation may serve as a Powerful Tool for Therapeutic Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hua Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regeneration of dental pulp tissues presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to their extremely poor intrinsic ability for self-healing and re-growth.The hypothesis: We hypothes-ize that patient-derived platelet-rich preparation can be used in clinical endodontic regenerative procedure, serving as a powerful tool for therapeutic dental pulp regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The cell transplantation does not always obtain the good result because of the low survival rate of transplanted cells. In addition, the use of ex vivo manipulated cell products faces many translational hurdles in treating non-vital disease. Recently, the body cells are focused as a potential source for therapeutics. Some researchers have demonstrated that endogenous stem cells may be recruited to a desired anatomic site pharma-cologically. This is spurring interest in developing new generation of biomaterials that incorporate and release selected powerful extracellular influences in a near-physiological fashion, and subsequently capture endogenous stem cells and influence their fates for regene-ration. The use of patient-derived products such as platelet-rich preparations that contain a multitude of endogenous growth factors and proteins is a clinically translatable biotechnology for this proposes. These simple and cost efficient procedures may have a potential impact in reducing the economic costs for standard medical treatments in regenerative endodontics.

  5. User-friendly tool for power flow analysis and distributed generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of power distribution companies (DISCOs) is to deliver electric power to their ... One major way to minimise power loss on a given power system is to install ... The accuracy and reliability of the developed tool was validated using ...

  6. Radiation Mitigation and Power Optimization Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Wang, Li; Larchev, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. In the second year of the project, design tools that leverage an established FPGA design environment have been created to visualize and analyze an FPGA circuit for radiation weaknesses and power inefficiencies. For radiation, a single event Upset (SEU) emulator, persistence analysis tool, and a half-latch removal tool for Xilinx/Virtex-II devices have been created. Research is underway on a persistence mitigation tool and multiple bit upsets (MBU) studies. For power, synthesis level dynamic power visualization and analysis tools have been completed. Power optimization tools are under development and preliminary test results are positive.

  7. Transient analysis of power systems solution techniques, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Velasco, J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  8. Advanced Design Tools for the Lifetime of Power Electronics – Study Case on Motor Drive Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Vernica, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    assessment of reliability performance for the power electronics is a crucial and emerging need, because it is the essential information for the reliability improvements, and thus reduction of the cost-of-energy. Unfortunately, there is still lack of suitable tools for the reliability assessment in power...... electronics. In this paper, an advanced design tool structure, which can acquire various reliability metrics of the power electronics, is proposed. The proposed design tool is based on the failure mechanisms in the critical components of the power electronics, and the mission profiles in the converter...

  9. On target : extreme engineering's tools used for fundamental and high-end drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2006-09-15

    Positioned at the bottom of the drillstring, measurement-while-drilling systems can discern the location of the drillbit and transmit information back to the surface in the form of pulses in the mud system. The technology is costly, time-consuming and provides a limited amount of information. This article presented details of new devices developed by Extreme Engineering Ltd. to communicate drillbit location information from the bottom of the well to the surface in real time. The XPulse is a mud pulse system with continuous directional measuring capacity that allows operators on location to perform fundamental directional drilling operations without using a technician to interpret data. Installed behind the drillbit, the device records azimuth and inclination when the bit is sitting idle. Inclination is measured using a set of 3 axis accelerometers, quartz crystal devices that are sensitive to the Earth's gravitational force. Azimuth is measured with a flux gate magnetometer that senses its orientation to the Earth's magnetic field. The 2 data are computed to give an orientation of the drillbit in three-dimensional space. Extreme Engineering Ltd. has also developed XAct, a new set of tools using acoustic telemetry to transmit data to the surface using piezo ceramic materials. The acoustic energy is transmitted up the steel drillpipe at the rate of 20 bits per second to the surface, where an electro acoustic receiver detects it. The rate is sufficient to transmit large amounts of geological and drilling information to the surface in real time. Designed for high-end applications, the new suite of tools has cost the company almost $30 million to develop. It was concluded that industry response to the new technologies has been positive. 4 figs.

  10. 29 CFR 1910.243 - Guarding of portable powered tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, garden appliances, household and kitchen appliances, personal... clearance between the wheel hole and the machine spindle (or wheel sleeves or adaptors) is essential to...

  11. Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of an optimal power flow (OPF) functions is to optimize .... It is characterized as propagation of plants and this happens by gametes union. ... ss and different variables, for example, wind, nearby fertilization can have a critic.

  12. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  13. Extreme triple asymmetric (ETAS) epitaxial designs for increased efficiency at high powers in 9xx-nm diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, T.; Erbert, G.; Maaßdorf, A.; Martin, D.; Crump, P.

    2018-02-01

    Broad area lasers that are tailored to be most efficient at the highest achievable optical output power are sought by industry to decrease operation costs and improve system performance. Devices using Extreme-Double-ASymmetric (EDAS) epitaxial designs are promising candidates for improved efficiency at high optical output powers due to low series resistance, low optical loss and low carrier leakage. However, EDAS designs leverage ultra-thin p-side waveguides, meaning that the optical mode is shifted into the n-side waveguide, resulting in a low optical confinement in the active region, low gain and hence high threshold current, limiting peak performance. We introduce here explicit design considerations that enable EDAS-based devices to be developed with increased optical confinement in the active layer without changing the p-side layer thicknesses. Specifically, this is realized by introducing a third asymmetric component in the vicinity of the quantum well. We call this approach Extreme-Triple-ASymmetric (ETAS) design. A series of ETAS-based vertical designs were fabricated into broad area lasers that deliver up to 63% power conversion efficiency at 14 W CW optical output power from a 100 μm stripe laser, which corresponds to the operation point of a kW optical output power in a laser bar. The design process, the impact of structural changes on power saturation mechanisms and finally devices with improved performance will be presented.

  14. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  15. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  16. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  17. Performance calculations for battery power supplies as laboratory research tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, J.J.; Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Petresky, H.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic Launcher (EML) research at the Air Force Armament Laboratory, Hypervelocity Launcher Branch (AFATL/SAH), Eglin AFB, has focused on developing the technologies required for repetitively launching several kilogram payloads to high velocities. Previous AFATL/SAH experiments have been limited by the available power supply resulting in small muzzle energies on the order of 100's of kJ. In an effort to advance the development of EML's, AFATL/SAH has designed and constructed a battery power supply (BPS) capable of providing several mega-Amperes of current for several seconds. This system consists of six modules each containing 2288 automotive batteries which may be connected in two different series - parallel arrangements. In this paper the authors define the electrical characteristics of the AFATL Battery Power supply at the component level

  18. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    years, with each year simulated with five random seeds, leading to a total of 25 annual wind power time series for six large offshore wind farms, summing up to a little over 330 wind turbines. Two storm control strategies were used. The analysis involved several aspects inspired from reliability studies....... The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production......Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five...

  19. Peripheral Nerve Function and Lower Extremity Muscle Power in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Faulkner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men.......To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men....

  20. Harmonic and power balance tools for tapping-mode atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, A.; Salapaka, M. V.; Chen, D. J.; Cleveland, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for investigating surfaces at atomic scales. Harmonic balance and power balance techniques are introduced to analyze the tapping-mode dynamics of the atomic force microscope. The harmonic balance perspective explains observations hitherto unexplained in the AFM literature. A nonconservative model for the cantilever - sample interaction is developed. The energy dissipation in the sample is studied and the resulting power balance equations combined with the harmonic balance equations are used to estimate the model parameters. Experimental results confirm that the harmonic and power balance tools can be used effectively to predict the behavior of the tapping cantilever. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS...

  2. SCREAMER: a single-line pulsed-power design tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, M.L.; Widner, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    SCREAMER is a special purpose circuit code developed as a design tool for single module accelerators. It is fast, accurate, flexible, and user-friendly. Its development was motivated by the excessive costs and long turn-around times incurred when using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code to perform simulations of circuits with large numbers of nodes and with nonlinear components. Comparable simulations between SCREAMER running on a VAX 11/780 and SCEPTRE running on a CRAY-1S show that turn-around times and costs can be two orders of magnitude lower when using SCREAMER

  3. SCREAMER - A single-line pulsed-power design tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, M.L.; Widner, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    SCREAMER is a special purpose circuit code developed as a design tool for single module accelerators. it is fast, accurate, flexible, and user-friendly. Its development was motivated by the excessive costs and long turn-around times incurred when using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code to perform simulations of circuits with large numbers of modes and with nonlinear components. Comparable simulations between SCREAMER running on a VAX 11/780 and SCEPTRE running on a CRAY-1S show that turn-around times and costs can be two orders of magnitude lower when using SCREAMER

  4. Evaluation of the moisture sources in two extreme landfalling atmospheric river events using an Eulerian WRF tracers tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras-Barca, Jorge; Dominguez, Francina; Hu, Huancui; Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-12-01

    A new 3-D tracer tool is coupled to the WRF model to analyze the origin of the moisture in two extreme atmospheric river (AR) events: the so-called Great Coastal Gale of 2007 in the Pacific Ocean and the Great Storm of 1987 in the North Atlantic. Results show that between 80 and 90 % of moisture advected by the ARs, and a high percentage of the total precipitation produced by the systems have a tropical origin. The tropical contribution to precipitation is in general above 50 % and largely exceeds this value in the most affected areas. Local convergence transport is responsible for the remaining moisture and precipitation. The ratio of tropical moisture to total moisture is maximized as the cold front arrives on land. Vertical cross sections of the moisture content suggest that the maximum in tropical humidity does not necessarily coincide with the low-level jet (LLJ) of the extratropical cyclone. Instead, the amount of tropical humidity is maximized in the lowest atmospheric level in southern latitudes and can be located above, below or ahead of the LLJ in northern latitudes in both analyzed cases.

  5. Evaluation of the moisture sources in two extreme landfalling atmospheric river events using an Eulerian WRF tracers tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eiras-Barca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new 3-D tracer tool is coupled to the WRF model to analyze the origin of the moisture in two extreme atmospheric river (AR events: the so-called Great Coastal Gale of 2007 in the Pacific Ocean and the Great Storm of 1987 in the North Atlantic. Results show that between 80 and 90 % of moisture advected by the ARs, and a high percentage of the total precipitation produced by the systems have a tropical origin. The tropical contribution to precipitation is in general above 50 % and largely exceeds this value in the most affected areas. Local convergence transport is responsible for the remaining moisture and precipitation. The ratio of tropical moisture to total moisture is maximized as the cold front arrives on land. Vertical cross sections of the moisture content suggest that the maximum in tropical humidity does not necessarily coincide with the low-level jet (LLJ of the extratropical cyclone. Instead, the amount of tropical humidity is maximized in the lowest atmospheric level in southern latitudes and can be located above, below or ahead of the LLJ in northern latitudes in both analyzed cases.

  6. Tools for monitoring and diagnosis of power Transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsi, H.; Gockenbach, E.

    1999-05-01

    For an optimised maintenance as well as damage prevention and a prediction of further life expectancy the knowledge of the insulation condition of power transformers can be estimated using monitoring systems. In this paper a monitoring method based on a new system for an on-line measurement of P D and undissolved gases on transformers is presented. A modular structured system is introduced which is able to analyse the statistical characteristics of broadband measured P D-pulses by using digital signal processing. Furthermore a new developed electronic Buchholzrelay for the detection of undissolved gases will be described which allows a diagnosis of the insulation and a protection of the transformer

  7. Differential Power Analysis as a digital forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, T; Frinken, J

    2013-07-10

    Electronic payment fraud is considered a serious international crime by Europol. An important part of this fraud comes from payment card data skimming. This type of fraud consists of an illegal acquisition of payment card details when a user is withdrawing cash at an automated teller machine (ATM) or paying at a point of sale (POS). Modern skimming devices, also known as skimmers, use secure crypto-algorithms (e.g. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)) to protect skimmed data stored within their memory. In order to provide digital evidence in criminal cases involving skimmers, law enforcement agencies (LEAs) must retrieve the plaintext skimmed data, generally without having knowledge of the secret key. This article proposes an alternative to the current solution at the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) to reveal the secret key. The proposed solution is non-invasive, based on Power Analysis Attack (PAA). This article first describes the structure and the behaviour of an AES skimmer, followed by the proposal of the full operational PAA process, from power measurements to attack computation. Finally, it presents results obtained in several cases, explaining the latest improvements and providing some ideas for further developments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  9. Clinical history in management of suspected syncope: A powerful diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Richard; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieling, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of history taking as a diagnostic tool in patients with transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is addressed. From a literature review it can be demonstrated that, if properly performed, the history is a powerful diagnostic tool, which in the majority of cases proves to be the

  10. The use of ultrasound for decontamination of tools and equipment in nuclear power plant Krshko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erman, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the main principles of the ultrasonic generator functioning and the use of ultrasound for decontamination of tools and equipment in nuclear power plant Krshko. The paper gives the operating procedure and presents decontamination results of tools and equipment fabricated from various materials. (author) 3 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of CO2

  12. Computer-aided design in power engineering. Application of software tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojkovic, Zlatan

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the use software tools in the practice of design in the field of power systems. Presents many applications in the design in the field of power systems. Useful for educative purposes and practical work. This textbooks demonstrates the application of software tools in solving a series of problems from the field of designing power system structures and systems. It contains four chapters: The first chapter leads the reader through all the phases necessary in the procedures of computer aided modeling and simulation. It guides through the complex problems presenting on the basis of eleven original examples. The second chapter presents application of software tools in power system calculations of power systems equipment design. Several design example calculations are carried out using engineering standards like MATLAB, EMTP/ATP, Excel and Access, AutoCAD and Simulink. The third chapters focuses on the graphical documentation using a collection of software tools (AutoCAD, EPLAN, SIMARIS SIVACON, SIMARIS DESIGN) which enable the complete automation of the development of graphical documentation of a power systems. In the fourth chapter, the application of software tools in the project management in power systems is discussed. Here, the emphasis is put on the standard software MS Excel and MS Project.

  13. Computer-aided design in power engineering. Application of software tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Zlatan

    2012-07-01

    Demonstrates the use software tools in the practice of design in the field of power systems. Presents many applications in the design in the field of power systems. Useful for educative purposes and practical work. This textbooks demonstrates the application of software tools in solving a series of problems from the field of designing power system structures and systems. It contains four chapters: The first chapter leads the reader through all the phases necessary in the procedures of computer aided modeling and simulation. It guides through the complex problems presenting on the basis of eleven original examples. The second chapter presents application of software tools in power system calculations of power systems equipment design. Several design example calculations are carried out using engineering standards like MATLAB, EMTP/ATP, Excel and Access, AutoCAD and Simulink. The third chapters focuses on the graphical documentation using a collection of software tools (AutoCAD, EPLAN, SIMARIS SIVACON, SIMARIS DESIGN) which enable the complete automation of the development of graphical documentation of a power systems. In the fourth chapter, the application of software tools in the project management in power systems is discussed. Here, the emphasis is put on the standard software MS Excel and MS Project.

  14. Principal Component Analysis - A Powerful Tool in Computing Marketing Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research regarding a powerful multivariate data analysis method which can be used by the researchers in order to obtain valuable information for decision makers that need to solve the marketing problem a company face with. The literature stresses the need to avoid the multicollinearity phenomenon in multivariate analysis and the features of Principal Component Analysis (PCA in reducing the number of variables that could be correlated with each other to a small number of principal components that are uncorrelated. In this respect, the paper presents step-by-step the process of applying the PCA in marketing research when we use a large number of variables that naturally are collinear.

  15. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  16. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  17. Stem cells technology: a powerful tool behind new brain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Lucienne N; Quan, Zhenzhen; Qazi, Talal Jamil; Qing, Hong

    2018-06-18

    Stem cell research has recently become a hot research topic in biomedical research due to the foreseen unlimited potential of stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. For many years, medicine has been facing intense challenges, such as an insufficient number of organ donations that is preventing clinicians to fulfill the increasing needs. To try and overcome this regrettable matter, research has been aiming at developing strategies to facilitate the in vitro culture and study of stem cells as a tool for tissue regeneration. Meanwhile, new developments in the microfluidics technology brought forward emerging cell culture applications that are currently allowing for a better chemical and physical control of cellular microenvironment. This review presents the latest developments in stem cell research that brought new therapies to the clinics and how the convergence of the microfluidics technology with stem cell research can have positive outcomes on the fields of regenerative medicine and high-throughput screening. These advances will bring new translational solutions for drug discovery and will upgrade in vitro cell culture to a new level of accuracy and performance. We hope this review will provide new insights into the understanding of new brain treatments from the perspective of stem cell technology especially regarding regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  18. Physicists develop more powerful tools to combat cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso and Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    The tools physicists are currently sharing with doctors to defeat cancer are high-tech sensors for early detection and particles for use as sharp projectiles. The latest advances in medical physics and some of the most sophisticated devices for imaging, monitoring and treatment were presented at the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. They will shape the future of advanced healthcare.   @font-face { font-family: "Cambria Math"; }@font-face { font-family: "Cambria"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: Cambria; }p.MsoCommentText, li.MsoCommentText, div.MsoCommentText { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 10pt; font-family: Cambria; }span.MsoCommentReference { }a:link, span.MsoHyperlink { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; }a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed { color: purple; text-decoration: underline; }span.CommentTextChar { }.MsoChpDefault { font-size: 10pt; font-family: Cambria; }div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; } So...

  19. Online Classrooms: Powerful Tools for Rapid-Iteration Pedagogical Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Semken, S.; Anbar, A.; Buxner, S.

    2015-11-01

    Online education offers the opportunity to reach a variety of students including non-traditional and geographically diverse students. Research has shown that online courses modeled after traditional lecture-exam courses are ineffective. Over the past three years, Arizona State University developed and offered Habitable Worlds, an online-only astrobiology lab course featuring active learning tools. The course is offered in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that records a wealth of student data. In analyzing data from the Fall 2013 offering of the course, we were able to identify pre-post quiz results that were suboptimal and where in the lesson and how precisely students were missing concepts. The problem areas were redesigned, and the improved lessons were deployed a few months later. We saw significant improvements in our pre-post quiz results due to the implemented changes. This demonstrates the effectiveness of using robust ITS not only to present content online, but to provide instantaneous data for rapid iteration and improvement of existing content.

  20. Entropy method combined with extreme learning machine method for the short-term photovoltaic power generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Pingzhou; Chen, Di; Hou, Yushuo

    2016-01-01

    As the world’s energy problem becomes more severe day by day, photovoltaic power generation has opened a new door for us with no doubt. It will provide an effective solution for this severe energy problem and meet human’s needs for energy if we can apply photovoltaic power generation in real life, Similar to wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation is uncertain. Therefore, the forecast of photovoltaic power generation is very crucial. In this paper, entropy method and extreme learning machine (ELM) method were combined to forecast a short-term photovoltaic power generation. First, entropy method is used to process initial data, train the network through the data after unification, and then forecast electricity generation. Finally, the data results obtained through the entropy method with ELM were compared with that generated through generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and radial basis function neural network (RBF) method. We found that entropy method combining with ELM method possesses higher accuracy and the calculation is faster.

  1. CLASSROOM OBSERVATION- A POWERFUL TOOL FOR CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjida Halim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For making teaching and learning more visible, classroom observation plays a central role. It provides teachers with constructive critical feedback in order to improve their classroom management and instructional techniques. For teachers it is important to observe the interaction between teacher-learner within the classroom because it can determine the learning opportunities that students get. Not only that, classroom observation encourages colleagues to collaborate to improve teacher practice and student learning. Feedback from classroom observations is an effective way for providing teachers with the information they need about their classroom behavior, and it can help them in their continuous professional development (CPD. This paper is based upon a practical approach to professional development among teachers through classroom observation. Since we, as teachers, are not born with innate teaching abilities, in fact, we learn and develop gradually with the help of some practical approaches, and classroom observation is a well-known powerful practical approach in primary and higher education to help teachers improve their teaching quality. This article mainly highlights the importance of classroom observation and its guidelines adapted from Observing Classes-CETaL. Further, it emphasizes the limitations of classroom observation, and suggests the ways to carry it out effectively based upon Observing Classes CETaL Model.

  2. Atlas - a new pulsed power tool at Los Alamos

    CERN Document Server

    Scudder, D W; Ballard, E O; Barr, G W; Cochrane, J C; Davis, H A; Griego, J R; Hadden, E S; Hinckley, W B; Hosack, K W; Martínez, J E; Mills, D; Padilla, J N; Parker, J V; Parsons, W M; Reinovsky, R E; Stokes, J L; Thompson, M C; Tom, C Y; Wysocki, F J; Vigil, B N; Elizondo, J; Miller, R B; Anderson, H D; Campbell, T N; Owens, R S

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The Atlas pulsed power driver has recently been commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the Atlas facility, its initial experimental program and plans for the future. The reader desiring more detailed information is referred to papers in this conference by Keinigs et al. on materials studies, Cochrane et al. on machine performance and Ballard et al. on fabrication and assembly. Atlas is a high current generator capable of driving 30 megamps through a low- inductance load. It has been designed to require minimal maintenance, provide excellent diagnostic access, and rapid turnaround. Its capacitor bank stores 23.5 megajoules in a four-stage Marx configuration which erects to 240 kV at maximum charge. It has a quarter-cycle time of 4.5 microseconds. It will typically drive cylindrical aluminum liners in a z-pinch configuration to velocities up to 10 mm/msec while maintaining the inner surface in the solid state. Diagnostic access incl...

  3. Evaluation of static analysis tools used to assess software important to nuclear power plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourghanlian, Alain [EDF Lab CHATOU, Simulation and Information Technologies for Power Generation Systems Department, EDF R and D, Cedex (France)

    2015-03-15

    We describe a comparative analysis of different tools used to assess safety-critical software used in nuclear power plants. To enhance the credibility of safety assessments and to optimize safety justification costs, Electricit e de France (EDF) investigates the use of methods and tools for source code semantic analysis, to obtain indisputable evidence and help assessors focus on the most critical issues. EDF has been using the PolySpace tool for more than 10 years. Currently, new industrial tools based on the same formal approach, Abstract Interpretation, are available. Practical experimentation with these new tools shows that the precision obtained on one of our shutdown systems software packages is substantially improved. In the first part of this article, we present the analysis principles of the tools used in our experimentation. In the second part, we present the main characteristics of protection-system software, and why these characteristics are well adapted for the new analysis tools.

  4. Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution - although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

  5. Nonlinear gyrokinetics: a powerful tool for the description of microturbulence in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John A

    2010-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and difficulties) of deriving nonlinear gyrofluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution-although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

  6. A Short-term ESPERTA-based Forecast Tool for Moderate-to-extreme Solar Proton Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenza, M.; Alberti, T.; Cliver, E. W.

    2018-04-01

    The ESPERTA (Empirical model for Solar Proton Event Real Time Alert) forecast tool has a Probability of Detection (POD) of 63% for all >10 MeV events with proton peak intensity ≥10 pfu (i.e., ≥S1 events, S1 referring to minor storms on the NOAA Solar Radiation Storms scale), from 1995 to 2014 with a false alarm rate (FAR) of 38% and a median (minimum) warning time (WT) of ∼4.8 (0.4) hr. The NOAA space weather scale includes four additional categories: moderate (S2), strong (S3), severe (S4), and extreme (S5). As S1 events have only minor impacts on HF radio propagation in the polar regions, the effective threshold for significant space radiation effects appears to be the S2 level (100 pfu), above which both biological and space operation impacts are observed along with increased effects on HF propagation in the polar regions. We modified the ESPERTA model to predict ≥S2 events and obtained a POD of 75% (41/55) and an FAR of 24% (13/54) for the 1995–2014 interval with a median (minimum) WT of ∼1.7 (0.2) hr based on predictions made at the time of the S1 threshold crossing. The improved performance of ESPERTA for ≥S2 events is a reflection of the big flare syndrome, which postulates that the measures of the various manifestations of eruptive solar flares increase as one considers increasingly larger events.

  7. An analysis of the radiation field characteristics for extremity dose assessment during maintenance periods at nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. G.; Kong, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Workers who maintain the water chambers of steam generators during maintenance periods in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have a higher likelihood of high radiation exposure, even if they are exposed for a short period of time. In particular, it is expected that the hands of workers would receive the highest radiation exposure as a consequence of hand contact with radioactive materials. In this study, a characteristic analysis of inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations was conducted using thermoluminescent dosemeters for the whole body and extremities during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. It was observed that inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations at NPPs were dominated by high-energy photons. (authors)

  8. A new state-of-the-art tool to investigate rock friction under extreme slip velocities and accelerations: SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, André; di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Romeo, Gianni; di Stefano, Giuseppe; Smith, Steven; di Felice, Fabio; Mariano, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Despite considerable effort over the past several decades, the mechanics of earthquakes rupture remain largely unknown. In order to complement fault drilling projects and field and seismological observations, recent friction experiments strive to reproduce as closely as possible in-situ (natural) conditions of slip velocity and acceleration on intact and fault rocks. In this contribution, we present a novel state-of-the-art experimental rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA or Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus) capable of shearing samples at sliding velocities up to 10 m/s, accelerations of ~ 40 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. In comparison with existing high speed friction machines, this apparatus extends the range of sliding velocities, normal stresses, sample size and, more importantly, accelerations. The apparatus consists of a pair of brushless electric motors (a low velocity motor, 10-6-10-3 m/s, power 5 kW, and a high velocity motor, 10-3 - 10 m/s, power 270 kW), that are connected by a gear system that allows a switch between motors without loss of velocity and force. The motors drive a rotary shaft which clamps ring-shaped samples (diameter 40- 50 mm). On the other side of the rotary shaft, a stationary shaft holds the other half of the sample assembly. The shaft is held stationary by a pair of stainless steel arms, one of which is attached to the side of the concrete-filled base where torque is measured by a tension cell. Axial force (maximum 37 kN) is applied on this side by a piston-cylinder couple with an arm to increase the force. The entire machine measures by 3.5 by 1.2 meters and weighs 3700 kg. We aim to perform experiments on rock samples of a variety of compositions using slip velocities and accelerations that simulate slip velocity functions that occur during earthquakes. In addition, we plan to develop a pore fluid system and a pressure vessel in order to perform experiments that include the physical-chemical processes that occur during slow

  9. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  10. Compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery: exhaust air is a potential source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.

  11. Extreme scenarios: the tightest possible constraints on the power spectrum due to primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Philippa S.; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2018-02-01

    Observational constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) constrain the allowed amplitude of the primordial power spectrum on both the smallest and the largest ranges of scales, covering over 20 decades from 1‑1020/ Mpc. Despite tight constraints on the allowed fraction of PBHs at their time of formation near horizon entry in the early Universe, the corresponding constraints on the primordial power spectrum are quite weak, typically Script PRlesssim 10‑2 assuming Gaussian perturbations. Motivated by recent claims that the evaporation of just one PBH would destabilise the Higgs vacuum and collapse the Universe, we calculate the constraints which follow from assuming there are zero PBHs within the observable Universe. Even if evaporating PBHs do not collapse the Universe, this scenario represents the ultimate limit of observational constraints. Constraints can be extended on to smaller scales right down to the horizon scale at the end of inflation, but where power spectrum constraints already exist they do not tighten significantly, even though the constraint on PBH abundance can decrease by up to 46 orders of magnitude. This shows that no future improvement in observational constraints can ever lead to a significant tightening in constraints on inflation (via the power spectrum amplitude). The power spectrum constraints are weak because an order unity perturbation is required in order to overcome pressure forces. We therefore consider an early matter dominated era, during which exponentially more PBHs form for the same initial conditions. We show this leads to far tighter constraints, which approach Script PRlesssim10‑9, albeit over a smaller range of scales and are very sensitive to when the early matter dominated era ends. Finally, we show that an extended early matter era is incompatible with the argument that an evaporating PBH would destroy the Universe, unless the power spectrum amplitude decreases by up to ten orders of magnitude.

  12. Suppressed power saturation due to optimized optical confinement in 9xx nm high-power diode lasers that use extreme double asymmetric vertical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, T.; Erbert, G.; Maaßdorf, A.; Knigge, S.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    Broad area lasers with novel extreme double asymmetric structure (EDAS) vertical designs featuring increased optical confinement in the quantum well, Γ, are shown to have improved temperature stability without compromising series resistance, internal efficiency or losses. Specifically, we present here vertical design considerations for the improved continuous wave (CW) performance of devices operating at 940 nm, based on systematically increasing Γ from 0.26% to 1.1%, and discuss the impact on power saturation mechanisms. The results indicate that key power saturation mechanisms at high temperatures originate in high threshold carrier densities, which arise in the quantum well at low Γ. The characteristic temperatures, T 0 and T 1, are determined under short pulse conditions and are used to clarify the thermal contribution to power limiting mechanisms. Although increased Γ reduces thermal power saturation, it is accompanied by increased optical absorption losses in the active region, which has a significant impact on the differential external quantum efficiency, {η }{{diff}}. To quantify the impact of internal optical losses contributed by the quantum well, a resonator length-dependent simulation of {η }{{diff}} is performed and compared to the experiment, which also allows the estimation of experimental values for the light absorption cross sections of electrons and holes inside the quantum well. Overall, the analysis enables vertical designs to be developed, for devices with maximized power conversion efficiency at high CW optical power and high temperatures, in a trade-off between absorption in the well and power saturation. The best balance to date is achieved in devices using EDAS designs with {{Γ }}=0.54 % , which deliver efficiencies of 50% at 14 W optical output power at an elevated junction temperature of 105 °C.

  13. An effective secondary decomposition approach for wind power forecasting using extreme learning machine trained by crisscross optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hao; Dong, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Ge, Jiafei; Lai, Loi Lei; Vaccaro, Alfredo; Meng, Anbo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A secondary decomposition approach is applied in the data pre-processing. • The empirical mode decomposition is used to decompose the original time series. • IMF1 continues to be decomposed by applying wavelet packet decomposition. • Crisscross optimization algorithm is applied to train extreme learning machine. • The proposed SHD-CSO-ELM outperforms other pervious methods in the literature. - Abstract: Large-scale integration of wind energy into electric grid is restricted by its inherent intermittence and volatility. So the increased utilization of wind power necessitates its accurate prediction. The contribution of this study is to develop a new hybrid forecasting model for the short-term wind power prediction by using a secondary hybrid decomposition approach. In the data pre-processing phase, the empirical mode decomposition is used to decompose the original time series into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). A unique feature is that the generated IMF1 continues to be decomposed into appropriate and detailed components by applying wavelet packet decomposition. In the training phase, all the transformed sub-series are forecasted with extreme learning machine trained by our recently developed crisscross optimization algorithm (CSO). The final predicted values are obtained from aggregation. The results show that: (a) The performance of empirical mode decomposition can be significantly improved with its IMF1 decomposed by wavelet packet decomposition. (b) The CSO algorithm has satisfactory performance in addressing the premature convergence problem when applied to optimize extreme learning machine. (c) The proposed approach has great advantage over other previous hybrid models in terms of prediction accuracy.

  14. Interesting tools for the cybersecurity plan of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, I.; Carrasco, J. A.; Cerro, F. J. del

    2012-01-01

    The use of digital technologies in monitoring and control systems of nuclear power plants and their connectivity requirements, originate cybersecurity difficulties that should be addressed in a cybersecurity plan. This plan should guide the policies and procedures followed during the design maintenance and operation of the systems inside a nuclear power plant. It also should refer to adequate tools able to reach the established cybersecurity requirements. The combination of Datadiodes and tools for publishing video(like tVGA2web), permit an isolation and remote maintenance in a 100% safety way and their use should be disseminated. In the paper other type of tools useful for nuclear power plants are also mentioned.

  15. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  16. Design of Contactlessly Powered and Piezoelectrically Actuated Tools for Non-Resonant Vibration Assisted Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Silge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a novel design approach for vibration assisted machining (VAM. A lot of research has already been done regarding the influence of superimposed vibrations during a milling process, but there is almost no information about how to design a VAM tool where the tool is actually rotating. The proposed system consists of a piezoelectric actuator for vibration excitation, an inductive contactless energy transfer system and an electronic circuit for powering the actuated tool. The main benefit of transferring the required power without mechanical contact is that the maximum spindle speed is no longer restricted by friction of slip rings. A detailed model is shown that enables for preliminary estimation of the system’s response to different excitation signals. Experimental data are provided to validate the model. Finally, some parts are shown that have been manufactured using the contactlessly actuated milling tool.

  17. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-01-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create amodel database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The repo...

  18. Human performance tools in nuclear power plants. Introduction, implementation and experiences; Human Performance Tools in Kernkraftwerken. Einfuehrung, Umsetzung und Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexheimer, Kai; Bassing, Gerd [Dexcon Consulting GmbH, Neuhausen (Switzerland); Kreuzer, Peter [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Essenbach (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Isar

    2015-06-01

    The basis of safe nuclear power plant operation (NPP) and a strong safety culture is the professional application of Human Performance Optimisation Tools (HPO). HPO trainings have been carried out by German NPPs for a number of years and recently also by Swiss NPPs. This article describes the origination, the bases, experiences and thereby the special features of the HPO training programme applied by German NPP operators. Moreover, this article provides an outlook on future developments - in particular when considering the requirements of the ongoing phase out of nuclear energy in Germany.

  19. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  20. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Role of Lower Extremity Joint Powers in Successful Stair Ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    written informed consent, all subjects participated in a biomechanical gait assessment during stair ascent walking. A total of 55 markers were used...power generation and vertical COM acceleration (COMA) during stair ascent. Twenty-two healthy individuals underwent a biomechanical gait assessment...DA. An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomech 1988;21:733–44. [6] Zachazewski JE, Riley PO, Krebs DE

  2. THE NATURE OF Lyα BLOBS: POWERED BY EXTREME STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (≥30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous

  3. The Nature of Lyα Blobs: Powered by Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-10-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (>=30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous.

  4. The New York City Operations Support Tool: Supporting Water Supply Operations for Millions in an Era of Changing Patterns in Hydrological Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonse, A. H.; Porter, J. H.; Frei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Providing an average 1.1 billion gallons (~ 4.2 x 106 cubic meters) of drinking water per day to approximately nine million people in New York City (NYC) and four upstate counties, the NYC water supply is among the world's largest unfiltered systems. In addition to providing a reliable water supply in terms of water quantity and quality, the city has to fulfill other flow objectives to serve downstream communities. At times, such as during extreme hydrological events, water quality issues may restrict water usage for parts of the system. To support a risk-based water supply decision making process NYC has developed the Operations Support Tool (OST). OST combines a water supply systems model with reservoir water quality models, near real time data ingestion, data base management and an ensemble hydrological forecast. A number of reports have addressed the frequency and intensities of extreme hydrological events across the continental US. In the northeastern US studies have indicated an increase in the frequency of extremely large precipitation and streamflow events during the most recent decades. During this presentation we describe OST and, using case studies we demonstrate how this tool has been useful to support operational decisions. We also want to motivate a discussion about how undergoing changes in patterns of hydrological extreme events elevate the challenge faced by water supply managers and the role of the scientific community to integrate nonstationarity approaches in hydrologic forecast and modeling.

  5. A Fast Tool for Assessing the Power Performance of Large WEC arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    In the present work, a tool for computing wave energy converter array hydrodynamic forces and power performance is developed. The tool leads to a significant reduction on computation time compared with standard boundary element method based codes while keeping similar levels of accuracy. This mak...... it suitable for array layout optimization, where large numbers of simulations are required. Furthermore, the tool is developed within an open-source environment such as Python 2.7 so that it is fully accessible to anyone willing to make use of it....

  6. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  7. Biochemical properties and crystal structure of ethylmethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) sulfate--an extremely powerful novel inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H; Mutikainen, I; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Laine, R; Jänne, J; Lumme, P

    1986-01-01

    Ethylmethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EMGBG) sulfate, an analog of the well-known anti-leukemic drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized. It was shown to be an extremely powerful competitive inhibitor of eukaryotic S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, with an apparent Ki value 12 nM. Thus, it appears to be the most powerful known inhibitor of the enzyme, being almost an order of magnitude more powerful than the corresponding ethylglyoxal derivative. It neither inhibited the proliferation of mouse L1210 leukemia cells in vitro, nor did it potentiate the growth inhibition produced by alpha-difluoromethyl ornithine. In this respect, its properties are closely related to those of dimethylglyoxal, ethylglyoxal and propylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazones), while in striking contrast to those of the antiproliferative glyoxal and methylglyoxal analogs. EMGBG also inhibited intestinal diamine oxidase activity (Ki 0.7 microM). EMGBG sulfate was crystallized from water, giving orthorhombic crystals (space group Pbcn). Their crystal and molecular structure was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The carbon-nitrogen double bonds between the ethylmethylglyoxal part and the aminoguanidine moieties were found to have the same configuration as they are known to have in the salts of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and propylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazones). The glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) chain of the EMGBG cation deviated strongly from planarity, thus differing dramatically from the corresponding chains of the glyoxal, methylglyoxal and propylglyoxal analogs.

  8. Making Research Fly in Schools: "Drosophila" as a Powerful Modern Tool for Teaching Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbottle, Jennifer; Strangward, Patrick; Alnuamaani, Catherine; Lawes, Surita; Patel, Sanjai; Prokop, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The "droso4schools" project aims to introduce the fruit fly "Drosophila" as a powerful modern teaching tool to convey curriculum-relevant specifications in biology lessons. Flies are easy and cheap to breed and have been at the forefront of biology research for a century, providing unique conceptual understanding of biology and…

  9. The application of human error prevention tool in Tianwan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the application and popularization of human error prevention tool in Tianwan nuclear power station, including the study on project implementation background, main contents and innovation, performance management, innovation practice and development, and performance of innovation application. (authors)

  10. TNO-ADVANCE: a modular power train simulation and design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venne, J.W.C. van de; Hendriksen, P.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Verkiel, M.

    1998-01-01

    To support its activities in the field of conventional and hybrid vehicles, TNO has developed ADVANCE, a modular simulation tool for the design and evaluation of advanced power trains. In this paper the various features and the potential of ADVANCE are described and illustrated by means of two case

  11. Development of maintenance tools based on tribology for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yoshiro; Honda, Tomomi; Yoshinaga, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many tribological problems occur in the maintenance of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we introduced our developed maintenance tools based on tribology such as a particle counter and wear sensors. Their principals were shown briefly and their usefulness was clarified by the experiments on monitoring of wear. (author)

  12. Development of a Computational Tool for Measuring Organizational Competitiveness in the Photovoltaic Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen B. Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is embedded in a globally competitive environment. This characteristic forces PV power plants to perform most processes relevant for their competitiveness with maximum efficiency. From managers’ point of view, the evaluation of solar energy performance from installed plants is justified to indicate their level of organizational competitiveness, which supports the decision-making process. This manuscript purposes a computational tool that graphically presents the level of competitiveness of PV power plants units based on performance indicators. This tool was developed by using the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs concept, which represents a set of measures focusing on the most critical aspects for the success of the organizations. The KPIs encompass four Fundamental Viewpoints (FV: Strategic Alliances, Solar Energy Monitoring, Management and Strategic Processes, and Power Generation Innovations. These four FVs were deployed on 26 Critical Success Factors (CSFs and 39 KPIs. Sequentially, the tool was applied in four solar generation plants, where three presented an organizational competitiveness global level “potentially competitive”. The proposed computational tool allows managers to assess the degree of organization competitiveness as well as aid in prospecting of future scenarios and decision-making.

  13. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool to get on-line plasma information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altana, C.; Schillaci, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P; Tudisco, S.; Lanzalone, G.; Muoio, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we report the results of an experimental measurement performed with a TPS developed at INFN-LNS within the ELIMED project, by means of a powerful and self-consistent technique as a diagnostic tool for the ionic acceleration study in laser-generated-plasmas. (authors)

  14. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool to get on-line plasma information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania - Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Univerita Kore di Enna - Enna (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Messina - Dip.to di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we report the results of an experimental measurement performed with a TPS developed at INFN-LNS within the ELIMED project, by means of a powerful and self-consistent technique as a diagnostic tool for the ionic acceleration study in laser-generated-plasmas. (authors)

  15. Extreme values of the analyzing power in dα elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenny, B.; Grueebler, W.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of states of maximum possible polarization in dα elastic scattering has been carried out between 3 and 43 MeV deuteron energy. Two different types of such maxima were found. In the first type, analyzing power components reach their theoretical maximum values. A second type does not generally yield observables with maximum possible values, but has parameters that lie well within the range allowed. It is particular combination of values that constitutes a state of maximum possible polarization. The search for the two types of maxima was made with the aid of a phase-shift analysis. Several maxima of both kinds were found in the elastic scattering under investigation. The energies and scattering angles for these points have been determined. In most cases a state of maximum polarization indicates a resonant state in the compound system. (orig.)

  16. The Formation of a Power Multi-Pulse Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation in the Pulse Plasma Diode of Low Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia V. Borgun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results are presented on experimental studies of the temporal characteristics of spike extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation in the spectral range of 12.2 ÷ 15.8 nm from the anode region of high-current (I = 40 kA pulsed discharges in tin vapor. It is observed that the intense multi-spike radiation in this range arises at an inductive stage of the discharge. It has been shown that the radiation spikes correlate with the sharp increase of active resistance and of pumped power, due to plasma heating by an electron beam, formed in the double layer of charged particles. It has been observed that for large number of spikes the conversion efficiency of pumped energy into radiationat double layer formation is essentially higher in comparison with collisional heating.

  17. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: reducing impact on public mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil; Singh, Ram Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment

  18. Wavelet Entropy Algorithm to Allocate the Extreme Power Peaks in WiMax Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a solution to overcome the effect for one of the main drawbacks of these days’ wireless systems, where Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM combinations has been used. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR arises after the OFDM stage and reduces the performance of the used nonlinear devices. Therefore, a new stage has been imposed between the MIMO and OFDM block. It is based on the entropy meaning of the wavelet transformation to trigger a proposed thresholding criterion and reconstruct the OFDM signal. As a result, the probability of high PAPR appearance will be limited and reduced; a promising result over our recently published work has been conducted; 15-25% extra reduction. This work could be denoted by MIMO-OFDM based on Entropy Wavelet Transform (MO-EWT systems. The MO-EWT validity has been checked based on either numerical analysis or conducted simulation based on MATLAB; where 80% improvement of reducing the high PAPR has been achieved over the literature. These results have been reached using the same environment conditions and at additional cost and complexity of the transceivers structure.

  19. Development Concept of Guaranteed Verification Electric Power System Simulation Tools and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problem reliability and verification of widespread electric power systems (EPS simulation tools is presented in this article. Everything simulation tools are based on the using of numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Described the concept of guaranteed verification EPS simulation tools and the structure of its realization are based using the Simulator having properties of continuous , without decomposition three-phase EPS simulation in real time and on an unlimited range with guaranteed accuracy. The information from the Simulator can be verified by using data only quasi-steady-state regime received from the SCADA and such Simulator can be applied as the standard model for verification any EPS simulation tools.

  20. Introducing PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Shih, Chunkuan; Chiang, Show-Chyuan; Weng, Tung-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PCTRAN is integrated with an atmospheric dispersion algorithm. ► The improved PCTRAN acts as an accident/incident simulator and a data exchange system. ► The software helps the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. ► The evaluation results show the nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. ► The software can be used for nuclear power plant emergency responses. - Abstract: Protecting the public from radiation exposure is important if a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident occurs. Deciding appropriate protective actions in a timely and effective manner can be fulfilled by using an effective accident evaluation tool. In our earlier work, we have integrated PCTRAN (Personal Computer Transient Analyzer) with the off-site dose calculation model. In this study, we introduce PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses. If abnormal conditions in the plant are monitored or observed, the plant staffs can distinguish accident/incident initiation events. Thus, the responsible personnel can immediately operate PCTRAN and set up those accident/incident initiation events to simulate the nuclear power plant transient or accident in conjunction with off-site dose distributions. The evaluation results consequently help the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. In this study, we explain and demonstrate the capabilities of PCTRAN for nuclear emergency responses, through applying it to simulate the postulated nuclear power plant accident scenarios.

  1. BARC-risk monitor- a tool for operational safety assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Babar, A.K.; Hadap, Nikhil

    2000-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand nuclear power plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear power plant. Operation of risk monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimise the operation of nuclear power plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of risk monitor, its application areas and also gives the status of such tools in international scenarios. The software is based on the PSA model of Kaiga generating station and would be applicable to similar design configuration. (author)

  2. Big Data is a powerful tool for environmental improvements in the construction business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikov, Aleksandr; Konikov, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    The work investigates the possibility of applying the Big Data method as a tool to implement environmental improvements in the construction business. The method is recognized as effective in analyzing big volumes of heterogeneous data. It is noted that all preconditions exist for this method to be successfully used for resolution of environmental issues in the construction business. It is proven that the principal Big Data techniques (cluster analysis, crowd sourcing, data mixing and integration) can be applied in the sphere in question. It is concluded that Big Data is a truly powerful tool to implement environmental improvements in the construction business.

  3. User-friendly Tool for Power Flow Analysis and Distributed Generation Optimisation in Radial Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Akorede

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of power distribution companies (DISCOs is to deliver electric power to their customers in an efficient and reliable manner – with minimal energy loss cost. One major way to minimise power loss on a given power system is to install distributed generation (DG units on the distribution networks. However, to maximise benefits, it is highly crucial for a DISCO to ensure that these DG units are of optimal size and sited in the best locations on the network. This paper gives an overview of a software package developed in this study, called Power System Analysis and DG Optimisation Tool (PFADOT. The main purpose of the graphical user interface-based package is to guide a DISCO in finding the optimal size and location for DG placement in radial distribution networks. The package, which is also suitable for load flow analysis, employs the GUI feature of MATLAB. Three objective functions are formulated into a single optimisation problem and solved with fuzzy genetic algorithm to simultaneously obtain DG optimal size and location. The accuracy and reliability of the developed tool was validated using several radial test systems, and the results obtained are evaluated against the existing similar package cited in the literature, which are impressive and computationally efficient.

  4. Predictive value of the DASH tool for predicting return to work of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Woodhouse, Linda J; Steenstra, Ivan A; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) tool added to the predictive ability of established prognostic factors, including patient demographic and clinical outcomes, to predict return to work (RTW) in injured workers with musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders of the upper extremity. A retrospective cohort study using a population-based database from the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta (WCB-Alberta) that focused on claimants with upper extremity injuries was used. Besides the DASH, potential predictors included demographic, occupational, clinical and health usage variables. Outcome was receipt of compensation benefits after 3 months. To identify RTW predictors, a purposeful logistic modelling strategy was used. A series of receiver operating curve analyses were performed to determine which model provided the best discriminative ability. The sample included 3036 claimants with upper extremity injuries. The final model for predicting RTW included the total DASH score in addition to other established predictors. The area under the curve for this model was 0.77, which is interpreted as fair discrimination. This model was statistically significantly different than the model of established predictors alone (pmodels (p=0.34). The DASH tool together with other established predictors significantly helped predict RTW after 3 months in participants with upper extremity MSK disorders. An appealing result for clinicians and busy researchers is that DASH item 23 has equal predictive ability to the total DASH score. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Turkish Soft Power: The Phenomenon Of “Soap Power” As A Tool Of Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алёна Игоревна Зубкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon of Turkish soap operas as a tool of soft power. The author analyzed the character, scope and limits of this phenomenon, primarily regarding the case of the Middle East countries and societies. The article covers the process of dissemination and implementation of the ideas of neo-Ottomanism as the foreign policy concept through applying the soft power strategy. Following the results of the research, the conclusion has been made regarding the negative and positive effects of this phenomenon on various spheres, as well as in the context of Turkish foreign policy.

  6. A Fiducial Approach to Extremes and Multiple Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Damian V.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized fiducial inference is a powerful tool for many difficult problems. Based on an extension of R. A. Fisher's work, we used generalized fiducial inference for two extreme value problems and a multiple comparison procedure. The first extreme value problem is dealing with the generalized Pareto distribution. The generalized Pareto…

  7. CRISP. Simulation tool for fault detection and diagnostics in high-DG power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontela, M.; Andrieu, C.; Raison, B.

    2004-08-01

    This document gives a description of a tool proposed for fault detection and diagnostics. The main principles of the functions of fault localization are described and detailed for a given MV network that will be used for the ICT experiment in Grenoble (experiment 3B). The aim of the tool is to create a technical, simple and realistic context for testing ICT dedicated to an electrical application. The tool gives the expected inputs and outputs contents of the various distributed ICT components when a fault occurs in a given MV network. So the requirements for the ICT components are given in term of expected data collected, analysed and transmitted. Several examples are given in order to illustrate the inputs/outputs in case of different faults. The tool includes a topology description which is a main aspect to develop in the future for managing the distribution network. Updating topology in real time will become necessary for fault diagnostic and protection, but also necessary for the various possible added applications (local market balance and local electrical power quality for instance). The tool gives a context and a simple view for the ICT components behaviours assuming an ideal response and transmission from them. The real characteristics and possible limitations for the ICT (information latency, congestion, security) will be established during the experiments from the same context described in the HTFD tool

  8. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  9. DNA Microarrays: a Powerful Genomic Tool for Biomedical and Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Trevino, Victor; Falciani, Francesco; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    Among the many benefits of the Human Genome Project are new and powerful tools such as the genome-wide hybridization devices referred to as microarrays. Initially designed to measure gene transcriptional levels, microarray technologies are now used for comparing other genome features among individuals and their tissues and cells. Results provide valuable information on disease subcategories, disease prognosis, and treatment outcome. Likewise, they reveal differences in genetic makeup, regulat...

  10. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  11. In situ plasma diagnostics study of a commercial high-power hollow cathode magnetron deposition tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Liang; Raju, Ramasamy; Flauta, Randolph; Shin, Hyungjoo; Ruzic, David N.; Hayden, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Using a newly designed and built plasma diagnostic system, the plasma parameters were investigated on a commercial 200 mm high-power hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) physical vapor deposition tool using Ta target under argon plasma. A three dimensional (3D) scanning radio frequency (rf)-compensated Langmuir probe was constructed to measure the spatial distribution of the electron temperature (T e ) and electron density (n e ) in the substrate region of the HCM tool at various input powers (2-15 kW) and pressures (10-70 mTorr). The T e was in the range of 1-3 eV, scaling with decreasing power and decreasing pressure. Meanwhile, n e was in the range of 4x10 10 -1x10 12 cm -3 scaling with increasing power and decreasing pressure. As metal deposits on the probe during the probe measurements, a self-cleaning plasma cup was designed and installed in the chamber to clean the tungsten probe tip. However, its effectiveness in recovering the measured plasma parameters was hindered by the metal layer deposited on the insulating probe tube which was accounted for the variation in the plasma measurements. Using a quartz crystal microbalance combined with electrostatic filters, the ionization fraction of the metal flux was measured at various input power of 2-16 kW and pressure of 5-40 mTorr. The metal ionization fraction reduced significantly with the increasing input power and decreasing gas pressure which were attributed to the corresponding variation in the ionization cross section and the residence time of the sputtered atoms in the plasma, respectively. Both the metal neutral and ion flux increased at higher power and lower pressure. The 3D measurements further showed that the ionization fraction decreased when moving up from the substrate to the cathode.

  12. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  13. On the Analysis and Fault-Diagnosis Tools for Small-Scale Heat and Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market drives utilities and independent power producers to operate heat and power plants as profit centers. In order to keep the economic margins on the credit side, the preferred measures have been to improve the electrical efficiency through changes in the hardware and boost the overall efficiency through e.g. combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The better understanding of global environmental issues is also pushing the development toward more advanced power plant technology that at the introduction stage may represent a risky option for the plant owner. Recently, there is a growing interest in improving the plant operation instead, and therefore the focus has been put on aspects related to the RAM (reliability-availability-maintenance) of the plants. Small- and mid-scale CHP plants, especially natural gas- and biomass-fueled, have been identified to be important to satisfy the needs of the energy market and help to mitigate the environmental factors in the short- and middle-term. One of the major challenges that these types of plants will face is attaining good RAM at the same time that they cannot support big O and M costs and a lot of personnel. Therefore the implementation of cheap and reliable IT-based tools that help to achieve this goal is essential. Most power plants today are equipped with modern distributed control systems that through a considerable number of sensors deliver large amounts of data to the control room. This paves the way to the introduction of intelligent tools - derived from the artificial intelligence technology - such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GA). ANNs have a learning ability that makes them useful for the construction of powerful non-physical models based on data from the process, while GA has shown to be a robust optimization method based on the principle of the 'survival-of-the-fittest'. Principally ANNs, but also to a lesser extent GA, have

  14. The Evaluation and Application Plan Report for the Development of Nuclear Power Plant DCS Using CASE Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Yoon, M.H.; Lee, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    This report contains the evaluation and application plan report for the development of nuclear power plant DCS using CASE tools. In this report, the necessity of using CASE tools is considered and a available CASE environment is suggested. And, also according to the IEEE Std 1209 Recommended Practice for Evaluation and Selection of CASE Tools, their functional and economical evaluation about available commercial CASE tools is performed and described. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Visualization of neutron flux and power distributions in TRIGA Mark II reactor as an educational tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoj, Luka; Ravnik, Matjaz; Lengar, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Modern Monte Carlo computer codes (e.g. MCNP) for neutron transport allow calculation of detailed neutron flux and power distribution in complex geometries with resolution of ∼1 mm. Moreover they enable the calculation of individual particle tracks, scattering and absorption events. With the use of advanced software for 3D visualization (e.g. Amira, Voxler, etc.) one can create and present neutron flux and power distribution in a 'user friendly' way convenient for educational purposes. One can view axial, radial or any other spatial distribution of the neutron flux and power distribution in a nuclear reactor from various perspectives and in various modalities of presentation. By visualizing the distribution of scattering and absorption events and individual particle tracks one can visualize neutron transport parameters (mean free path, diffusion length, macroscopic cross section, up-scattering, thermalization, etc.) from elementary point of view. Most of the people remember better, if they visualize the processes. Therefore the representation of the reactor and neutron transport parameters is a convenient modern educational tool for the (nuclear power plant) operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. The visualization of neutron flux and power distributions in Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II research reactor is treated in the paper. The distributions are calculated with MCNP computer code and presented using Amira and Voxler software. The results in the form of figures are presented in the paper together with comments qualitatively explaining the figures. (authors)

  16. Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.

  17. Power spectra as a diagnostic tool in probing statistical/nonstatistical behavior in unimolecular reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoyen Y.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Raff, Lionel M.; Thompson, Donald L.

    1992-11-01

    The possibility of utilizing different types of power spectra obtained from classical trajectories as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of nonstatistical dynamics is explored by using the unimolecular bond-fission reactions of 1,2-difluoroethane and the 2-chloroethyl radical as test cases. In previous studies, the reaction rates for these systems were calculated by using a variational transition-state theory and classical trajectory methods. A comparison of the results showed that 1,2-difluoroethane is a nonstatistical system, while the 2-chloroethyl radical behaves statistically. Power spectra for these two systems have been generated under various conditions. The characteristics of these spectra are as follows: (1) The spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical are always broader and more coupled to other modes than is the case for 1,2-difluoroethane. This is true even at very low levels of excitation. (2) When an internal energy near or above the dissociation threshold is initially partitioned into a local C-H stretching mode, the power spectra for 1,2-difluoroethane broaden somewhat, but discrete and somewhat isolated bands are still clearly evident. In contrast, the analogous power spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical exhibit a near complete absence of isolated bands. The general appearance of the spectrum suggests a very high level of mode-to-mode coupling, large intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) rates, and global statistical behavior. (3) The appearance of the power spectrum for the 2-chloroethyl radical is unaltered regardless of whether the initial C-H excitation is in the CH2 or the CH2Cl group. This result also suggests statistical behavior. These results are interpreted to mean that power spectra may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the statistical character of a system. The presence of a diffuse spectrum exhibiting a nearly complete loss of isolated structures indicates that the dissociation dynamics of the molecule will

  18. Advantages of using 3D design tools in the nuclear power plants projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, P.; Melendro, J.; Gomez, A.; Hermana, I.

    2011-01-01

    It there is anything that distinguished Iberdrola Ingeneria y Construccion, as part of the Iberdrola Group, it is its firm commitment to innovation and continuous improvement. This is the philosophy that led the company to its interest in three-dimensional design tools back when they were in an early stage of development : very little international implementation, lack of integration with other applications, absence of previous experiences to understand the best possible configuration for each case, etc. Nevertheless, the company was able to see the tremendous advantage of having a construction program in the early months of a project- a detailed program that could predict, and therefore avoid, the problems that, if not anticipated, would arise in the construction phase when they result in higher costs, longer timeframes and a multitude of complications. This is precisely what 3D design tools offer prediction and this has been proven in the latest combined cycle projects executed with these tools. A project executed without errors not only decreases cost and time overruns, but also necessarily increases the quality of the end result. Efficiency and quality: these are both basic goals of Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion. The knowledge of and skill in the use of these tools have grown at the same time that their development has reached increasingly higher levels. As a result, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Conctruccion now has extensive experience in the use of 3D design tools and is prepared for the future challenges posed by these tools, the capabilities of which have attained such heights that it is possible to take on one of the most technically challenging projects that exists a nuclear power plant. And we are ready. (Author)

  19. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands); Carlsson, P [EnerSearch, Malmoe (Sweden); Fontela, M. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering LEG, Grenoble (France); Gustavsson, R. [Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    2003-10-15

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4.

  20. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Carlsson, P; Fontela, M.; Gustavsson, R.

    2003-10-01

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4

  1. Human performance tools in nuclear power plants. Introduction, implementation and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, Kai; Bassing, Gerd; Kreuzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basis of safe nuclear power plant operation (NPP) and a strong safety culture is the professional application of Human Performance Optimisation Tools (HPO). HPO trainings have been carried out by German NPPs for a number of years and recently also by Swiss NPPs. This article describes the origination, the bases, experiences and thereby the special features of the HPO training programme applied by German NPP operators. Moreover, this article provides an outlook on future developments - in particular when considering the requirements of the ongoing phase out of nuclear energy in Germany.

  2. Development of effective tool for iterative design of human machine interfaces in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Matsuo, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Wu, Wei; Kameda, Akiyuki; Fumizawa, Motoo

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed SEAMAID, which is a Simulation-based Evaluation and Analysis support system for MAn-machine Interface Design (SEAMAID) in the domain of nuclear power plants. The SEAMAID simulated the interaction between an operator and human machine interfaces (HMI), and supports to evaluate the HMI by using the simulation results. In this paper, a case study of evaluation for conventional center control room design was conducted. The authors were confirmed that SEAMAID is a useful tool for improvements of HMI design (J.P.N.)

  3. Maintenance Tools applied to Electric Generators to Improve Energy Efficiency and Power Quality of Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Fonseca Junior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a specific method to improve the reliability of the equipment and the quality of power supplied to the electrical systems with the frequency and voltage control of a thermoelectric plant, to guarantee a more stable system. The method has the novelty of combining Total Productive Maintenance (TPM using only four pillars, with Electrical Predictive Maintenance based in failure analysis and diagnostic. It prevents voltage drops caused by excessive reactive consumption, thus guaranteeing the company a perfect functioning of its equipment and providing a longer life of them. The Maintenance Management Program (MMP seeks to prevent failures from causing the equipment to be shut down from the electrical system, which means large financial losses, either by reducing billing or by paying fines to the regulatory agency, in addition to prejudice the reliability of the system. Using management tools, but applying only four TPM pillars, it was possible to achieve innovation in power plants with internal combustion engines. This study aims to provide maintenance with a more reliable process, through the implantation of measurement, control and diagnostic devices, thus allowing the management to reduce breakdown of plant equipment. Some results have been achieved after the implementation, such as reduction of annual maintenance cost, reduction of corrective maintenance, increase of MTBF (Mean Time between Failures and reduction of MTTR (Mean Time to Repair in all areas. Probabilistic models able to describe real processes in a more realistic way, and facilitate the optimization at maximum reliability or minimum costs are presented. Such results are reflected in more reliable and continual power generation.

  4. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  5. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  6. A novel visualisation tool for climate services: a case study of temperature extremes and human mortality in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R.; Ballester, J.; Robine, J.; Herrmann, F. R.; Jupp, T. E.; Stephenson, D.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Users of climate information often require probabilistic information on which to base their decisions. However, communicating information contained within a probabilistic forecast presents a challenge. In this paper we demonstrate a novel visualisation technique to display ternary probabilistic forecasts on a map in order to inform decision making. In this method, ternary probabilistic forecasts, which assign probabilities to a set of three outcomes (e.g. low, medium, and high risk), are considered as a point in a triangle of barycentric coordinates. This allows a unique colour to be assigned to each forecast from a continuum of colours defined on the triangle. Colour saturation increases with information gain relative to the reference forecast (i.e. the long term average). This provides additional information to decision makers compared with conventional methods used in seasonal climate forecasting, where one colour is used to represent one forecast category on a forecast map (e.g. red = ';dry'). We use the tool to present climate-related mortality projections across Europe. Temperature and humidity are related to human mortality via location-specific transfer functions, calculated using historical data. Daily mortality data at the NUTS2 level for 16 countries in Europe were obtain from 1998-2005. Transfer functions were calculated for 54 aggregations in Europe, defined using criteria related to population and climatological similarities. Aggregations are restricted to fall within political boundaries to avoid problems related to varying adaptation policies between countries. A statistical model is fit to cold and warm tails to estimate future mortality using forecast temperatures, in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Using predefined categories of temperature-related mortality risk, we present maps of probabilistic projections for human mortality at seasonal to decadal time scales. We demonstrate the information gained from using this technique compared to more

  7. Design for Reliability and Robustness Tool Platform for Power Electronic Systems – Study Case on Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    conventional approach, mainly based on failure statistics from the field, the reliability evaluation of the power devices is still a challenging task. In order to address the given problem, a MATLAB based reliability assessment tool has been developed. The Design for Reliability and Robustness (DfR2) tool...... allows the user to easily investigate the reliability performance of the power electronic components (or sub-systems) under given input mission profiles and operating conditions. The main concept of the tool and its framework are introduced, highlighting the reliability assessment procedure for power...... semiconductor devices. Finally, a motor drive application is implemented and the reliability performance of the power devices is investigated with the help of the DfR2 tool, and the resulting reliability metrics are presented....

  8. PULSE OXIMETRY AS A POTENTIAL SCREENING TOOL FOR LOWER EXTREMITY ARTERIAL DISEASE IN ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Nair Kailasanadhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India, with a population greater than 1.1 billion, has the dubious distinction of having a larger number of people with diabetes than any other country in the world. It was estimated in the year. 2000 that there are 32 million diabetes patients. Diabetic foot ulcers will complicate the disease in more than 15% of these people during their life time. Foot ulcers precede more than 80% of non-traumatic lower limb amputation. Individuals with diabetes had a tenfold higher overall amputation prevalence than did people without diabetes, 2.8% versus 0.29%. MATERIALS AND METHODS A Cross sectional study was done in the department of general surgery, Government Medical College Kottayam and Diabetic Clinic, Kottayam Medical College, from April 1, 2013 to October 1, 2013. RESULTS Out of 150 patients studied 83 were males and 67 were females and 95 patients (63.3% had POVD Statically significant association was found between POVD and age, history of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking, alcoholism, duration of diabetes mellitus and family history of hypertension/diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Sensitivity and specificity of Pulse Oximetry in diagnosing POVD is 80% and 92.7% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of ABPI in diagnosing POVD is 77.9% and 89.1% respectively. CONCLUSION Pulse Oximetry is an accurate and efficient screening tool for POVD in patients with diabetes mellitus. It can be incorporated to regular outpatient visits of Diabetes patients for early detection of POVD.

  9. Heuristic and probabilistic wind power availability estimation procedures: Improved tools for technology and site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.A. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Parker, Paul [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Geography, Environmental Studies

    2007-04-15

    The paper describes two investigative procedures to estimate wind power from measured wind velocities. Wind velocity data are manipulated to visualize the site potential by investigating the probable wind power availability and its capacity to meet a targeted demand. The first procedure is an availability procedure that looks at the wind characteristics and its probable energy capturing profile. This profile of wind enables the probable maximum operating wind velocity profile for a selected wind turbine design to be predicted. The structured procedures allow for a consequent adjustment, sorting and grouping of the measured wind velocity data taken at different time intervals and hub heights. The second procedure is the adequacy procedure that investigates the probable degree of availability and the application consequences. Both procedures are programmed using MathCAD symbolic mathematical software. The math tool is used to generate a visual interpolation of the data as well as numerical results from extensive data sets that exceed the capacity of conventional spreadsheet tools. Two sites located in Southern Ontario, Canada are investigated using the procedures. Successful implementation of the procedures supports informed decision making where a hill site is shown to have much higher wind potential than that measured at the local airport. The process is suitable for a wide spectrum of users who are considering the energy potential for either a grid-tied or off-grid wind energy system. (author)

  10. LEVELS OF EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM OVERHEAD POWER LINES IN THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAMALLAH CITY-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasbi, Falastine; Lahham, Adnan; Abdel-Raziq, Issam Rashid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, levels of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields originated from overhead power lines were investigated in the outdoor environment in Ramallah city, Palestine. Spot measurements were applied to record fields intensities over 6-min period. The Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 was used to perform measurements at 1 m above ground level and directly underneath 40 randomly selected power lines distributed fairly within the city. Levels of electric fields varied depending on the line's category (power line, transformer or distributor), a minimum mean electric field of 3.9 V/m was found under a distributor line, and a maximum of 769.4 V/m under a high-voltage power line (66 kV). However, results of electric fields showed a log-normal distribution with the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of 35.9 and 2.8 V/m, respectively. Magnetic fields measured at power lines, on contrast, were not log-normally distributed; the minimum and maximum mean magnetic fields under power lines were 0.89 and 3.5 μT, respectively. As a result, none of the measured fields exceeded the ICNIRP's guidelines recommended for general public exposures to extremely low-frequency fields.

  11. Influence of the control system on wind turbine loads during power production in extreme turbulence: Structural reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    structural reliability are assessed when the extreme turbulence model is uncertain. The structural reliability is assessed for the wind turbine when three configurations of an industrial grade load alleviation control system of increasing complexity and performance are used. The load alleviation features......The wind energy industry is continuously researching better computational models of wind inflow and turbulence to predict extreme loading (the nature of randomness) and their corresponding probability of occurrence. Sophisticated load alleviation control systems are increasingly being designed...... and deployed to specifically reduce the adverse effects of extreme load events resulting in lighter structures. The main objective herein is to show that despite large uncertainty in the extreme turbulence models, advanced load alleviation control systems yield both a reduction in magnitude and scatter...

  12. Crowd Sourcing for Conservation: Web 2.0 a Powerful Tool for Biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Boyd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent and adoption of Web 2.0 technologies offers a powerful approach to enhancing the capture of information in natural resource ecology, notably community knowledge of species distributions. Such information has previously been collected using, for example, postal surveys; these are typically inefficient, with low response rates, high costs, and requiring respondents to be spatially literate. Here we describe an example, using the Google Maps Application Programming Interface, to discuss the opportunities such tools provide to conservation biology. Toad Tracker was created as a prototype to demonstrate the utility of this technology to document the distribution of an invasive vertebrate pest species, the cane toad, within Australia. While the technological aspects of this tool are satisfactory, manager resistance towards its use raises issues around the public nature of the technology, the collaborative (non-expert role in data collection, and data ownership. We conclude in suggesting that, for such tools to be accepted by non-innovation adopters, work is required on both the technological aspects and, importantly, a cultural change is required to create an environment of acceptance of the shifting relationship between authority, expertise and knowledge.

  13. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT USING ABC AND BSC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Dwivedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic, uncertain and highly competitive business environment, the long term success of an organization critically depends on the perceptions, choices and actions of its managers regarding their strategies. Activity based costing (ABC and balanced scorecard (BSC are the modern day management approaches acknowledged as reliable tools for strategy formulation and implementation in an organization. In this paper, ABC and BSC models are separately proposed and applied in the merry-go-round (MGR department of an Indian thermal power plant. The results elicited from adoption of these two models in the said power plant provide more accurate, timely, and reliable operational and financial information at different activity levels of the organization, which would help in effective strategic and tactical decision making. Even though, there are limited published research papers related to application of ABC model in power plants, none of them has adopted ABC and BSC techniques in an Indian contextual environment. Additionally, an integrated ABC-BSC model is designed to harness the complementary synergies of both ABC and BSC models.

  15. Beyond Jeopardy and Lectures: Using "Microsoft PowerPoint" as a Game Design Tool to Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael; Toker, Sacip

    2011-01-01

    To date, research involving homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional tool has not shown statistically significant gains in student performance. This paper examines the results of a study comparing the performance of students in a high school chemistry course who created homemade PowerPoint games as a test review with the students who used a…

  16. Development of RCM methodology and tools for EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Bouchet, J.L.; Despujols, A.; Dewailly, J.; Martin-Mattei, C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, EDF launched a Reliability-Centered Maintenance project for its nuclear plants. This 'OMF' project aims at developing methods and tools for analysis and in the first phase, applying these to one initial system (the pilot study). The results of the pilot study have confirmed the advantages of the 'OMF' analytical method: the prospects for the approach on an industrial scale are extremely promising. It should be noted that the precision of our 'OMF' analysis is not doubt superior to that common in other industrial domains (MSG/RCM analysis). The particular approach implies analysis of systems and components and, most importantly, integration of operation feedback, with a view to developing a rigorous maintenance program which can constantly be updated. In addition to the defining and implementing the method, the review of designing software aids has begun. The pilot study clearly pointed up the need for such aids in handling the necessary volume of information and assisting experts in their analysis. The EDF 'OMF' workstation (and its environment) will be used not only in preparing the 'initial' maintenance program but also in updating it during the 'living' program phase. (author)

  17. Development of RCM methodology and tools for EDF nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Bouchet, J.L.; Despujols, A.; Dewailly, J.; Martin-Mattei, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France)

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, EDF launched a Reliability-Centered Maintenance project for its nuclear plants. This `OMF` project aims at developing methods and tools for analysis and in the first phase, applying these to one initial system (the pilot study). The results of the pilot study have confirmed the advantages of the `OMF` analytical method: the prospects for the approach on an industrial scale are extremely promising. It should be noted that the precision of our `OMF` analysis is not doubt superior to that common in other industrial domains (MSG/RCM analysis). The particular approach implies analysis of systems and components and, most importantly, integration of operation feedback, with a view to developing a rigorous maintenance program which can constantly be updated. In addition to the defining and implementing the method, the review of designing software aids has begun. The pilot study clearly pointed up the need for such aids in handling the necessary volume of information and assisting experts in their analysis. The EDF `OMF` workstation (and its environment) will be used not only in preparing the `initial` maintenance program but also in updating it during the `living` program phase. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  19. Data-Mining – A Valuable Managerial Tool for Improving Power Plants Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy and environment are top priorities for the EU’s Europe 2020 Strategy. Both fields imply complex approaches and consistent investment. The paper presents an alternative to large investments to improve the efficiencies of existing (outdated power installations: namely the use of data-mining techniques for analysing existing operational data. Data-mining is based upon exhaustive analysis of operational records, inferring high-value information by simply processing records with advanced mathematical / statistical tools. Results can be: assessment of the consistency of measurements, identification of new hardware needed for improving the quality of data, deducing the most efficient level for operation (internal benchmarking, correlation of consumptions with power/ heat production, of technical parameters with environmental impact, scheduling the optimal maintenance time, fuel stock optimization, simulating scenarios for equipment operation, anticipating periods of maximal stress of equipment, identification of medium and long term trends, planning and decision support for new investment, etc. The paper presents a data mining process carried out at the TERMICA - Suceava power plant. The analysis calls for a multidisciplinary approach, a complex team (experts in power&heat production, mechanics, environmental protection, economists, and last but not least IT experts and can be carried out with lower expenses than an investment in new equipment. Involvement of top management of the company is essential, being the driving force and motivation source for the data-mining team. The approach presented is self learning as once established, the data-mining analytical, modelling and simulation procedures and associated parameter databases can adjust themselves by absorbing and processing new relevant information and can be used on a long term basis for monitoring the performance of the installation, certifying the soundness of managerial measures taken

  20. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Soerensen, Poul.; Cutululis, N.; Jauch, C.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risoe-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database built-op and developed during several national research projects, carried out at Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and Aalborg University, in the period 2001-2007. The overall objective of these projects was to create a wind turbine model database able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. The main attention in the report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of the following wind turbine concepts: (1) Fixed speed active stall wind turbine concept (2) Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept (3) Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine

  1. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo; Peng, Guanyun

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function

  2. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo, E-mail: csuxiaobo123456@163.com [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Guanyun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  3. Reliability centered maintenance as an optimization tool for electrical power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Bryla, P.; Martin-Mattei, C.; Meuwisse, C.

    1997-08-01

    Seven years ago, Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot project to optimize preventive maintenance for its nuclear power plants. After a feasibility study, a RCM method was standardized. It is now applied on a large scale to the 50 EDF nuclear units. A RCM workstation based on this standardized method has been developed and is now used in each plant. In the next step, it is considered whether a Risk based Approach can be included in this RCM process in order to analyze critical passive components such as pipes and supports. Considering the potential advantages of these optimization techniques, a dedicated process has been also developed for maintenance of future plants, gas turbines, or nuclear units. A survey of these different developments of methods and tools is presented. (author)

  4. DR2DI: a powerful computational tool for predicting novel drug-disease associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yu, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Finding the new related candidate diseases for known drugs provides an effective method for fast-speed and low-risk drug development. However, experimental identification of drug-disease associations is expensive and time-consuming. This motivates the need for developing in silico computational methods that can infer true drug-disease pairs with high confidence. In this study, we presented a novel and powerful computational tool, DR2DI, for accurately uncovering the potential associations between drugs and diseases using high-dimensional and heterogeneous omics data as information sources. Based on a unified and extended similarity kernel framework, DR2DI inferred the unknown relationships between drugs and diseases using Regularized Kernel Classifier. Importantly, DR2DI employed a semi-supervised and global learning algorithm which can be applied to uncover the diseases (drugs) associated with known and novel drugs (diseases). In silico global validation experiments showed that DR2DI significantly outperforms recent two approaches for predicting drug-disease associations. Detailed case studies further demonstrated that the therapeutic indications and side effects of drugs predicted by DR2DI could be validated by existing database records and literature, suggesting that DR2DI can be served as a useful bioinformatic tool for identifying the potential drug-disease associations and guiding drug repositioning. Our software and comparison codes are freely available at https://github.com/huayu1111/DR2DI.

  5. The fault tree as a tool in safety analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.G.; Wild, A.

    1981-01-01

    Modern safety analysis must be able to identify realistic failure modes based on realistic operation and system malfunction, demonstrate rigorously that adequate independence exists between a malfunctioning system and those other systems required to mitigate the effects of the malfunction, design adequate reliability into systems important to plant safety and to demonstrate rigorously that the design reliability is met in operation, and identify the realistic actions expected of the operator. Fault trees, which have proved to be a powerful tool to achieve these objectives, are inevitably large and must be computerized. However, the computerized system must be simple, must allow merging of branches developed independently, must provide for easy modification and the processing must be economical and easily accessible. A new system for displaying, plotting and analysing fault trees has been developed and implemented on a small computer at AECB to demonstrate the viability of the approach to designers, and to provide a tool to assess licensee's submissions on failure modes of support systems such as electrical, service water and air, and to assess reliability predictions for special safety systems. (author)

  6. DR2DI: a powerful computational tool for predicting novel drug-disease associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yu, Hua

    2018-04-01

    Finding the new related candidate diseases for known drugs provides an effective method for fast-speed and low-risk drug development. However, experimental identification of drug-disease associations is expensive and time-consuming. This motivates the need for developing in silico computational methods that can infer true drug-disease pairs with high confidence. In this study, we presented a novel and powerful computational tool, DR2DI, for accurately uncovering the potential associations between drugs and diseases using high-dimensional and heterogeneous omics data as information sources. Based on a unified and extended similarity kernel framework, DR2DI inferred the unknown relationships between drugs and diseases using Regularized Kernel Classifier. Importantly, DR2DI employed a semi-supervised and global learning algorithm which can be applied to uncover the diseases (drugs) associated with known and novel drugs (diseases). In silico global validation experiments showed that DR2DI significantly outperforms recent two approaches for predicting drug-disease associations. Detailed case studies further demonstrated that the therapeutic indications and side effects of drugs predicted by DR2DI could be validated by existing database records and literature, suggesting that DR2DI can be served as a useful bioinformatic tool for identifying the potential drug-disease associations and guiding drug repositioning. Our software and comparison codes are freely available at https://github.com/huayu1111/DR2DI.

  7. The Power of Digital Storytelling as a Culturally Relevant Health Promotion Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Katherine J; Halter, Amy; Marchello, Nathan; Escareño, Monica; Thompson, Beti

    2016-11-01

    Digital storytelling is an emergent method in health promotion. It addresses health inequities by combining technology with the voices of members of vulnerable, often underrepresented populations. The overall goal of this pilot project was to explore if digital storytelling could be a culturally relevant health promotion tool for Hispanics/Latinos to share their experiences with cancer, or other diseases. Promotores participated in a train-the-trainer workshop. Community members worked with trained promotores to create digital stories through community workshops. We conducted one-on-one interviews with digital story creators to elicit perspectives and assess their experience. One overarching theme among storytellers was the power of storytelling. Supporting subthemes that emerged in the interviews were (1) connection and communication, (2) lack of opportunities and barriers to telling stories, and (3) potential for disease prevention awareness and education. This study found digital storytelling to be culturally relevant for Hispanics/Latinos of Mexican origin. For these storytellers it was a uniquely valuable tool for sharing personal stories of overcoming or managing health issues. Participants found the digital story experience to be positive and beneficial. It provided a healing outlet to reflect on a difficult experience and find support within one's own community. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and sustainability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO 2 /MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind power production

  9. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit. (paper)

  10. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  11. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  12. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  13. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  14. Survey on the use of configuration risk and safety management tools at nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Read, J.W.; Dagan, W.J.; Bidwell, D.A.

    1998-09-01

    In order to provide input to Electricite de France's (EDF) evaluation of the use of configuration safety and risk management tools in the French plants and to collect information to guide the EPRI efforts to provide useful tools for the EPRI member utilities and international partners, a joint effort to survey US and selected non-US nuclear power stations was conducted. This survey examined the use of various approaches, techniques, and software tools that are being used to evaluate the safety and risk aspects of plant configuration changes and configuration changes during plant outages as well as during power operation. The use of these tools has increased in recent years as a result of efforts to optimize plant maintenance programs, improve plant safety, and increase plant reliability and availability. This report provides the results of the survey of 37 organizations covering 54 nuclear plant sites and 97 reactor units

  15. Assessment of extreme hydrological conditions in the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea, and the impact of the nuclear power plant "Hanhikivi-1" on the local thermal regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Anton Y.; Martyanov, Stanislav D.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Eremina, Tatjana R.; Isaev, Alexey V.; Sein, Dmitry V.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study aimed to assess the influence of future nuclear power plant Hanhikivi-1 upon the local thermal conditions in the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea are presented. A number of experiments with different numerical models were also carried out in order to estimate the extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in the area of the construction. The numerical experiments were fulfilled both with analytically specified external forcing and with real external forcing for 2 years: a cold year (2010) and a warm year (2014). The study has shown that the extreme values of sea level and water temperature and the characteristics of wind waves and sea ice in the vicinity of the future nuclear power plant can be significant and sometimes catastrophic. Permanent release of heat into the marine environment from an operating nuclear power plant will lead to a strong increase in temperature and the disappearance of ice cover within a 2 km vicinity of the station. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future.

  16. A powerful transgenic tool for fate mapping and functional analysis of newly generated neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Weisenhorn Daniela M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of appropriate tools and techniques to study fate and functional integration of newly generated neurons has so far hindered understanding of neurogenesis' relevance under physiological and pathological conditions. Current analyses are either dependent on mitotic labeling, for example BrdU-incorporation or retroviral infection, or on the detection of transient immature neuronal markers. Here, we report a transgenic mouse model (DCX-CreERT2 for time-resolved fate analysis of newly generated neurons. This model is based on the expression of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a doublecortin (DCX promoter, which is specific for immature neuronal cells in the CNS. Results In the DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mice, expression of CreERT2 was restricted to DCX+ cells. In the CNS of transgenic embryos and adult DCX-CreERT2 mice, tamoxifen administration caused the transient translocation of CreERT2 to the nucleus, allowing for the recombination of loxP-flanked sequences. In our system, tamoxifen administration at E14.5 resulted in reporter gene activation throughout the developing CNS of transgenic embryos. In the adult CNS, neurogenic regions were the primary sites of tamoxifen-induced reporter gene activation. In addition, reporter expression could also be detected outside of neurogenic regions in cells physiologically expressing DCX (e.g. piriform cortex, corpus callosum, hypothalamus. Four weeks after recombination, the vast majority of reporter-expressing cells were found to co-express NeuN, revealing the neuronal fate of DCX+ cells upon maturation. Conclusions This first validation demonstrates that our new DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mouse model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate neurogenesis, migration and their long-term fate of neuronal precursors. Moreover, it allows for a targeted activation or deletion of specific genes in neuronal precursors and will thereby contribute to unravel the molecular

  17. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  18. Smart grids and power systems efficiency: regulatory tools and demand-side management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The physical architecture of electricity grids and the organizational structure of power systems implemented after the reforms have traditionally be achieved according to the characteristics of the transmission infrastructures and power mixes. However, the new challenges related to energy transition favor a greater participation of decentralized generation and final consumers to system exploitation and competitive markets. This latter participation is made possible thanks to recent innovations in the fields of communication and remote control technologies. Significant evolutions are expected in power industries that share common characteristics. First, these evolutions suppose massive capital investments to modernize and adapt current power distribution grids. Second, it is expected the activation of distribution grids and final consumers will unleash substantial unexploited economic efficiency gains as well as impose new constraints. Taking these simple facts as a starting point, the objective of the thesis is twofold. In the first place, we provide a theoretical analysis of the regulatory instruments that monitor the system operators' expenses. Relying on the literature, we aim at characterizing what regulatory tools and incitation are suitable for investing in smart grids technologies. Since it is necessary to compare theoretical formulation to facts, we use an empirical approach that allows us to designate key benefits pursued by the development of smart grids and to compare our theoretical results with practical regulatory applications. Our findings eventually allow us to formulate recommendations. In the second place, the thesis focuses on the impacts of demand-side management during peak periods. We structure our approach around two general observations. Large benefits should be generated in lowering substantially peak demand. However, such situation also creates losses of profit for generators. We provide an estimation of efficiency gains and revenue losses

  19. Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful diagnostic tool for accurate determination of albumin glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future.

  20. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  2. Means of supply of extremely low-sulphur oil to the power plants of Stenungsund and Karlshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The power plants in question are estimated to produce 10 TWh electric power per year and use about 2.4 Mtons of heavy fuel oil. This will imply a considerable increase of emission of acidifying sulphur oxides. The report discusses the cost of supplying low-sulphur fuel oils. The cost is compared with the cost of the installation of desulphurization of flue gas, oils or gasification

  3. The Whisper Relaxation Sounder onboard Cluster: A Powerful Tool for Space Plasma Diagnosis around the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, J.G.; Decreau, P.M.E.; Rauch, J.L.; LeGuirriec, E.; Canu, P.; Darrouzet, F.

    2001-01-01

    The WHISPER relaxation sounder that is onboard the four CLUSTER spacecraft has for main scientific objectives to monitor the natural waves in the 2 kHz - 80 kHz frequency range and, mostly, to determine the total plasma density from the solar wind down to the Earth's plasmasphere. To fulfil these objectives, the WHISPER uses the two long double sphere antennae of the Electric Field and Wave experiment as transmitting and receiving sensors. In its active working mode, the WHISPER works according to principles that have been worked out for topside sounding. A radio wave transmitter sends an almost monochromatic and short wave train. A few milliseconds after, a receiver listens to the surrounding plasma response. Strong and long lasting echoes are actually received whenever the transmitting frequencies coincide with characteristic plasma frequencies. Provided that these echoes, also called resonances, may be identified, the WHISPER relaxation sounder becomes a reliable and powerful tool for plasma diagnosis. When the transmitter is off, the WHISPER behaves like a passive receiver, allowing natural waves to be monitored. The paper aims mainly at the resonance identification process description and the WHISPER capabilities and performance highlighting. (author)

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment- a tool for configuration control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya, A.K.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive configuration control programme implies a sophisticated set of risk related measures to manage and control concurrent unavailabilities of components, the possibility of functional alternative components, the outage times of the unavailable components and the frequency of critical configurations. These measures are implemented through operational and maintenance activities such as maintenance and test scheduling and scheduling of operational realignments. An appropriate risk based configuration control programme would enable plant personnel to maintain the risk level of the nuclear power plant within an acceptable range during all the operational regimes. Use of plant specific PSA to support configuration control makes it risk based. The PSA can help to identify the measures needed according to the situation to reduce risk to acceptable level. The main benefit of establishing a risk based configuration control programme is the reduction of risk peaks and the control of cumulative or average risk. It helps to ensure that as far as possible, the plant does not enter the critical, high risk situations and other risk significant configurations are avoided A plant specific PSA along with a 'Risk Monitor' can be used as an efficient tool for Configuration Control. (author)

  5. A system dynamic simulation model for managing the human error in power tools industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Jastini Mohd; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd

    2017-10-01

    In the era of modern and competitive life of today, every organization will face the situations in which the work does not proceed as planned when there is problems occur in which it had to be delay. However, human error is often cited as the culprit. The error that made by the employees would cause them have to spend additional time to identify and check for the error which in turn could affect the normal operations of the company as well as the company's reputation. Employee is a key element of the organization in running all of the activities of organization. Hence, work performance of the employees is a crucial factor in organizational success. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that cause the increasing errors make by employees in the organization by using system dynamics approach. The broadly defined targets in this study are employees in the Regional Material Field team from purchasing department in power tools industries. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents to obtain their perceptions on the root cause of errors make by employees in the company. The system dynamics model was developed to simulate the factor of the increasing errors make by employees and its impact. The findings of this study showed that the increasing of error make by employees was generally caused by the factors of workload, work capacity, job stress, motivation and performance of employees. However, this problem could be solve by increased the number of employees in the organization.

  6. You talkin' to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Powerful Tools for Caregivers, a Group Psychoeducational Skill-Building Intervention for Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Rosney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care providers consistently report negative consequences to their mental health as a direct result of their caregiving responsibilities. Specifically, they describe higher levels of distress, mental health problems, and depressive symptoms compared to their non-caregiving matched controls. Powerful Tools for Caregivers (PTC is a national program that aims to empower caregivers to better care for themselves and enhance their self-efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to determine and quantify the effectiveness of the PTC program through pre/post data analysis. Methods: PTC intervention was evaluated at two questionnaire time points: pre-PTC and post-PTC between June 30, 2004 and Oct 16, 2013. Paired sample t-tests (n=409 were conducted using SPSS Statistics Version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: PTC increased caregivers who conducted self-care behaviors, who demonstrated self-efficacy, management of depressing emotions and those who used community resources. Conclusion: PTC results in caregivers reporting that they are taking better care of themselves, reacting to their emotions in a healthier manner, gaining more confidence in their caregiving abilities and coping skills, and becoming more knowledgeable about receiving assistance from their community resources.

  8. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering in The 21st Century : A Powerful Tool For Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-Kartini

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs) have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21 st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC) in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However,the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results. (author)

  9. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  10. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering In the 21st Century: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However, the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results.

  11. Seeded emulsion polymerization as a powerful tool for the biofunctionalization of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habercorn, Lasse; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Kloust, Hauke Christian; Feld, Artur; Schmidtke, Christian; Wolter, Christopher; Janschel, Marcus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Ostermann, Johannes [Center for Applied Nanotechnology GmbH, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Weller, Horst [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Center for Applied Nanotechnology GmbH, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-18

    With the polymer encapsulation of quantum dots via seeded emulsion polymerization we present a powerful tool for the preparation of fluorescent nanoparticles with an extraordinary stability in aqueous solution. The method of the seeded emulsion polymerization allows a straightforward and simple in situ functionalization of the polymer shell under preserving the optical properties of the quantum dots. These requirements are inevitable for the application of semiconductor nanoparticles as markers for biomedical applications. Polymer encapsulated quantum dots have shown only a marginal loss of quantum yields when they were exposed to copper(II)-ions. Under normal conditions the quantum dots were totally quenched in presence of copper(II)-ions. Furthermore, a broad range of in situ functionalized polymer-coated quantum dots were obtained by addition of functional monomers or surfactants like fluorescent dye molecules, antibodies or specific DNA aptamers. Furthermore the emulsion polymerization can be used to prepare multifunctional hybrid systems, combining different nanoparticles within one construct without any adverse effect of the properties of the starting materials.{sup 1,2}.

  12. Seeded emulsion polymerization as a powerful tool for the biofunctionalization of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habercorn, Lasse; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Kloust, Hauke Christian; Feld, Artur; Schmidtke, Christian; Wolter, Christopher; Janschel, Marcus; Ostermann, Johannes; Weller, Horst

    2016-01-01

    With the polymer encapsulation of quantum dots via seeded emulsion polymerization we present a powerful tool for the preparation of fluorescent nanoparticles with an extraordinary stability in aqueous solution. The method of the seeded emulsion polymerization allows a straightforward and simple in situ functionalization of the polymer shell under preserving the optical properties of the quantum dots. These requirements are inevitable for the application of semiconductor nanoparticles as markers for biomedical applications. Polymer encapsulated quantum dots have shown only a marginal loss of quantum yields when they were exposed to copper(II)-ions. Under normal conditions the quantum dots were totally quenched in presence of copper(II)-ions. Furthermore, a broad range of in situ functionalized polymer-coated quantum dots were obtained by addition of functional monomers or surfactants like fluorescent dye molecules, antibodies or specific DNA aptamers. Furthermore the emulsion polymerization can be used to prepare multifunctional hybrid systems, combining different nanoparticles within one construct without any adverse effect of the properties of the starting materials."1","2

  13. AMS. A powerful tool for probing nucleosynthesis via long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) will be demonstrated on typical radionuclides of interest with half-lives between some years and up to hundred million years. The Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) represents a state-of-the-art AMS facility which provides the ability for quantifying nuclides over the whole mass range. At VERA, AMS is used for quantifying long-lived radionuclides within a wide range of applications - from archaeology to astrophysics. Lack of information on cross section data exists for a list of nuclides pointed out by nuclear data requests. The potential of AMS as a powerful tool for probing nucleosynthesis will be demonstrated by means of some prime examples. Recent developments in the technique of AMS will be highlighted and some applications of AMS in astrophysics will be discussed. In addition, an overview on detection limits, measurement precision as well as the recent measurement program at VERA for quantifying such long-lived radionuclides will be presented. (author)

  14. Polysun. PV, wind and power-heat-cogeneration in one design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, Baptiste; Wolf, Andreas; Witzig, Andreas [Vela Solaris AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Maerklin, Adrian [Envergate GmbH, Horn (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the simulation software Polysun is presented, which by its fundamental concept favors the combination of several energy sources (e.g. PV, Solarthermal, oil/gas boiler) and consumers (heating, sanitary hot water, swimming pool) in one simulation setup. It is discussed how the state-of-the-art small wind turbines and power-heat-cogeneration shall be integrated into the simulation tool Polysun. A close collaboration between Vela Solaris and the manufacturer is important for model validation as well as for the building up of the Polysun component database. Wind measurement results are presented from the manufacturer Envergate, which is a typical partner of choice for such collaboration. The modular concept of Polysun provides the ideal basis for communicating the advantages of new hybrid systems in de-centralized electicity production both for educational purposes as well as in renewable energy system marketing and sales. Physics-based simulation and prediction of system performance helps in the decision phase and supports the implementation of modern energy efficient and/or renewable energy systems. (orig.)

  15. Microencapsulation Technology: A Powerful Tool for Integrating Expansion and Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors. The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics. Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks. This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications. PMID:21850261

  16. Benefits for wind energy in electricity markets from using short term wind power prediction tools: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usaola, J.; Ravelo, O.; Gonzalez, G.; Soto, F.; Davila, M.C.; Diaz-Guerra, B.

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of wind energy, from the grid point of view, is its non-dispatchability, i.e. generation cannot be ordered, hence integration in electrical networks may be difficult. Short-term wind power prediction-tools could make this integration easier, either by their use by the grid System Operator, or by promoting the participation of wind farms in the electricity markets and using prediction tools to make their bids in the market. In this paper, the importance of a short-term wind power-prediction tool for the participation of wind energy systems in electricity markets is studied. Simulations, according to the current Spanish market rules, have been performed to the production of different wind farms, with different degrees of accuracy in the prediction tool. It may be concluded that income from participation in electricity markets is increased using a short-term wind power prediction-tool of average accuracy. This both marginally increases income and also reduces the impact on system operation with the improved forecasts. (author)

  17. DP-THOT - a calculational tool for bundle-specific decay power based on actual irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.; Morrison, C.A.; Albasha, H.; Arguner, D.

    2005-01-01

    A tool has been created for calculating the decay power of an individual fuel bundle to take account of its actual irradiation history, as tracked by the fuel management code SORO. The DP-THOT tool was developed in two phases: first as a standalone executable code for decay power calculation, which could accept as input an entirely arbitrary irradiation history; then as a module integrated with SORO auxiliary codes, which directly accesses SORO history files to retrieve the operating power history of the bundle since it first entered the core. The methodology implemented in the standalone code is based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1994 formulation, which has been specifically adapted for calculating decay power in irradiated CANDU reactor fuel, by making use of fuel type specific parameters derived from WIMS lattice cell simulations for both 37 element and 28 element CANDU fuel bundle types. The approach also yields estimates of uncertainty in the calculated decay power quantities, based on the evaluated error in the decay heat correlations built-in for each fissile isotope, in combination with the estimated uncertainty in user-supplied inputs. The method was first implemented in the form of a spreadsheet, and following successful testing against decay powers estimated using the code ORIGEN-S, the algorithm was coded in FORTRAN to create an executable program. The resulting standalone code, DP-THOT, accepts an arbitrary irradiation history and provides the calculated decay power and estimated uncertainty over any user-specified range of cooling times, for either 37 element or 28 element fuel bundles. The overall objective was to produce an integrated tool which could be used to find the decay power associated with any identified fuel bundle or channel in the core, taking into account the actual operating history of the bundles involved. The benefit is that the tool would allow a more realistic calculation of bundle and channel decay powers for outage heat sink planning

  18. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  19. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-01-01

    .366) and B0222+185 (at z = 2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/X-ray Telescope, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when...

  20. Development and verification of a software tool for the acoustic location of partial discharge in a power transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polužanski Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and verification of software tool for determining the location of partial discharge in a power transformer with the acoustic method. Classification and systematization of physical principles and detection methods and tests of partial discharge in power transformers are shown at the beginning of this paper. The most important mathematical models, features, algorithms, and real problems that affect measurement accuracy are highlighted. This paper describes the development and implementation of a software tool for determining the location of partial discharge in a power transformer based on a no iterative mathematical algorithm. Verification and accuracy of measurement are proved both by computer simulation and experimental results available in the literature.

  1. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaramakrishnan, N.R.; Eswaran, G.; Gangamohan, M.; Sathish, A.V.; Ramasubramanian, K.V.; Gandhimathinathan, S.; Selvam, S.; Moolya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  2. Associations Between Measures of Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength/Power in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    It has frequently been reported that balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power are associated with sports-related and everyday activities. Knowledge about the relationship between balance, strength, and power are important for the identification of at-risk individuals because deficits in these neuromuscular components are associated with an increased risk of sustaining injuries and falls. In addition, this knowledge is of high relevance for the development of specifically tailored health and skill-related exercise programs. The objectives of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis were to characterize and, if possible, quantify associations between variables of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2015 to capture all relevant articles. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 996 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included only if they investigated healthy individuals aged ≥6 years and tested at least one measure of static steady-state balance (e.g., center of pressure [CoP] displacement during one-legged stance), dynamic steady-state balance (e.g., gait speed), proactive balance (e.g., distance in the functional-reach-test), or reactive balance (e.g., CoP displacement during perturbed one-legged stance), and one measure of maximal strength (e.g., maximum voluntary contraction), explosive force (e.g., rate of force development), or muscle power (e.g., jump height). In total, 37 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age (i.e., children: 6-12 years, adolescents: 13-18 years, young adults: 19-44 years, middle-aged adults: 45-64 years, old adults: ≥65 years), sex (i.e., female, male), and test modality/outcome (i.e., test for the assessment of balance

  3. Nano Superconducting Quantum Interference device: A powerful tool for nanoscale investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.granata@cnr.it; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2016-02-19

    The magnetic sensing at nanoscale level is a promising and interesting research topic of nanoscience. Indeed, magnetic imaging is a powerful tool for probing biological, chemical and physical systems. The study of small spin cluster, like magnetic molecules and nanoparticles, single electron, cold atom clouds, is one of the most stimulating challenges of applied and basic research of the next years. In particular, the magnetic nanoparticle investigation plays a fundamental role for the modern material science and its relative technological applications like ferrofluids, magnetic refrigeration and biomedical applications, including drug delivery, hyper-thermia cancer treatment and magnetic resonance imaging contrast-agent. Actually, one of the most ambitious goals of the high sensitivity magnetometry is the detection of elementary magnetic moment or spin. In this framework, several efforts have been devoted to the development of a high sensitivity magnetic nanosensor pushing sensing capability to the individual spin level. Among the different magnetic sensors, Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) exhibit an ultra high sensitivity and are widely employed in numerous applications. Basically, a SQUID consists of a superconducting ring (sensitive area) interrupted by two Josephson junctions. In the recent years, it has been proved that the magnetic response of nano-objects can be effectively measured by using a SQUID with a very small sensitive area (nanoSQUID). In fact, the sensor noise, expressed in terms of the elementary magnetic moment (spin or Bohr magneton), is linearly dependent on the SQUID loop side length. For this reason, SQUIDs have been progressively miniaturized in order to improve the sensitivity up to few spin per unit of bandwidth. With respect to other techniques, nanoSQUIDs offer the advantage of direct measurement of magnetization changes in small spin systems. In this review, we focus on nanoSQUIDs and its applications. In

  4. Extremely high-power-density atmospheric-pressure thermal plasma jet generated by the nitrogen-boosted effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Ryosuke; Nakano, Wataru; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effect of N2 addition to an atmospheric-pressure Ar thermal plasma jet (TPJ) on ultrarapid heating was investigated. With increasing N2 flow rate, a boost of arc voltage to ∼36 V was observed, which significantly improved heating characteristics. As a result, a drastic power density increase from 10 to 125 kW/cm2 was achieved with the addition of 2.0 L/min N2 to 3.0 L/min Ar. The results of optical emission analysis and heating characteristics evaluation implied that dissociation and recombination of N2 molecules and the high thermal transport property of nitrogen gas play important roles in the increase in TPJ power density. Furthermore, we obtained TPJ extension with N2 addition that reached 300 mm, and it showed spatial enhancement of heat transport characteristics.

  5. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  6. Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, C.; Dastarac, D.

    2000-01-01

    TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

  7. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  8. Coordinated clinical and financial analysis as a powerful tool to influence vendor pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine A; Wu, Roger Y; Mulley, Debra; Smith, Paul C; Schwaitzberg, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    -based managerial approach can create dialogue with vendors and directly impact pricing. Coordinated clinical and financial analysis is a powerful tool, enabling administrators, clinicians, and medical device suppliers to work constructively to provide patients access to innovative technology, even in the face of a challenging payer mix. Ongoing assessment of clinical outcomes and financial data must be performed to reflect the most up-to-date scientific and economic climate.

  9. VITMO - A Powerful Tool to Improve Discovery in the Magnetospheric and Ionosphere-Thermosphere Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Morrison, D.; Potter, M.; Stephens, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Talaat, E. R.; Sarris, T.

    2017-12-01

    With the advent of the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission and the Van Allen Probes we have space missions that probe the Earth's magnetosphere and radiation belts. These missions fly at far distances from the Earth in contrast to the larger number of near-Earth satellites. Both of the satellites make in situ measurements. Energetic particles flow along magnetic field lines from these measurement locations down to the ionosphere/thermosphere region. Discovering other data that may be used with these satellites is a difficult and complicated process. To solve this problem, we have developed a series of light-weight web services that can provide a new data search capability for the Virtual Ionosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO). The services consist of a database of spacecraft ephemerides and instrument fields of view; an overlap calculator to find times when the fields of view of different instruments intersect; and a magnetic field line tracing service that maps in situ and ground based measurements for a number of magnetic field models and geophysical conditions. These services run in real-time when the user queries for data and allow the non-specialist user to select data that they were previously unable to locate, opening up analysis opportunities beyond the instrument teams and specialists, making it easier for future students who come into the field. Each service on their own provides a useful new capability for virtual observatories; operating together they provide a powerful new search tool. The ephemerides service was built using the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE toolkit (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif/index.html) allowing them to be extended to support any Earth orbiting satellite with the addition of the appropriate SPICE kernels. The overlap calculator uses techniques borrowed from computer graphics to identify overlapping measurements in space and time. The calculator will allow a user defined uncertainty

  10. Variational principles are a powerful tool also for formulating field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Isola , Francesco; Placidi , Luca

    2012-01-01

    Variational principles and calculus of variations have always been an important tool for formulating mathematical models for physical phenomena. Variational methods give an efficient and elegant way to formulate and solve mathematical problems that are of interest for scientists and engineers and are the main tool for the axiomatization of physical theories

  11. Architectures/Algorithms/Tools for Ultra-Low Power, Compact EVA Digital Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EVA digital radio imposes tight constraints on power consumption, latency, throughput, form factor, reconfigurability, single event upset and fault tolerance,...

  12. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  13. An integrated simulation tool for analyzing the Operation and Interdependency of Natural Gas and Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAMBOUR Kwabena A.; CAKIR BURCIN; BOLADO LAVIN Ricardo; DIJKEMA Gerard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated simulation tool for analyzing the interdependency of natural gas and electric power systems in terms of security of energy supply. In the first part, we develop mathematical models for the individual systems. In part two, we identify the interconnections between both systems and propose a method for coupling the combined simulation model. Next, we develop the algorithm for solving the combined system and integrate this algorithm into a simulation softwa...

  14. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    : trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty....

  15. Power calculations using exact data simulation: A useful tool for genetic study designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, S.; Dolan, C.V.; Neale, M.C.; Posthuma, D.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical power calculations constitute an essential first step in the planning of scientific studies. If sufficient summary statistics are available, power calculations are in principle straightforward and computationally light. In designs, which comprise distinct groups (e.g., MZ & DZ twins),

  16. Evaluation of fatigue damage in nuclear power plants: evolution and new tools of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, R.; Corchon, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new fatigue mechanisms requiring analysis, tools developed for evaluation and the latest trends and studies that are currently working in the nuclear field, and allow proper management referring facilities the said degradation mechanism.

  17. Impacts of Extreme Space Weather Events on Power Grid Infrastructure: Physics-Based Modelling of Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GICs) During Carrington-Class Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Bent, R.; Chen, Y.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jeffery, C. A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Morley, S.; Rivera, M. K.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Engel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Large geomagnetic storms can have devastating effects on power grids. The largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded - called the Carrington Event - occurred in 1859 and produced Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) strong enough to set fires in telegraph offices. It has been estimated that if such a storm occurred today, it would have devastating, long-lasting effects on the North American power transmission infrastructure. Acutely aware of this imminent threat, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was recently instructed to establish requirements for transmission system performance during geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) events and, although the benchmarks adopted were based on the best available data at the time, they suffer from a severely limited physical understanding of the behavior of GMDs and the resulting GICs for strong events. To rectify these deficiencies, we are developing a first-of-its-kind data-informed modelling capability that will provide transformational understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the most harmful intense localized GMDs and their impacts on real power transmission networks. This work is being conducted in two separate modes of operation: (1) using historical, well-observed large storm intervals for which robust data-assimilation can be performed, and (2) extending the modelling into a predictive realm in order to assess impacts of poorly and/or never-before observed Carrington-class events. Results of this work are expected to include a potential replacement for the current NERC benchmarking methodology and the development of mitigation strategies in real power grid networks. We report on progress to date and show some preliminary results of modeling large (but not yet extreme) events.

  18. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  19. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-05

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs.

  20. Study on application of Doppler SODAR as meteorological observation tool at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayose, Naoto; Akai, Yukio.

    1993-01-01

    Among the remote sensing devices usable for meteorological observation, which became possible with the advent of modern science and technology, Doppler SODAR was selected for further study aimed at its practical application for nuclear power plants. This device was installed for testing purpose at a Japanese nuclear power and data collection (wind speed and direction) was carried out throughout one year there. The data on the selected SODAR have shown a correlation with those collected by the conventional method which is good enough to justify the SODAR's practical use at nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GiS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  2. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  3. Guide to robots and remote-controlled tools used in French nuclebar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of robots are used in French nuclear plants: 1) Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads 2) Autonomous tool carriers and 3) Multifunctional tool carriers. Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads have been designed to perform only maintenance activities inside the channel head of steam generators and especially on the tubes. The shape and size of these carriers are adapted to the channel heads which is their only application. Autonomous carriers are tank-type vehicles with full tractor treads and their capacity ranges from 20 to 150 kg. These vehicles are used mainly for televisual inspection of the instrumentation penetrations underneath the pressure vessel and the upper pressure vessel internal structures (inspection of control rod guide tube split pins). Multifunctional tool carriers are developed to perform exceptional maintenance tasks of a nongeneric type in an environment with very high irradiation fields, that are inaccessible to a human operator. This means that such tasks are not always clearly defined and their execution is liable to change during the process. The different tasks can be delicate to perform and highly complex, e.g.: recovering a dropped fuel element, underwater measuration, dismantling of mechanical equipment, etc

  4. Energy-Sustainable Framework and Performance Analysis of Power Scheme for Operating Systems: A Tool

    OpenAIRE

    G. Singh; P. K. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) devices has become more user-friendly, which raised the problem of power dissipation across the globe and computer systems are one among them. This emerging issue of power dissipation has imposed a very significant issue on the system and software design. The concept of ‘green computing’ gaining popularity and is being considered as one of the most promising technology by the designers of Information Technology (IT) industry, which ...

  5. Energy Bucket: A Tool for Power Profiling and Debugging of Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2009-01-01

    The ability to precisely measure and compare energy consumption and relate this to particular parts of programs is a recurring theme in sensor network research. This paper presents the Energy Bucket, a low-cost tool designed for quick empirical measurements of energy consumptions across 5 decades...... of current draw. The Energy Bucket provides a light-weight state API for the target system, which facilitates easy scorekeeping of energy consumption between different parts of a target program. We demonstrate how this tool can be used to discover programming errors and debug sensor network applications.......Furthermore, we show how this tool, together with the target system API, offers a very detailed analysis of where energy is spent in an application, which proves to be very useful when comparing alternative implementations or validating theoretical energy consumption models....

  6. Hard- and software of real time simulation tools of Electric Power System for adequate modeling power semiconductors in voltage source convertor based HVDC and FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices and High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC system as part of real electric power systems (EPS. For that, a hybrid approach for advanced simulation of the FACTS and HVDC based on Voltage Source is proposed. The presented simulation results of the developed hybrid model of VSC confirm the achievement of the desired properties of the model and the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  7. Electric drive for portable power tools with maximum power supply form the 230 Volt mains; Antriebskonzept fuer Elektrowerkzeuge und den Bezug maximaler Leistung aus dem einphasigen 230-Volt-Netz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Elektrotechnisches Inst.

    2007-07-01

    A new electric drive for hand-held tools and other portable power tools is described in this article. The novel drive concept is designed for the advantageous connection to common 230 V sockets. Based on its special power supply unit and a high drive efficiency a maximum power output about 2700 W can be achieved in continuous operation. Motor speed and gear ratio are adjustable. The drive concept is already used successfully in serial production of core drill machines. (orig.)

  8. Myositis registries and biorepositories: powerful tools to advance clinical, epidemiologic and pathogenic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G; Dankó, Katalin; Miller, Frederick W

    2014-11-01

    Clinical registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in many studies of diseases, especially rare diseases. Given their rarity and diversity, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, or myositis syndromes, have benefited from individual researchers' collections of cohorts of patients. Major efforts are being made to establish large registries and biorepositories that will allow many additional studies to be performed that were not possible before. Here, we describe the registries developed by investigators and patient support groups that are currently available for collaborative research purposes. We have identified 46 myositis research registries, including many with biorepositories, which have been developed for a wide variety of purposes and have resulted in great advances in understanding the range of phenotypes, clinical presentations, risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms, outcome assessment, therapeutic responses, and prognoses. These are now available for collaborative use to undertake additional studies. Two myositis patient registries have been developed for research, and myositis patient support groups maintain demographic registries with large numbers of patients available to be contacted for potential research participation. Investigator-initiated myositis research registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in understanding many aspects of these rare and diverse autoimmune diseases. These registries and biorepositories, in addition to those developed by myositis patient support groups, deserve continued support to maintain the momentum in this field as they offer major opportunities to improve understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases in cost-effective ways.

  9. MIRANDA: The EO-sensor Performance Tool Powered by EOSTAR-PRO - poster (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammel, S.H.; Tsintikidis, D.; Adonidis, M.; Degache, M.A.C.; Lange, D.J.J. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, considerable efforts have been made to assess the impact of theenvironment on EM and EO propagation. While encouraging progress has been made in the EM domain, few, if any, operational tools are available for the EO domain. As a consequence, no EO operational software,

  10. Monte Carlo simulation - a powerful tool to support experimental activities in structure reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuritzinn, T.; Chapuliot, S.; Eid, M.; Masson, R.; Dahl, A.; Moinereau, D.

    2003-01-01

    Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) can have different uses in supporting structure reliability investigations and assessments. In this paper we focus our interest on the use of MCS as a numerical tool to support the fitting of the experimental data related to toughness experiments. (authors)

  11. Educate at Penn State: Preparing Beginning Teachers with Powerful Digital Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Orrin T.; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    2008-01-01

    University based teacher education programs are slowly beginning to catch up to other professional programs that use modern digital tools to prepare students to enter professional fields. This discussion looks at how one teacher education program reached the conclusion that students and faculty would use notebook computers. Frequently referred to…

  12. Sims for Science: Powerful Tools to Support Inquiry-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Loeblein, Patricia J.; Dessau, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002, the PhET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado has been working to provide learning tools for students and teachers. The project has developed over 85 interactive simulations--or sims--for teaching and learning science. Although these sims can be used in a variety of ways, they are specifically designed to make…

  13. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2002-01-01

    and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana,Egypt is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between......The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment anddevelopment - that is, baseline development......, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, andrecommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application...

  14. Unavailability evaluation and allocation at the design stage for electric power plants. Methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouissou, M.; Bourgade, E.

    1997-01-01

    Electricite de France is currently carrying out a project called CIDEM with the objective of integrating availability operational feedback, and maintenance in the design of future power plants (especially nuclear power plants) in order to improve their profitability. The work reported in this paper was performed in the framework of the research part of the CIDEM project, managed by the R and D Division of EDF. The paper shows that the availability assessment of an electric power plant raises a number of specific modeling problems. Only fault-tree models have been used in spite of the fact that they are essentially static models: they can be calculated in very short times, especially with the new generation of fault-tree processing codes, based on BDDs (Binary Decision Diagrams). (author)

  15. Self-powered remotely controlled machines and tools for safety improvement in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaeva, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of meeting the safety requirements of mining industry for implementation of control and monitoring equipment without external wiring. Local power generation and accumulation combined with remote control and wireless data transmission are suggested as an appropriate way to make the implementation of such device safe and convenient, which in its turn would facilitate their wider application for automation and safety improvement. A rope shovel dipper trip system is discussed in detail as an example of a self-powered remotely-controlled system. Other possible applications of the concept are also identified, such as Armoured Face Conveyor (AFC) and water jet drilling operation monitoring. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  17. Interesting tools for the cybersecurity plan of a nuclear power plant; Herramientas de utilidad para el plan de Ciberseguridad de una Planta Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareja, I.; Carrasco, J. A.; Cerro, F. J. del

    2012-07-01

    The use of digital technologies in monitoring and control systems of nuclear power plants and their connectivity requirements, originate cybersecurity difficulties that should be addressed in a cybersecurity plan. This plan should guide the policies and procedures followed during the design maintenance and operation of the systems inside a nuclear power plant. It also should refer to adequate tools able to reach the established cybersecurity requirements. The combination of Datadiodes and tools for publishing video (like tVGA2web), permit an isolation and remote maintenance in a 100% safety way and their use should be disseminated. In the paper other type of tools useful for nuclear power plants are also mentioned.

  18. Harnessing the Power of Sibling Relationships as a Tool for Optimizing Social-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Bullock, Bernadette M.; Falkenstein, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationships provide one of the most stable and powerful developmental contexts for the transmission of both prosocial and antisocial behavior. As a source of support and skill development, sibling relationships can build competence in self-regulation and emotional understanding. However, sibling relationships marked by antisocial…

  19. Development of RCM methodology and tools for EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Bouchet, J.L.; Despujols, A.; Dewailly, J.; Martin-Mattei, C.

    1992-06-01

    This paper outlines the development of Reliability-Centered Maintenance procedures in the nuclear power industry. It presents the pilot study undertaken by EDF in the overall framework of its 'OMF' (RCM) project, as well as the potential for further improving and enriching analytical methods. Lastly, it gives the prospects for the future design of an 'OMF' workstation

  20. Evaluation and Design Tools for the Reliability of Wind Power Converter System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    grid. As a result, the correct assessment of reliable performance for power electronics is a crucial and emerging need; the assessment is essential for design improvement, as well as for the extension of converter lifetime and reduction of energy cost. Unfortunately, there still exists a lack...

  1. Robots provide valuable tools for waste processing at Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.; Volpe, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Millstone nuclear power station has begun an aggressive program to use robotics, which when properly used minimizes operating costs and exposure to personnel. This article describes several new ways of using existing robotic equipment to speed up work processes and provide solutions to difficult problems. The moisture separator pit and liquid radwaste are discussed

  2. Thermo-characterization of power systems components: a tool to diagnose their malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Aguilar, Alejandro; Royo, Javier; Rangel, Victor H.; Torres-Reyes, Ernestina

    2004-01-01

    Concepts on thermodynamic characterization of power system components are presented in this paper. The aim of this work is to evaluate and diagnose the actual operating condition for existing power plant components. What is more, a Reference Performance State (RPS) for power system components which uses the parameters defined as the enthalpy change, ω, the entropy change, σ and the Mass Flow Ratio design, MFR is put forward. Design information and simulation will help to determine the RPS for each component operating without any malfunction. The RPS can be used to compare, to evaluate and to diagnose the actual operating condition of the plant components so as to detect its possible malfunction. A simulated example of a 105 MW power plant is presented herein so that thermo-characterization of steam turbines, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and a pump is illustrated. The induced and intrinsic component malfunction effects on the RPS are also presented. Their effects are related to the RPS, thereby opening the possibility to apply methodologies to any internal decay and/or induced malfunctions that could appear in an operating component, in terms of the heat rate impact

  3. "You've Got the Power": Documentary Film as a Tool of Environmental Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2011-01-01

    Educators call for more creative means to combat the moribund narratives of contemporary environmentalism. Using visual methodology and environmental adult education theory, this article discusses how a documentary film titled "You've Got the Power" works to pose questions about complex environmental issues and develop critical thinking…

  4. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  5. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Muñoz; Julio César Reina; Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage...

  6. Power analysis as a tool to identify statistically informative indicators for monitoring coral reef disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Gilbert, Antoine; Guillemot, Nicolas; Heintz, Tom; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Extensive biological field surveys are costly and time consuming. To optimize sampling and ensure regular monitoring on the long term, identifying informative indicators of anthropogenic disturbances is a priority. In this study, we used 1800 candidate indicators by combining metrics measured from coral, fish, and macro-invertebrate assemblages surveyed from 2006 to 2012 in the vicinity of an ongoing mining project in the Voh-Koné-Pouembout lagoon, New Caledonia. We performed a power analysis to identify a subset of indicators which would best discriminate temporal changes due to a simulated chronic anthropogenic impact. Only 4% of tested indicators were likely to detect a 10% annual decrease of values with sufficient power (>0.80). Corals generally exerted higher statistical power than macro-invertebrates and fishes because of lower natural variability and higher occurrence. For the same reasons, higher taxonomic ranks provided higher power than lower taxonomic ranks. Nevertheless, a number of families of common sedentary or sessile macro-invertebrates and fishes also performed well in detecting changes: Echinometridae, Isognomidae, Muricidae, Tridacninae, Arcidae, and Turbinidae for macro-invertebrates and Pomacentridae, Labridae, and Chaetodontidae for fishes. Interestingly, these families did not provide high power in all geomorphological strata, suggesting that the ability of indicators in detecting anthropogenic impacts was closely linked to reef geomorphology. This study provides a first operational step toward identifying statistically relevant indicators of anthropogenic disturbances in New Caledonia's coral reefs, which can be useful in similar tropical reef ecosystems where little information is available regarding the responses of ecological indicators to anthropogenic disturbances.

  7. Toward a powerful problem-based training tool for harnessing lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, W. E.; Richards, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    One of the purposes of this paper is to describe a training method and supporting technologies (tool) to increase personnel awareness of error precursors. This model-centered method may be an effective 'part task training' to precede more expensive fall-blown multimedia scenarios (behavioral simulations). The training is designed to efficiently increase positive transfer from lessons learned case studies. The tool enables developers to take actual instances and inexpensively frame them within an interactive computer learning environment. The learning is engaging and helps model the kind of causal thinking needed to prevent future occurrences. This method and tool could help workers 'see' the problems and feel the need to take action when they are in real settings. Another purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into the process of designing and developing this training software. The benefits for attendees are insights that may enable more rapid proto-typing of software for training the workforce. The authors will present the models, methodologies, and patterns in the participants' design activities. Results show that participants used a cyclical, spiral process that revisited design topics until they were clarified. (authors)

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrese, Marica; Guarino, Vincenzo; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-02-13

    Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles).

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Marrese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles.

  10. Operational safety performance indicator system - a management tool for the self assessment of safety and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar; Mandowara, S.L.; Mittal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Operational Safety Performance Indicator system is one of the self assessment tools for station management to monitor safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. It provides information to station management about the performance of various areas of the plants by means of different colours of relevant performance indicators. Such systems have been implemented at many nuclear power plants in the world and have been considered as strength during WANO Peer Review. IAEA had a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on this with several countries participating including India. In NPCIL this system has been implemented in KAPS about a year back and found very useful in identifying areas which needs to be given more attention. Based on the KAPS feedback Implementation of this system has been taken up in RAPS-3 and 4 and KGS-l and 2. (author)

  11. Development of new generation software tools for simulation of electron beam formation in novel high power gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Benova, E.; Atanassov, V.; Dankov, P.; Thumm, M.; Dammertz, G.; Piosczyk, B.; Illy, S.; Tran, M. Q.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.-Ph

    2006-07-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) based on numerical experiments performed by using adequate physical models and efficient simulation codes is an indispensable tool for development, investigation, and optimization of gyrotrons used as radiation sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of fusion plasmas. In this paper, we review briefly the state-of-the-art in the field of modelling and simulation of intense, relativistic, helical electron beams formed in the electron-optical systems (EOS) of powerful gyrotrons. We discuss both the limitations of the known computer codes and the requirements for increasing their capabilities for solution of various design problems that are being envisaged in the development of the next generation gyrotrons for ECRH. Moreover, we present the concept followed by us in an attempt to unite the advantages of the modern programming techniques with self-consistent, first-principles 3D physical models in the creation of a new highly efficient and versatile software package for simulation of powerful gyrotrons.

  12. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  13. Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields in Hamedan High Electrical Power Stations and their Effects on Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani Shahna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electric and magnetic fields induced by electrical equipment is a significant issue in the environment and at the workplace due to their potential health effects on public health. The purpose of this study was assessment of the electric and magnetic fields intensities and determination of mental and psychological effects of occupational exposure in the high voltage electric power stations in the city of Hamadan, Iran. Material and Methods: The intensities of the magnetic and electric fields were measured at eight high voltage electric power stations at three different intervals of sources using an HI-3604 instrument. A two-part questionnaire was used to assess mental and psychological effects of the exposure to these fields. Two groups of control and case workers including 30 samples were selected to determine the exposure effects. Results: The results of field measurements showed the highest average electric field intensity was related to the CVT unit with 3110 V/m at a 2 m distance from the source and the lowest average was related to the control room with 1.35 V/m next to the source. Also, the highest and lowest magnetic field intensities were close to the transformator 2 and the battery room (50.42 and 1.31 mG, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The intensities of electric and magnetic fields in the selected stations are lower than the ACGIH and ICNIRP standard levels for occupational exposures. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of these fields was nonlinear around the sources and the effects observed on exposed workers were non-thermal.

  14. Probabilistic tools for planning and operating power systems with distributed energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöckl, Bernd; Papaefthymiou, George; Pinson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Stochastic energy flows are an increasingly important phenomenon in today's power system planning and operation. They are – among other reasons – caused by large amounts of stochastic generation such as wind. The inclusion of energy storage devices, distributed in future systems (distributed energy...... owners are either the grid operators, the generation owners, or the energy traders. For the grid operators being the DES owners, storage operation will have to be integrated into the planning of the system, therefore multivariate nonparametric time series analysis and synthesis methods have to be applied...... to recorded data of stochastic energy resources. Together with suited storage models, the implications of DES on the planning of the system can then be assessed. For the producers or traders being the owners of the DES, the topic to be addressed is the real-time operation of each storage device in the power...

  15. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zugno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a number of applications of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets resulting from the research project ENSYMORA. A general mathematical formulation applicable to problems of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets is presented. This formulation can be effortlessly adapted to describe different approaches: the deterministic one (usable within a rolling horizon scheme, stochastic programming and robust optimization. The different features of this mathematical formulation are duly interpreted with a view to the energy applications reviewed in this paper: trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty.

  16. Renewables integration, flexibility measures and operational tools for the Ireland and Northern Ireland power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Damian; Power, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Ireland and Northern Ireland power system is pursuing ambitious renewable energy (mainly wind generation) targets for 2020. A range of system-wide initiatives are being developed as part of the DS3 (Delivering a Secure, Sustainable Electricity System) programme, and, in particular, a bespoke suite of ancillary services incentivising fast frequency response, dynamic reactive power and ramping margin, and other, (future) system needs. With approximately half of the wind generation connected at distribution level, network development at both distribution and transmission levels is a key challenge for both the transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO): a wide range of technical options are being examined, including under-grounding, HVDC connection and series compensation, supported by a public and stakeholder engagement programme. The experience gained is highlighted, while also indicating solutions and strategies which have been proposed, and ongoing challenges for the future. (Authors)

  17. Oracle as a tool for monitoring data management in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joussellin, A.; Tarteret, P.; Gal, A.

    1996-05-01

    On-line monitoring of the main components of the French nuclear power plants is performed using an integrated system called PSAD (Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic). In real-time, physical measurement data are continuously acquired, computed and stored in an ORACLE database. All measurement data are dated and represent a wide range of physical variables (temperatures, vibrations, acoustic waves,...). Then, millions of measurements are available to the operator for diagnostic. (author)

  18. Oracle as a tool for monitoring data management in French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joussellin, A.; Tarteret, P.; Gal, A.

    1996-05-01

    On-line monitoring of the main components of the French nuclear power plants is performed using an integrated system called PSAD (Poste de Surveillance et d`Aide au Diagnostic). In real-time, physical measurement data are continuously acquired, computed and stored in an ORACLE database. All measurement data are dated and represent a wide range of physical variables (temperatures, vibrations, acoustic waves,...). Then, millions of measurements are available to the operator for diagnostic. (author).

  19. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  20. Development, analysis, and evaluation of a commercial software framework for the study of Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) events at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) participated in a Pilot Study to examine the process and requirements to create a software system to assess the extremely low probability of pipe rupture (xLPR) in nuclear power plants. This project was tasked to develop a prototype xLPR model leveraging existing fracture mechanics models and codes coupled with a commercial software framework to determine the framework, model, and architecture requirements appropriate for building a modular-based code. The xLPR pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed developmental process and framework for a probabilistic code to address degradation mechanisms in piping system safety assessments. The pilot study includes a demonstration problem to assess the probability of rupture of DM pressurizer surge nozzle welds degraded by primary water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The pilot study was designed to define and develop the framework and model; then construct a prototype software system based on the proposed model. The second phase of the project will be a longer term program and code development effort focusing on the generic, primary piping integrity issues (xLPR code). The results and recommendations presented in this report will be used to help the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) define the requirements for the longer term program.

  1. Mouse Models for Drug Discovery. Can New Tools and Technology Improve Translational Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberi, Aamir; Lutz, Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology. These technological advances come at a time when cost reductions in genome sequencing have led to the identification of pathogenic mutations in patient populations, providing unprecedented opportunities in the use of mice to model human disease. The ease of genetic engineering in mice also offers a potential paradigm shift in resource sharing and the speed by which models are made available in the public domain. Predictively, the knowledge alone that a model can be quickly remade will provide relief to resources encumbered by licensing and Material Transfer Agreements. For decades, mouse strains have provided an exquisite experimental tool to study the pathophysiology of the disease and assess therapeutic options in a genetically defined system. However, a major limitation of the mouse has been the limited genetic diversity associated with common laboratory mice. This has been overcome with the recent development of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mice. These strains provide new tools capable of replicating genetic diversity to that approaching the diversity found in human populations. The Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred strains thus provide a means to observe and characterize toxicity or efficacy of new therapeutic drugs for a given population. The combination of traditional and contemporary mouse genome editing tools, along with the addition of genetic diversity in new modeling

  2. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500 μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70 mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90 min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis

  3. Plain abdominal radiography: A powerful tool to prognosticate outcome in patients with zinc phosphide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, H.; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, N.; Rahimi, M.; Bahrami-Motlagh, H.; Amiri, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical features of zinc phosphide poisoning and to investigate whether outcome could be prognosticated based on abdominal radiography on presentation. Materials and methods: All zinc phosphide-poisoned patients who were referred to Loghman-Hakim Hospital between March 2011 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding patients' demographic characteristics, characteristics of the poisoning, abdominal radiography results, and patients' outcome were recorded. Results: In 102 patients, the most common presenting signs/symptoms were nausea and vomiting (60%). Four patients died and another seven had developed complications during their hospitalization (metabolic acidosis, liver abnormalities, or acute renal failure). Nineteen patients had radio-opaque abdominal radiographs, nine of whom had died or developed complications (p = 0.001). Plain abdominal radiography had a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 89% in predicting the patients' death or further development of complications. The positive and negative predictive values were 47% and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Plain abdominal radiography is a very good tool for prognostication in patients with zinc phosphide poisoning. Immediate abdominal radiography can help stratify patients into high- or low-risk groups and determine treatment strategies. - Highlights: • ZP poisoning may cause severe symptoms or death although less frequent compared to ALP. • ZP-poisoned patients may deteriorate within the first 72 hours post-ingestion. • Abdominal radiography is a good tool to predict death/complications in these patients

  4. Language as a Symbol of Identity and a Tool of Politics and Power in Pakistan and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rácová Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971, the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.

  5. Char characterization and DTF assays as tools to predict burnout of coal blends in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ulloa; A.G. Borrego; S. Helle; A.L. Gordon; X. Garcia [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict efficiency deviations in the combustion of coal blends in power plants. Combustion of blends, as compared to its single coals, shows that for some blends the behavior is non-additive in nature. Samples of coal feed and fly ashes from combustion of blends at two power plants, plus chars of the parent coals generated in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) at temperatures and heating rates similar to those found in the industrial boilers were used. Intrinsic kinetic parameters, burning profiles and petrographic characteristics of these chars correlated well with the burnout in power plants and DTF experiments. The blend combustion in a DTF reproduces both positive and negative burnout deviations from the expected weighted average. These burnout deviations have been previously attributed to parallel or parallel-series pathways of competition for oxygen. No deviations were found for blends of low rank coals of similar characteristics yielding chars close in morphology, optical texture and reactivity. Negative deviations were found for blends of coals differing moderately in rank and were interpreted as associated with long periods of competition. In this case, fly-ashes were enriched in material derived from the least reactive char, but also unburnt material attributed to the most reactive char was identified. Improved burnout compared to the weighted average was observed for blends of coals very different in rank, and interpreted as the result of a short interaction period, followed by a period where the less reactive char burns under conditions that are more favorable to its combustion. In this case, only unburned material from the least reactive char was identified in the fly-ashes. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Mouse Models for Drug Discovery. Can New Tools and Technology Improve Translational Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberi, Aamir; Lutz, Cathleen

    2016-12-01

    The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology. These technological advances come at a time when cost reductions in genome sequencing have led to the identification of pathogenic mutations in patient populations, providing unprecedented opportunities in the use of mice to model human disease. The ease of genetic engineering in mice also offers a potential paradigm shift in resource sharing and the speed by which models are made available in the public domain. Predictively, the knowledge alone that a model can be quickly remade will provide relief to resources encumbered by licensing and Material Transfer Agreements. For decades, mouse strains have provided an exquisite experimental tool to study the pathophysiology of the disease and assess therapeutic options in a genetically defined system. However, a major limitation of the mouse has been the limited genetic diversity associated with common laboratory mice. This has been overcome with the recent development of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mice. These strains provide new tools capable of replicating genetic diversity to that approaching the diversity found in human populations. The Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred strains thus provide a means to observe and characterize toxicity or efficacy of new therapeutic drugs for a given population. The combination of traditional and contemporary mouse genome editing tools, along with the addition of genetic diversity in new modeling systems

  7. M4D: a powerful tool for structured programming at assembly level for MODCOMP computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.R.; Basso, R.A.J.

    1984-04-01

    Structured programming techniques offer numerous benefits for software designers and form the basis of the current high level languages. However, these techniques are generally not available to assembly programmers. The M4D package was therefore developed for a large project to enable the use of structured programming constructs such as DO.WHILE-ENDDO and IF-ORIF-ORIF...-ELSE-ENDIF in the assembly code for MODCOMP computers. Programs can thus be produced that have clear semantics and are considerably easier to read than normal assembly code, resulting in reduced program development and testing effort, and in improved long-term maintainability of the code. This paper describes the M4D structured programming tool as implemented for MODCOMP'S MAX III and MAX IV assemblers, and illustrates the use of the facility with a number of examples

  8. Why strategic pricing is the most powerful DSM [demand-side management] tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, W.

    1990-01-01

    Strategic pricing has long been under-utilized as a strategic tool by the electric utility industry. Ways by which utility, customer and regulatory interests can and should overlap with reference to strategic planning, and how the electric industry could enhance its ability to continue providing premier energy services to its customers and society are examined. Strategic pricing in the airline, banking, automobile and telephone industries are examined and compared. Strategic pricing can help utilities segment markets to improve service value, define products, create customer incentives to purchase/consume desirable goods and services, and signal competitors. Each of these benefits is illustrated with an example that closely integrates strategic pricing with demand-side management. Pricing strategically takes many steps, but can be broken down into: meet common challenges of business and marketing objectives; gain regulatory acceptance; and energize the organization to accept, adopt and implement strategic pricing

  9. The New Geodesy: A Powerful Tool in the Mitigation of Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Geodesy has transitioned from a little understood arcane science into an indispensible tool that is used by most citizens in their everyday lives. Who does not use GNSS to navigate with little thought to the contributions of geodecists, physicists and the technological marvels that made this possible. Less understood is how geodetic science and technology is transforming our approach to disaster warning and mitigation. Space Geodesy and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are directly impacting the effectiveness and efficiency of understanding, preparedness and response in such disparate areas as weather, water resources, earthquakes, climate change impacts, soil moisture, land cover, and tsunami early warning. However, the full benefits of geodesy to society cannot be achieved without international accords and investments to access the full spectrum geodetic information with minimal latency.

  10. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  11. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs (GPL), San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  12. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission

  13. A tool for Load Modeling in Induction Hardening Equipment Driven by Power Semiconductor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.; Suarez Bagnasco, D.

    2006-01-01

    Kelvin effect (Skin effect) is used in surface hardening produced by induction heating of gears, camforms, camshafts and other work pieces of fairly complex geometries.The induction heating equipment for surface hardening of metals and alloys (using LF or medium frequencies in the jargon of induction heating) is composed by a coil or coil assembly and a power semiconductor driving system up to 50kHz. The load seen by the driving system is equivalent to a transformer. The primary corresponds to the excitation coil or coil assembly, and the work piece corresponds to a short-circuited secondary. To asses the electrical load it is necessary to determine the variations in skin depth from place to place due to local curvature effects in the work piece, and its variations in space and time due to variations in conductivity and magnetic properties coupled with thermal effects. In these and others technical applications of Kelvin effect it is often necessary to be able to relate local skin depths with local curvatures of the surface of electrically conductive bodies.The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, derive a closed form analytical formula that relates the local skin depth with the local mean curvature and the well known skin depth for a flat conductive body. The limits of applicability of this formula are discussed. The predicted skin depths are compared with available experimental results obtained in the framework of surface hardening processes. Second, apply the above mentioned formula to describe the electrical load of the induction heating equipment in the conditions used for surface hardening. In the choice or design of an induction heating system the parameters of the intended process (depth of Kelvin effect, temperatures to be reached and duration of the heating process, amongst others) put restrictions over the coils and the power driving system. To determine the best shape and size of induction coils or coil assemblies, the complex thermal and

  14. Wireless power transfer electric vehicle supply equipment installation and validation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.

    2015-05-19

    A transmit pad inspection device includes a magnetic coupling device, which includes an inductive circuit that is configured to magnetically couple to a primary circuit of a charging device in a transmit pad through an alternating current (AC) magnetic field. The inductive circuit functions as a secondary circuit for a set of magnetically coupled coils. The magnetic coupling device further includes a rectification circuit, and includes a controllable load bank or is configured to be connected to an external controllable load back. The transmit pad inspection device is configured to determine the efficiency of power transfer under various coupling conditions. In addition, the transmit pad inspection device can be configured to measure residual magnetic field and the frequency of the input current, and to determine whether the charging device has been installed properly.

  15. Income of Local Budgets as a Tool of Ensuring Powers of Self-Governance Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamskyy Maksym D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study, analysis and assessment of the state of income of local budgets. The article identifies main sources of income of local budgets in Ukraine and their importance in formation of main money funds of the local self-governance bodies. It studies problems of scantiness of the income part of budgets in the process of performance of powers by the local bodies of authority. It identifies and analyses changes and reforms after introduction of the Tax Code, which did not provide solution of the issue of sufficiency of the income part of the financial resource of local self-governance. In the result of the study the article gives recommendations with respect to a possibility of expansion of the income base of local budgets for financing both the social and economic directions by local authorities. It develops specific proposals on strengthening the financial base of regions.

  16. Harnessing the power of sibling relationships as a tool for optimizing social-emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Bullock, Bernadette M; Falkenstein, Corinna A

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationships provide one of the most stable and powerful developmental contexts for the transmission of both prosocial and antisocial behavior. As a source of support and skill development, sibling relationships can build competence in self-regulation and emotional understanding. However, sibling relationships marked by antisocial behavior, substance use, and conflict place children at risk for a host of negative outcomes. Family relationship features, particularly parenting practices and discord, contribute strongly to both the quality of sibling relationships and children's well-being. Our review of intervention strategies reveals that the potential of sibling relationships to promote socioemotional development may be best realized through family-centered approaches that build prosocial sibling interactions, curtail child behavior problems, and strengthen parenting.

  17. Ergonomics evaluation as a powerful tool to redesign advanced interfaces of nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Fernandes, Nelson; Oliveira, Helio C.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Augusto, Silas C.; Teixeira, Douglas V.; Ferraz, Fernando T.

    2007-01-01

    Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Ergonomics contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. In the safe operation of nuclear power plant the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect, well-designed human-system interfaces (HSI) are crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant, reducing the occurrence of incidents, accidents and the risks for human error. The aim of this paper is to describe a case study in which a methodological framework was applied to redesign advanced interfaces of a nuclear simulator. (author)

  18. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool for on-line plasma analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy); Schillaci, F. [LNS - INFN, Cirrone G.A.P. LNS - INFN, Lanzalone G. LNS - INFN and Univ. Kore di Enna (Italy); Tudisco, S. [LNS - INFN (Italy); Brandi, F. [ILIL - INO-CNR and IIT Genova (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Koester, P.; Fulgentini, L. [ILIL - INO-CNR (Italy); Labate, L.; Gizzi, L.A. [ILIL - INO-CNR and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new powerful and self-consistent analysis technique aimed in order to get information online on laser generated plasmas. Performance of the method has been carried out during two set of measurement by using two different lasers. The first set of data has been collected at LENS Laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania by using a laser which produces pulses having energies of 2 J and temporal duration of 6 ns, while the second set of data has been collected at ILIL of INO-CNR in Pisa with a laser system capable of delivering pulses of up to 10 mJ in 40 fs. (authors)

  19. Magnetic particles as powerful purification tool for high sensitive mass spectrometric screening procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen F; Otto, Angela M

    2010-02-01

    The effective isolation and purification of proteins from biological fluids is the most crucial step for a successful protein analysis when only minute amounts are available. While conventional purification methods such as dialysis, ultrafiltration or protein precipitation often lead to a marked loss of protein, SPE with small-sized particles is a powerful alternative. The implementation of particles with superparamagnetic cores facilitates the handling of those particles and allows the application of particles in the nanometer to low micrometer range. Due to the small diameters, magnetic particles are advantageous for increasing sensitivity when using subsequent MS analysis or gel electrophoresis. In the last years, different types of magnetic particles were developed for specific protein purification purposes followed by analysis or screening procedures using MS or SDS gel electrophoresis. In this review, the use of magnetic particles for different applications, such as, the extraction and analysis of DNA/RNA, peptides and proteins, is described.

  20. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    . This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The reportprovides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level......-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). Theinitialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1...... of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  1. Development of a tool for comparing different nuclear power reactor technologies: the Mexican choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.; Reyes, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which has allowed us to make a comparative assessment of nuclear power reactor options. The methodology was divided in 3 steps. The first step consists in searching of common indicators to be compared. A total of twenty indicators were considered and grouped in 3 main criteria. The second step is to obtain the values of all the indicators for each of the reactor technologies being compared. The third step is to utilize an aggregation method to integrate all the indicators in an overall qualification. Fuzzy Logic was selected as multi criteria aggregation method because it copes with imprecisely defined data; it can model non-linear functions of arbitrary complexity; and it is able to build on top of the experience of experts. The Fuzzy Logic inference system was built using the MATLAB toolbox; 3 fuzzy sets were described for each entry variable (Indicator) and 5 fuzzy sets for the output variable (Qualification). Both, the set of membership function and the set of rules were defined in combination. The methodology is simple but at the same time is powerful; it allows the use of all the indicators with their own magnitudes and units. Five reactors were compared: the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the Evolutionary Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), the Advanced Pressurized water reactor 1000 (AP1000) and the Pebbled Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Preliminary results were obtained using non official data obtained from public information. The qualifications of the reactors appear to be quite near. This work should be improved by taking into account which indicator is important and grading the indicators according to the situation in Mexico. (authors)

  2. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  3. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  4. Thermal Remote Sensing: A Powerful Tool in the Characterization of Landscapes on a Functional Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Luvall C.; Kay, James; Fraser, Roydon

    1999-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing instruments can function as environmental measuring tools, with capabilities leading toward new directions in functional landscape ecology. Theoretical deduction and phenomenological observation leads us to believe that the second law of thermodynamics requires that all dynamically systems develop in a manner which dissipates gradients as rapidly as possible within the constraints of the system at hand. The ramification of this requirement is that dynamical systems will evolve dissipative structures which grow and complexify over time. This perspective has allowed us to develop a framework for discussing ecosystem development and integrity. In the context of this framework we have developed measures of development and integrity for ecosystems. One set of these measures is based on destruction of the exergy content of incoming solar energy. More developed ecosystems will be more effective at dissipating the solar gradient (destroying its exergy content). This can be measured by the effective surface temperature of the ecosystem on a landscape scale. These surface temperatures are measured using airborne thermal scanners such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and the Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor(ATLAS) sensors. An analysis of agriculture and forest ecosystems will be used to illustrate the concept of ecological thermodynamics and the development of ecosystems.

  5. Development of Safety-Critical Software for Nuclear Power Plant using a CASE Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Koh Eun; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do; Kim, Jae Hack; Kim, Hang Bae [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The Integrated SOftware Development Environment (ISODE) is developed to provide the major S/W life cycle processes that are composed of development process, V/V process, requirements traceability process, and automated document generation process and target importing process to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) platform. This provides critical safety software developers with a certified, domain optimized, model-based development environment, and the associated services to reduce time and efforts to develop software such as debugging, simulation, code generation and document generation. This also provides critical safety software verifiers with integrated V/V features of each phase of the software life cycle using appropriate tools such as model test coverage, formal verification, and automated report generation. In addition to development and verification, the ISODE gives a complete traceability solution from the SW design phase to the testing phase. Using this information, the coverage and impact analysis can be done easily whenever software modification is necessary. The final source codes of ISODE are imported into the newly developed PLC environment, as a module based after automatically converted into the format required by PLC. Additional tests for module and unit level are performed on the target platform.

  6. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Geoffroy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs or small insertion/deletions (indels. High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians.Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients.Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/.

  7. Development of Safety-Critical Software for Nuclear Power Plant using a CASE Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Koh Eun; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do; Kim, Jae Hack; Kim, Hang Bae

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated SOftware Development Environment (ISODE) is developed to provide the major S/W life cycle processes that are composed of development process, V/V process, requirements traceability process, and automated document generation process and target importing process to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) platform. This provides critical safety software developers with a certified, domain optimized, model-based development environment, and the associated services to reduce time and efforts to develop software such as debugging, simulation, code generation and document generation. This also provides critical safety software verifiers with integrated V/V features of each phase of the software life cycle using appropriate tools such as model test coverage, formal verification, and automated report generation. In addition to development and verification, the ISODE gives a complete traceability solution from the SW design phase to the testing phase. Using this information, the coverage and impact analysis can be done easily whenever software modification is necessary. The final source codes of ISODE are imported into the newly developed PLC environment, as a module based after automatically converted into the format required by PLC. Additional tests for module and unit level are performed on the target platform

  8. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  9. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  10. Analysis of soft magnetic materials by electron backscatter diffraction as a powerful tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schuller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work demonstrates that electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD is a powerful and versatile characterization technique for investigating soft magnetic materials. The properties of soft magnets, e.g., magnetic losses strongly depend on the materials chemical composition and microstructure, including grain size and shape, texture, degree of plastic deformation and elastic strain. In electrical sheet stacks for e-motor applications, the quality of the machined edges/surfaces of each individual sheet is of special interest. Using EBSD, the influence of the punching process on the microstructure at the cutting edge is quantitatively assessed by evaluating the crystallographic misorientation distribution of the deformed grains. Using an industrial punching process, the maximum affected deformation depth is determined to be 200 - 300 μm. In the case of laser cutting, the affected deformation depth is determined to be approximately zero. Reliability and detection limits of the developed EBSD approach are evaluated on non-affected sample regions and model samples containing different indentation test bodies. A second application case is the investigation of the recrystallization process during the annealing step of soft magnetic composites (SMC toroids produced by powder metallurgy as a function of compaction pressure, annealing parameters and powder particle size. With increasing pressure and temperature, the recrystallized area fraction (e.g., grains with crystallographic misorientations 3°.

  11. Stat-tracks and mediotypes: powerful tools for modern ichnology based on 3D models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Belvedere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate tracks are subject to a wide distribution of morphological types. A single trackmaker may be associated with a range of tracks reflecting individual pedal anatomy and behavioural kinematics mediated through substrate properties which may vary both in space and time. Accordingly, the same trackmaker can leave substantially different morphotypes something which must be considered in creating ichnotaxa. In modern practice this is often captured by the collection of a series of 3D track models. We introduce two concepts to help integrate these 3D models into ichnological analysis procedures. The mediotype is based on the idea of using statistically-generated three-dimensional track models (median or mean of the type specimens to create a composite track to support formal recognition of a ichno type. A representative track (mean and/or median is created from a set of individual reference tracks or from multiple examples from one or more trackways. In contrast, stat-tracks refer to other digitally generated tracks which may explore variance. For example, they are useful in: understanding the preservation variability of a given track sample; identifying characteristics or unusual track features; or simply as a quantitative comparison tool. Both concepts assist in making ichnotaxonomical interpretations and we argue that they should become part of the standard procedure when instituting new ichnotaxa. As three-dimensional models start to become a standard in publications on vertebrate ichnology, the mediotype and stat-track concepts have the potential to help guiding a revolution in the study of vertebrate ichnology and ichnotaxonomy.

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  14. Implementation strategies and tools for condition based monitoring at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    There is now an acute need to optimize maintenance to improve both reliability and competitiveness of nuclear power plant operation. There is an increasing tendency to move from the preventive (time based) maintenance concept to one dependent on plant and component conditions. In this context, various on-line and off-line condition monitoring and diagnostics, nondestructive inspection techniques and surveillance are used. Component selection for condition based maintenance, parameter selection for monitoring condition, evaluation of condition monitoring results are issues influencing the effectiveness of condition based maintenance. All these selections of components and parameters to be monitored, monitoring and diagnostics techniques to be used, acceptance criteria and trending for condition evaluation, and the economic aspect of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring should be incorporated into an integrated, effective condition based maintenance programme, which is part of the plant's overall maintenance optimization programme. This publication collects and analyses proven condition based maintenance strategies and techniques (engineering and organizational) in Member States. It includes selected papers on maintenance optimization presented during its preparation. This report was prepared under IAEA project on integrated NPP life cycle management including decommissioning. The main objective of an integrated life cycle management programme is to enable NPP's to compete, without compromising safety, successfully in the changing energy markets throughout their service life and to facilitate life extension and eventual decommissioning through improved engineering, technological, economic and managerial actions. The technical working group on NPP life management and other advisory groups nominated by the Member States provide recommendations on high priority needs of Member States in this area

  15. Analysis of soft magnetic materials by electron backscatter diffraction as a powerful tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, David; Hohs, Dominic; Loeffler, Ralf; Bernthaler, Timo; Goll, Dagmar; Schneider, Gerhard

    2018-04-01

    The current work demonstrates that electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a powerful and versatile characterization technique for investigating soft magnetic materials. The properties of soft magnets, e.g., magnetic losses strongly depend on the materials chemical composition and microstructure, including grain size and shape, texture, degree of plastic deformation and elastic strain. In electrical sheet stacks for e-motor applications, the quality of the machined edges/surfaces of each individual sheet is of special interest. Using EBSD, the influence of the punching process on the microstructure at the cutting edge is quantitatively assessed by evaluating the crystallographic misorientation distribution of the deformed grains. Using an industrial punching process, the maximum affected deformation depth is determined to be 200 - 300 μm. In the case of laser cutting, the affected deformation depth is determined to be approximately zero. Reliability and detection limits of the developed EBSD approach are evaluated on non-affected sample regions and model samples containing different indentation test bodies. A second application case is the investigation of the recrystallization process during the annealing step of soft magnetic composites (SMC) toroids produced by powder metallurgy as a function of compaction pressure, annealing parameters and powder particle size. With increasing pressure and temperature, the recrystallized area fraction (e.g., grains with crystallographic misorientations particle boundaries or areas with existing plastic deformation. The progress of recrystallization is visualized as a function of time and of different particle to grain size distributions. Here, large particles with coarse internal grain structures show a favorable recrystallization behavior which results in large bulk permeability of up to 600 - 700 and lower amount of residual misorientations (>3°).

  16. Facebook Groups as a Powerful and Dynamic Tool in Medical Education: Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, Moritz; Gradel, Maximilian; Ferch, Sabine; Antón, Sofía; Hoppe, Boj; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Pinilla, Severin; Fischer, Martin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Background Social networking sites, in particular Facebook, are not only predominant in students’ social life but are to varying degrees interwoven with the medical curriculum. Particularly, Facebook groups have been identified for their potential in higher education. However, there is a paucity of data on user types, content, and dynamics of study-related Facebook groups. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the role of study-related Facebook group use, characterize medical students that use or avoid using Facebook groups (demographics, participation pattern, and motivation), and analyze student posting behavior, covered topics, dynamics, and limitations in Facebook groups with regards to educational usage. Methods Using a multi-method approach (interviews, focus groups, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of Facebook posts), we analyzed two representative Facebook groups of medical preclinical semesters at Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich. Facebook primary posts and replies over one semester were extracted and evaluated by using thematic content analysis. We developed and applied a coding scheme for studying the frequency and distribution of these posts. Additionally, we interviewed students with various degrees of involvement in the groups, as well as “new minorities,” students not registered on Facebook. Results Facebook groups seem to have evolved as the main tool for medical students at LMU to complement the curriculum and to discuss study-related content. These Facebook groups are self-organizing and quickly adapt to organizational or subject-related challenges posed by the curriculum. A wide range of topics is covered, with a dominance of organization-related posts (58.35% [6916/11,853] of overall posts). By measuring reply rates and comments per category, we were able to identify learning tips and strategies, material sharing, and course content discussions as the most relevant categories. Rates of adequate replies in these

  17. The Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT): A Powerful, Flexible, Preprocessing and Machine Learning Library and Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Finch, N.; Clegg, S. M.; Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Laura, J.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning is a powerful but underutilized approach that can enable planetary scientists to derive meaningful results from the rapidly-growing quantity of available spectral data. For example, regression methods such as Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), can be used to determine chemical concentrations from ChemCam and SuperCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) data [1]. Many scientists are interested in testing different spectral data processing and machine learning methods, but few have the time or expertise to write their own software to do so. We are therefore developing a free open-source library of software called the Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT) along with a flexible, user-friendly graphical interface to enable scientists to process and analyze point spectral data without requiring significant programming or machine-learning expertise. A related but separately-funded effort is working to develop a graphical interface for orbital data [2]. The PySAT point-spectra tool includes common preprocessing steps (e.g. interpolation, normalization, masking, continuum removal, dimensionality reduction), plotting capabilities, and capabilities to prepare data for machine learning such as creating stratified folds for cross validation, defining training and test sets, and applying calibration transfer so that data collected on different instruments or under different conditions can be used together. The tool leverages the scikit-learn library [3] to enable users to train and compare the results from a variety of multivariate regression methods. It also includes the ability to combine multiple "sub-models" into an overall model, a method that has been shown to improve results and is currently used for ChemCam data [4]. Although development of the PySAT point-spectra tool has focused primarily on the analysis of LIBS spectra, the relevant steps and methods are applicable to any spectral data. The

  18. Phylogeny is a powerful tool for predicting plant biomass responses to nitrogen enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooliver, Rachel C; Marion, Zachary H; Peterson, Christopher R; Potts, Brad M; Senior, John K; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2017-08-01

    -independence, eucalypt responses to N were not associated with functional traits (although post-hoc analyses show a phylogenetic pattern in specific root length similar to that of responses to N), nor were responses differentially limited by P. Overall, our model results suggest that phylogeny is a powerful predictor of winners and losers in anthropogenic N enrichment scenarios in Tasmanian eucalypts, which may have implications for other species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Facebook Groups as a Powerful and Dynamic Tool in Medical Education: Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Leo; Schmidbauer, Moritz; Gradel, Maximilian; Ferch, Sabine; Antón, Sofía; Hoppe, Boj; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Pinilla, Severin; Fischer, Martin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-22

    Social networking sites, in particular Facebook, are not only predominant in students' social life but are to varying degrees interwoven with the medical curriculum. Particularly, Facebook groups have been identified for their potential in higher education. However, there is a paucity of data on user types, content, and dynamics of study-related Facebook groups. The aim of this study was to identify the role of study-related Facebook group use, characterize medical students that use or avoid using Facebook groups (demographics, participation pattern, and motivation), and analyze student posting behavior, covered topics, dynamics, and limitations in Facebook groups with regards to educational usage. Using a multi-method approach (interviews, focus groups, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of Facebook posts), we analyzed two representative Facebook groups of medical preclinical semesters at Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich. Facebook primary posts and replies over one semester were extracted and evaluated by using thematic content analysis. We developed and applied a coding scheme for studying the frequency and distribution of these posts. Additionally, we interviewed students with various degrees of involvement in the groups, as well as "new minorities," students not registered on Facebook. Facebook groups seem to have evolved as the main tool for medical students at LMU to complement the curriculum and to discuss study-related content. These Facebook groups are self-organizing and quickly adapt to organizational or subject-related challenges posed by the curriculum. A wide range of topics is covered, with a dominance of organization-related posts (58.35% [6916/11,853] of overall posts). By measuring reply rates and comments per category, we were able to identify learning tips and strategies, material sharing, and course content discussions as the most relevant categories. Rates of adequate replies in these categories ranged between 78% (11/14) and

  20. Density functional theory (DFT) as a powerful tool for designing new organic corrosion inhibitors. Part 1: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, I.B.; Macdonald, D.D.; Gasem, Z.M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of computational chemistry as a tool in the design and development of organic corrosion inhibitors has been greatly enhanced by the development of density functional theory (DFT). Whereas, traditionally, corrosion scientists have identified new corrosion inhibitor molecules either by incrementally changing the structures of existing inhibitors or by testing hundreds of compounds in the laboratory, these experimental means are often very expensive and time-consuming. Thus, ongoing hardware and software advances have opened the door for powerful use of theoretical chemistry in corrosion inhibition research at a reduced cost. DFT has enabled corrosion scientist to accurately predict the inhibition efficacies of organic corrosion inhibitors based on electronic/molecular properties and reactivity indices. This review summarizes the main features of DFT, giving a brief background to selected DFT-based chemical reactivity concepts, calculations and their applications to organic corrosion inhibitor design. The paper also reviews the principles upon which modern corrosion science is based with emphasis on corrosion in the oil and gas industry and with the goal of identifying important issues in the design of new, more effective inhibitors in this field. The impact of this review is to illustrate the enormous power of DFT and to identify shortcomings in past work, including the assumption that inhibitors only interact with bare metal surfaces.

  1. Development of advanced risk informed asset management tool based on system dynamics approach for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyoung Cheol

    2007-02-01

    In the competitive circumstance of electricity industry, the economic efficiency of electricity generation facility is the most important factor to increase their competitiveness. For nuclear power plant (NPP), safety is also an essential factor. Over fast several years, efforts for development of safety concerned and financial asset maximizing method, process and tools have been continued internationally and Risk-Informed Asset Management (RIAM) methodology is suggested by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This RIAM methodology is expected to provide plant operators with a project prioritization and life cycle management planning tool for making long-term maintenance plans, guiding plant budgeting, and determining the sensitivity of a plant's economic risk to the reliability and availability of system, structure, and components (SSC), as well as other technical and economic parameters. The focus of this study is to develop model that help us to resource allocation, to find what effect such allocations on the plant economic and safety performance. Detailed research process for this goal is as follow; First step for development of advanced RIAM model is to review for current RIAM model of EPRI. This part describes the overall RIAM methodology including its conceptual model, implementation process, modular approach etc. Second step is to perform feasibility study for current EPRI's RIAM model with case study. This part shows the result of feasibility study for current RIAM method by case study and discussion for result. Finally, concept of Advanced RIAM model is developed based on system dynamics approach and parameter relationship is formulated. In advanced RIAM Model, Identification of scheduled maintenance effect on other parameters and the relationship between PM Activity and failure rate is most important factor. In this study, these relationships are formulated based on system dynamics approach. Creations of these modeling tool using Vensim

  2. Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures (-180C to +450C)and radiation (>250 Krad TID) are not met with the current...

  3. ''PSAD'' on-line monitoring and aid to diagnosis workstation: a monitoring tool for EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Mazalerat, J.M.; Monnier, B.; Cordier, R.

    1993-01-01

    Like other electricity utilities, Electricite de France seeks to enhance the safety and availability of its nuclear power plants. To this end, for over ten years EDF has been installing on each plant unit two monitoring systems of its own design, one to monitor the primary cooling system, and the other, the turbogenerator set. Since the beginning of this project, widespread progress has been made in techniques of signal acquisition and processing, and in diagnosis using artificial intelligence methods. EDF has decided to call on these advanced techniques in developing its new-generation monitoring equipment, and to integrate them in its development of a workstation for on-line monitoring and diagnosis-support (PSAD: Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic). PSAD will be a tool for on-line monitoring of the main components in nuclear power plants (initially the main coolant pumps and turbogenerator sets, and soon thereafter, monitoring of internal structures, detection of loose parts in the primary cooling system, etc.). PSAD will provide plant personnel with indispensable support in their diagnosis of the condition of plant equipment. It will integrate user-friendly, high-performance systems that also free the operator from many day-to-day tasks. PSAD will have a flexible architecture, for optimum distribution of the computing power where it is most needed, thereby improving the quality of the data. This paper presents the project objectives and describes work currently under way to implement EDF's diagnosis-support strategy for the years to come. (authors). 5 figs., 6 refs

  4. WP3 Prototype development for operational planning tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine; Meibom, Peter; Apfelbeck, J.

    is documented in chapter 1 and 2. The inclusion of load uncertainty and forced outages in the Scenario Tree Tool enables calculation of the demand for reserve power depending on the forecast horizon. The algorithm is given in Section 3.1. The design of a modified version of the Joint Market Model enabling...... estimation of the optimal amount of reserve power to reserve day-ahead before the actual operation hour is documented in Section 3.2. With regard to the evaluation of a power system, its ability to cope with extreme events is crucial to be investigated. Chapter 4 gives a definition of such extreme events....... Further, the methodology to identify extreme events on the basis of the existing tools is described. Within the SUPWIND consortium there has been an interest in using the Joint Market Model to model smaller parts of a power system but with more detailed representation of the transmission and distribution...

  5. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-07-29

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  6. Ergonomics as aid tool to identify and to analyze factors that can affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luquetti Santos, I.J.A.; Carvalho, P.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    The study of ergonomics has evolved around the world as one of the keys to understand human behavior in interaction with complex systems as nuclear power plant and to achieve the best match between the system and its users in the context of task to be performed. Increasing research efforts have yielded a considerable body of knowledge concerning the design of workstations, workplace, control rooms, human-system interfaces, user-interface interaction and organizational design to prevent worker discomfort, illness and also to improve productivity, product quality, ease of use and safety. The work ergonomics analysis consists of gathering a series of observation in order to better understand the work done and to propose changes and improvements in the working conditions. The work ergonomics analysis implies both the correction of existing situations (safety, reliability and production problems) and the development of new work system. Operator activity analysis provides a useful tool for the ergonomics approach, based on work ergonomics analysis. The operators will be systematically observed in their real work environment (control room) or in simulators. The focus is on description of the distributed regulated mechanisms (in the sense that operators work in crew), both in nominal and degraded situations, observing how operators regulate collectively their work during an increase in workload or when confronted with situations where incidents or accidents occur. Audio, video recorders and field notes can be used to collect empirical data, conversations and interactions that occur naturally within the work environment. Our research develops an applied ergonomics methodology, based on field studies, that permits to identify and analyze situations, factors that may affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants. Our contribution is related to the following technical topic: How best to learn from and share operational safety experience and manage changes during

  7. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Liptow, Holger

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO x burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can test if

  8. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  9. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  10. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  11. Increase of Power System Survivability with the Decision Support Tool CRIPS Based on Network Planning and Simulation Program PSS®SINCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaegerl, Christine; Seifert, Olaf; Buschmann, Robert; Dellwing, Hermann; Geretshuber, Stefan; Leick, Claus

    The increased interconnection and automation of critical infrastructures enlarges the complexity of the dependency structures and - as consequence - the danger of cascading effects, e.g. causing area-wide blackouts in power supply networks that are currently after deregulation operated closer to their limits. New tools or an intelligent combination of existing approaches are required to increase the survivability of critical infrastructures. Within the IRRIIS project the expert system CRIPS was developed based on network simulations realised with PSS®SINCAL, an established tool to support the analysis and planning of electrical power, gas, water or heat networks. CRIPS assesses the current situation in power supply networks analysing the simulation results of the physical network behaviour and recommends corresponding decisions.

  12. 3D gait analysis of lower extremity muscle group power in healthy subjects and subacute stroke patients, and task-specific gait interventions in early stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    2010-01-01

    Denne ph.d. afhandling omhandler 3D ganganalyse af raske og apopleksipatienter. Formålet med afhandlingen var at estimere referenceværdier for power i et udvalg af underekstremitetens muskelgrupper, samt at estimere ændringer i muskelgruppers power, når ganghastigheden øges blandt raske og apople...

  13. Assessment of extreme hydrological conditions in the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea, and the impact of the nuclear power plant ''Hanhikivi-1'' on the local thermal regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, Anton Y.; Martyanov, Stanislav D.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Isaev, Alexey V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Eremina, Tatjana R. [Russian State Hydrometeorological Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sein, Dmitry V. [Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany). Alfred Wegener Inst.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the study aimed to assess the influence of future nuclear power plant ''Hanhikivi-1'' upon the local thermal conditions in the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea are presented. A number of experiments with different numerical models were also carried out in order to estimate the extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in the area of the construction. The numerical experiments were fulfilled both with analytically specified external forcing and with real external forcing for 2 years: a cold year (2010) and a warm year (2014). The study has shown that the extreme values of sea level and water temperature and the characteristics of wind waves and sea ice in the vicinity of the future nuclear power plant can be significant and sometimes catastrophic. Permanent release of heat into the marine environment from an operating nuclear power plant will lead to a strong increase in temperature and the disappearance of ice cover within a 2 km vicinity of the station. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future.

  14. A Visualization Tool to Analyse Usage of Web-Based Interventions: The Example of Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily; Bradbury, Katherine; Morrison, Leanne; Dennison, Laura; Michaelides, Danius; Yardley, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Background Attrition is a significant problem in Web-based interventions. Consequently, this research aims to identify the relation between Web usage and benefit from such interventions. A visualization tool has been developed that enables researchers to more easily examine large datasets on intervention usage that can be difficult to make sense of using traditional descriptive or statistical techniques alone. Objective This paper demonstrates how the visualization tool was used to explore patterns in participants’ use of a Web-based weight management intervention, termed "positive online weight reduction (POWeR)." We also demonstrate how the visualization tool can be used to perform subsequent statistical analyses of the association between usage patterns, participant characteristics, and intervention outcome. Methods The visualization tool was used to analyze data from 132 participants who had accessed at least one session of the POWeR intervention. Results There was a drop in usage of optional sessions after participants had accessed the initial, core POWeR sessions, but many users nevertheless continued to complete goal and weight reviews. The POWeR tools relating to the food diary and steps diary were reused most often. Differences in participant characteristics and usage of other intervention components were identified between participants who did and did not choose to access optional POWeR sessions (in addition to the initial core sessions) or reuse the food and steps diaries. Reuse of the steps diary and the getting support tools was associated with greater weight loss. Conclusions The visualization tool provided a quick and efficient method for exploring patterns of Web usage, which enabled further analyses of whether different usage patterns were associated with participant characteristics or differences in intervention outcome. Further usage of visualization techniques is recommended to (1) make sense of large datasets more quickly and efficiently; (2

  15. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  16. Fault attacks, injection techniques and tools for simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Bhasin, S.; Regazzoni, F.

    2015-01-01

    Faults attacks are a serious threat to secure devices, because they are powerful and they can be performed with extremely cheap equipment. Resistance against fault attacks is often evaluated directly on the manufactured devices, as commercial tools supporting fault evaluation do not usually provide

  17. A new tool for quantifying the impacts of water sensitive urban design – the power of simplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    simulation tools. Emphasis is put on reducing complexity in order to help drainage engineers communicate their priorities to other stakeholders. The tool outputs include two key indicators: The first is the amount of runoff held back in stormwater control measures on event basis, presented graphically......We present a prototype for a new software tool which enables quantification of impacts of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) plans in a simplifying manner. The tool is designed to fill a gap between the needs of utility companies for assessing WSUD performance and available urban drainage...

  18. Behavior Prediction Tools Strengthen Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, NASA started making plans to send robots to explore the deep, dark craters on the Moon. As part of these plans, NASA needed modeling tools to help engineer unique electronics to withstand extremely cold temperatures. According to Jonathan Pellish, a flight systems test engineer at Goddard Space Flight Center, "An instrument sitting in a shadowed crater on one of the Moon s poles would hover around 43 K", that is, 43 kelvin, equivalent to -382 F. Such frigid temperatures are one of the main factors that make the extreme space environments encountered on the Moon and elsewhere so extreme. Radiation is another main concern. "Radiation is always present in the space environment," says Pellish. "Small to moderate solar energetic particle events happen regularly and extreme events happen less than a handful of times throughout the 7 active years of the 11-year solar cycle." Radiation can corrupt data, propagate to other systems, require component power cycling, and cause a host of other harmful effects. In order to explore places like the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, and Mars, NASA must use electronic communication devices like transmitters and receivers and data collection devices like infrared cameras that can resist the effects of extreme temperature and radiation; otherwise, the electronics would not be reliable for the duration of the mission.

  19. A new tool for quantifying the hydrological effects of LID retrofit designs – the power of simplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    We developed a new tool to address the needs of utility companies in the early planning and design phase of LID for retrofitting in existing urban areas, where a high degree of collaboration among stakeholders with different professional backgrounds is needed. The tool uses simplified methods...

  20. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  1. Teaching Sustainable Energy and Power Electronics to Engineering Students in a Laboratory Environment Using Industry-Standard Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, David S.; Miller, Ruth Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics and renewable energy are two important topics for today's power engineering students. In many cases, the two topics are inextricably intertwined. As the renewable energy sector grows, the need for engineers qualified to design such systems grows as well. In order to train such engineers, new courses are needed that highlight the…

  2. Design for Reliability and Robustness Tool Platform for Power Electronic Systems – Study Case on Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Because of the high cost of failure, the reliability performance of power semiconductor devices is becoming a more and more important and stringent factor in many energy conversion applications. Thus, the need for appropriate reliability analysis of the power electronics emerges. Due to its...

  3. The Fight Against Extremism in the Trans-Sahel: The Utilization of Soft Power by the Department of State to Establish, Develop, and Strengthen Potential Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    34God is great" and armed with guns and throwing grenades stormed into the Radisson Blue Hotel in Mali’s capital Friday morning and seized 170...capacity building programs as well. Nigerian police, customs officials, and immigration officers participated in interagency training to build their...power provides immediate satisfaction and may be required at times, do we as a nation have the wear-with-all to go the long, hard route and maintain

  4. Synergistic behaviour of nuclear radiation, temperature-humidity extremes and LOCA situation on safety and safety-related equipment in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.D.; Bora, J.S.; Prakash, Ravi; Agarwal, Vivek; Sundersingh, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The general philosophy for the instrumentation in nuclear power plants is based on the use of equipment/instruments which are capable of continuous satisfactory operation over a long period of time with minimum attention. Long term reliability under varying service conditions is of prime importance. The reliability of nuclear power plant depends on the reliability of safety and safety-related electronic instruments/ equipment used for performing the crucial tasks. The electrical and electronic systems/ circuits/ components of the equipment used in reactor safety systems (e.g. reactor protection system, emergency core cooling system, etc.) and reactor safety-related systems (e.g. reactor containment isolation and cooling system, reactor shutdown system, etc.) are responsible for safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power plant. The performance of reactor safety and safety-related equipment/instruments viz. pressure and differential pressure transmitter, amplifier for ion chamber, etc. has been evaluated under synergistic atmosphere including LOCA to find out the critical link in the circuits and subsequent modifications are suggested. The mathematical representation of the generated database has been done to estimate the life span of the instruments and accordingly the guidelines has been prepared for the operational staff to avoid the forced outage of the plant. All the details are included and mathematical models are presented to predict the future performances

  5. An Observational Study to Evaluate the Usability and Intent to Adopt an Artificial Intelligence-Powered Medication Reconciliation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ju; Yuan, Michael Juntao; Poonawala, Robina

    2016-05-16

    Medication reconciliation (the process of creating an accurate list of all medications a patient is taking) is a widely practiced procedure to reduce medication errors. It is mandated by the Joint Commission and reimbursed by Medicare. Yet, in practice, medication reconciliation is often not effective owing to knowledge gaps in the team. A promising approach to improve medication reconciliation is to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) decision support tools into the process to engage patients and bridge the knowledge gap. The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy and efficiency of medication reconciliation by engaging the patient, the nurse, and the physician as a team via an iPad tool. With assistance from the AI agent, the patient will review his or her own medication list from the electronic medical record (EMR) and annotate changes, before reviewing together with the physician and making decisions on the shared iPad screen. In this study, we developed iPad-based software tools, with AI decision support, to engage patients to "self-service" medication reconciliation and then share the annotated reconciled list with the physician. To evaluate the software tool's user interface and workflow, a small number of patients (10) in a primary care clinic were recruited, and they were observed through the whole process during a pilot study. The patients are surveyed for the tool's usability afterward. All patients were able to complete the medication reconciliation process correctly. Every patient found at least one error or other issues with their EMR medication lists. All of them reported that the tool was easy to use, and 8 of 10 patients reported that they will use the tool in the future. However, few patients interacted with the learning modules in the tool. The physician and nurses reported the tool to be easy-to-use, easy to integrate into existing workflow, and potentially time-saving. We have developed a promising tool for a new approach to

  6. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  7. Some strategic conclusions from an economic analysis of wind power based on simple and innovative methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    2001-01-01

    The fast development of wind power is based on improved performance of wind turbines and on higher profitability of wind power projects. Therefore, an economic analysis is necessary to quantify past and future progress. In this respect, the paper presents a simplified economic analysis method in order to assess present and future wind energy costs and in order to determine wind tariffs able to ensure a sustainable development of this technology. Perspectives and scenarios for the development of wind power are described up to 2020 in the case of France and in the 21. century for the world. (author)

  8. The power of data--from data mining to consumer pricing and quality-of-care tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malof, Leah C

    2013-01-01

    Transparency tools, whether offered by carriers or third-party administrators, rely on adequate experience, by market and by service, to provide information to consumers about health care costs and quality of care. The opportunities for savings to individual consumers and to employer-sponsored health plans are clearly significant and possible if people will use the tools and act. This article reviews two studies showing a shift in consumer claims experience to less costly services afte the implementation of a transparency tool and when combined with a consumer-driven health plan. It also outlines best practices employers can implement to carefully craft interventions to engage and create value in the minds of health care consumers.

  9. Report from the 2nd Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and sophistication of large scale analytics in science and industry have advanced dramatically in recent years. Analysts are struggling to use complex techniques such as time series analysis and classification algorithms because their familiar, powerful tools are not scalable and cannot effectively use scalable database systems. The 2nd Extremely Large Databases (XLDB workshop was organized to understand these issues, examine their implications, and brainstorm possible solutions. The design of a new open source science database, SciDB that emerged from the first workshop in this series was also debated. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  10. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They cover a wide spectrum of areas from power supplies to power system ... Ramanarayanan describe the modelling and design of a family of soft transition ... of power when the drive is operating in the braking mode and fast dynamic response. ... time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time ...

  11. Import/export policy as a tool of optimal utilization of power produced by renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meibom, P.; Svendsen, T.; Soerensen, B.

    1997-10-01

    The official Danish energy plan ENERGY 21 calls for a very high penetration of wind energy in the electricity sector. This will put issues of fitting a variable energy source into a stable supply system in focus. The present study investigates the role that collaboration with the hydro based Scandinavian countries can offer, and particularly looks at the conditions of the Nordic power pool, asking whether it will be possible profitably to trade wind power in such a pool system. Based upon hourly simulation of the Scandinavian electricity system, with connections to the European continent, we track the fate of wind power in satisfying Danish demand, selling surpluses to and buying deficits from the pool, assuming international transmission lines of the capacity existing today or larger, and repeating the simulation for combinations of good and bad wind and hydro years, as defined by historical sets of wind speeds and hydro resources depending on precipitation and ice melting. Decisions concerning pool bidding and regulation of the remaining power system (mainly gas-fired combined heat and power plants) are made on the basis of the calculated predictions based on the historical data sequences up to the time of decision, and then confronted with the subsequent data values in the set. (EG)

  12. Powerfarm: A power and emergency management thread-based software tool for the ATLAS Napoli Tier2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Alessandra; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Merola, Leonardo; Iengo, Salvatore; Ricciardi, Sergio; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2010-01-01

    The large computing power and the storage systems available in a Grid site or in a computing center are composed of several servers and devices, each with its own specific role in the center. A management and fault recovery system is of primary importance for management operations and to preserve the integrity of the systems in case of emergencies, such as power outages or temperature peaks. We developed Powerfarm, a customizable thread-based software system that monitors several parameters such as, for example, the status of power supplies, room and CPU temperatures and it promptly reacts to values out of range with the appropriate actions. Powerfarm enforces hardware and software dependencies between devices and it is able to switch them on/off in the particular order induced by the dependencies, so it's also useful for the site administrator to speed up the management of scheduled downtimes.

  13. On-line vibration and loose parts monitoring of nuclear power stations as a preventive maintenance tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment for on-line monitoring of vibrations and loose parts of nuclear power plants is described. The unit consists of piezoelectric transducers, preamplifiers, a data processor, and peripherals. It secures on-line measurement without interfering with the operation of the power plant. A diagram is given showing the monitor of vibrations and loose parts for pressurized water reactors and the Spectra-Scan equipment for the automatic recording and computer processing of noise signals is described. A survey is given of diagnostic methods for internal vibrations, noise and oscillations and procedures for the analysis of recordings are described. The experiences of Atomica International with the observation of vibrations in nuclear power plants are described and an economic assessment is presented of the efficiency of on-line monitoring of these vibrations. A cost-benefit analysis is made of such equipment which justifies their introduction. (B.S.)

  14. Examination of issues related to the development and implementation of real-time operational safety monitoring tools in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglia, William J.; Atefi, Bahman

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, risk and reliability techniques have been increasingly used to optimize deterministic requirements and to improve the operational safety of nuclear power stations. This paper discusses the historical development and current status of implementation of real-time operational safety monitoring tools in the nuclear power industry worldwide. A safety monitor is defined as a PC-based risk management tool, based on a plant specific PSA, which can be used to manage plant safety during the day-to-day operation of a nuclear power plant by planning maintenance activities and providing advisory information to plant operational staff in order to avoid high risk plant configurations. As this technique has only been applied in a few plants worldwide, the technology is still evolving and there are several technical and implementation-related issues which still need to be resolved. This paper attempts to summarize all such issues and describe how they have been addressed in several different applications of this technology around the world

  15. WP3 Prototype development for operational planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, T.; Meibom, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Apfelbeck, J.; Barth, R.; Brand, H. (IER, Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany))

    2008-04-15

    This report documents the model development carried out in work package 3 in the SUPWIND project. It was decided to focus on the estimation of the need for reserve power, and on the reservation of reserve power by TSOs. Reserve power is needed to cover deviations from the day-ahead forecasts of electricity load and wind power production, and to cover forced outages of power plants and transmission lines. Work has been carried out to include load uncertainty and forced outages in the two main components of the Wilmar Planning tool namely the Scenario Tree Tool and the Joint Market Model. This work is documented in chapter 1 and 2. The inclusion of load uncertainty and forced outages in the Scenario Tree Tool enables calculation of the demand for reserve power depending on the forecast horizon. The algorithm is given in Section 3.1. The design of a modified version of the Joint Market Model enabling estimation of the optimal amount of reserve power to reserve day-ahead before the actual operation hour is documented in Section 3.2. With regard to the evaluation of a power system, its ability to cope with extreme events is crucial to be investigated. Chapter 4 gives a definition of such extreme events. Further, the methodology to identify extreme events on the basis of the existing tools is described. Within the SUPWIND consortium there has been an interest in using the Joint Market Model to model smaller parts of a power system but with more detailed representation of the transmission and distribution grid. Chapter 5 documents this work. (author)

  16. Advantages of using 3D design tools in the nuclear power plants projects; Ventajas del uso de herramientas de diseno 3D en los proyectos de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan, P.; Melendro, J.; Gomez, A.; Hermana, I.

    2011-07-01

    It there is anything that distinguished Iberdrola Ingeneria y Construccion, as part of the Iberdrola Group, it is its firm commitment to innovation and continuous improvement. This is the philosophy that led the company to its interest in three-dimensional design tools back when they were in an early stage of development : very little international implementation, lack of integration with other applications, absence of previous experiences to understand the best possible configuration for each case, etc. Nevertheless, the company was able to see the tremendous advantage of having a construction program in the early months of a project- a detailed program that could predict, and therefore avoid, the problems that, if not anticipated, would arise in the construction phase when they result in higher costs, longer time frames and a multitude of complications. This is precisely what 3D design tools offer prediction and this has been proven in the latest combined cycle projects executed with these tools. A project executed without errors not only decreases cost and time overruns, but also necessarily increases the quality of the end result. Efficiency and quality: these are both basic goals of Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion. The knowledge of and skill in the use of these tools have grown at the same time that their development has reached increasingly higher levels. As a result, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Conctruccion now has intensive experience in the use of 3D design tools and is preprared for the future challenges posed by these tools, the capabilities of which have attained such heights that it is possible to take on one of the most technically challenging projects that exists a nuclear power plant. And we are ready. (Author)

  17. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  18. Evaluation of ecosystem simulation models as tools for assessment of power plant impacts on fish populations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzman, G.L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes work on evaluating the usefulness of models in assessing power plant impacts. Models were found to be most useful in suggesting frequency and replication for monitoring programs. Models also were useful in indicating where further data are needed. The modeling work on Lake Ontario and Lake Keowee indicated difficulties in using monitoring data for model construction and validation

  19. Occupational safety in the nuclear power plant. The contribution of sociology to the development of a communication tool for the elimination of hazardous situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedler, Christien; Huber, Veit

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plant companies make efforts to enhance the operational safety in the plant. Despite a variety of measures the number of accidents at work is still too high, esp. for external personnel. Social psychological considerations were used to develop communication tools for the elimination of hazardous situations, for instance by safety dialogues between employees. The observation of hazardous situations should trigger communication and discussion on the risk of the specific situation. In the contribution practical experiences and recommendations for the realization of a safety dialogue culture in the NPP Grafenrheinfeld are summarized and illustrated by examples.

  20. Decision support tool for Virtual Power Players: Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization applied to Day-ahead Vehicle-To-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, João; Valle, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support Tool methodology to help virtual power players (VPPs) in the Smart Grid (SGs) context to solve the day-ahead energy ressource scheduling considering the intensive use of Distributed Generation (DG) and Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G). The main focus is the application...... of a new hybrid method combing a particle swarm approach and a deterministic technique based on mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) to solve the day-ahead scheduling minimizing total operation costs from the aggregator point of view. A realistic mathematical formulation, considering the electric network...... constraints and V2G charging and discharging efficiencies is presented. Full AC power flow calculation is included in the hybrid method to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 1800 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance...

  1. Remote controller for tool moving in tube especially rotopeenig tool in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocci, J.L.; Blotas, B.; Francois, D.

    1988-01-01

    To introduce at distance a tool such a rotopeening tool in a tube, the tool is attached to the extremity of a flexible cable which is enclosed in a flexible sheath. The sheath extremity is fixed on the arm of a carrier. The other extremity of the sheath is fixed in translation on a command bed. The tool introduction is made by a motoreduction gear placed on the bed translating the extremity of the sheath by pinion-rack system [fr

  2. A computer tool to support in design of industrial Ethernet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Alexandre Baratella; Santos, Max Mauro Dias; Franco, Lucia Regina Horta Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a computer tool to support in the project and development of an industrial Ethernet network, verifying the physical layer (cables-resistance and capacitance, scan time, network power supply-POE's concept "Power Over Ethernet" and wireless), and occupation rate (amount of information transmitted to the network versus the controller network scan time). These functions are accomplished without a single physical element installed in the network, using only simulation. The computer tool has a software that presents a detailed vision of the network to the user, besides showing some possible problems in the network, and having an extremely friendly environment.

  3. A new tool of decentralized power supply. Micro-cogeneration unit for heat and power supply; Neuer Spielball der dezentralen Energieversorgung. Mikro-Waermekraftkopplung liefert Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    Small fuel cell heating systems have renewed interest in decentralized power supply. The Dutch company EnAtEc recently announced their intention of presenting a micro-cogeneration unit ({mu}WK) at this year's ISH. The unit is a combination of a gas-fuelled high-efficiency boiler and a free-piston Stirling engine. With 1 kW{sub el} and 6 - 24 kW{sub th} it is suited for single-family dwellings. [German] Kleine Brennstoffzellenheizgeraete haben eine rege Diskussion um die dezentrale Energieversorgung entfacht. Juengst ueberraschte die niederlaendische Firma EnAtEc mit der Ankuendigung, zur ISH eine ''Mikro-Waermekraftkopplung'' ({mu}WK) vorzustellen. Das Geraet kombiniert einen Gas-Brennwertkessel mit einer Freikolben-Stirlingmaschine. Mit Leistungen von 1 kW{sub el} und 6 bis 24 kW{sub th} zielt die {mu}WK auf Einfamilienhaushalte. (orig.)

  4. Power-to-Gas (P2G), a flexibility tool to accompany the transformation of the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtecuisse, Matthieu; Lorgeril, Charlotte de; Courtemanche, Noel

    2015-01-01

    Power-to-Gas (P2G) is one of the envisaged solutions to the problem of production intermittency of renewable energies, of energy storage and peak consumption management. This Power Point presentation proposes a rather detailed overview of the possibilities and perspectives of this technology. It addresses the context and stakes of P2G: challenges related to the transformation of the energy system, implemented technologies. Different technologies are presented with their drawbacks and benefits, their main actors, their maturity level: electrolysis (alkaline, proton exchange membrane, solid oxide electrolysis), methanation (chemical, biological, CO 2 capture). It proposes a presentation of the various actors in European countries: energy industries, P2G component providers and experts, research organisations, public bodies and associations, political field. P2G European projects are then presented: studies, R and D projects, demonstrators. The last part proposes an overview of the regulatory, environmental, safety and acceptability issues

  5. Experimentality: The friendly face of power? The interactive new media as tools of discretionary governance and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Heydebrand; New York University

    2013-01-01

    The interactive new media (INM) are a powerful information technology (IT) with contradictory consequences for the nature of work, creativity, and innovation. Digital interactivity shortens both time and distance within and across global networks. It reduces labor time and transaction costs, eases the shift from manual to mental labor, and raises efficiency, productivity, and profits. It facilitates quick responses to changing conditions and new opportunities, and it encourages experimentatio...

  6. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GIS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  7. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  8. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Moroz, Olga V.; Turkenburg, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    . A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present...... in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq -like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions....

  10. Modeling and validation of a mechanistic tool (MEFISTO) for the prediction of critical power in BWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamsson, Carl; Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The MEFISTO code efficiently and accurately predicts the dryout event in a BWR fuel bundle, using a mechanistic model. → A hybrid approach between a fast and robust sub-channel analysis and a three-field two-phase analysis is adopted. → MEFISTO modeling approach, calibration, CPU usage, sensitivity, trend analysis and performance evaluation are presented. → The calibration parameters and process were carefully selected to preserve the mechanistic nature of the code. → The code dryout prediction performance is near the level of fuel-specific empirical dryout correlations. - Abstract: Westinghouse is currently developing the MEFISTO code with the main goal to achieve fast, robust, practical and reliable prediction of steady-state dryout Critical Power in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle based on a mechanistic approach. A computationally efficient simulation scheme was used to achieve this goal, where the code resolves all relevant field (drop, steam and multi-film) mass balance equations, within the annular flow region, at the sub-channel level while relying on a fast and robust two-phase (liquid/steam) sub-channel solution to provide the cross-flow information. The MEFISTO code can hence provide highly detailed solution of the multi-film flow in BWR fuel bundle while enhancing flexibility and reducing the computer time by an order of magnitude as compared to a standard three-field sub-channel analysis approach. Models for the numerical computation of the one-dimensional field flowrate distributions in an open channel (e.g. a sub-channel), including the numerical treatment of field cross-flows, part-length rods, spacers grids and post-dryout conditions are presented in this paper. The MEFISTO code is then applied to dryout prediction in BWR fuel bundle using VIPRE-W as a fast and robust two-phase sub-channel driver code. The dryout power is numerically predicted by iterating on the bundle power so that the minimum film flowrate in the

  11. Novel Organic Materials for Multi-photon Photopolymerization and Photografting: Powerful Tools for Precise Microfabracation and Functionalization in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.

    2013-07-01

    benzylidene ketone-based 2PIs containing double bonds and dialkylamino groups were synthesized in one step via classical aldol condensation reactions. The results of quantum-chemical calculations and experimental tests indicated that the size of the central ring significantly affected the excited state energetics and emission quantum yields as well as the two-photon initiation efficiency. 4-methylcyclohexanone-based initiator M2CMK is far more efficient than its counterparts with a central five-membered ring. The ideal processing windows of M2CMK are as broad as those of B3FL but with much simpler synthesis. Straightforward synthesis combined with high 2PA initiation efficiency makes the novel initiator a promising candidate for commercialization. Based on the efficient core structures of cyclic benzylidene ketone, carboxylic acid sodium salts as water-borne functionalities were incorporated in order to expand the application range of 2PP to biofabrication. Those novel water-soluble 2PIs were applied to microfabrication at a writing speed as high as 100 mm/s within hydrophilic photopolymers with up to 50 wt% of water. Preliminary dark-cytotoxicity tests of the 2PIs were performed and the obtained results were compared to those of Irgacure 2959, the most commonly used photoinitiator in cell encapsulation. The second part of the thesis concerned on the novel arylazide used for multi-photon induced photografting (MPG), a powerful tool for 3D site-specific functionalization. As a proof-of-concept, commercial aromatic azide BAC-M was successfully grafted within the 3D matrix with high resolution under three-photon excitation. In order to enhance the grafting efficiency and reduce the required energies, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 2PA active fluoroaryl azides containing 'push-pull' structures. Desired functionalities, such as alkene and alkyne groups, were introduced at the terminal amino groups for post-modification after two-photon photografting. (author

  12. Savings serving energy transition Green finance: a powerful and citizen-oriented tool. Working paper no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergne, Frederique; Kerhoas, Mailys; Lety, Benoit; Lutzky, Ana

    2015-06-01

    The lack of funding is often considered, especially by public decision-makers, as one of the major reasons for the slow-down of implementation of energy transition. However, savings and cash flow have never been so abundant. With exclusive money creation, facilitated by very accommodating monetary policies implemented by central banks, financial markets are over-flown with cash flow. This paradox underlines that the issue is not caused by the lack of financial means but rather on the lack of tools favouring the allocation of such means to energy transition. Investments needs are considerable, ranging from 60 to 70 billion Euros each year, which represents approximately 3% of the European GDP. On the European level, expenses supposed to be dedicated to energy transition are valued around 350 to 400 billion Euros each year during 10 years, or, once again, around 3% of the European GDP. The issue is mainly to allocate investments differently rather than increasing their global volume. Public authorities are not able to manage such investments directly and on their own. However, while private players from the financial sector haven taken initiatives and commitments, these have so far proven insufficient in comparison with the scope of the challenge. It is true that public authorities have often avoided acting directly on financial players. However, finance is not a neutral tool and its players, being part of the economy, have a specific role to play. Beyond the necessary development of local and public funding mechanisms favouring sustainable development projects? Which were not dealt with by the working group? This memo focuses on essential tools to create an efficient mechanism which supports huge allocation of savings on energy transition. Thus, it stresses out a global and innovative proposal with strong potential consequences, involving the implementation and the generalization of an 'energy transition' label for financial products, in order to enable

  13. The con focal laser scanning microscope: a powerful tool for the investigation of micro devices and nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montereali, R.M.; Baldacchini, G.; Bonfigli, F.; Vincenti, M.A.; Almaviva, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the last years the Con focal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), a versatile and powerful optical instrument, gained a strong increase of interest in the scientific community, not only for biological applications, but also for the characterization of materials, microstructures and devices. The conditions that favoured its wide diffusion are surely the large availability of laser sources and powerful computer-imaging and data-processing systems at relatively low cost; however, the main reason that contributed to its popularity is the ability to obtain tri dimensional reconstruction of a great variety of biological and non-biological samples with sub micrometric resolution. In this report we show the main properties and characteristics of the Con focal Microscope Nikon Eclipse 80-i C1, which has operated sinc more than two years in the Solid State Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati. Some of the results obtained in the characterization of luminescent micro and nano structures based on lithium fluoride color centers will be presented [it

  14. Experimentality: The friendly face of power? The interactive new media as tools of discretionary governance and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Heydebrand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The interactive new media (INM are a powerful information technology (IT with contradictory consequences for the nature of work, creativity, and innovation. Digital interactivity shortens both time and distance within and across global networks. It reduces labor time and transaction costs, eases the shift from manual to mental labor, and raises efficiency, productivity, and profits. It facilitates quick responses to changing conditions and new opportunities, and it encourages experimentation, risk taking, discovery, and innovation. IT and INM constitute the technical infrastructure of advanced business and consulting services like advertising, management consulting, and accounting. They are popular components of the globalizing culture industry. But INM are also instruments of discretionary governance and neoliberal governmentality. They have an unaccountable influence on financial, actuarial, cybernetic and ideological forms of power, and they serve to extend the mechanisms of indirect and anonymous social control into everyday life. The INM are widely adopted for purposes of discretionary governance and risk management, but tend to escape autonomous social and democratic regulation. The paper examines the effects of INM on small project teams as well as on aspects of neoliberal experimentality such as informalism and flexibility at work, the hacker work ethic, social networking, and techno-libertarianism. The conclusion reconsiders the intrinsic tension between neoliberal experimentality and governmentality.

  15. Development Methodology of a Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment Tool for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. K.; Song, J. G.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.

    2011-01-01

    With the use of digital computers and communication networks the hot issues on cyber security were raised about 10 years ago. The scope of cyber security application has now been extended from the safety Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system to safety important systems, plant security system, and emergency preparedness system. Therefore, cyber security should be assessed and managed systematically throughout the development life cycle of I and C systems in order for their digital assets to be protected from cyber attacks. Fig. 1 shows the concept of a cyber security risk management of digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). A lot of cyber security risk assessment methods, techniques, and supported tools have been developed for Information Technology (IT) systems, but they have not been utilized widely for cyber security risk assessments of the digital I and C systems in NPPs. The main reason is a difference in goals between IT systems and nuclear I and C systems. Confidentiality is important in IT systems, but availability and integrity are important in nuclear I and C systems. Last year, it was started to develop a software tool to be specialized for the development process of nuclear I and C systems. This paper presents a development methodology of the Cyber Security Risk analysis and Assessment Tool (CSRAT) for the digital I and C systems in NPP

  16. Development Methodology of a Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment Tool for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. K.; Song, J. G.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    With the use of digital computers and communication networks the hot issues on cyber security were raised about 10 years ago. The scope of cyber security application has now been extended from the safety Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system to safety important systems, plant security system, and emergency preparedness system. Therefore, cyber security should be assessed and managed systematically throughout the development life cycle of I and C systems in order for their digital assets to be protected from cyber attacks. Fig. 1 shows the concept of a cyber security risk management of digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). A lot of cyber security risk assessment methods, techniques, and supported tools have been developed for Information Technology (IT) systems, but they have not been utilized widely for cyber security risk assessments of the digital I and C systems in NPPs. The main reason is a difference in goals between IT systems and nuclear I and C systems. Confidentiality is important in IT systems, but availability and integrity are important in nuclear I and C systems. Last year, it was started to develop a software tool to be specialized for the development process of nuclear I and C systems. This paper presents a development methodology of the Cyber Security Risk analysis and Assessment Tool (CSRAT) for the digital I and C systems in NPP

  17. Final Technical Report for Contract No. DE-EE0006332, "Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, Dallas [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Edra, Sherwin [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Espinoza, Michael [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Kostylev, Vladimir [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Pavlovski, Alexandre [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Jelen, Deborah [Electricore, Inc., Valencia, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  18. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  19. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  20. Revisiting the phase transition of AdS-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills black holes via AdS/CFT tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumni, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the Van der Waals-like phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity (EMPYM) via different approaches. After reconsidering this phase structure in the entropy-thermal plane, we recall the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function to show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like behavior as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law and calculating the critical exponent for different values of charge C and nonlinearity parameter q we confirm that the first and the second order phases persist in the holographic framework. Also the validity of the Maxwell law is governed by the proximity to the critical point.

  1. Revisiting the phase transition of AdS-Maxwell–power-Yang–Mills black holes via AdS/CFT tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Moumni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we investigate the Van der Waals-like phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the Einstein–Maxwell–power-Yang–Mills gravity (EMPYM via different approaches. After reconsidering this phase structure in the entropy-thermal plane, we recall the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function to show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like behavior as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law and calculating the critical exponent for different values of charge C and nonlinearity parameter q we confirm that the first and the second order phases persist in the holographic framework. Also the validity of the Maxwell law is governed by the proximity to the critical point.

  2. HiRITER - An evaluation tool to reduce the adverse effect of inappropriate human actions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jung, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Heo, G.

    2012-01-01

    From end-users to regulatory bodies, it is widely recognized that human-induced events including inappropriate human actions are one of the most crucial sources degrading the overall safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This means that a systematic framework through which inappropriate human actions can be effectively identified is necessary to enhance the safety of NPPs. For this reason, HiRITER (High Risk Inducible Task Evaluator) has been developed, which is able to evaluate the effect of inappropriate human actions on risk as well as performance. To this end, HiRITER integrates three modules that have distinctive roles: human error prediction module that is able to determine the types of failure modes resulting from inappropriate human actions with the associated daily task, performance evaluation module that computes the loss of electric power due to the change of component configurations caused by human error and risk evaluation module that clarifies whether or not the propagation of human error can trigger an unexpected shutdown of NPPs. In addition, a couple of real events that had occurred in domestic NPPs are simulated in order to validate the feasibility of HiRITER. As a result, it is observed that the results of HiRITER are largely congruent with those of real events. Therefore, although a huge amount of additional effort is indispensable to enhance the overall accuracy of estimated results, it is expected that HiRITER could be a good starting point to reduce the adverse effect of inappropriate human actions in NPPs

  3. A Simulation of Energy Storage System for Improving the Power System Stability with Grid-Connected PV using MCA Analysis and LabVIEW Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Stuchly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale penetration of distributed, Renewable power plants require transfers of large amounts of energy. This, in turn, puts a high strain on the energy delivery infrastructure. In particular, photovoltaic power plants supply energy with high intermittency, possibly affecting the stability of the grid by changing the voltage at the plant connection point. In this contribution, we summarize the main negative effects of selected and real-operated grid connected photovoltaic plant. Thereafter a review of suitable Energy storage systems to mitigate the negative effects has been carried out, compared and evaluated using Multi-criterion analysis. Based on this analysis, data collected at the plant and the grid, are used to design the energy storage systems to support connection of the plant to the grid. The cooperation of these systems is then analysed and evaluated using simulation tools created in LabVIEW for this purpose. The simulation results demonstrate the capability of energy storage system solutions to significantly reduce the negative feedback effects of Photovoltaic Power Plan to the low voltage grid.

  4. The Diels-Alder reaction: A powerful tool for the design of drug delivery systems and biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoritza, Manuel; Brandl, Ferdinand P

    2015-11-01

    Click reactions have the potential to greatly facilitate the development of drug delivery systems and biomaterials. These reactions proceed under mild conditions, give high yields, and form only inoffensive by-products. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the click reactions that do not require any metal catalyst; it is one of the most useful reactions in synthetic organic chemistry and material design. Herein, we highlight possible applications of the Diels-Alder reaction in pharmaceutics and biomedical engineering. Particular focus is placed on the synthesis of polymers and dendrimers for drug delivery, the preparation of functionalized surfaces, bioconjugation techniques, and applications of the Diels-Alder reaction in nanotechnology. Moreover, applications of the reaction for the preparation of hydrogels for drug delivery and tissue engineering are reviewed. A general introduction to the Diels-Alder reaction is presented, along with a discussion of potential pitfalls and challenges. At the end of the article, we provide a set of tools that may facilitate the application of the Diels-Alder reaction to solve important pharmaceutical or biomedical problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    OpenAIRE

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic stations (airports) of North Germany (Bremen, Hamburg and Hannover) were considered for the construction of time series of daily maximum wind speeds. All daily wind extremes were found to be linked...

  6. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  7. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of silicon carbide in power semiconductor material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, M.; Kraft, M.; Schultz, M.; Goller, B.; Sternig, D.; Esteve, R.; Roesner, M.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide band-gap semi-conductor material that is used increasingly for high voltage power devices, since it has a higher breakdown field strength and better thermal conductivity than silicon. However, in particular its hardness makes wafer processing difficult and many standard semi-conductor processes have to be specially adapted. We measure the effects of (i) mechanical processing (i.e. grinding of the backside) and (ii) chemical and thermal processing (i.e. doping and annealing), using confocal microscopy to measure the surface roughness of ground wafers and micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the stresses induced in the wafers by grinding. 4H-SiC wafers with different dopings were studied before and after annealing, using depth-resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy to observe how doping and annealing affect: i.) the damage and stresses induced on the crystalline structure of the samples and ii.) the concentration of free electrical carriers. Our results show that mechanical, chemical and thermal processing techniques have effects on this semiconductor material that can be observed and characterized using confocal microscopy and high resolution micro Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Microfluidic Foaming: A Powerful Tool for Tailoring the Morphological and Permeability Properties of Sponge-like Biopolymeric Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marco; Colosi, Cristina; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Tosato, Alessia; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Dentini, Mariella; Garstecki, Piotr; Barbetta, Andrea

    2015-10-28

    Ordered porous polymeric materials can be engineered to present highly ordered pore arrays and uniform and tunable pore size. These features prompted a number of applications in tissue engineering, generation of meta materials, and separation and purification of biomolecules and cells. Designing new and efficient vistas for the generation of ordered porous materials is an active area of research. Here we investigate the potential of microfluidic foaming within a flow-focusing (FF) geometry in producing 3D regular sponge-like polymeric matrices with tailored morphological and permeability properties. The challenge in using microfluidic systems for the generation of polymeric foams is in the high viscosity of the continuous phase. We demonstrate that as the viscosity of the aqueous solution increases, the accessible range of foam bubble fraction (Φb) and bubble diameter (Db) inside the microfluidic chip tend to narrow progressively. This effect limits the accessible range of geometric properties of the resulting materials. We further show that this problem can be rationally tackled by appropriate choice of the concentration of the polymer. We demonstrate that via such optimization, the microfluidic assisted synthesis of porous materials becomes a facile and versatile tool for generation of porous materials with a wide range of pore size and pore volume. Moreover, we demonstrate that the size of interconnects among pores-for a given value of the gas fraction-can be tailored through the variation of surfactant concentration. This, in turn, affects the permeability of the materials, a factor of key importance in flow-through applications and in tissue engineering.

  9. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such real time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time simulation of sys- tems to evolve control schemes for the converters as well as to study the effect on the power system. In view of the control possibilities offered by the use of power converters and the newly emerging applications, there has ...

  10. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankaer, Christian G; Moroz, Olga V; Turkenburg, Johan P; Aspmo, Stein I; Thymark, Majbritt; Friis, Esben P; Stahl, Kenny; Nielsen, Jens E; Wilson, Keith S; Harris, Pernille

    2014-04-01

    A microcrystalline suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin (Savinase) produced during industrial large-scale production was analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray single-crystal diffraction (MX). XRPD established that the bulk microcrystal sample representative of the entire production suspension corresponded to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.65, b = 62.43, c = 75.74 Å, equivalent to those for a known orthorhombic crystal form (PDB entry 1ndq). MX using synchrotron beamlines at the Diamond Light Source with beam dimensions of 20 × 20 µm was subsequently used to study the largest crystals present in the suspension, with diffraction data being collected from two single crystals (∼20 × 20 × 60 µm) to resolutions of 1.40 and 1.57 Å, respectively. Both structures also belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), but were quite distinct from the dominant form identified by XRPD, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.04, b = 57.55, c = 71.37 Å and a = 52.72, b = 57.13, c = 65.86 Å, respectively, and refined to R = 10.8% and Rfree = 15.5% and to R = 14.1% and Rfree = 18.0%, respectively. They are also different from any of the forms previously reported in the PDB. A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq-like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions.

  11. Thermal plumes and micro-contaminants release from power plants in water bodies. Development of innovative software tools to support plant management and real case applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guandalini, R.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues are a fundamental aspect of energy generation by thermal power plants. Numerical modeling can be used to develop innovative software tools to support plant management and to analyze critical scenarios also considering meteorology forecasts. Compliance with regulatory obligations of thermal/contaminant plumes and prediction of water body physical properties at the intake/discharge location can be performed by real time systems, in order to optimize plant operations and to evaluate the amount of energy that will be generated. A procedure coupling hydrodynamic and water quality modeling for the prediction of possible areas of accumulation of micro-contaminants in a short, medium and long period is also presented. Finally, applications of thermal/pollutant prediction systems and numerical modeling of particular environmental aspects of energy production and transport are shown (e.g. chlorine diffusion from a HVDC marine anode, impact on aquatic ecosystems in coastal regions). (author)

  12. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  13. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    loci of the maxima of Y(E,ΔE) curves are present in most cases. As a relevant conclusion, use of target thickness larger than the 'effective' value, is unsuitable from technological point of view, due to larger power density deposited by the beam in target material itself, instead of target cooling system. Finally, this set of Thick-Target Yields and maxima permits calculating the optimum irradiation conditions to produce radionuclides with higher as possible yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity. In order to join the advantages of the accurate knowledge of thin-target excitation functions and cross-sections of radionuclide of interest and its radioisotopic impurities, very selective radiochemical separations were optimized to separate the radionuclide itself from the irradiated target without any addition of isotopic carrier. A large number of very high specific activity radionuclides for environmental, toxicological and biomedical research applications have been produced in No Carrier Added form, by medium energy proton, deuteron and alpha accelerating cyclotrons. Some practical examples of radionuclides produced recently are presented. (author)

  14. Development of a mobile game based on virtual reality tools to sensitize the population about the nuclear power plant's emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucas H.H.; Mol, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. do E.; Legey, Ana Paula [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (Unicarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant's emergency plan, it is the bunch of instructions that every citizen must adopt in case of an emergency situation. It is highly important, that all the people living in the power plant's surroundings truly understand every single step of the plan, because only in this way people will know how to react in case of a necessity. To hit this goals, the Brazil's Electronuclear, made educational booklets, in the shape of comic books, trying to guide the population about the plan. On the other hand, we have an increasingly connected world, making possible that digital games, be very well accepted by the population. So this project has as an objective, developing a digital tool, in form of a mobile game that shows in a playful and interactive way for the user, the emergency plan, complementing the educational process and social actions made by many institutions. With the information taken from the booklets, objects and buildings were modeled in Autodesk 3Ds Max, allied with the Unity 3D Game Engine, to make a city, inspired in Angra do Reis (RJ). The player has to follow all the security protocols giving by the Eletronuclear according with the rules provided by the National Nuclear Energy Commission. Is expected, with this game that will be available for the Eletronuclear that more people have the chance to know and believe in the efficiency of the emergency plan already established. (author)

  15. Development of a mobile game based on virtual reality tools to sensitize the population about the nuclear power plant's emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucas H.H.; Mol, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. do E.; Legey, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant's emergency plan, it is the bunch of instructions that every citizen must adopt in case of an emergency situation. It is highly important, that all the people living in the power plant's surroundings truly understand every single step of the plan, because only in this way people will know how to react in case of a necessity. To hit this goals, the Brazil's Electronuclear, made educational booklets, in the shape of comic books, trying to guide the population about the plan. On the other hand, we have an increasingly connected world, making possible that digital games, be very well accepted by the population. So this project has as an objective, developing a digital tool, in form of a mobile game that shows in a playful and interactive way for the user, the emergency plan, complementing the educational process and social actions made by many institutions. With the information taken from the booklets, objects and buildings were modeled in Autodesk 3Ds Max, allied with the Unity 3D Game Engine, to make a city, inspired in Angra do Reis (RJ). The player has to follow all the security protocols giving by the Eletronuclear according with the rules provided by the National Nuclear Energy Commission. Is expected, with this game that will be available for the Eletronuclear that more people have the chance to know and believe in the efficiency of the emergency plan already established. (author)

  16. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis[CDM=Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    power production profile of Zafarana, the emission rates estimated by runs with 1 hour time-steps of the simulation tool ES3 range from 0.590 tCO{sub 2}/MWh to 0.610 tCO{sub 2}/MWh. These results come very close to estimates based on two different interpretations of standardized baseline options above. (au)

  17. Project WAGR: the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has built and operated a wide range of nuclear facilities since the late 1940. UKAEA mission is to restore the environment of its sites in a safe and secure manner. This restoration includes the decommissioning of a number of redundant research and power reactors. The Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (WAGR) was the UK prototype Advanced gas cooled reactor and became the forerunner of a family of 14 reactors built to generate cheaper and more efficient electricity in the UK. WAGR was constructed between 1957 and 1961 and was a carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated reactor using uranium oxide fuel in stainless steel cans. The reactor consisted of a graphite moderator housed in a cylindrical reactor vessel with hemispherical ends. The reactor and associated heat exchangers were enclosed in the iconic spherical containment building regularly used by the media in the UK as an illustration of the nuclear industry. The reactor first produced power in August 1962 and achieved full design output in 1963. It operated at an electrical output of 33 MW (E) for 18 years (average load factor of 75%). In 1981 the reactor was shut down after satisfactory completion of all the research and development objectives. In anticipation of the UK likely nuclear decommissioning needs the UKAEA decided to decommission WAGR to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) stage 3 (restoration of the area occupied by the facility to a condition of unrestricted re-usability) as the national demonstration exercise for power reactor decommissioning. Since 1998 the UKAEA and its contractors have been undertaking the dismantling of the reactor core components and pressure vessel in a series of 10 campaigns. These contain neutron activated components expected to produce dose rates well in excess of 1 Sv/hr. To carry out the work UKAEA installed an 8M remote dismantling machine (RDM) a waste recovery and transport system and a shielded waste

  18. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  19. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  20. Preconditioned iterations to calculate extreme eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, C.W.; Petrova, S. [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Leoben (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    Common iterative algorithms to calculate a few extreme eigenvalues of a large, sparse matrix are Lanczos methods or power iterations. They converge at a rate proportional to the separation of the extreme eigenvalues from the rest of the spectrum. Appropriate preconditioning improves the separation of the eigenvalues. Davidson`s method and its generalizations exploit this fact. The authors examine a preconditioned iteration that resembles a truncated version of Davidson`s method with a different preconditioning strategy.

  1. Modernizing Distribution System Restoration to Achieve Grid Resiliency Against Extreme Weather Events: An Integrated Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Ton, Dan

    2017-07-07

    Recent severe power outages caused by extreme weather hazards have highlighted the importance and urgency of improving the resilience of the electric power grid. As the distribution grids still remain vulnerable to natural disasters, the power industry has focused on methods of restoring distribution systems after disasters in an effective and quick manner. The current distribution system restoration practice for utilities is mainly based on predetermined priorities and tends to be inefficient and suboptimal, and the lack of situational awareness after the hazard significantly delays the restoration process. As a result, customers may experience an extended blackout, which causes large economic loss. On the other hand, the emerging advanced devices and technologies enabled through grid modernization efforts have the potential to improve the distribution system restoration strategy. However, utilizing these resources to aid the utilities in better distribution system restoration decision-making in response to extreme weather events is a challenging task. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated solution: a distribution system restoration decision support tool designed by leveraging resources developed for grid modernization. We first review the current distribution restoration practice and discuss why it is inadequate in response to extreme weather events. Then we describe how the grid modernization efforts could benefit distribution system restoration, and we propose an integrated solution in the form of a decision support tool to achieve the goal. The advantages of the solution include improving situational awareness of the system damage status and facilitating survivability for customers. The paper provides a comprehensive review of how the existing methodologies in the literature could be leveraged to achieve the key advantages. The benefits of the developed system restoration decision support tool include the optimal and efficient allocation of repair crews

  2. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of prompt-effect technology for innovative energy environment (Research and development of extremely low power consuming LSI for information terminal); 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gokuteidenryoku joho tanmatsuyo LSI no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the advancement of information technologies, multimedia information terminals such as handyphone systems and mobile computers are increasing in number and improving in quality, sharply increasing power consumption in this domain. So as to suppress the power consumption, efforts are exerted to develop technologies for information terminal LSI (large-scale integration) substrates consuming extremely low power and still capable of high-speed operation. Studied are a device technology of SOI (silicon on insulator) to realize a remarkable reduction in power consumption and enable high-speed operation and a circuit technology of the multi-threshold CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) advantageous to the achievement of low-voltage high-speed operation. In concrete terms, the efforts center about an extremely thin film SOI device of the full depletion type higher in transistor driving capability, lower in load capacity, and smaller in surface area than those currently in use, and aim to put such an SOI device on an optimized multi-threshold CMOS circuit for the establishment of techniques toward the embodiment of an LSI substrate consuming extremely low electric power. (NEDO)

  3. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  4. Application of total quality tools in the operational process modernization and optimization of large hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de ferramentas da qualidade total na modernizacao e otimizacao de processos operacionais de grandes usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Luiz Frederico; Kassem, Faisal Ali; Medlo, Gerson Ricardo; Santos, Valdemir Chalito dos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil). Superintendencia de Gerencia da Manutencao. Area de Operacao e Manutencao Salto Caxias]. E-mail: potenza@mail.copel.br

    1998-07-01

    This work highlights a practical example of Total Quality tools application, and as the institutional changes advances, the necessity of being better and more competitive becomes evident. By using Total Quality Control tools in the modernization and optimization of operational processes for large hydroelectric power plants of the COPEL-Brazil this work contributes for the continuous increasing of the customers satisfaction and the profitability of the company.

  5. "Extreme Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The importance of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "Extreme Programming" (EP).…

  6. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  7. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R. [Oeko-Institut, Energy Div., Darmstadt (Germany); Liptow, Holger [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Climate Change Programme, Eschborn (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO{sub x} burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can

  8. The use of selective adsorbents in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyte preconcentration and microreactions: a powerful three-dimensional tool for multiple chemical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N A; Stubbs, R J

    2001-10-01

    Much attention has recently been directed to the development and application of online sample preconcentration and microreactions in capillary electrophoresis using selective adsorbents based on chemical or biological specificity. The basic principle involves two interacting chemical or biological systems with high selectivity and affinity for each other. These molecular interactions in nature usually involve noncovalent and reversible chemical processes. Properly bound to a solid support, an "affinity ligand" can selectively adsorb a "target analyte" found in a simple or complex mixture at a wide range of concentrations. As a result, the isolated analyte is enriched and highly purified. When this affinity technique, allowing noncovalent chemical interactions and biochemical reactions to occur, is coupled on-line to high-resolution capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a powerful tool of chemical and biological information is created. This paper describes the concept of biological recognition and affinity interaction on-line with high-resolution separation, the fabrication of an "analyte concentrator-microreactor", optimization conditions of adsorption and desorption, the coupling to mass spectrometry, and various applications of clinical and pharmaceutical interest.

  9. Significantly improving the yield of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis by a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP): Alkaline α-amylase as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingfang; Yang, Haiquan; Chen, Xianzhong; Sun, Bo; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Song, Jiangning; Fan, You; Shen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    In this study, atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP), a promising mutation breeding technique, was successfully applied to generate Bacillus subtilis mutants that yielded large quantities of recombinant protein. The high throughput screening platform was implemented to select those mutants with the highest yield of recombinant alkaline α-amylase (AMY), including the preferred mutant B. subtilis WB600 mut-12#. The yield and productivity of recombinant AMY in B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# increased 35.0% and 8.8%, respectively, the extracellular protein concentration of which increased 37.9%. B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# exhibited good genetic stability. Cells from B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# became shorter and wider than those from the wild-type. This study is the first to report a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP) that significantly improves the yield of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis and may therefore play an important role in the high expression level of proteins in recombinant microbial hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complaint-adaptive power density optimization as a tool for HTP-guided steering in deep hyperthermia treatment of pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canters, R A M; Franckena, M; Zee, J van der; Rhoon, G C van

    2008-01-01

    For an efficient clinical use of HTP (hyperthermia treatment planning), optimization methods are needed. In this study, a complaint-adaptive PD (power density) optimization as a tool for HTP-guided steering in deep hyperthermia of pelvic tumors is developed and tested. PD distribution in patients is predicted using FE-models. Two goal functions, Opt1 and Opt2, are applied to optimize PD distributions. Optimization consists of three steps: initial optimization, adaptive optimization after a first complaint and increasing the weight of a region after recurring complaints. Opt1 initially considers only target PD whereas Opt2 also takes into account hot spots. After patient complaints though, both limit PD in a region. Opt1 and Opt2 are evaluated in a phantom test, using patient models and during hyperthermia treatment. The phantom test and a sensitivity study in ten patient models, show that HTP-guided steering is most effective in peripheral complaint regions. Clinical evaluation in two groups of five patients shows that time between complaints is longer using Opt2 (p = 0.007). However, this does not lead to significantly different temperatures (T50s of 40.3 (Opt1) versus 40.1 deg. C (Opt2) (p = 0.898)). HTP-guided steering is feasible in terms of PD reduction in complaint regions and in time consumption. Opt2 is preferable in future use, because of better complaint reduction and control.

  11. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  12. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  13. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  14. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  15. Probabilistic analysis of extreme wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    A vital task in wind engineering and meterology is to understand, measure, analyse and forecast extreme wind conditions, due to their significant effects on human activities and installations like buildings, bridges or wind turbines. The latest version of the IEC standard (1996) pays particular attention to the extreme wind events that have to be taken into account when designing or certifying a wind generator. Actually, the extreme wind events within a 50 year period are those which determine the ``static`` design of most of the wind turbine components. The extremes which are important for the safety of wind generators are those associated with the so-called ``survival wind speed``, the extreme operating gusts and the extreme wind direction changes. A probabilistic approach for the analysis of these events is proposed in this paper. Emphasis is put on establishing the relation between extreme values and physically meaningful ``site calibration`` parameters, like probability distribution of the annual wind speed, turbulence intensity and power spectra properties. (Author)

  16. Multiobjective optimization of an extremal evolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elettreby, M.F.

    2004-09-01

    We propose a two-dimensional model for a co-evolving ecosystem that generalizes the extremal coupled map lattice model. The model takes into account the concept of multiobjective optimization. We find that the system self-organizes into a critical state. The distributions of the distances between subsequent mutations as well as the distribution of avalanches sizes follow power law. (author)

  17. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  18. [Ultrasound examination for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kosaku

    2014-09-01

    Surgery is known to be a major risk factor of vein thrombosis. Progression from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to pulmonary embolism can lead to catastrophic outcome, although the incidence ratio is low. The ability to rule in or rule out DVT is becoming essential for anesthesiologists. Non-invasive technique of ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific tool for the assessment of lower extremity DVT. This article introduces the basics and practical methods of ultrasound examination for lower extremity DVT.

  19. Design of Experiment as a powerful tool when applying Finite Element Method: a case study on prediction of hot rolling process parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo G. Bordonaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal in hot roll pass design is to manufacture a rolled product with the required dimensional accuracy, defect free surface, and mechanical properties. The proper selection of process parameters is crucial to meet increasing requirements for desired quality and geometrical properties of rolled products. Due to the complex behavior of the metal flow at high temperatures and the severe plastic deformations in shape rolling, most efforts that have been made so far only rely upon the practical experience gained by operators. The large number of variables involved and the difficulty in investigating the process characteristics, make the use of finite element (FE tools an effective and attractive opportunity towards a thorough understanding of the rolling process. In this work, Design of Experiment (DOE is proposed as a powerful and viable method for the prediction of rolling process parameters while reducing the computational effort. Nonlinear 3D FE models of the hot rolling process are developed for a large set of complex cross-section shapes and validated against experimental evidences provided by real plant products at each stage of the deformation sequence. Based on the accuracy of the validated FE models, DOE is applied to investigate the flat rolling process under a series of many parameters and scenarios. Effects of main roll forming variables are analyzed on material flow behavior and geometrical features of a rolled product. The selected DOE factors are the workpiece temperature, diameter size, diameter reduction (draught, and rolls angular velocity. The selected DOE responses are workpiece spread, effective stresses, contact stresses, and rolls reaction loads. Eventually, the application of Pareto optimality (a Multi-Criteria Decision Making method allows to detect an optimal combination of design factors which respect desired target requirements for the responses.

  20. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  1. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  2. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  3. Plasma sources for EUV lithography exposure tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, Vadim; Moors, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil extremely high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength in the range 13-14 nm, which requires a major re-thinking of state-of-the-art lithography systems operating in the DUV range. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for DUV, should become reflective for EUV. The source specifications are derived from the customer requirements for the complete tool, which are: throughput, cost of ownership (CoO) and imaging quality. The EUVL system is considered as a follow up of the existing DUV based lithography technology and, while improving the feature resolution, it has to maintain high wafer throughput performance, which is driven by the overall CoO picture. This in turn puts quite high requirements on the collectable in-band power produced by an EUV source. Increased, due to improved feature resolution, critical dimension (CD) control requirements, together with reflective optics restrictions, necessitate pulse-to-pulse repeatability, spatial stability control and repetition rates, which are substantially better than those of current optical systems. All together the following aspects of the source specification will be addressed: the operating wavelength, the EUV power, the hot spot size, the collectable angle, the repetition rate, the pulse-to-pulse repeatability and the debris induced lifetime of components

  4. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  6. Properites of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Edwards, N V; Madey, T E

    2007-06-25

    The contamination of optical surfaces by irradiation shortens optics lifetime and is one of the main concerns for optics used in conjunction with intense light sources, such as high power lasers, 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron sources or plasma sources used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tools. This paper focuses on properties and surface chemistry of different materials, which as thin layers, could be used as capping layers to protect and extend EUVL optics lifetime. The most promising candidates include single element materials such as ruthenium and rhodium, and oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  7. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  8. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  9. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  10. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  11. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  12. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  13. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  15. Extreme prices in electricity balancing markets from an approach of statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2018-01-01

    An increase in energy production from renewable energy sources is viewed as a crucial achievement in most industrialized countries. The higher variability of power production via renewables leads to a rise in ancillary service costs over the power system, in particular costs within the electricity balancing markets, mainly due to an increased number of extreme price spikes. This study analyzes the impact of an increased share of renewable energy sources on the behavior of price and volumes of the Italian balancing market. Starting from configurations of load and power production, which guarantee a stable performance, we implement fluctuations in the load and in renewables; in particular we artificially increase the contribution of renewables as compared to conventional power sources to cover the total load. We then determine the amount of requested energy in the balancing market and its fluctuations, which are induced by production and consumption. Within an approach of agent-based modeling we estimate the resulting energy prices and costs. While their average values turn out to be only slightly affected by an increased contribution from renewables, the probability for extreme price events is shown to increase along with undesired peaks in the costs. Our methodology provides a tool for estimating outliers in prices obtained in the energy balancing market, once data of consumption, production and their typical fluctuations are provided.

  16. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic...... regimes. Overall, it becomes clear that the first indications of an extreme wind event might come from the ECMWF deterministic and/or probabilistic components capturing very intense weather systems (possible windstorms) in the medium term. For early warnings, all available EPS Extreme Forecast Index (EFI......) formulations were used, by linking daily maximum wind speeds to EFI values for different forecast horizons. From all possible EFI schemes deployed for issuing early warnings, the highest skill was found for the Gust Factor formulation (EFI-10FGI). Using EFI-10FGI, the corresponding 99% threshold could provide...

  17. The power of collaboration: using internet-based tools to facilitate networking and benchmarking within a consortium of academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Eli J; Oinonen, Michael J; Browne, Robert C

    2003-02-01

    The University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) represents a strategic alliance of 169 academic health centers and associated institutions engaged in knowledge sharing and idea-generation. The use of the Internet as a tool in the delivery of UHC's products and services has increased dramatically over the past year and will continue to increase during the foreseeable future. This paper examines the current state of UHC-member institution driven tools and services that utilize the Web as a fundamental component in their delivery. The evolution of knowledge management at UHC, its management information and reporting tools, and expansion of e-commerce provide real world examples of Internet use in health care delivery and management. Health care workers are using these Web-based tools to help manage rising costs and optimize patient outcomes. Policy, technical, and organizational issues must be resolved to facilitate rapid adoption of Internet applications.

  18. The Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT) for Powerful, Flexible, and Easy Preprocessing and Machine Learning with Point Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Finch, N.; Clegg, S. M.; Graff, T.; Morris, R. V.; Laura, J.

    2018-04-01

    The PySAT point spectra tool provides a flexible graphical interface, enabling scientists to apply a wide variety of preprocessing and machine learning methods to point spectral data, with an emphasis on multivariate regression.

  19. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  20. Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    2015-04-01

    In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.