WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely mild conditions

  1. Characteristics of CuO-MoO3-P2O5 catalyst and its catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of dye wastewater under extremely mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhu; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Wang, Bo

    2007-11-01

    In order to develop a catalyst with high activity for catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) processing at lower temperatures (35 degrees C) and atmospheric pressure, a new CuO-MoO3-P2O5 catalystwas synthesized by a solid-state reaction method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) for elemental mapping. Methylene blue (MB) was adopted to investigate the catalytic activity of CuO-MoO3-P2O5 in CWO processing. The results show that this new catalyst has a high catalytic activity to decolorize MB under mild condition. The color removal of MB (the initial concentration was 0.3 g L(-1) and initial pH was 5) can reach to 99.26% within 10 min at 35 degrees C and atmospheric pressure. Catalyst lifespan and selectivity were also tested, and the results show that after the catalyst was used three times, catalyst activity still remains. Selectivity testing shows that CuO-MoO3-P2O5 has high catalytic activity on degradation of MB, whereas this catalyst has less impact on methyl orange (the color removal was 99.65% for MB and 55% for methyl orange under the same conditions). According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of MB was proposed.

  2. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  3. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  4. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  5. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  6. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  7. Extreme Sensitivity of Botulinum Neurotoxin Domains Toward Mild Agitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    stirring, as was carboxypeptidase B, another zinc-containing enzyme. However, the metalloproteins anthrax lethal factor and alcohol dehydrogenase were...subjected to identical agitation conditions. Being metalloproteins , these BoNT LCs were again extremely sensitive to mechanical agitation when compared with

  8. Raman spectroscopy under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A F; Crowhurst, J C

    2004-11-05

    We report the results of Raman measurements of various materials under simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC). High temperatures are generated by laser heating or internal resistive (ohmic) heating or a combination of both. We present Raman spectra of cubic boron nitride (cBN) to 40 GPa and up to 2300 K that show a continuous pressure and temperature shift of the frequency of the transverse optical mode. We have also obtained high-pressure Raman spectra from a new noble metal nitride, which we synthesized at approximately 50 GPa and 2000 K. We have obtained high-temperature spectra from pure nitrogen to 39 GPa and up to 2000 K, which show the presence of a hot band that has previously been observed in CARS measurements. These measurements have also allowed us to constrain the melting curve and to examine changes in the intramolecular potential with pressure.

  9. Energetic materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, David I.A. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). EaStCHEM Research School of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the high-pressure structural behaviour of a series of energetic compounds that includes the widely used explosive RDX and gas generators such as sodium azide. Using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques, crystal structures of these compounds have been obtained under conditions of elevated pressure and temperature. Such studies present significant technical challenges associated with both data collection and analysis, especially for compounds containing conformationally flexible molecules, but the structural information obtained is crucial for enhancing the understanding of the characteristics of energetic materials. Particularly significant is the observation that a high-pressure, high-temperature form of RDX may be recovered to ambient pressure. This has implications for the discovery of new forms of energetic materials that may exhibit enhanced properties, e.g. reduced sensitivity to accidental initiation. The rich high-pressure behaviour of the simple inorganic azides is also noteworthy. All of the six compounds studied in this work were found to undergo at least one phase transition and a total of ten polymorphs have been identified at variable pressure and/or temperature. For example, at high pressure sodium azide adopts the same structure observed for the larger alkali metal azides at atmospheric conditions. The first two chapters of this thesis provide a very accessible introduction to high-pressure research and energetic materials. The subsequent chapters detail the results of these high-pressure studies of energetic materials, demonstrating excellent clarity of expression and highly developed critical analysis. The final chapter points clearly to future opportunities for extending these studies to other energetic materials and for alternative methodologies for their structural modification. (orig.)

  10. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  11. Conditional simulations for fields of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Aurélien; Vrac, Mathieu; Bel, Liliane

    2014-05-01

    Many environmental models, such as hydrological models, require input data, e.g. precipitation values, correctly simulated and distributed, even at locations where no observation is available. This is particularly true for extreme events that may be of high importance for impact studies. The last decade has seen max-stable processes emerge as a powerful tool for the statistical modeling of spatial extremes. Recently, such processes have been used in climate context to perform simulations at ungauged sites based on empirical distributions of a spatial field conditioned by observed values in some locations. In this work conditional simulations of extremal t process are investigated, taking benefits of its spectral construction. The methodology of conditional simulations proposed by Dombry et al. [2013] for Brown-Resnick and Schlather models is adapted for the extremal t process with some improvements which enlarge the possible number of conditional points. A simulation study enables to highlight the role of the different parameters of the model and to emphasize the importance of the steps of the algorithm. In this work, we focus on the French Mediterranean basin, which is a key spot of occurrences of meteorological extremes such as heavy precipitation. Indeed, major extreme precipitation are regularly observed in this region near the 'cévenol" mountains. The modeling and the understanding of these extreme precipitation - the so-called 'cévenol events" - are of major importance for hydrological studies in this complex terrain since they often trigger major floods in this region. The application of our methodology on real data in this region shows that the model and the algorithm perform well provided the stationary assumptions are fulfilled.

  12. Conditional simulation of extremal Gaussian processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dombry, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Recently the regular conditional distributions of max-infinitely divisible processes were derived by \\citet{Dombry2011} and although these conditional distributions have complicated closed forms, \\citet{Dombry2011b} introduce an algorithm to get conditional realizations of Brown-Resnick processes. In this paper we derive the regular conditional distributions of the max-stable process introduced by \\citet{Schlather2002} and adapt the framework of \\citet{Dombry2011b} to this specific process. We test the methods on simulated data and give an application to extreme temperatures in Switzerland. Results show that the proposed sampling scheme provide accurate conditional simulations and can handle real-sized problems.

  13. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E S

    2015-01-01

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  14. An extremely rapid, convenient and mild coal desulfurization new process: Sodium borohydride reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The present work describes the desulfurization of coal using mildly reductive method. Both a Yanzhou and a Yanshan coal (referred to as YZ and YS coal, respectively), were treated in an aqueous media employing sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent, which is a well known hydrogen storage. Reaction variables investigated include concentration of reductant, time, pH of initial media, temperature, stirring rate and particle size. The calorific values and ignition temperatures of the coal samples before and after treatment were determined. Results show that the total sulfur removal improved with the increase in the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, shaking rate and temperature and with the decrease in the particle size. Meanwhile, decreasing the particle size from - 250 to - 109 {mu}m increased the organic sulfur removal by more than six times for either of the coal samples. Considering economic rationality and operational convenience, the desulfurization conditions determined were 1.6 mM of NaBH{sub 4} concentration, - 109 {mu}m of particle size, neutral pH of initial media, 1 min of treated time, 100 rpm of shaking rate, 30 C of temperature. This led to 23.8% and 59.0% reduction in the pyritic, 70.4% and 100% reduction in the sulfate, and 11.0% and 15.0% reduction in the organic sulfur, giving 31.3% and 40.8% reduction in the total sulfur for the YZ coal and the YS coal, respectively. Moreover, this resulted in the increase in the calorific values by 3.4-6.9% and the decrease in the ignition temperatures by 2-21 C for the coal samples. The desulfurization method described here is extremely rapid, convenient, inexpensive and mild, and therefore, has considerable technological interest. (author)

  15. Mild Solutions for Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of the fractional differential equations with nonlocal conditions dqx(t/dtq=−Ax(t+f(t,x(t,Gx(t,  t∈[0,T],   and  x(0+g(x=x0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  16. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M

    2016-10-19

    Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with < 6 months of experience in the ECP

  17. Renewable Aromatics from the Degradation of Polystyrene under Mild Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jabri, Nouf M.

    2017-08-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is one of the most important polymers in the plastic sector due to its inexpensive cost as well as many preferred properties. Its international market is expected to achieve $28.2 billion by 2019. Although PS has a high calorific value of 87 GJ tonne-1, there is no a practical method to manage its waste but landfill. As a result, the PS debris in the oceans has reached 70% of the total plastic debris. This issue is considered as the main economical and environmental drivers of converting polystyrene waste into renewable chemical feedstocks. The aim of this work is to develop a catalyst for converting PS into renewable chemicals under mild conditions. We introduce FeCu/Alumina with excellent catalytic activity to fully degrade polystyrene with 66% liquid yield at 250 °C. The GC/MS confirmed that the primary products are in the gasoline range. Next, we present the bimetallic FeCo/Alumina and successfully we have obtained 100% PS conversion and 90% liquid yield with maintaining the products selectivity. Later, the tri-metallic FeCuCo/Alumina was synthesized and showed 100% PS conversion and 91% liquid yield. Surprisingly, ethylbenzene was the major product in which 80 wt. % was achieved with excellent reproducibility. Furthermore, the real waste Styrofoam was thermally and catalytically degraded at 250 °C. Interestingly, a high styrene content of 78 wt. % was recovered after 30 minutes of the reaction under mild conditions. Keeping in mind that a good balance between acidity and basicity is required to convert PS into aromatic under mild reaction conditions catalytically. Finally, the performance of the catalysts was compared to literature reports and showed novel liquid yields. In conclusion, we have synthesized cheap, easy to scale up, and efficient catalysts to fully degrade PS into high liquid yields of aromatics with excellent selectivity.

  18. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    CERN Document Server

    Keeler, R Norris

    2010-01-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent kinetic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10^113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >10^25 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because “dark-energy” antigravity forces vanish when inflation ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoi...

  19. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  20. Extraordinary survival of nanobacteria under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria show high resistance to gamma irradiation. To further examine their survival in extreme conditions several disinfecting and sterilizing chemicals as well as autoclaving, UV light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments were carried out. The effect of antibiotics used in cell culture were also evaluated. Two forms of nanobacteria were used in the tests: nanobacteria cultured in serum containing medium, and nanobacteria cultured in serum-free medium, the latter being more mineralized. Nanobacteria, having various amounts of apatite on their surfaces, were used to analyze the degree of protection given by the mineral. The chemicals tested included ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formalin, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, detergents, and commercial disinfectants at concentrations generally used for disinfection. After chemical and physical treatments for various times, the nanobacteria were subcultered to detect their survival. The results show unique and wide resistance of nanobacteria to common agents used in disinfection. It can also be seen that the mineralization of the nanobacterial surface furthermore increases the resistance. Survival of nanobacteria is unique among living bacteria, but it can be compared with that observed in spores. Interestingly, nanobacteria have metabolic rate as slow as bacterial spores. A slow metabolic rate and protective structures, like mineral, biofilm and impermeable cell wall, can thus explain the observations made.

  1. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R. Norris; Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent ki- netic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >1025 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because "dark-energy" antigravity forces vanish when infla- tion ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoids produce weak tur- bulence until the plasma-gas transition give chains of protogalaxies with the morphology of tur- bulence. Chain galaxy clusters observed at large redshifts ~8.6 support this interpretation. Pro- togalaxies fragment into clumps, each with a trillion Earth-mass H-He gas planets. These make stars, supernovae, the first chemicals, the first oceans and the first life soon after the cosmologi- cal event.

  2. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  3. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric JIGUET; Lluis BROTONS; Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-01-01

    Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. Soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes) have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate.

  4. Polyfluoroalkylation of 2-Aminothiazoles: Unexpected sp3 C CI Substitution under Mild Conditions%Polyfluoroalkylation of 2-Aminothiazoles: Unexpected sp3 C CI Substitution under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐卿卿; 沈其龙; 吕龙

    2011-01-01

    An efficient, highly selective method for polyfluoroalkylation of 2-aminothiazole derivatives was described. Specifically, a di-polyfluoroalkylated derivative was produced when 2-amino-4-chloromethylthiazole was reacted with perfluoroalkyl iodides under very mild conditions.

  5. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  6. Effective interactions for extreme isospin conditions; Interactions effectives pour des conditions extremes d`isospin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanat, E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main goal in nuclear physics research is the study of nuclei in extreme conditions of spin and isospin. The more performing tools for theoretical predictions in this field are microscopic methods such as the Hartree-Fock one based on independent particle approximation. The main ingredient for such an approach is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The actual trend being the study of nuclei more and more far from the stability valley, it is necessary to cast doubt over the validity of usual effective interaction. This work constitute a study on the way one can construct a new interaction allowing some theoretical predictions on nuclei far from the stability. We have thus made a complete study of symmetric infinite nuclear matter and asymmetric one up to pure neutron matter. One shows that the asymmetry coefficient, which was considered until now as fixing isospin properties, is not sufficient to have a correct description of very exotic isospin states. A new type of constraint is shown for fixing this degree of freedom: the neutron matter equation of state. One include this equation of state, taken from a theoretical model giving a good description of radii and masses of neutron stars. One can thus expect to build up new Skyrme interaction with realistic properties of ground state of very neutron-rich nuclei. (author). 63 refs., 68 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  8. DISAL glycosyl donors for the synthesis of a linear hexasaccharide under mild conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Laursen, Jane B.; Larsen, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The new class of glycosyl donors with a methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (DISAL) anomeric leaving group has proved efficient for glycosylation under strictly neutral, mildly basic, or mildly acidic conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of novel DISAL disaccharide glycosyl donors prepared by easy ...

  9. Study on the Regioselective Cleavage of Acetyl of Glycoside in Mild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Min; YAN Xue-Bin; ZHANG Fu-Yi; LIU Hong-Min

    2003-01-01

    @@ It is very important to selectively protect or deprotect functional groups in organic synthesis, [1] especially in sugar chemistry where many hydroxyl groups of sugars need to be protected or deprotected selectively in mild condition.

  10. The Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 and the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liermann, H.-P., E-mail: hanns-peter.liermann@desy.de; Konôpková, Z. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Morgenroth, W. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Glazyrin, K.; Bednarčik, J.; McBride, E. E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petitgirard, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Delitz, J. T.; Wendt, M.; Bican, Y.; Ehnes, A.; Schwark, I.; Rothkirch, A.; Tischer, M.; Heuer, J.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Kracht, T.; Franz, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-19

    Performance description of the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB, P02.2) at PETRA III that is optimized for micro-diffraction at simultaneous high pressure and high and low temperatures created in different diamond anvil cells environments. Additional information of the capabilities of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure for DAC work is provided. A detailed description is presented of the Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 for micro X-ray diffraction studies of matter at simultaneous high pressure and high/low temperatures at PETRA III, in Hamburg, Germany. This includes performance of the X-ray optics and instrumental resolution as well as an overview of the different sample environments available for high-pressure studies in the diamond anvil cell. Particularly emphasized are the high-brilliance and high-energy X-ray diffraction capabilities of the beamline in conjunction with the use of fast area detectors to conduct time-resolved compression studies in the millisecond time regime. Finally, the current capability of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure to support high-pressure research at the Extreme Conditions Beamline and other PETRA III beamlines is described.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Colloidal Silica Particles under Mild Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Frances; Zin, Azrinawati Mohd.; Jameson, Graeme J.; Wanless, Erica J.

    2012-01-01

    A microscale laboratory experiment for the preparation and characterization of silica particles at neutral pH and ambient temperature conditions is described. Students first employ experimental fabrication methods to make spherical submicrometer silica particles via the condensation of an alkoxysilane and polyethyleneimine, which act to catalyze…

  12. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  13. Directional analysis of extreme winds under mixed climate conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 European-African Conference on Wind Engineering 2013, Robinson College, Cambridge, July 2013 Directional Analysis of Extreme Winds under Mixed Climate Conditions *Andries Kruger1, Adam Goliger2 and Johan Retief3 1Climate Service, South African...

  14. Host-parasite interactions under extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. MARTINEZ; S. MERINO

    2011-01-01

    The effect that climatic changes can exert on parasitic interactions represents a multifactor problem whose results are difficult to predict. The actual impact of changes will depend on their magnitude and the physiological tolerance of affected organisms. When the change is considered extreme (I.e. Unusual weather events that are at the extremes of the historical distribution for a given area), the probability of an alteration in an organisms' homeostasis increases dramatically. However, factors determining the altered dynamics of host-parasite interactions due to an extreme change are the same as those acting in response to changes of lower magnitude. Only a deep knowledge of these factors will help to produce more accurate predictive models for the effects of extreme changes on parasitic interactions. Extreme environmental conditions may affect pathogens directly when they include free-living stages in their life-cycles and indirectly through reduced resource availability for hosts and thus reduced ability to produce efficient anti-parasite defenses, or by effects on host density affecting transmission dynamics of diseases or the frequency of intraspecific contact. What are the consequences for host-parasite interactions? Here we summarize the present knowledge on three principal factors in determining host-parasite associations; biodiversity, population density and immunocompetence. In addition, we analyzed examples of the effects of environmental alteration of anthropogenic origin on parasitic systems because the effects are analogous to that exerted by an extreme climatic change.

  15. Sales down due to particularly mild climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 27 July 2007 - For the six months to 30 June 2007, Gaz de France's consolidated sales amounted to euro 13,778 million, down 11 per cent compared to the same period in 2006. This performance continues the trend seen over the first quarter of 2007 and in particular reflects the continuation into the second quarter of the climatic factors that affected the start of the year: an exceptionally warm 2006/2007 winter, followed by a spring season with particularly high temperatures. The average temperature of the first half of 2007 corresponds to a heat risk of less than one per cent, meaning that the probability of such a temperature taking place is less than one per cent. Over the first half of the year, volumes distributed in France were down by 25 TWh compared to a comparable period with average weather conditions, whereas in 2006 they were 15 TWh above average. The impact of the weather had similar effects outside of France. Under average weather conditions, the downturn in Group sales was limited to only 0.8 per cent mainly due to market conditions made difficult by the climate, leading to a lower level of gas production and arbitrage activities. Over the first six months of 2007, the Group sought to: - Continue to strengthen its international presence, currently with euro 5,602 million in sales outside of France. The percentage of sales generated outside of France represented 41 per cent of the Group total at the end of June 2007 and increased by 4 percentage points between the first half of 2006 and the first half of 2007. - Prepare for the deregulation of the markets on 1 July 2007 and a new commercial policy for retail customers that has been built around multi-energy and multi-service market offerings. - Create a new subsidiary for the distribution, a process which will be effective at the end of the year as announced. In spite of this unfavourable context, the Group maintains the financial objective for 2007 presented with the 2006 accounts: &apos

  16. Renewable Aromatics from the Degradation of Polystyrene under Mild Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Jabri, Nouf M

    2017-05-25

    A bimetallic FeCu/alumina catalyst was prepared and characterized. It showed excellent catalytic activity to quantitatively convert polystyrene (PS) into aromatics at low temperatures. A clear goldish yellow liquid was produced at 250 °C in a batch reactor without distillation. A liquid yield of 66% in an inert environment was achieved without the formation of coke and gas by-products. An exposure time of 90 min. and a catalyst loading of 200 mg were considered as an optimum condition to minimize the styrene re-polymerization. The gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis confirms that the primary products are styrene, ethylbenzene, cumene, toluene and α-methylstyrene.

  17. Existence of mild solutions of a semilinear evolution differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Al-Omair

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence of a mild solution for a semilinear evolution differential inclusion with nonlocal condition and governed by a family of linear operators, not necessarily bounded or closed, in a Banach space. No compactness assumption is assumed on the evolution operator generated by the family operators. Also, we prove that the set of mild solutions is compact.

  18. Conditional probability of rainfall extremes across multiple durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2017-04-01

    The conditional probability that extreme rainfall will occur at one location given that it is occurring at another location is critical in engineering design and management circumstances including planning of evacuation routes and the sitting of emergency infrastructure. A challenge with this conditional simulation is that in many situations the interest is not so much the conditional distributions of rainfall of the same duration at two locations, but rather the conditional distribution of flooding in two neighbouring catchments, which may be influenced by rainfall of different critical durations. To deal with this challenge, a model that can consider both spatial and duration dependence of extremes is required. The aim of this research is to develop a model that can take account both spatial dependence and duration dependence into the dependence structure of extreme rainfalls. To achieve this aim, this study is a first attempt at combining extreme rainfall for multiple durations within a spatial extreme model framework based on max-stable process theory. Max-stable processes provide a general framework for modelling multivariate extremes with spatial dependence for just a single duration extreme rainfall. To achieve dependence across multiple timescales, this study proposes a new approach that includes addition elements representing duration dependence of extremes to the covariance matrix of max-stable model. To improve the efficiency of calculation, a re-parameterization proposed by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998) is used to reduce the number of parameters necessary to be estimated. This re-parameterization enables the GEV parameters to be represented as a function of timescale. A stepwise framework has been adopted to achieve the overall aims of this research. Firstly, the re-parameterization is used to define a new set of common parameters for marginal distribution across multiple durations. Secondly, spatial interpolation of the new parameter set is used to

  19. Atomistic Simulations of Material Properties under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi

    Extreme conditions involve low or high temperatures (> 1500 K), high pressures (> 30 MPa), high strains or strain rates, high radiation fluxes (> 100 dpa), and high electromagnetic fields (> 15T). Material properties under extreme conditions can be extremely different from those under normal conditions. Understanding material properties and performance under extreme conditions, including their dynamic evolution over time, plays an essential role in improving material properties and developing novel materials with desired properties. To understand material properties under extreme conditions, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with recently developed reactive force fields (ReaxFF) and traditional embedded atom methods (EAM) potentials to examine various materials (e.g., energetic materials and binary liquids) and processes. The key results from the simulations are summarized below. Anisotropic sensitivity of RDX crystals: Based on the compress-and-shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) simulations of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystals, we predict that for mechanical shocks between 3 and 7 GPa, RDX is the most sensitive to shocks perpendicular to the (100) and (210) planes, while it is insensitive to those perpendicular to the (120), (111), and (110) planes. The simulations demonstrate that the molecular origin of anisotropic shock sensitivity is the steric hindrance to shearing of adjacent slip planes. Mechanisms of hotspot formation in polymer bonded explosives (PBXs): The simulations of a realistic model of PBXs reveal that hotspots may form at the nonplanar interfaces where shear relaxation leads to a dramatic temperature increase that persists long after the shock front has passed the interface. For energetic materials this temperature increase is coupled to chemical reactions that eventually lead to detonation. We show that decreasing the density of the binder eliminates the hotspots or reduces the sensitivity. Cavitation in binary metallic liquids

  20. Prebiotic cell membranes that survive extreme environmental pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shobhna; Berghaus, Melanie; Suladze, Saba; Prumbaum, Daniel; Grobelny, Sebastian; Degen, Patrick; Raunser, Stefan; Winter, Roland

    2014-08-04

    Attractive candidates for compartmentalizing prebiotic cells are membranes comprised of single-chain fatty acids. It is generally believed that life may have originated in the depth of the protoocean, that is, under high hydrostatic pressure conditions, but the structure and physical-chemical properties of prebiotic membranes under such conditions have not yet been explored. We report the temperature- and pressure-dependent properties of membranes composed of prebiotically highly-plausible lipids and demonstrate that prebiotic membranes could not only withstand extreme temperatures, but also serve as robust models of protocells operating in extreme pressure environments. We show that pressure not only increases the stability of vesicular systems but also limits their flexibility and permeability to solutes, while still keeping the membrane in an overall fluid-like and thus functional state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A RETROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE-STUDY EVALUATING THE RESULTS OF MILD HYPERTHERMIC VERSUS CONTROLLED NORMOTHERMIC PERFUSION FOR RECURRENT MELANOMA OF THE EXTREMITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLAASE, JM; KROON, BBR; EGGERMONT, AMM; VANGEEL, AN; KOOPS, HS; OLDHOFF, J; LIENARD, D; LEJEUNE, FJ; BERKEL, R; FRANKLIN, HR; HART, AAM

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mild hyperthermia (39-40 degrees C) in isolated cytostatic perfusion for patients with recurrent melanoma of the extremities. A total of 218 patients treated with mild hyperthermic perfusion was compared to 166 patients perfused under controlled n

  2. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas Kazys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%.

  3. The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Otto; Giacomazzi, Luigi; Pinilla, C.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Only one out of 107 water molecules is dissociated in liquid water at ambient conditions, but the concentration of dissociated molecules increases with pressure ad temperature, and water eventually reaches a fully dissociated state when pressure exceeds 50-100 GPa and temperature reaches a few thousand Kelvin. The behavior of the dissociation constant of water (pKa) at conditions intermediate between ambient and the fully dissociated state is poorly known. Yet, the water pKa is a parameter of primary importance in the aqueous geochemistry as it controls the solubility of ions in geological fluids. We present results of molecular dynamics calculations of the pKa water at extreme conditions. Free-energy differences between the undissociated and the dissociated state are calculated by thermodynamic integration along the dissociation path. The calculations are based on a recently developed all-atom polarizable force-field for water, parametrized on density-functional theory calculations.

  4. Existence of mild solutions for impulsive fractional-order semilinear evolution equations with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Chauhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a class of impulsive fractional-order semilinear evolution equations with a nonlocal initial condition. By means of solution operator and application of fixed point theorems we established the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution.

  5. Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Nitriles to Nitrones under Mild Silylation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tanino, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fumihiko; Abe, Taiki

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and triethylamine, aliphatic nitriles undergo addition reactions with aldonitrones under non-basic, mild conditions, providing O-tri­ethylsilyl ethers of β-N-hydroxyamino nitriles with high yield. The reaction appears to proceed through formation of an N-silyl ketene imine in situ followed by a Mannich-type reaction.

  6. Trichloroisocyanuric/TEMPO oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions: a close investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Lidia; Giacomelli, Giampaolo; Masala, Simonetta; Porcheddu, Andrea

    2003-06-13

    Efficient oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids can be carried out at room temperature and in acetone/water, using trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in the presence of catalytic TEMPO. The mild conditions of this procedure and the total absence of any transition metal make this reaction suitable for safe laboratory use. A possible mechanism is presented and discussed.

  7. Regioselective chlorination and bromination of unprotected anilines under mild conditions using copper halides in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available By using ionic liquids as solvents, the chlorination or bromination of unprotected anilines at the para-position can be achieved in high yields with copper halides under mild conditions, without the need for potentially hazardous operations such as supplementing oxygen or gaseous HCl.

  8. The Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The last five years have seen the commissioning of and first user experiments on both the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford, and more are slated to come online in the next couple of years . The high photon frequency (i.e. larger than the plasma frequency of solid density), short pulse length (i.e. 10s to 100s of femtoseconds) and large photon number per pulse (i.e. 1012 photons per pulse) make it an ideal source to create and study states of matter at high energy density, a long-standing scientific challenge. Indeed, while matter in extreme conditions, which for the purpose of this talk we define as states under pressure up to hundreds of GPa and with temperatures ranging between 1eV and 1000eV, has been studied through dynamic shock compression and there has been significant progress made over many decades. However, large uncertainties still exist in the atomic structure and crystallographic structure, existence of high pressure phases, scattering factors, and equation of state of matter in extreme conditions. The Matter in Extreme Condition (MEC) instrument at LCLS is designed to overcome the unique experimental challenges that the study of matter in extreme conditions bring. It combines a suite of diagnostics and high power and energy optical lasers, which are standard fare in this research field, with the unmatched LCLS X-ray beam, to create an instrument that will be at the forefront of, and have a major impact on MEC science, in particular in the field of high pressure, warm dense matter, high energy density, and ultra-high intensity laser-matter interaction studies. The LCLS beam allows for unique investigation in all these extreme states using diagnostic methods such as X-ray Thomson Scattering, X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, and pumping specific absorption lines to study (dense) plasma kinetics. Augmented with optical

  9. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  10. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium extreme condition.

  11. Nitrogen oxides emissions from the MILD combustion with the conditions of recirculation gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Shim, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Sang Hyun; Oh, Kwang-Joong; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2017-04-01

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction technology by combustion modification which has economic benefits as a method of controlling NOx emitted in the combustion process, has recently been receiving a lot of attention. Especially, the moderate or intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion which applied high temperature flue gas recirculation has been confirmed for its effectiveness with regard to solid fuel as well. MILD combustion is affected by the flue gas recirculation ratio and the composition of recirculation gas, so its NOx reduction efficiency is determined by them. In order to investigate the influence of factors which determine the reduction efficiency of NOx in MILD coal combustion, this study changed the flow rate and concentration of nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and steam (H2O) which simulate the recirculation gas during the MILD coal combustion using our lab-scale drop tube furnace and performed the combustion experiment. As a result, its influence by the composition of recirculation gas was insignificant and it was shown that flue gas recirculation ratio influences the change of NOx concentration greatly. We investigated the influence of factors determining the nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction efficiency in MILD coal combustion, which applied high-temperature flue gas recirculation. Using a lab-scale drop tube furnace and simulated recirculation gas, we conducted combustion testing changing the recirculation gas conditions. We found that the flue gas recirculation ratio influences the reduction of NOx emissions the most.

  12. Extreme fog events in Poland with respect to circulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D.; Wypych, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fog is a phenomenon which belongs to a group of so-called hydrometeorites and, according to the different dictionaries, it is a suspension of water droplets or ice crystals in the ground layer of the air that impairs visibility in the horizontal direction below 1 km. The phenomenon of fog, although much less dynamic or violent than other extreme phenomena, such as thunderstorms or hail, is equally dangerous and brings about huge social and economic complications. Land and air transportation suffer and fog may sometimes leads to a complete crippling of the whole economy in an area where fog occurs. The main objective of the study is determination of the circulation types bringing extreme fog events in Poland. The duration of fog at each meteorological station was considered as the main input data originated from 54 synoptic stations located across the country. The mentioned data series cover the period of 56 years (1951-2006). The occurrence of fog depends on meteorological conditions caused to a large extent by a given synoptic situation and local terrain conditions. In this study, according to its objectives, only circulation conditions are taken into consideration. These have been described by 5 different circulation classifications (Grosswetterlagen, Litynski, Osuchowska-Klein, Niedzwiedz and Ustrnul). Situations when this phenomenon occurred across a large part of the country were taken into detailed consideration. Special attention was paid to fog coverage during 24-hour periods. In this work, in light of certain doubts about the homogeneity of the observation material available, the intensity of fog was not included, as it requires additional and very tedious analysis. In the first step all cases of fog during the 1966-2006 study period which lasted 24 hours at more than 10 of the considered weather stations, i.e: at least 5 stations have been considered. As expected, in most cases, either a centre of a classical high pressure system or a high pressure wedge

  13. The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then large carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3

  14. The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then "large" carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3

  15. X-ray diffraction at Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhou; Galtier, Eric; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob

    2015-11-01

    Understanding dynamic response at the atomic level under extreme conditions is highly sought after goal to science frontiers studying warm dense matter, high pressure, geoscience, astrophysics, and planetary science. Thus it is of importance to determine the high pressure phases or metastable phases of material under shock compression. In situ X-ray diffraction technique using LCLS free electron laser X-ray is a powerful tool to record structural behavior and microstructure evolution in dense matter. Shock-induced compression and phase transitions of material lead to changes of the lattice spacing or evolution of new X-ray diffraction patterns. In this talk, we describe a platform dedicated for the X-ray diffraction studies at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC), which can be used to reconstruct a complete diffraction pattern from numerous detectors, optimize detector positioning in a timely manner, extract the lattice spacing profiles and texture features. This platform is available to the user community for real-time analysis. We will also discuss experimental results, using this platform, on the crystalline silicon phase transitions up to 60 GPa.

  16. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  17. Green roof establishment in extreme conditions : two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, R. [Aloha Landscaping, Inc., Mendota Heights, MN (United States); Trichie, J. [Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, MN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Green roof construction in the United States is growing at a rate of 60 to 80 per cent per year. This paper presented two case studies of green roof construction in Minnesota. In both cases, construction and budgeting delays moved the installation of the green roofs from early-May to mid-July. The first case study was a 20,000 square foot extensive green roof on the new Minneapolis Central Library which was completed in 2005. The second case study was a 30,000 square foot extensive green roof on the Mdewakanton Sioux Waste Water Treatment Plant in Shakopee, which was completed in 2006. This paper demonstrated that in order for green roofs to serve the functions for which they were intended, clear guidelines and specifications are needed to ensure that they are healthy. The size and locations of the two roofs were quite different, but they were identical in terms of waterproofing. State-of-the-art inverted hot-applied roof membrane technology was used in both roofs along with sub-surface irrigation systems. A mycorrhizae fungi was used in both cases to amend the growing medium. Both roofs used a diverse pallet of native and traditional sedum plant material. This paper highlighted preventative measures taken to ensure the successful installation and establishment of the two roofs built during extreme heat and drought-like conditions. The positive results confirm that it is possible to install green roofs during extremely harsh summer conditions. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic...... constraint. Our approach, only requiring option implied volatilities and daily returns for the underlying, provides measurement error free estimates of the part of the VRP related to normal market conditions, and allows constructing variables indicating agents' expectations under extreme market conditions....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  19. Socio-economic hazards and impacts of space weather: the important range between mild and extreme

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2015-01-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that, we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space-weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  20. Material dynamics under extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Allen, P; Bringa, E; Hawreliak, J; Ho, D; Lorenz, K T; Lorenzana, H; Meyers, M A; Pollaine, S W; Rosolankova, K; Sadik, B; Schneider, M S; Swift, D; Wark, J; Yaakobi, B

    2005-09-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures (10-100 GPa) and strain rates ({approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities, and offer the possibility for exploring new regimes of materials science. These extreme solid-state conditions can be accessed with either shock loading or with a quasi-isentropic ramped pressure drive. Velocity interferometer measurements establish the high pressure conditions. Constitutive models for solid-state strength under these conditions are tested by comparing 2D continuum simulations with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples. Lattice compression, phase, and temperature are deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, from which the shock-induced {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in Ti and the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition in Fe are inferred to occur on sub-nanosec time scales. Time resolved lattice response and phase can also be measured with dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements, where the elastic-plastic (1D-3D) lattice relaxation in shocked Cu is shown to occur promptly (< 1 ns). Subsequent large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations elucidate the microscopic dynamics that underlie the 3D lattice relaxation. Deformation mechanisms are identified by examining the residual microstructure in recovered samples. The slip-twinning threshold in single-crystal Cu shocked along the [001] direction is shown to occur at shock strengths of {approx}20 GPa, whereas the corresponding transition for Cu shocked along the [134] direction occurs at higher shock strengths. This slip-twinning threshold also depends on the stacking fault energy (SFE), being lower for low SFE materials. Designs have been developed for achieving much higher pressures, P > 1000 GPa, in the solid state on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  1. Methane synthesis under mild conditions for decentralized applications; Methansynthese unter milden Bedingungen fuer dezentrale Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Roensch, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    It is a central aim of the German government to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the next years. One possibility to reach this aim is the substitution of fossil fuels, especially natural gas, by fuels from biogenic sources (Bio-SNG). However, it is a drawback of Bio-SNG that the production costs are considerably higher than those of fossil natural gas. This work provides an approach to reduce the production costs of Bio-SNG. It is the aim to reduce the process parameters of the methane synthesis. At the same time, it has to be ensured that high methane yields are achieved even at those mild conditions. A procedure for the optimization of the methanation catalyst activity will be presented. If the catalyst is as active as possible even at mild conditions, it will be possible to produce Bio-SNG cost efficient even in small, decentralized scale.

  2. Efficient fixation of CO2 at mild conditions by a Cr-conjugated microporous polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Xie; Rui-Xia; Yang; Nian-Yu; Huang; Hua-Jun; Luo; Wei-Qiao; Deng

    2014-01-01

    We reported a bifunctional material, Cr-salen implanted conjugated microporous polymer(Cr-CMP), which is able to capture excellent CO2amounts and has a remarkable catalytic activity towards the cycloaddition reaction of CO2to epoxides forming cyclic carbonates at mild conditions without additional solvents. This heterogeneous Cr-CMP catalyst has a superior catalytic activity to its related homogeneous catalyst and can be reused more than ten times without a significant decrease in catalytic activity.

  3. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete convers...

  4. Observational Simulation of Icing in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Komar, John; Elfstrom, Garry; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2017-04-01

    Observations and prediction of icing in extreme weather conditions are important for aviation, transportation, and shipping applications, and icing adversely affects the economy. Icing environments can be studied either in the outdoor atmosphere or in the laboratory. There have been several aircraft based in-situ studies related to weather conditions affecting aviation operations, transportation, and marine shipping that includes icing, wind, and turbulence. However, studying severe weather conditions from aircraft observations are limited due to safety and sampling issues, instrumental uncertainties, and even the possibility of aircraft producing its own physical and dynamical effects. Remote sensing based techniques (e.g. retrieval techniques) for studying severe weather conditions represent usually a volume that cannot characterize the important scales and also represents indirect observations. Therefore, laboratory simulations of atmospheric processes can help us better understand the interactions among microphysical and dynamical processes. The Climatic Wind Tunnel (CWT) in ACE at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) has a large semi-open jet test chamber with flow area 7-13 m2 that can precisely control temperatures down to -40°C, and up to 250 km hr-1 wind speeds, for heavy or dry snow conditions with low visibility, similar to ones observed in the Arctic and cold climate regions, or at high altitude aeronautical conditions. In this study, the ACE CWT employed a spray nozzle array suspended in its settling chamber and fed by pressurized water, creating various particle sizes from a few microns up to mm size range. This array, together with cold temperature and high wind speed, enabled simulation of severe weather conditions, including icing, visibility, strong wind and turbulence, ice fog and frost, freezing fog, heavy snow and blizzard conditions. In this study, the test results will be summarized, and their application to aircraft

  5. Dual Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents and Photoredox Catalysis Enable Decarboxylative Ynonylation under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanchu; Zhang, Guojin; Chen, Yiyun

    2015-06-26

    A combination of hypervalent iodine(III) reagents (HIR) and photoredox catalysis with visible light has enabled chemoselective decarboxylative ynonylation to construct ynones, ynamides, and ynoates. This ynonylation occurs effectively under mild reaction conditions at room temperature and on substrates with various sensitive and reactive functional groups. The reaction represents the first HIR/photoredox dual catalysis to form acyl radicals from α-ketoacids, followed by an unprecedented acyl radical addition to HIR-bound alkynes. Its efficient construction of an mGlu5 receptor inhibitor under neutral aqueous conditions suggests future visible-light-induced biological applications.

  6. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  7. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  8. Fast temperature spectrometer for samples under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S; Hu, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast Temperature Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient temperature fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting temperature determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The temperatures determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient temperature fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for temperature determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under extreme conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting temperature of (57)Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure.

  9. Focusing adaptive-optics for neutron spectroscopy at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeoni, G. G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Valicu, R. G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borchert, G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Böni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rasmussen, N. G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yang, F.; Kordel, T.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A. [Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, D-51170 Köln (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Neutron Spectroscopy employing extreme-conditions sample environments is nowadays a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental scientific questions as well as for the investigation of materials and chemical-physical properties. For all these kinds of studies, an increased neutron flux over a small sample area is needed. The prototype of a focusing neutron guide component, developed and produced completely at the neutron source FRM II in Garching (Germany), has been installed at the time-of-flight (TOF) disc-chopper neutron spectrometer TOFTOF and came into routine-operation. The design is based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept for finite-size divergent sources. It represents a unique device combining the supermirror technology with Adaptive Optics, suitable for broad-bandwidth thermal-cold TOF neutron spectroscopy (here optimized for 1.4–10 Å). It is able to squeeze the beam cross section down to a square centimeter, with a more than doubled signal-to-background ratio, increased efficiency at high scattering angles, and improved symmetry of the elastic resolution function. We present a comparison between the simulated and measured beam cross sections, as well as the performance of the instrument within real experiments. This work intends to show the unprecedented opportunities achievable at already existing instruments, along with useful guidelines for the design and construction of next-generation neutron spectrometers.

  10. Orographic Signature on Multiscale Statistics of Extreme Rainfall: Conditional downscaling with emphasis on extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, M.

    2010-09-01

    Rainfall intensity and spatio-temporal patterns often show a strong dependency on the underlying terrain. The main objective of this work is to study the statistical signature imprinted by orography on the spatial structure of rainfall and its temporal evolution at multiple scales, with the aim to develop a consistent theoretical basis for conditional downscaling of precipitation given the topographic information of the underlying terrain. The results of an extensive analysis of the high resolution stage II Doppler radar data of the Rapidan storm, June 1995, over the Appalachian Mountains is reported in this study. The orographic signature on the elementary statistical structure of the precipitation fields is studied via a variable-intensity thresholding scheme. This signature is further explored at multiple scales via analysis of the dependence of precipitation fields on the underlying terrain both in Fourier and Wavelet domains. The Generalized Normal distribution is found to be a suitable probability model to explain the variability of the rainfall wavelet coefficients and its dependence on the underlying elevations. These results provide a new perspective for more accurate statistical downscaling of the orographic precipitation over complex terrain with emphasis on extremes.

  11. Extreme wind conditions for a Danish offshore site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of extreme wind speed gust values measured at a shallow water offshore site and at a coastal onshore site in Denmark. An estimate of 50-year extreme values has been evaluated using a new statistical method. In addition a mean gust shape is determined, based on a la...

  12. Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Methanol and Carbon Dioxide Catalyzed by Potassium Hydroxide under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide using potassium hydroxide as catalyst in the presence of CH3I and the effect of ionic liquid on the reaction were investigated. The results showed that KOH is an effective catalyst; the high selectivity and raised yield of DMC formation under mild conditions were achieved. However,the addition of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (emimBr), can evidently accelerate the conversion of methanol and yield of the product.

  13. HYDROGENATION OF PHENOL AND CRESOLS CATALYZED BY CHITOSAN SUPPORTED PALLADIUM COMPLEX AT MILD CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liming; HUANG Meiyu; JIANG Yingyan

    1996-01-01

    A natural polymer catalyst, silica-supported chitosan palladium complex (abbr. as SiO2-CS-Pd) was found to catalyze the hydrogenation of phenol and cresols to corresponding cyclohexanones in high yield and 100% selectivity at 70℃ and 1.01325 × 105 Pa mild conditions. N/Pd molar ratio in the complex, temperature and solvents have much influence on the reaction. The reactivity order of reactants was found to be: phenol >m->p->ocresol. The catalyst is stable during the reaction and could be repeatedly used for several times without much decrease in its catalytic activity.

  14. Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1999-11-01

    Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

  15. Thorium Chemistry in Oxo-Tellurium System under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2017-03-06

    Through the use of a high-temperature/high-pressure synthesis method, four thorium oxo-tellurium compounds with different tellurium valence states were isolated. The novel inorganic phases illustrate the intrinsic complexity of the actinide tellurium chemistry under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Th2Te3O11 is the first instance of a mixed-valent oxo-tellurium compound, and at the same time, Te exhibits three different coordination environments (Te(IV)O3, Te(IV)O4, and Te(VI)O6) within a single structure. These three types of Te polyhedra are further fused together, resulting in a [Te3O11](8-) fragment. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) and K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 are the first alkaline thorium tellurates described in the literature. Both compounds are constructed from ThO9 tricapped trigonal prisms and Te(VI)O6 octahedra. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) is a three-dimensional framework based on Th2O15 and Te2O10 dimers, while K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 contains tungsten oxide bronze like Te layers linked by ThO9 polyhedra. The structure of β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is built from infinite thorium chains cross-linked by Te(IV)O3(2-) and SO4(2-) anions. Close structural analysis suggests that β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is highly related to the structure of α-Th(SeO4)2. Additionally, the Raman spectra are recorded and the characteristic peaks are assigned based on a comparison of reported tellurites or tellurates.

  16. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incera, Vivian [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ferrer, Efrain [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  18. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating...

  19. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... by extreme precipitation pose a threat to human life and cause high economic losses for society. Thus, strategies to adapt to changes in extreme precipitation are currently being developed and established worldwide. Information on the expected changes in extreme precipitation is required for the development...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...

  20. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials At Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L E

    2006-10-23

    shock conditions, for example, energetic materials undergo rapid heating to a few thousand degrees and are subjected to a compression of hundreds of kilobars, resulting in almost 30% volume reduction. Complex chemical reactions are thus initiated, in turn releasing large amounts of energy to sustain the detonation process. Clearly, understanding of the various chemical events at these extreme conditions is essential in order to build predictive material models. Scientific investigations into the reactive process have been undertaken over the past two decades. However, the sub-{micro}s time scale of explosive reactions, in addition to the highly exothermic conditions of an explosion, make experimental investigation of the decomposition pathways difficult at best. More recently, new computational approaches to investigate condensed-phase reactivity in energetic materials have been developed. Here we focus on two different approaches to condensed-phase reaction modeling: chemical equilibrium methods and atomistic modeling of condensed-phase reactions. These are complementary approaches to understanding the chemical reactions of high explosives. Chemical equilibrium modeling uses a highly simplified thermodynamic picture of the reaction process, leading to a convenient and predictive model of detonation and other decomposition processes. Chemical equilibrium codes are often used in the design of new materials, both at the level of synthesis chemistry and formulation. Atomistic modeling is a rapidly emerging area. The doubling of computational power approximately every 18 months has made atomistic condensed-phase modeling more feasible. Atomistic calculations employ far fewer empirical parameters than chemical equilibrium calculations. Nevertheless, the atomistic modeling of chemical reactions requires an accurate global Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Traditionally, such a surface is constructed by representing the potential energy surface with an analytical fit

  1. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM TETRACHLOROGALLATE AND ITS CATALYTIC USE IN ACETAL FORMATION UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachlorogallate, [bmim][GaCl4], prepared via microwave-assisted protocol, is found to be an active catalyst for the efficient acetalization of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  2. Degradation of textile dyes using immobilized lignin peroxidase-like metalloporphines under mild experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucca Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic dyes represent a broad and heterogeneous class of durable pollutants, that are released in large amounts by the textile industry. The ability of two immobilized metalloporphines (structurally emulating the ligninolytic peroxidases to bleach six chosen dyes (alizarin red S, phenosafranine, xylenol orange, methylene blue, methyl green, and methyl orange was compared to enzymatic catalysts. To achieve a green and sustainable process, very mild conditions were chosen. Results IPS/MnTSPP was the most promising biomimetic catalyst as it was able to effectively and quickly bleach all tested dyes. Biomimetic catalysis was fully characterized: maximum activity was centered at neutral pH, in the absence of any organic solvent, using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The immobilized metalloporphine kept a large part of its activity during multi-cycle use; however, well-known redox mediators were not able to increase its catalytic activity. IPS/MnTSPP was also more promising for use in industrial applications than its enzymatic counterparts (lignin peroxidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, and horseradish peroxidase. Conclusions On the whole, the conditions were very mild (standard pressure, room temperature and neutral pH, using no organic solvents, and the most environmental-friendly oxidant and a significant bleaching and partial mineralization of the dyes was achieved in approximately 1 h. Therefore, the process was consistent with large-scale applications. The biomimetic catalyst also had more promising features than the enzymatic catalysts.

  3. An Efficient Synthesis of Nitriles from Aldoximes Using Diethyl Phosphorocyanidate under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kieseung; An, Hyeonseong; Hwang, Chanyeon [Woosuk Univ.,Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nitriles are valuable intermediates in organic synthesis not only because they serve as the appropriate precursors to various functional groups, but also because they are widely used as the key intermediates for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and various N-heterocyclic compounds. The cyano group itself is also frequently found in many biologically important molecules. Therefore, a variety of synthetic routes to nitriles from diverse chemical precursors have been developed. Among these routes, nitrile synthesis from aldoximes using an appropriate dehydrating agent has been a general and clean method. For this purpose, numerous reagents such as chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, di-2-pyridyl sulfite, Burgess reagent, [RuCl{sub 2}(p-cymene)]{sub 2}/MS, 4A, BOP, Pd(OAc){sub 2}/PPh{sub 3}, Cu(OAc){sub 2}/ultrasound have been developed. These reagents, however, may have limitations in some respects such as harsh reaction conditions, use of expensive or less readily available reagents, low yields, and lack of generality. Therefore, there is still a need to develop mild and general method for this conversion. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) was initially introduced as an efficient peptide coupling reagent, and has been utilized for useful organic reactions. Previously, we reported that 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide is an efficient and mild reagent for the dehydration of aldoximes to nitriles under mild conditions. In continuation of our interest in developing mild method for the conversion of aldoximes to nitriles, we herein wish to report the first application of DEPC to the efficient synthesis of nitriles from aldoximes under mild conditions (Scheme 1). In order to obtain the information regarding the optimum reaction conditions, 4-pyridine aldoxime (1a) was reacted with DEPC without base, and in presence of various base in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} at rt for a prolonged reaction time (20 h) (Table 1). CH{sub 2}CI{sub 2} was chosen as reaction medium in this reaction due to the

  4. Preparation of Silyl Ethers Using Hexamethyldisilazane in the Presence of N-Bromosuccinimide under Mild and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHATERIAN Hamid Reza; DOOSTMOHAMMADI Razieh; GHASHANG Majid

    2008-01-01

    A mild,simple,novel and highly efficient method for the rapid protection of various primary,secondary,tertiary aliphatic and aromatic alcohols using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as an active,inexpensive,non-toxic and readily available catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.Trimethylsilyl ethers were prepared in high to excellent yields with short reaction time under mild and almost neutral reaction conditions.

  5. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  6. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  7. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  8. Electrochemical Activation of CO2 for the Synthesis of Ethyl Carbanilate under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong-fang; XU Cheng-tian; LUO Yi-wen; ZHANG Li; LU Jia-xing

    2007-01-01

    A novel electrochemical procedure for the synthesis of ethyl carbanilate from aniline and carbon dioxide was developed via the selective cathodic reduction of carbon dioxide in CO2-saturated DMF solution containing 0. 1 mol/L TEABr at room temperature, followed by the addition of EtI as an alkylating agent. The synthesis was carried out under mild[p(CO2)=1.0×105 Pa, t=20℃]and safe conditions. Influences of the nature of the electrodes, the current densities, the passed charges during electrolysis, temperatures, and supporting electrolytes on the yield of ethyl carbanilate were studied to optimize the electrolytic conditions. The selectivity of ethyl carbanilate is 100%.

  9. Oxidation of Lingwu Coal Extraction Residue in Aqueous Sodium Hypochlorite under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yunpeng; Zong Zhimin; Li Jinna; Wang Yuelun; Fan Xing; Wei Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the structural features and provide an alternative method for high value-added utilization of coal, Lingwu coal was first extracted with organic solvent at room temperature. Then its extraction residue was oxi-dized in aqueous sodium hypochlorite(ASHC) under mild conditions. Theeffects of oxidation conditions, such as temperature, reaction time, the ratio of Lingwu coal extraction residue(LCER, g) to ASHC(mL) and pH value, on the product distributions and compositions were investigated. The results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) suggested that 53 kinds of methyl esterified products were detected in total, and benzene carboxylic acids were the main oxidation products, while chloro-substituted benzene carboxylic acids were the main by-products. Higher yield and fewer kinds of organic acids could be obtained at lower pH value, especially for the main objective product, benzene carboxylic acids.

  10. Existence of Mild Solutions for a Semilinear Integrodifferential Equation with Nonlocal Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lizama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Hausdorff measure of noncompactness and a fixed-point argument we prove the existence of mild solutions for the semilinear integrodifferential equation subject to nonlocal initial conditions u′(t=Au(t+∫0tB(t-su(sds+f(t,u(t, t∈[0,1], u(0=g(u, where A:D(A⊆X→X, and for every t∈[0,1] the maps B(t:D(B(t⊆X→X are linear closed operators defined in a Banach space X. We assume further that D(A⊆D(B(t for every t∈[0,1], and the functions f:[0,1]×X→X and g:C([0,1];X→X are X-valued functions which satisfy appropriate conditions.

  11. Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products.

  12. Analysis of saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon stems under mild conditions of hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statham Emily R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachypodium distachyon constitutes an excellent model species for grasses. It is a small, easily propagated, temperate grass with a rapid life cycle and a small genome. It is a self-fertile plant that can be transformed with high efficiency using Agrobacteria and callus derived from immature embryos. In addition, considerable genetic and genomic resources are becoming available for this species in the form of mapping populations, large expressed sequence tag collections, T-DNA insertion lines and, in the near future, the complete genome sequence. The development of Brachypodium as a model species is of particular value in the areas of cell wall and biomass research, where differences between dicots and grasses are greatest. Here we explore the effect of mild conditions of pretreatment and hydrolysis in Brachypodium stem segments as a contribution for the establishment of sensitive screening of the saccharification properties in different genetic materials. Results The non-cellulosic monosaccharide composition of Brachypodium is closely related to grasses of agricultural importance and significantly different from the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Diluted acid pretreatment of stem segments produced significant release of sugars and negatively affected the amount of sugars obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharide analysis showed that the hemicellulose fraction is the main target of the enzymatic activity under the modest hydrolytic conditions used in our assays. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the treated materials showed progressive exposure of fibrils in the stem segments. Conclusion Results presented here indicate that under mild conditions cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolysed to differing extents, with hemicellulose hydrolysis predominating. We anticipate that the sub-optimal conditions for hydrolysis identified here will provide a sensitive assay to detect variations in

  13. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes for extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, Mayur Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on development and performance evaluation of thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes, with special attention to extreme pH applications. In Chapter 2 a new method that allows molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization of NF membran

  14. Reducing uncertainty in prediction of dune erosion during extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, C.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Van de Graaff, J.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal dunes protect low lying coastal areas against the sea. Extreme waves and water levels during severe storms may cause breaching of the dunes. Consequently, serious damage due to flooding and direct wave attack could occur, resulting in loss of life and property. Proper coastal management impl

  15. Greenhouse Gas Conversion by Homogeneous Salen Catalyst Systems under Very Mild Reaction Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyungsock; Song, Sanghoon; Ahn, Sunghyun; Kim, Taesoon; Kim, Beomsik; Chang, Taesun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Homogeneous salen catalyt systems were investigated for the conversion of greenhouse gas into cyclic carbonate under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Salen complexes were more active than salophen complexes. Neither electron withdrawing nor donating group showed lower conversion efficiency. Co-catalysts such as moisture or ammonium salt increased the conversion efficiency dramatically. These results have potential to decrease carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel combustions under mild condition. One of the main scientific challenges in the 21st century is the global warming due to the increasing level of carbon dioxide. The consumption of fossil fuels is continue to increase with emitting substantial amount of green house gas. The solution currently considered is capturing and storing of carbon dioxide which compressing carbon dioxide and then storing it into oil wells or under the ocean. The other solution include converting the carbon dioxide into useful chemicals with significant commercial demand, but low chemical reactivity of carbon dioxide restricts the chemical reactions.

  16. Promising gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of porous Mg-Pd films under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Gongbiao; Yuan, Huiping; Jiang, Lijun; Wang, Shumao; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingguo

    2015-05-28

    In this paper, the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of 200 nm Mg-Pd thin films with different morphologies have been investigated. The results show that Mg-Pd films become porous with the increase of substrate temperature. Porous Mg-Pd films exhibit superior gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage behaviors under mild conditions, including rapid hydrogen sorption kinetics, a large hydrogen storage amount, high electrochemical discharge capacity, and a fast hydrogen diffusion rate. The excellent behaviors of porous Mg-Pd films might be ascribed to the significantly shortened hydrogen diffusion paths and the large contact areas between the hydrogen gas and the solid Mg phases, which are elucidative for the development and applications of thick Mg-Pd films.

  17. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment.

  18. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  19. Cosmic Matter under Extreme Conditions: CSQCD II Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Wambach, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    After the first meeting in Copenhagen in 2001 QSQCD II is the second workshop in this series dealing with cosmic matter at very high density and its astrophysical implications. The aim is to bring together reseachers in the physics of compact stars, both theoretical and observational. Consequently a broad range of topics was presented, reviewing extremely energetic cosmological events and their relation to the high-density equation of state of strong-interaction matter. This summary elucidates recent progress in the field, as presented by the participants, and comments on pertinent questions for future developments.

  20. EXISTENCE OF EXTREME SOLUTION TO FIRST-ORDER IMPULSIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONLINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence of extreme solutions to three-point boundary value problems with nonlinear boundary conditions for a class of first order impulsive differential equations. We obtain suficient conditions for the existence of extreme solutions by the upper and lower solutions method coupled with a monotone iterative technique.

  1. Rational Calibration of Four IEC 61400-1 Extreme External Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of asymptotic statistical models on closed form this paper presents a rational and consistent calibration of four extreme external conditions defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard: extreme operating gust, extreme wind shear, extreme coherent...... gust with direction change and extreme wind direction change. These four extreme external conditions are used in the definition of six of the IEC 61400-1 ultimate load cases. The statistical models are based on simple and easily accessible mean wind speed and turbulence characteristics...... of the atmospheric boundary layer. Using the wind climate characteristics prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 standard as input to the set of statistical models ensures consistency between the specified wind climate and the proposed extreme gust magnitudes. Differences and equalities between the present IEC specifications...

  2. On the convergence of Newton-type methods under mild differentiability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyros, Ioannis; Hilout, Saïd

    2009-12-01

    We introduce the new idea of recurrent functions to provide a new semilocal convergence analysis for Newton-type methods, under mild differentiability conditions. It turns out that our sufficient convergence conditions are weaker, and the error bounds are tighter than in earlier studies in some interesting cases (Chen, Ann Inst Stat Math 42:387-401, 1990; Chen, Numer Funct Anal Optim 10:37-48, 1989; Cianciaruso, Numer Funct Anal Optim 24:713-723, 2003; Cianciaruso, Nonlinear Funct Anal Appl 2009; Dennis 1971; Deuflhard 2004; Deuflhard, SIAM J Numer Anal 16:1-10, 1979; Gutiérrez, J Comput Appl Math 79:131-145, 1997; Hernández, J Optim Theory Appl 109:631-648, 2001; Hernández, J Comput Appl Math 115:245-254, 2000; Huang, J Comput Appl Math 47:211-217, 1993; Kantorovich 1982; Miel, Numer Math 33:391-396, 1979; Miel, Math Comput 34:185-202, 1980; Moret, Computing 33:65-73, 1984; Potra, Libertas Mathematica 5:71-84, 1985; Rheinboldt, SIAM J Numer Anal 5:42-63, 1968; Yamamoto, Numer Math 51: 545-557, 1987; Zabrejko, Numer Funct Anal Optim 9:671-684, 1987; Zinc̆ko 1963). Applications and numerical examples, involving a nonlinear integral equation of Chandrasekhar-type, and a differential equation are also provided in this study.

  3. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  4. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  5. Cellulose sulphuric acid as a biodegradable catalyst for conversion of aryl amines into azides at room temperature under mild conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Firouzeh Nesmati; Ali Elhampour

    2012-07-01

    This article describes simple and efficient method for the diazotization and azidation of different aromatic amines over cellulose sulphuric acid, sodium nitrite and sodium azide under mild conditions at room temperature. Various aryl amines possessing electron-withdrawing groups or electron-donating groups have been converted into the corresponding aryl azides with 71-99% yields. The use of mild reaction conditions, avoids the use of harmful acids and toxic solvents and short reaction times are advantages of this methodology. The selected catalyst is found to be highly efficient and recyclable.

  6. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...

  7. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  8. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  9. Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-10-01

    Resilience has been conceptualized as a dynamic developmental process encompassing the attainment of positive adaptation within the context of significant threat, severe adversity, or trauma. Until the past decade, the empirical study of resilience predominantly focused on behavioral and psychosocial correlates of, and contributors to, the phenomenon and did not examine neurobiological or genetic correlates of and contributors to resilience. Technological advances in molecular genetics and neuroimaging, and in measuring other biological aspects of behavior, have made it more feasible to begin to conduct research on pathways to resilient functioning from a multilevel perspective. Child maltreatment constitutes a profound immersion in severe stress that challenges and frequently impairs development across diverse domains of biological and psychological functioning. Research on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children is presented as an illustration of empirical work that is moving from single-level to multilevel investigations of competent functioning in the face of adversity and trauma. These include studies of personality, neural, neuroendocrine, and molecular genetic contributors to resilient adaptation. Analogous to neural plasticity that takes place in response to brain injury, it is conjectured that it may be possible to conceptualize resilience as the ability of individuals to recover functioning after exposure to extreme stress. Multilevel randomized control prevention and intervention trials have substantial potential for facilitating the promotion of resilient functioning in diverse high-risk populations that have experienced significant adversity. Determining the multiple levels at which change is engendered through randomized control trials will provide insight into the mechanisms of change, the extent to which neural plasticity may be promoted, and the interrelations between biological and psychological processes in the development of

  10. The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.

  11. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  12. Reusable task-specific ionic liquids for a clean ε-caprolactam synthesis under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Raphaël; Estager, Julien; Draye, Micheline; Ragaini, Vittorio; Bonrath, Werner; Lévêque, Jean-Marc

    2010-12-17

    Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids that bear a sulfonic acid group, known as Forbes acids, show a good catalytic activity for the Beckmann rearrangement, used to prepare ε-caprolactam, which is a precursor of Nylon 6. The activity essentially stems from the acidity of the sulfonic acid group. Although these task specific ionic liquids suffer from a high viscosity, this drawback can be circumvented at higher temperatures. A combination of the hydrogen sulfate anion and the sulfonic acid group of the cation is needed to obtain the rearrangement product rapidly under mild conditions. When using an excess of ionic liquid, we postulate that the internal pressure of the ionic medium, generated by the high viscosity and the high number of hydrogen-bonds, is strong enough to contribute to a decrease of the thermodynamic barrier. In accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry," we have developed a synthesis of ε-caprolactam that requires no additional chemicals except cyclohexanone oxime and the reusable TSIL.

  13. Integration of advanced oxidation processes at mild conditions in wet scrubbers for odourous sulphur compounds treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Esther; Martin, Maria J; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of different advanced oxidation processes on the treatment of a multicomponent aqueous solution containing ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide (0.5 mg L(-1) of each sulphur compound) was investigated with the objective to assess which one is the most suitable treatment to be coupled in wet scrubbers used in odour treatment facilities. UV/H2O2, Fenton, photo-Fenton and ozone treatments were tested at mild conditions and the oxidation efficiency obtained was compared. The oxidation tests were carried out in magnetically stirred cylindrical quartz reactors using the same molar concentration of oxidants (hydrogen peroxide or ozone). The results show that ozone and photo-Fenton are the most efficient treatments, achieving up to 95% of sulphur compounds oxidation and a mineralisation degree around 70% in 10 min. Furthermore, the total costs of the treatments taking into account the capital and operational costs were also estimated for a comparative purpose. The economic analysis revealed that the Fenton treatment is the most economical option to be integrated in a wet scrubber to remove volatile organic sulphur compounds, as long as there are no space constraints to install the required reactor volume. In the case of reactor volume limitation or retrofitting complexities, the ozone and photo-Fenton treatments should be considered as viable alternatives.

  14. Evolutionary optimization for conditions of variable BHF for springback reduction in AHSS-mild steel TWB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N.-T.; Chakraborti, N.; Barlat, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the advanced high strength steels (AHSS)/mild steel TWB sheet is applied to the U-draw bending springback under non-constant blank holding force (BHF). On both sides of the blank, two different BHF-punch stroke are applied. A systematic approach to obtain optimal BHF-stroke profiles is proposed. The optimal condition would require satisfying two conflicting objectives simultaneously: (1) minimize springback deformation and (2) minimize the forming severity, leading to a Pareto-optimal problem. The optimization procedure consists of the following steps: sampling design, finite element (FE) simulations, metamodeling, and finally the calculation of a Pareto-frontier. PAM-STAMP® FE software is employed in this study. The generated outputs of FE simulations on some statistically significant sampling points are then used for the construction of metamodels of optimum accuracy and complexity, which, in turn, were used to evaluate the output for any set of inputs, replacing the computing intensive FE simulations. A novel genetic algorithms based multi-objective optimization technique is applied for optimization. Yet far to be completely removed, springback in TWB can be appreciably reduced using the proposed approach of variable BHF control.

  15. Enzymatic formulation capable of degrading scrapie prion under mild digestion conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka A Okoroma

    Full Text Available The prion agent is notoriously resistant to common proteases and conventional sterilisation procedures. The current methods known to destroy prion infectivity such as incineration, alkaline and thermal hydrolysis are harsh, destructive, environmentally polluting and potentially hazardous, thus limit their applications for decontamination of delicate medical and laboratory devices, remediation of prion contaminated environment and for processing animal by-products including specified risk materials and carcases. Therefore, an environmentally friendly, non-destructive enzymatic degradation approach is highly desirable. A feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis N22 keratinase has been isolated which degraded scrapie prion to undetectable level of PrP(Sc signals as determined by Western Blot analysis. Prion infectivity was verified by ex vivo cell-based assay. An enzymatic formulation combining N22 keratinase and biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa degraded PrP(Sc at 65 °C in 10 min to undetectable level -. A time-course degradation analysis carried out at 50 °C over 2 h revealed the progressive attenuation of PrP(Sc intensity. Test of residual infectivity by standard cell culture assay confirmed that the enzymatic formulation reduced PrP(Sc infectivity to undetectable levels as compared to cells challenged with untreated standard scrapie sheep prion (SSBP/1 (p-value = 0.008 at 95% confidence interval. This novel enzymatic formulation has significant potential application for prion decontamination in various environmentally friendly systems under mild treatment conditions.

  16. Inference for Extremal Conditional Quantile Models, with an Application to Market and Birthweight Risks

    CERN Document Server

    Chernozhukov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Quantile regression is an increasingly important empirical tool in economics and other sciences for analyzing the impact of a set of regressors on the conditional distribution of an outcome. Extremal quantile regression, or quantile regression applied to the tails, is of interest in many economic and financial applications, such as conditional value-at-risk, production efficiency, and adjustment bands in (S,s) models. In this paper we provide feasible inference tools for extremal conditional quantile models that rely upon extreme value approximations to the distribution of self-normalized quantile regression statistics. The methods are simple to implement and can be of independent interest even in the non-regression case. We illustrate the results with two empirical examples analyzing extreme fluctuations of a stock return and extremely low percentiles of live infants' birthweights in the range between 250 and 1500 grams.

  17. Water-CO2 Mixtures Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, D. L.; Somayazulu, M.

    2010-12-01

    In situ high pressure-temperature Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the formation of clathrates in water-CO2 mixtures and to study the chemical interactions between water and CO2 at supercritical conditions. Diamond anvil cell’s (DAC) were loaded with ruby, water, CO2, and a gold plated gasket. Quartz was later added to the cell as a pressure sensor for supercritical phase analysis. At 25 °C and within the pressure range of 0.8 to 2.6 GPa, no clathrate was observed. Our results confirm recent findings which also dispute claims of clathrate existence at our conditions. A decrease in the temperature required to reach the supercritical phase of water-CO2 mixtures was observed from 0.35 GPa to 4.5 GPa. Furthermore, at 4.4 GPa and 290 °C, a chemical reaction between CO2 and water occurred. The resulting compound has a Raman peak with a frequency shift of 1000 cm-1. This reaction and the compound it produces are of great interest and are currently being investigated.

  18. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  19. A facile and Convenient Method for Synthesis of Thiiranes under Mild Condition Using Phase Transfer Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gorjizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mild and efficient process for preparation of thiiranes with KSCN in water at room temperature using a catalytic amount of 1,4-bis(triphenylphosphonium-2-butene dichloride is described.

  20. Matter under Extreme Conditions: Advances Based on Static Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2008-04-01

    Current technological advances make it possible to perform experiments on materials at static or sustained conditions to multimegabar pressures (several hundred GPa) and several thousand degree (˜1 eV) temperatures. Densities of condensed matter can now be increased over an order of magnitude, causing novel transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area has been made possible by advances in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with a wide range of probes, including x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Examples include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials. Particularly exciting are new developments in time resolved methods and coupling of static and dynamic compression techniques made possible by the creation of new large-scale facilities and novel technologies.

  1. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...... versus responses from an in-house developed numerical tool, as well as a code to code comparison in regular non-linear waves served as initial key performance indicator of numerical model quality and good agreement was found (Wehmeyer et al., 2014). 4. As a final step, the numerical model was extended...... in order to include non-linear irregular incident waves as well as non-linear irregular incident waves with an embedded Stream-function wave. A linear background sea state into which a Stream-function wave was embedded was assumed no longer appropriate. Therefore a 2nd order sea state model was developed...

  2. A Facile and Efficient Oxidation of (,(-Unsaturated Alcohols with Manganese Dioxide in Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liang BAO; Qiang WANG; Yun Fa ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of α,β-unsaturated primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding aldehydes and ketones by manganese dioxide in ionic liquids as a safe recyclable and accelerative reaction medium under mild conditions are described. The rate of the oxidation reaction is faster and the yield is higher than that with conventional procedures.

  3. A conjugate Lewis base-Brønsted acid catalyst for the sulfenylation of nitrogen containing heterocycles under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Christopher J; Miller, Eric M; Toenjes, Sean T; Gustafson, Jeffery L

    2017-01-26

    Catalysts that contain a thiourea tethered to a carboxylic acid were found to affect the sulfenylation of indoles and other N-heterocycles on the hour time scale at room temperature. The mild nature of these conditions allowed for the incorporation of diverse functionalities into more complex heterocycles.

  4. Silver-mediated decarboxylative C-S cross-coupling of aliphatic carboxylic acids under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Dai, Jian-Jun; Feng, Yi-Si; Xu, Hua-Jian

    2014-09-05

    A silver-mediated decarboxylative C-S cross-coupling reaction of aliphatic carboxylic acid is described. This reaction occurs smoothly under mild conditions and shows good tolerance of functional groups. It provides an alternative approach for the synthesis of alkyl aryl sulfides.

  5. Merging Photoredox with Palladium Catalysis: Decarboxylative ortho-Acylation of Acetanilides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Li, Pinhua; Zhu, Xianjin; Wang, Lei

    2015-12-18

    A room temperature decarboxylative ortho-acylation of acetanilides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed via a novel Eosin Y with Pd dual catalytic system. This dual catalytic reaction shows a broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance, and an array of ortho-acylacetanilides can be afforded in high yields under mild conditions.

  6. Existence of mild solutions of second-order neutral functional differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marshal Anthoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of mild solutions of the nonlinear second-order neutral functional differential and integrodifferential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces. The results are obtained by using the theory of strongly continuous cosine families of bounded linear operators and a fixed point theorem for condensing maps due to Martelli.

  7. An Efficient and Chemoselective Method for Oximination of β-Diketones Under Mild and Heterogeneous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zolfigol

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A combination of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium nitrite in the presence of wet SiO2 was used as an effective nitrosating agent for the nitrosation of β-diketones to their corresponding α-oximinoketones in moderate to excellent yields under mild and heterogenous conditions.

  8. Facile one-step fabrication of magnetite particles under mild hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keerthana, D. Shanthini; Namratha, K. [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); Byrappa, K., E-mail: kbyrappa@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); Yathirajan, H.S. [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); DOS in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Hydrophilic magnetite particles for biological applications were synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of D-Glucose as both reducing and capping agent in a facile, one-step, low energy and environmentally friendly route. The role of D-Glucose as a reducing agent in the formation of magnetite particles under mild hydrothermal conditions has been investigated. The absence of D-Glucose results in the formation of hematite. The magnetite particles synthesized were characterized using powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometery (VSM). The influence of the quantity of D-Glucose used and the reaction duration on the formation of magnetite were studied. DLS and HR-SEM results show that the size of the particles was in nano- to micron range. The antioxidant potency of the particles was confirmed using DPPH assay, where 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used as a source of free radicals. Hence the magnetite particles obtained could be considered for the use in various biological applications. - Highlights: • Magnetite and hematite particles were synthesized using hydrothermal route. • The reactants and experimental parameters were optimized to get single phase magnetite particles. • The role of D-Glucose as a reducing and capping agent is discussed. • The magnetite particles showed very good free radical scavenging ability. • The authors report a simple, facile, one-step method using hydrated ferric salt as a single iron precursor.

  9. Mechanistic Insight into the Lability of the Benzyloxycarbonyl (Z) Group inN-Protected Peptides under Mild Basic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tena Solsona, Marta; Angulo Pachón, César Augusto; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet Celades, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The unexpected lability of Z protecting group under mild basic conditions at room temperature is explained by a mechanism based on anchimeric assistance. It is found that the vicinal amide group stabilizes the tetrahedral intermediate formed after the nucleophilic addition of hydroxide to the carbonyl of the Z group. This effect operates in N-protected tripeptides and tetrapeptides but Z-protected dipeptides are stable under the same conditions due to the blockage of the vicinal amide NH by ...

  10. Numerical Modeling of MILD Combustion at High Pressure to Predict the Optimal Operating Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2017-02-01

    This Chapter presents numerical simulation on MILD combustion operating at high pressure. Influence of preheat and dilution of oxidizer and operating pressure on stabilization of MILD combustion are presented. Three different preheat temperatures (1100, 1300 and 1500 K) and three different dilution levels (3, 6 and 9% O2) are simulated over an operating pressure variation from 1 atm to 16 atm. A classical jet in hot coflow burner is considered for this study. Total of 45 cases are simulated and analyzed. Essential characteristics of MILD combustion, i.e., maximum temperature $$ (T_{max} ) $$, temperature rise $$ (\\\\Delta T) $$ and temperature distributions, are analyzed. The distribution of emissions OH and CO are also studied and presented. Well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all cases except for two cases with high preheated (1500 K). Peak temperature is observed to decrease with increasing operating pressure for a given level of preheat and dilution. OH mass faction is reduced with increasing pressure. The CO emissions show little sensitivity to operating pressure. However, CO mass fraction is slightly higher at 1 atm operating pressure as compared to 4 to 16 atm. Since the residence time of reactants increases as the operating pressure increases, well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all highly diluted and low temperature preheat cases (3% O2 and 1100 K).

  11. Force Myography for Monitoring Grasping in Individuals with Stroke with Mild to Moderate Upper-Extremity Impairments: A Preliminary Investigation in a Controlled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam P. Sadarangani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research interest in technologies that can detect grasping, to encourage functional use of the hand as part of daily living, and thus promote upper-extremity motor recovery in individuals with stroke. Force myography (FMG has been shown to be effective for providing biofeedback to improve fine motor function in structured rehabilitation settings, involving isolated repetitions of a single grasp type, elicited at a predictable time, without upper-extremity movements. The use of FMG, with machine learning techniques, to detect and distinguish between grasping and no grasping, continues to be an active area of research, in healthy individuals. The feasibility of classifying FMG for grasp detection in populations with upper-extremity impairments, in the presence of upper-extremity movements, as would be expected in daily living, has yet to be established. We explore the feasibility of FMG for this application by establishing and comparing (1 FMG-based grasp detection accuracy and (2 the amount of training data necessary for accurate grasp classification, in individuals with stroke and healthy individuals. FMG data were collected using a flexible forearm band, embedded with six force-sensitive resistors (FSRs. Eight participants with stroke, with mild to moderate upper-extremity impairments, and eight healthy participants performed 20 repetitions of three tasks that involved reaching, grasping, and moving an object in different planes of movement. A validation sensor was placed on the object to label data as corresponding to a grasp or no grasp. Grasp detection performance was evaluated using linear and non-linear classifiers. The effect of training set size on classification accuracy was also determined. FMG-based grasp detection demonstrated high accuracy of 92.2% (σ = 3.5% for participants with stroke and 96.0% (σ = 1.6% for healthy volunteers using a support vector machine (SVM. The use of a training set that was 50

  12. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  13. Palladium(II-catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids with olefins under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.

  14. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P

    2013-06-01

    To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Biochemical and clinical assays. Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = -0.73), rash (-0.56), itch (-0.927), tightness (-0.585), and all eczema (-0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits.

  15. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  16. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C. WINGFIELD; J. Patrick KELLEY; Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-01-01

    Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a) modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b) reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c) a combination of (a) and (b). Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP) buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase and variants) can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather.

  17. Proceedings of the second symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The second symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 24 to 26, 2000. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, supernovae and nucleosynthesis to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Conditional Second Order Short-crested Water Waves Applied to Extreme Wave Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    A derivation of the mean second order short-crested wave pattern and associated wave kinematics, conditional on a given magnitude of the wave crest, is presented. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean finite water wave theory. A comparison with a measured extreme wave profile......, the Draupner New Year Wave, shows a good agreement in the mean, indicating that this second order wave can be a good identifier of the shape and occurrence of extreme wave events. A discussion on its use as an initial condition for a fully non-linear three-dimensional surface wave analysis is given....

  19. High selective delignification using oxidative ionic liquid pretreatment at mild conditions for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiqiang; Lyu, Wenkang; Dong, Cuihua; Li, Hongxing; Yang, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Herein, the oxidative ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment for overcoming recalcitrance of lignocellulose with selective delignification was investigated, and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. IL pretreatment incorporating oxygen delignification could enhance lignin extraction with high selectivity at low carbohydrate loss. The dual-action of oxidative decomposition and dissolution by 1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) on biomass were synergistically acted, accounting for efficient recalcitrance removal. In addition, the mild oxidative IL treatment only slightly converted crystalline cellulose into amorphous structure, and the extensive extraction of the amorphous lignin and carbohydrate resulted to the expose of cellulose with high susceptibility. Correspondingly, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated lignocellulose was greatly enhanced. The oxidative IL treatment at mild conditions, collaborating BmimCl treatment with oxygen delignification is a promising and effective system for overcoming the robust structure of lignocellulose.

  20. Ionic Liquid Promoted Diazenylation of N-Heterocyclic Compounds with Aryltriazenes under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dawei; Zhang, Yonghong; Liu, Chenjiang; Wang, Bin; Sun, Yadong; Abdukadera, Ablimit; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Qiang

    2016-05-06

    An efficient, mild, and metal-free approach to direct diazenylation of N-heterocyclic compounds with aryltriazenes using Brønsted ionic liquid as a promoter has been developed for the first time. Many N-heterocyclic azo compounds were synthesized in good to excellent yields at room temperature under an open atmosphere. Notably, the promoter 1,3-bis(4-sulfobutyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium hydrogen sulfate could be conveniently recycled and reused with the same efficacies for at least four cycles.

  1. Corrosion inhibition of aminated hydroxyl ethyl cellulose on mild steel in acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; Sairam Sundaram, C

    2016-10-05

    Aminated hydroxyethyl cellulose (AHEC) was synthesized, characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the corrosion inhibition of AHEC on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using chemical and electrochemical studies. Results obtained in weight loss method showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of AHEC. The adsorption of the inhibitor on metal surface followed Frumkin isotherm. Polarization studies revealed that the AHEC inhibits through mixed mode. Thermodynamic parameters and activation energy were calculated and discussed. FTIR and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) confirmed the adsorption of the inhibitor. The surface morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).

  2. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  3. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  4. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  5. Special Features of the Carbonitriding of Parts of Instrument Bearings Designed for Extreme Service Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. E.; Shevchenko, S. Yu.; Shchipunov, V. S.; Kunyaev, V. E.; Seval'nev, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    A study is made of complexly alloyed steel 8Kh4V9F2-Sh, which is used for fabricating parts of engineering bearings operating under extreme conditions. Vacuum processes are shown to be preferable to gas carburizing for hardening the races of precision bearings. Vacuum carburizing is shown to be an effective technique for forming quality diffusion layers.

  6. Corrosion behavior of mild steel and SS 304L in presence of dissolved nickel under aerated and deaerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mobin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In dual purpose water/power co-generation plants, the presence of high concentration of Cu and Ni in the re-circulating brine/condensate as a result of condenser tubes corrosion has been attributed as one of the several causes of corrosion damage of flash chamber materials and water touched parts of the boilers. The present investigation deals with the effect of dissolved nickel in the concentration range of 10 ppb to 100 ppm on the corrosion behavior of mild steel and SS 304L in two aqueous medium namely, distilled water and artificial seawater. The effect of pH, dissolved oxygen and flow condition of aqueous medium on the corrosion behavior was also monitored. The experimental techniques include immersion test and electrochemical tests which include free corrosion potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The corrosion rate of mild steel and SS 304L under different experimental conditions was determined by weight loss method and spectrophotometric determination of iron ion entered into the test solution during the period of immersion. The pH of the test solution was also monitored during the entire period of immersion. The left over nickel ions present in the test solution after completion of immersion was also estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The surface morphology of the corroded steel surface was also examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of the studies show that SS 304L largely remains unaffected in both distilled water and artificial seawater under different experimental conditions. However, the effect of nickel on the corrosion behavior of mild steel is quite pronounced and follows interesting trends.

  7. Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy Investigating Extreme Physical Conditions with Advanced Optical Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  8. Matter under extreme conditions probed by a seeded free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivenga, F.; Principi, E.; Cucini, R.; Danailov, M. B.; Demidovich, A.; D’Amico, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Gessini, A.; Kurdi, N.; Mahne, N.; Raimondi, L.; Zangrando, M.; Masciovecchio, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Giangrisostomi, E.; Battistoni, A.; Svetina, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Gunnella, R.; Hatada, K. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Filipponi, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita' dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-17

    FERMI is the first user dedicated seeded free-electron-laser (FEL) working in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray range. The EIS-TIMEX experimental end-station was availabe to external users since from the beginning of the user operation of the facility, in Dicember 2012. EIS-TIMEX has been conceived to exploit the unique properties of the FERMI source to study matter under extreme and metastable thermodynamic conditions. We hereby report on its basic parameters and applications, which includes very low jitter (i.e., high time resolution) pump-probe measurements.

  9. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  10. Mild solutions for a problem involving fractional derivatives in the nonlinearity and in the non-local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatar Nasser-eddine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A second-order abstract problem of neutral type with derivatives of non-integer order in the nonlinearity as well as in the nonlocal conditions is investigated. This model covers many of the existing models in the literature. It extends the integer order case to the fractional case in the sense of Caputo. A fixed point theorem is used to prove existence of mild solutions. AMS Subject Classification 26A33, 34K40, 35L90, 35L70, 35L15, 35L07

  11. Mild conditions for deuteration of primary and secondary arylamines for the synthesis of deuterated optoelectronic organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Heuer, Anwen M; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Darwish, Tamim A; Holden, Peter J

    2014-11-13

    Deuterated arylamines demonstrate great potential for use in optoelectronic devices, but their widespread utility requires a method for large-scale synthesis. The incorporation of these deuterated materials into optoelectronic devices also provides the opportunity for studies of the functioning device using neutron reflectometry based on the difference in the scattering length density between protonated and deuterated compounds. Here we report mild deuteration conditions utilising standard laboratory glassware for the deuteration of: diphenylamine, N-phenylnaphthylamine, N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine and 1-naphthylamine (via H/D exchange in D2O at 80 °C, catalysed by Pt/C and Pd/C). These conditions were not successful in the deuteration of triphenylamine or N,N-dimethylaniline, suggesting that these mild conditions are not suitable for the deuteration of tertiary arylamines, but are likely to be applicable for the deuteration of other primary and secondary arylamines. The deuterated arylamines can then be used for synthesis of larger organic molecules or polymers with optoelectronic applications.

  12. Peptide Selank Enhances the Effect of Diazepam in Reducing Anxiety in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Conditions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomin, Timur; Andreeva, Lyudmila; Bondarenko, Elena; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Slominsky, Petr; Shadrina, Maria

    2017-01-01

    It was shown that the anxiolytic effect of Selank is comparable to that of classical benzodiazepine drugs and that the basis of their mechanism of action may be similar. These data suggest that the presence of Selank may change the action of classical benzodiazepine drugs. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the anxiolytic activity of Selank and diazepam in rats both under conditions of unpredictable chronic mild stress and in its absence, after the individual and combined administration of these compounds using the elevated plus maze test. We found that, even in the absence of chronic stress, the administration of a course of test substances changed anxiety indicators toward their deterioration, but the changes after the administration of a course of Selank were less pronounced. In conditions of chronic stress, anxiety indicator values after the simultaneous use of diazepam and Selank did not differ from the respective values observed before chronic stress exposure. The data obtained indicate that the individual administration of Selank was the most effective in reducing elevated levels of anxiety, induced by the administration of a course of test substances, whereas the combination of diazepam with Selank was the most effective in reducing anxiety in unpredictable chronic mild stress conditions. PMID:28280289

  13. Mild Conditions for Deuteration of Primary and Secondary Arylamines for the Synthesis of Deuterated Optoelectronic Organic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwen M. Krause-Heuer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deuterated arylamines demonstrate great potential for use in optoelectronic devices, but their widespread utility requires a method for large-scale synthesis. The incorporation of these deuterated materials into optoelectronic devices also provides the opportunity for studies of the functioning device using neutron reflectometry based on the difference in the scattering length density between protonated and deuterated compounds. Here we report mild deuteration conditions utilising standard laboratory glassware for the deuteration of: diphenylamine, N-phenylnaphthylamine, N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine and 1-naphthylamine (via H/D exchange in D2O at 80 °C, catalysed by Pt/C and Pd/C. These conditions were not successful in the deuteration of triphenylamine or N,N-dimethylaniline, suggesting that these mild conditions are not suitable for the deuteration of tertiary arylamines, but are likely to be applicable for the deuteration of other primary and secondary arylamines. The deuterated arylamines can then be used for synthesis of larger organic molecules or polymers with optoelectronic applications.

  14. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. WINGFIELD, J. Patrick KELLEY, Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c a combination of (a and (b. Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and variants can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather [Current Zoology 57 (3: 363–374, 2011].

  15. Functional Muscular Condition Dynamics at Osteoarthrosis Conservative Treatment of Major Joints of Lower Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.S. Sayfutdinov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of global electromyography has been used for the evaluation of 231 patients aged from 16 to 74 (43,7±0,8 with bilateral osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities I-III degrees before the course of conservative treatment, immediately after the end of conservative treatment and in three months. Conservative treatment of patients with osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities has been shown to cause restructuring of EMG patterns of maximal voluntary muscle contraction in lower extremities accompanied by decreased asymmetry of activity levels in muscle pairs and less observations of pathologically changed EMG that results in improved functional condition of the locomotor system.

  16. Photolysis of tembotrione and its main by-products under extreme artificial conditions:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvayrac, Christophe; Bontemps, Nataly [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Nouga-Bissoue, Achille [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Enseignement Technique (ENSET), Université de Douala, BP 2701 Douala (Cameroon); Romdhane, Sana; Coste, Camille-Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Cooper, Jean-Francois, E-mail: cooper@univ-perp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2013-05-01

    The photolytic behaviour of tembotrione, a new chemical herbicide intended for foliar application in corn, was investigated under unnatural and extreme photochemical exposure in aqueous solutions in the laboratory. It appeared that degradation was dependent on pH and occurred more rapidly under acidic and neutral conditions, leading predominantly to the formation of a xanthenedione type compound by intramolecular cyclisation with loss of HCl. Trace amounts of benzoic acid by-products appeared also during UV-C irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of the parent compound. Results were comparable to those obtained with sulcotrione, another β-triketone herbicide. These extreme irradiation conditions clearly accelerated the phototransformation of sulcotrione vs. simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the photolysis of the degradation by-products, resulting from either photolysis, hydrolysis or biotic pathways of the two active ingredients, was also carried out. The benzoic acid by-products appeared more stable to photolysis than their parent molecules. Xanthenedione derivatives were degraded more rapidly with several differences depending on the pH value. - Highlights: • Tembotrione and sulcotrione water photolysis appeared enhanced under unnatural and extreme conditions. • Triketones were easily photodegraded under acidic and neutral conditions. • Xanthenedione derivatives were the predominant by-products. • Phototransformation of xanthenedione derivatives was pH-dependent. • Benzoic acid derivatives can be relatively stable.

  17. Existence of mild solution of impulsive quantum stochastic differential equation with nonlocal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S. A.; Ayoola, E. O.; Oghonyon, G. J.

    2016-08-01

    New results on existence and uniqueness of solution of impulsive quantum stochastic differential equation with nonlocal conditions are established. The nonlocal conditions are completely continuous. The methods applied here are simple extension of the methods applied in the classical case to this noncummutative quantum setting.

  18. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  19. Proceedings of the third symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The third symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 29 to 31, 2001. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of hadron physics such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, neutron stars, supernovae, nucleosynthesis as well as finite nuclei to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. Twenty two papers on these topics presented at the symposium, including a special talk on the present status of JAERI-KEK joint project on high-intensity proton accelerator, aroused lively discussions among approximately 40 participants. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  1. Mild hydrothermal conditioning prior to torrefaction and slow pyrolysis of low-value biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, R; Nachenius, R W; Agbo, K E; Hensgen, F; Bühle, L; Wachendorf, M; Ok, Y S; Tack, F M G; Prins, W; Ronsse, F; Meers, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether hydrothermal conditioning and subsequent thermochemical processing via batch torrefaction or slow pyrolysis may improve the fuel quality of grass residues. A comparison in terms of fuel quality was made of the direct thermochemical processing of the feedstock versus hydrothermal conditioning as a pretreatment prior to thermochemical processing. Hydrothermal conditioning reduced ash content, and particularly nitrogen, potassium and chlorine contents in the biomass. The removal of volatile organic matter associated with thermochemical processes can increase the HHV to levels of volatile bituminous coal. However, slow pyrolysis only increased the HHV of biomass provided a low ash content (<6%) feedstock was used. In conclusion, hydrothermal conditioning can have a highly positive influence on the efficiency of thermochemical processes for upgrading low-value (high-ash) biomass to a higher quality fuel.

  2. The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

  3. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph (Giuseppe) Zaccai

    2008-10-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37°C) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4°C, 37°C, 75°C and 85°C. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells.

  4. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  5. [Hygienic problems of population health maintenance under the extremal conditions of North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A I; Istomin, A V; Shushkova, T S; Ustiushin, B V; Iudina, T V; Maĭmulov, V G; Raengulov, B M; Shagdarova, A N

    2005-01-01

    A range of multi-sided studies, carried out in various regions of Far North (Jamalo-Nenets autonomous region, Komi republic, Sakha republic (Yakutia)) have established the leading hygienic risk factors of population health deterioration, including those characteristic of small nationalities of North. The consideration of the obtained data, including regional alimentary status peculiarities, the condition of metabolic processes and antioxidant balance of the organism, allowed establishment of effective approaches to the maintenance of notherners' health. These approaches are based upon the optimization of nutrition as an element of population health control under extremal conditions.

  6. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  7. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  8. Structural and Gel Textural Properties of Soy Protein Isolate When Subjected to Extreme Acid pH-Shifting and Mild Heating Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Geng, Rui; Zhao, Juyang; Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua

    2015-05-20

    Changes in the structural and gel textural properties were investigated in soy protein isolate (SPI) that was subjected to extreme acid pH-shifting and mild heating processes. The SPI was incubated up to 5 h in pH 1.5 solutions at room temperature or in a heated water bath (50 or 60 °C) to lead to protein structural unfolding, followed by refolding at pH 7.0 for 1 h. The combination of pH-shifting and heating treatments resulted in drastic increases in the SPI gel penetration force (p protein solubility (p protein was subjected to acidic pH-shifting in combination with heating processes. The slight loss of secondary structure was observed by circular dichroism. These results suggested that pH-shifting combined with heating treatments provide great potential for the production of functionality-improved SPI, with the improved gelling property highly related to changes in the protein structure and hydrophobic aggregation.

  9. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2016-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  10. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2017-02-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  11. Catalytic and regioselective oxidation of carbohydrates to synthesize keto-sugars under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru

    2014-09-19

    A new catalytic and regioselective approach for the synthesis of keto-sugars is described. An organotin catalyst, Oc2SnCl2, in the presence of trimethylphenylammonium tribromide ([TMPhA](+)Br3(-)) accelerates the regioselective oxidation at the "axial"-OH group of 1,2-diol moieties in galactopyranosides. The reaction conditions can also be used for the regioselective oxidation of various carbohydrates.

  12. Co-occurring Conditions Toolkit: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    hyperthyroidism , sleep disorder, etc.) that may cause mood symptoms and could exacerbate the below conditions. Evaluate for medication side effects that may... cause mood disturbance (e.g., beta-blockers, etc.). Substance misuse should also be ruled out. Utilization of assessment tools may assist with...caution with medications that may cause sedation or confusion (e.g., hyponotics and anxiolytics) yy Follow up in 2-3 weeks, sooner if clinically indicated

  13. Life under multiple extreme conditions: diversity and physiology of the halophilic alkalithermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-06-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth.

  14. A mild and simple synthesis of N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Na; WANG Yu-lu

    2004-01-01

    N- aryl substituted benzenesulfamides are often used as heating-sensitive recording material1, thermal printing material2, sensitizer3 and developer4. Moreover, some of the benzenesulfamides have antifungal activities5. Many methods have been described for preparation of sulfamides. They are used to carry out in solvent8 or in solid phase condition9. These methods required solvent or solid support and even required heating or cooling. At the same time, the process of these methods is complex. Now we have developed a new method to prepare N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions.In recent years, solvent-free technology has gained popularity in organic synthesis. For instance,solidstate reaction and microwave reaction have received considerable attention. Solvent-free synthesis of amides has been reported10-11. This technology has many advantages such as high efficiency and selectivity, easy separation and environmental acceptability. All these merits are in accord with green chemistry's requirements of energy-saving, high efficiency and environmental benefits.In our paper, we used a simple and efficient method for preparing N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions, as a replacement for classic solvent, which gives many environmental benefits.All reactions were completed at room temperature by co-grinding in an agate mortar for 3-20min and the results are shown in Table 1.In conclusion, we have developed an efficient and convenient method of preparation N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides in high yields. It symbols an improvement for synthesis of benzenesulfamides.

  15. Cyclization of ortho-hydroxycinnamates to coumarins under mild conditions: A nucleophilic organocatalysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Boeck

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available (E-Alkyl ortho-hydroxycinnamates cyclize to coumarins at elevated temperatures of 140–250 °C. We find that the use of tri-n-butylphosphane (20 mol % as a nucleophilic organocatalyst in MeOH solution allows cyclization to take place under much milder conditions (60–70 °C. Several coumarins were prepared, starting from ortho-hydroxyarylaldehydes, by Wittig reaction with Ph3P=CHCO2Me to (E-methyl ortho-hydroxycinnamates, followed by the phosphane catalyzed cyclization.

  16. Cannabinoid modulation of chronic mild stress-induced selective enhancement of trace fear conditioning in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christian G; Iskander, Anthony N; Weiss, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a chronic-mild-unpredictable stress (CMS) protocol. Immediately following the CMS, the animals were subjected to hippocampal-dependent (trace and contextual) and hippocampal-independent (delay) fear conditioning. CMS exposure enhanced trace freezing behavior compared to non-stress controls. This effect was not observed in contextual or delay conditioned animals. Given that the endocannabinoid system is negatively affected by CMS procedures, separate groups of stressed rats were administered the CB1 receptor agonist, ACEA (0.1 mg/kg), prior to trace fear conditioning or a memory-recall test. Regardless of administration time, ACEA significantly reduced freezing behavior in stressed animals. Furthermore, when administered during the first memory recall test, ACEA enhanced long-term extinction in both stress and non-stress groups. The results demonstrate that chronic unpredictable stress selectively enhances hippocampal-dependent episodic fear memories. Pathologies of the episodic memory and fear response may increase the susceptibility of developing PTSD. Reduction in fear responses via exogenous activation of the CB1 receptor suggests that a deficiency in the endocannabinoid system contributes to this pathology.

  17. Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

    2014-10-13

    The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  19. The myoglobin of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): amino acid sequence and functional adaptation to extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    1999-02-01

    In the framework of a study on molecular adaptations of the oxygen-transport and storage systems to extreme conditions in Antarctic marine organisms, we have investigated the structure/function relationship in Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) myoglobin, in search of correlation with the bird life style. In contrast with previous reports, the revised amino acid sequence contains one additional residue and 15 differences. The oxygen-binding parameters seem well adapted to the diving behaviour of the penguin and to the environmental conditions of the Antarctic habitat. Addition of lactate has no major effect on myoglobin oxygenation over a large temperature range. Therefore, metabolic acidosis does not impair myoglobin function under conditions of prolonged physical effort, such as diving.

  20. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  1. Formation of flavor components by the reaction of amino acid and carbonyl compounds in mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripis-Nicolau, L; de Revel, G; Bertrand, A; Maujean, A

    2000-09-01

    This work describe products of reactions between four alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (diacetyl, pentan-2,3-dione, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal) or two alpha-hydroxy ketones, (acetoine and acetol) and amino acids present in wines. The results shows the formation of odorous products or strong-smelling additives resulting from the Maillard and Strecker reaction in a primarily aqueous medium, at low temperature and low pH ( approximately pH 3.5) of the wine. GC/FID, GC/FPD, GC/NPD and GC/MS techniques were used. The olfactive characteristics of the products are described. In the presence of sulfur amino acids and in particular cysteine, many products were formed with a heterocycle production such as pyrazines and methylpyrazines, methylthiazoles, acetylthiazoles, acetylthiazolines, acetylthiazolidines, trimethyloxazole, and dimethylethyloxazoles. These various compounds present odors of sulfur, cornlike, pungent, nut, popcorn, roasted hazelnut, toasted, roasted, and ripe fruits. The chemical conditions of the model reactions are specified. The influence of temperature and pH on the reactions in the presence of cysteine were also studied.

  2. Seasonal Forecasts of Extreme Conditions for Wildland Fire Management in Alaska using NMME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; Thoman, R.; York, A.; Ziel, R.

    2016-12-01

    The summer of 2015 was the second largest Alaska fire season since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned and was costly from property loss (> 35M) and emergency personnel (> 17M). In addition to requiring significant resources, wildfire smoke impacts air quality in Alaska and downstream into North America. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Fire managers rely on weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season in advance. Though currently few tested products are available at the seasonal scale. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Advanced knowledge of both lightning and fuel conditions would assist managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) has been used since 1992 because it better suits the Alaska fire regime than the standard US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). This CFFWIS is based on early afternoon values of 2-m air temperature, relative humidity, and 10-m winds and daily total precipitation. Extremes of these indices and the variables are used to calculate these indices will be defined in reference to fire weather for the boreal forest. The CFFWIS will be applied and evaluated for the NMME hindcasts. This study will evaluate the quality of the forecasts comparing the hindcast NMME CFFWIS to acres burned in Alaska. Spatial synoptic patterns in the NMME related to fire weather extremes will be constructed using self-organized maps and probabilities of occurrence will be evaluated against acres burned.

  3. Direct Conversion of Methane to Methanol under Mild Conditions over Cu-Zeolites and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Patrick; Ranocchiari, Marco; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2017-02-21

    . Lately, we implemented online steam extraction rather than off-line extraction with liquid water, which enables execution of successive cycles. While recently we reported the isothermal conversion by employing higher methane pressures, carrying out the process according to prior art only yielded neglectable amounts of methane. Using a pressure <40 bar methane gave higher yields under isothermal conditions at 200 °C than most yields in prior reports. The yield, both after high temperature activation and under isothermal conditions at 200 °C, increased monotonously with the pressure. With this account we show that the trend can be represented by a Langmuir model. Thus, the pressure dependence is governed by methane adsorption. We show that the isothermal and the high temperature activated processes have different properties and should be treated independently, from both an experimental and a mechanistic point of view.

  4. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  5. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  6. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  7. The Phase-Contrast Imaging Instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions Endstation at LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Brown, Shaughnessy B; Fry, Alan; Gleason, Arianna; Granados, Eduardo; Hashim, Akel; Hastings, Jerome B; Samberg, Dirk; Seiboth, Frank; Tavella, Franz; Xing, Zhou; Lee, Hae Ja; Schroer, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Phase-Contrast Imaging instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The instrument can image phenomena with a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of nanometers and at the same time reveal the atomic structure through X-ray diffraction, with a temporal resolution better than 100 femtosecond. It was specifically designed for studies relevant to High-Energy-Density Science and can monitor, e.g., shock fronts, phase transitions, or void collapses. This versatile instrument was commissioned last year and is now available to the MEC user community.

  8. A statistical methodology for the estimation of extreme wave conditions for offshore renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George

    2015-01-01

    Rev, which is located in the North Sea, west of Denmark. The post-processing targets at correcting the modeled time series of the significant wave height, in order to match the statistics of the corresponding measurements, including not only the conventional parameters such as the mean and standard...... as a characteristic index of extreme wave conditions. The results from the proposed methodology seem to be in a good agreement with the measurements at both the relatively deep, open water and the shallow, coastal water sites, providing a potentially useful tool for offshore renewable energy applications. © 2015...

  9. Proceedings of the first symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The first symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on March 11 and 12, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as observation of X-ray pulsars, theoretical studies of nuclear matter, nuclear structure, low- and high-energy nuclear reactions and QCD. Thirty seven papers on these topics presented at the symposium are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Inversion of Extremely Ill-Conditioned Matrices in Floating-Point

    OpenAIRE

    Rump, Siegfried M.

    2009-01-01

    Let an $n\\times n$ matrix $A$ of floating-point numbers in some format be given. Denote the relative rounding error unit of the given format by $\\mathtt{eps}$. Assume $A$ to be extremely ill-conditioned, that is $\\cond(A)\\gg\\mathtt{eps}^{-1}$. In about 1984 I developed an algorithm to calculate an approximate inverse of $A$ solely using the given floating-point format. The key is a multiplicative correction rather than a Newton-type additive correction. I did not publish it ...

  11. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy......-dispersive XAS technique available on the ID24 beamline at the ESRF synchrotron. The examples chosen concern the melting and the liquid structure of 3d metals and alloys under high pressures (HPs) and the observation of temperature-induced spin crossover in FeCO3 at HP....

  12. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  13. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); an...

  14. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); an...

  15. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Songyue; Xue, Jin; Sun, Haidan; Wen, Bo; Wang, Quanhui; Perkins, Guy; Zhao, Huiwen W; Ellisman, Mark H; Hsiao, Yu-hsin; Yin, Liang; Xie, Yingying; Hou, Guixue; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Haddad, Gabriel G; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional) in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyue Yin

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively, examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  17. Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.

  18. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  19. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  20. Alcohol-Selective Oxidation in Water under Mild Conditions via a Novel Approach to Hybrid Composite Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elaal, Ali; Parrino, Francesco; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo; Pagliaro, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds in a clean fashion (i.e., with water as a solvent or under solvent-free conditions, and using O2 or H2O2 as the primary oxidant) is the subject of considerable research efforts. A new approach for the selective oxidation of soluble aromatic alcohols in water under mild conditions via a novel composite photocatalyst has been developed. The catalyst is synthesized by grafting 4-(4-(4-hydroxyphenylimino)cyclohexa-2,5dienylideneamino)phenol and silver nanoparticles onto the surface of moderately crystalline titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide-based composite was first extensively characterized and then employed in the catalytic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to 4-methoxybenzaldehyde under UV irradiation in water at room temperature. The corresponding aldehyde was obtained with unprecedented high selectivity (up to 86 %). The method is general and opens the route to fabrication of photocatalytic composites based on titanium dioxide functionalized with shuttle organic molecules and metal nanoparticles for a variety of oxidative conversions.

  1. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact-echo (IE method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location, because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  2. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-03-26

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  3. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2017-04-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  4. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-08-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  5. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of Earth’s upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO2(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep Earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K, carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO32−) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) ions and that even carbonic acid [H2CO3(aq)] is more abundant than CO2(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na+ and CO32−/HCO3− is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800 to 1000 K. Our results suggest that in Earth’s upper mantle, water-rich geofluids transport a majority of carbon in the form of rapidly interconverting CO32− and HCO3− ions, not solvated CO2(aq) molecules. PMID:27757424

  6. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in the Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO$_2$(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO$_3^{2-}$) and bicarbonate (HCO$_3^-$) ions, and that even carbonic acid (H$_2$CO$_3$(aq)) is more abundant than CO$_2$(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na$^+$ and CO$_3^{2-}$/HCO$_3^-$ is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800$\\sim$1000 K. Our results suggest that in the Earth's upper ...

  7. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  8. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat waves will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and functioning with major impacts on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently impacting Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and functional responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem functioning and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, functional class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce

  9. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Bremset Hansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  10. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years.

  11. Optimization of Combined Pulsed Electric Fields and Mild Temperature Processing Conditions for Red Apple Juice Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Katiyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect on Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO and Peroxidase (POD enzyme activity in red apple juice was evaluated after combined Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF and mild temperature processing using a response surface methodology. Changes in color were also analyzed and compared with thermally treated and unpasteurized juices. The studied factors were electric field strength (10-30 kV/cm, treatment time (200-1000 µs and temperature (20-60°C. A significant second-order response function covering the whole range of experimental conditions was obtained for each enzyme. Treatments conducted at 30 kV/cm, 1000 µs and 60°C led to red apple juice with the lowest residual enzyme activity (0.04 and 0.16 for PPO and POD, respectively. Overall change in color was significantly lower (p<0.05, in comparison with severe thermal treatments. It was feasible to achieve comparable enzyme inactivation and better preserve natural juice color by this hurdle technique.

  12. Synthesis of cellulose triacetate from cotton cellulose by using NIS as a catalyst under mild reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2015-10-05

    This research discusses the acetylation of cotton cellulose with acetic anhydride without solvents. The acetylation was done in the presence of different amounts of N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS) as a catalyst; this took place under mild reaction conditions. The extent of acetylation was measured by the weight percent gain (WPG) that varied from 24.71 to 71.83%. Cotton cellulose acetates, with the degree of substitution (DS) that ranged from 0.89 to 2.84, were prepared in one step. The cellulose triacetate, with a degree of substitution (DS) 2.84, was obtained. The WPG and DS were easily controlled by changing the reaction duration (1-5h), and the concentration of the catalyst (0.05 g, 0.075 g and 0.10 g for 1g of cellulose) in 25 ml of acetic anhydride. NIS was recognized as a novel and more successful catalyst for the acetylation of hydroxyl groups in cotton cellulose. Formation of the acetates and the calculation of the degree of substitution were performed by FT-IR, Raman, and (1)H NMR.

  13. Kinetics of organic transformations under mild aqueous conditions: implications for the origin of life and its metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The rates of thermal transformation of organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were systematically examined in order to identify the kinetic constraints that governed origin-of-life organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions. Arrhenius plots of the kinetic data were used to estimate the reaction of half-lifes at 50 degrees C. This survey showed that hydrocarbons and organic substances containing a single oxygenated group were kinetically the most stable; whereas organic substances containing two oxygenated groups in which one group was an alpha- or beta-positioned carbonyl group were the most reactive. Compounds with an alpha- or beta-positioned carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) had rates of reaction that were up to 10(24)-times faster than rates of similar molecules lacking the carbonyl group. This survey of organic reactivity, together with estimates of the molecular containment properties of lipid vesicles and liquid spherules, indicates that an origins process in a small domain that used C,H,O-intermediates had to be catalytic and use the most reactive organic molecules to prevent escape of its reaction intermediates.

  14. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  15. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  16. Extreme midlatitude cyclones and their implications for precipitation and wind speed extremes in simulations of the Maunder Minimum versus present day conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raible, C.C.; Casty, C. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Yoshimori, M. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Rutgers University, Center for Environmental Prediction, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Stocker, T.F. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, SOEST, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Extreme midlatitude cyclone characteristics, precipitation, wind speed events, their inter-relationships, and the connection to large-scale atmospheric patterns are investigated in simulations of a prolonged cold period, known as the Maunder Minimum from 1640 to 1715 and compared with today. An ensemble of six simulations for the Maunder Minimum as well as a control simulation for perpetual 1990 conditions are carried out with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, i.e., the Climate Community System Model (CCSM). The comparison of the simulations shows that in a climate state colder than today the occurrence of cyclones, the extreme events of precipitation and wind speed shift southward in all seasons in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. The extremes of cyclone intensity increases significantly in winter in almost all regions, which is related to a stronger meridional temperature gradient and an increase in lower tropospheric baroclinicity. Extremes of cyclone intensity in subregions of the North Atlantic are related to extremes in precipitation and in wind speed during winter. Moreover, extremes of cyclone intensity are also connected to distinct large-scale atmospheric patterns for the different subregions, but these relationships vanish during summer. Analyzing the mean 1,000 hPa geopotential height change of the Maunder Minimum simulations compared with the control simulation, we find a similar pattern as the correlation pattern with the cyclone intensity index of the southern Europe cyclones. This illustrates that changes in the atmospheric high-frequency, i.e., the simulated southward shift of cyclones in the North Atlantic and the related increase of extreme precipitation and wind speed in particular in the Mediterranean in winter, are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. (orig.)

  17. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  18. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  19. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  20. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico

    2006-09-01

    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  1. A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes.

  2. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-12-01

    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  3. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  4. Measurement and analysis of polarization curves of mild steel in sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution under erosion-corrosion conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁庆龙

    2002-01-01

    The polarization curves of mild steel in de-aerated 0.5 mol NaHCO3+0.5 mol Na2CO3 solution with and without erodent particles of 300 g/L of 100 μm alumina have been measured using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) apparatus over the range of rotation speeds from 0 to 4 000 r/min. The results show that the mild steel in the de-aerated slurry exhibits classical active/passive polarization behavior. The speed of cylinder rotation has a great effect in the presence of particles on the active dissolution current density. The erosion-corrosion process is severely erosion-dominated for the mild steel. However, the poor corrosion resistance of the mild steel in such turbulent slurries is also significant, especially at lower than 4 m/s.

  5. Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Upper Atmosphere at Early Mars/Extreme Solar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Combi, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of ion escape fluxes from Mars, resulting from the solar wind interaction with its upper atmosphere/ionosphere, is important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0 ~ 300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100 km ~ 5 RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model output fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model (100 km ~ 20 RM) that can simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres. This feature allows us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model output fields are used as the input for the multi-fluid MHD model and the M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. In this study, we present M-GITM, AMPS, and MF-MHD calculations (1-way coupled) for 2.5 GYA conditions and/or extreme solar conditions for present day Mars (high solar wind velocities, high solar wind dynamic pressure, and high solar irradiance conditions, etc.). Present day extreme conditions may result in MF-MHD outputs that are similar to 2.5 GYA cases. The crustal field orientations are also considered in this study. By comparing estimates of past ion escape rates with the current ion loss rates to be returned by the MAVEN spacecraft (2013-2016), we can better constrain the

  6. Characterization of Multi-Scale Atmospheric Conditions Associated with Extreme Precipitation in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Kaplan, M.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The east-west oriented Transverse Ranges of Southern California have historically experienced shallow landslides and debris flows that threaten life and property. Steep topography, soil composition, and frequent wildfires make this area susceptible to mass wasting. Extreme rainfall often acts as a trigger for these events. This work characterizes atmospheric conditions at multiple scales during extreme (>99th percentile) 1-day precipitation events in the major sub-ranges of the Transverse Ranges. Totals from these 1-day events generally exceed the established sub-daily intensity-duration thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows in this region. Daily extreme precipitation values are derived from both gridded and station-based datasets over the period 1958-2014. For each major sub-range, extreme events are clustered by atmospheric feature and direction of moisture transport. A composite analysis of synoptic conditions is produced for each cluster to create a conceptual model of atmospheric conditions favoring extreme precipitation. The vertical structure of the atmosphere during these extreme events is also examined using observed and modeled soundings. Preliminary results show two atmospheric features to be of importance: 1) closed and cutoff low-pressure systems, areas of counter-clockwise circulation that can produce southerly flow orthogonal to the Transverse Range ridge axes; and 2) atmospheric rivers that transport large quantities of water vapor into the region. In some cases, the closed lows and atmospheric rivers work in concert with each other to produce extreme precipitation. Additionally, there is a notable east-west dipole of precipitation totals during some extreme events between the San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains where extreme values are observed in one range and not the other. The cause of this relationship is explored. The results of this work can help forecasters and emergency responders determine the likelihood that an event will

  7. A general and efficient approach to 2H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles through copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-N bond formation under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiantao; Cheng, Yongfeng; Yang, Yiqing; Rao, Yu

    2011-09-28

    A new efficient copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction has been developed to readily synthesise a wide variety of multi-substituted 2H-indazole and 1H-pyrazole derivatives from easily accessible starting materials under mild conditions. A highly selective ligand for estrogen receptor β was prepared in three steps by employing this method.

  8. Wet carbon-based solid acid/potassium permanganate as an efficient heterogeneous reagents for oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Shokrolahi; Abbas Zali; Mohammad Hossein Kes

    2008-01-01

    Wet carbon-based solid acid and potassium permanganate were used as new reagents for oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in heterogeneous mixtures.The experiments were done moderately at mild condition and high yields in suitable times were obtained.

  9. Cs2CO3/[bmim]Br as an Efficient, Green, and Reusable Catalytic System for the Synthesis of N-Alkyl Derivatives of Phthalimide under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasaninejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aza-conjugate addition of phthalimide to α,β-unsaturated esters efficiently achieves in the presence of catalytic amount of Cs2CO3 and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br under mild reaction conditions (70°C to afford N-alkyl phthalimides in high yields and relatively short reaction times.

  10. An Efficient Synthesis of 1,5-Benzodiazepine Derivatives by Lanthanide Trichloride-catalyzed Condensation of o-Phenylenediamine with α,β-Unsaturated Ketone under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with various α,β-unsaturated ketones was efficiently catalyzed by lanthanide trichloride and a variety of 1,5-benzodiazepines were synthesized in moderate to high yields under mild conditions. The reactions catalyzed by ytterbium trichloride were investigated emphatically.

  11. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  12. Predicting the solubility of gases in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in extreme conditions using molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    In the oil and gas industry, elastomer seals play an important role in protecting sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases - a problem that is exacerbated by the high pressures and temperatures found down-hole. The ability to predict and prevent such permeative failure has proved elusive to-date. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a common choice of elastomer for seals due to its resistance to heat and fuels. In the conditions found in the well it readily absorbs small molecular weight gases. How this behaviour changes quantitatively for different gases as a function of temperature and pressure is not well-understood. In this work a series of fully atomistic simulations are performed to understand the effect of extreme conditions on gas solubility in NBR. Widom particle insertion is used to compute solubilities. The importance of sampling and allowing structural relaxation upon compression are highlighted, and qualitatively reasonable trends reproduced. Finally, while at STP it has previously been shown that the solubility of CO2 is higher than that of He in NBR, we observe that under the right circumstances it is possible to reverse this trend.

  13. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  14. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of 30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on precedingly accretionary and

  15. Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated on the surface of cellulose nanospheres for the rapid removal of textile dye under mild condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yunfeng [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qin, Zongyi, E-mail: phqin@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Yannan; Cheng, Miao; Qian, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Qian, E-mail: drwangqian23@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 100 Haining Road, Hongkou District, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zhu, Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anchoring superparamagnetic iron oxide on the surface of cellulose nanospheres as magnetically recyclable nanocatalys. • Achieving highly efficient Fenton-like reaction on the surface of composite nanospheres for rapid removal of textile dye. • Reaching nearly 98.0% degradation of Navy blue within 5 min under mild condition. - Abstract: Magnetic composite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by anchoring iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) on the surface of carboxyl cellulose nanospheres through a facile chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared MNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement, thermal gravity analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. These MNPs were of a generally spherical shape with a narrow size distribution, and exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors with high saturation magnetization. High efficient removal of Navy blue in aqueous solution was demonstrated at room temperature in a Fenton-like system containing the MNPs and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which benefited from small particle size, large surface area, high chemical activity, and good dispersibility of the MNPs. The removal efficiency of Navy blue induced by the MNPs prepared at a weight ratio of cellulose to iron of 1:2 were 90.6% at the first minute of the degradation reaction, and 98.0% for 5 min. Furthermore, these MNPs could be efficiently recycled and reused by using an external magnetic field. The approach presented in this paper promotes the use of renewable natural resources as templates for the preparation and stabilization of various inorganic nanomaterials for the purpose of catalysis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical and other potential applications.

  16. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Mφller

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1) A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2) a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3): 351-362,2011].

  17. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  18. Mechanics and mechanisms of surface damage in Al-Si alloys under ultra-mild wear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming

    Al-Si alloys intended for use in engine components must operate under ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions to fit an acceptable amount of wear during a typical vehicle life. This study simulated surface damage in a UMW regime on five chemically etched Al-Si alloy surfaces using a pin-on-disc tribometer at low loads (0.5-2.0 N) under boundary lubricated conditions. The five alloys contained 11 to 25 wt.% Si and differed in matrix hardness, silicon particle morphology, and size. The mechanisms leading to the UMW damage and the role that the matrix hardness and microstructure play on said mechanisms were studied. Quantitative measurement methods based on statistical analysis of particle height changes and material loss from elevated aluminum using a profilometer technique were developed and used to assess UMW. The Greenwood and Tripp's numerical model was adapted to analyze the contact that occurred between Al-Si alloys with silicon particles protruding above the aluminum and steel balls. The estimation of the real contact pressure applied to the silicon particles was used to rationalize the damage mechanisms. The UMW mechanisms consisted of (i) abrasive wear on the top of the silicon particle surfaces; (ii) sinking-in of the silicon particles; (iii) piling-up of the aluminium around sunken-in particles and (vi) wear of the aluminium by the counterface, which eventually led to the initiation of UMW-II. Increasing the size or areal density of silicon particles with small aspect ratios delayed the onset of UMW-II by providing resistance against the silicon particles sinking-in and the aluminum piling-up. The UMW wear rates, however, began to decrease after long sliding cycles once an oil residue layer supported by hardened ultra-fine subsurface grains formed on the deformed aluminium matrix. The layer formation depended on the microstructure and applied load. Overall experimental observations suggested that Al-11% Si with small silicon particles exhibited optimal long

  19. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  20. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior ...

  1. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  2. Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausias; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Granero, Roser; Islam, Mohamed A; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Fagundo, Ana B; Sancho, Carolina; Estivill, Xavier; Treasure, Janet; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-02-01

    (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.

  3. Modified and double-clad large mode-area leakage channel fibers for extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi Raja, G.; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2015-03-01

    Recently large-mode-area hybrid leakage channel fibers (HLCFs) were reported to overcome the limitation on mode area with single-mode (SM) operation for the practical bending radius of 7.5 cm at the preferred wavelength of 1064 nm. In this paper, we present the effects of a thermally induced refractive index change on the mode area of bend-compensated extremely LMA modified HLCFs (M-HLCFs) and double-clad M-HLCFs. A full-vectorial finite-element method-based modal solver is used to obtain the modal characteristics of M-HLCFs in various heat load conditions. Numerical simulations reveal that the effective mode area of M-HLCFs is ˜1433 μm2 at room temperature, which marginally decreases to ˜1387 μm2 while SM operation is maintained when the temperature distribution rises to ˜125 °C over the fiber geometry during high-power operations. We have also investigated a double-clad M-HLCF design exhibiting a mode area > ˜ 1000 μm2 for all heat load density variations up to a maximum of 12 × 109 W m-3, corresponding to a 250 °C temperature in the center of the fiber core region.

  4. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21 2014 at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  5. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  6. Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the

  7. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filaments under Extreme Conditions and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao

    Intermediate filaments are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. It was discovered during the recent decades that intermediate filament proteins play key roles to reinforce cells subjected to large-deformation as well as participate in signal transduction. However, it is still poorly understood how the nanoscopic structure, as well as the biochemical properties of these protein molecules contribute to their biomechanical functions. In this research we investigate the material function of intermediate filaments under various extreme mechanical conditions as well as disease states. We use a full atomistic model and study its response to mechanical stresses. Learning from the mechanical response obtained from atomistic simulations, we build mesoscopic models following the finer-trains-coarser principles. By using this multiple-scale model, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms of intermediate filament network. We reveal the mechanism of a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent intermolecular sliding under mechanical force, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. This nanoscale mechanism results in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve, which leads to a delocalization of mechanical energy and prevents catastrophic fracture. This explains how intermediate filament can withstand extreme mechanical deformation of > 1 00% strain despite the presence of structural defects. We combine computational and experimental techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging disease. We find that the mutated lamin tail .domain is more compact and stable than the normal one. This altered structure and stability may enhance the association of intermediate filaments with the nuclear membrane, providing a molecular mechanism of the disease. We study the nuclear membrane association

  8. Physiological Responses to Firefighting in Extreme Temperatures Do Not Compare to Firefighting in Temperate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Windisch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300° in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change.Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT. The treadmill testing was used to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold (VT1 and respiratory compensation point (RCP. Three intensity zones were identified according to heart rate (HR values corresponding to VT1 and RCP: zone 1–HR below VT1, zone 2-HR between VT1 and RCP, zone 3–HR above RCP. Firefighting performance was determined by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Correlations were then established between TSA based firefighting performance parameters and fitness variables representing strength and endurance.Results: HR was significantly lower during SFE (79.9 ± 6.9%HRmax compared to FOT (85.4 ± 5.2%HRmax. During SFE subjects spent 24.6 ± 30.2% of time in zone 1, 65.8 ± 28.1% in zone 2 and 9.7 ± 16.6% in zone 3. During FOT subjects spent 16.3 ± 12.8% in zone 1, 50.4 ± 13.2% in zone 2 and 33.3 ± 16.6% in zone 3. Out of all correlations, relative VO2peak showed the highest relation to mean HR during SFE (−0.593 as well as FOT (−0.693.Conclusions: Endurance in terms of

  9. A Combination of Extreme Environmental Conditions Favor the Prevalence of Endospore-Forming Firmicutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Dorador, Cristina; Molina, Veronica; Johnson, David R.; Junier, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF) deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy.We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null), single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation, and specific mineral composition). To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene) in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene), as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes for which active

  10. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes

  11. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  12. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly 1 week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  13. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  14. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification.

  15. An Invariant-Preserving ALE Method for Solids under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We are proposing a fundamentally new approach to ALE methods for solids undergoing large deformation due to extreme loading conditions. Our approach is based on a physically-motivated and mathematically rigorous construction of the underlying Lagrangian method, vector/tensor reconstruction, remapping, and interface reconstruction. It is transformational because it deviates dramatically from traditionally accepted ALE methods and provides the following set of unique attributes: (1) a three-dimensional, finite volume, cell-centered ALE framework with advanced hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories for solids; (2) a new physically and mathematically consistent reconstruction method for vector/tensor fields; (3) advanced invariant-preserving remapping algorithm for vector/tensor quantities; (4) moment-of-fluid (MoF) interface reconstruction technique for multi-material problems with solids undergoing large deformations. This work brings together many new concepts, that in combination with emergent cell-centered Lagrangian hydrodynamics methods will produce a cutting-edge ALE capability and define a new state-of-the-art. Many ideas in this work are new, completely unexplored, and hence high risk. The proposed research and the resulting algorithms will be of immediate use in Eulerian, Lagrangian and ALE codes under the ASC program at the lab. In addition, the research on invariant preserving reconstruction/remap of tensor quantities is of direct interest to ongoing CASL and climate modeling efforts at LANL. The application space impacted by this work includes Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Z-pinch, munition-target interactions, geological impact dynamics, shock processing of powders and shaped charges. The ALE framework will also provide a suitable test-bed for rapid development and assessment of hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories. Today, there are no invariant-preserving ALE algorithms for treating solids with large deformations. Therefore

  16. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  17. "Rotten Ice": Characterizing the Physical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice Under Conditions of Extreme Summer Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, B.; Frantz, C. M.; Junge, K.; Orellana, M. V.; Carpenter, S.; Farley, S. M.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Courville, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural properties of sea ice are central to understanding the mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties of a sea ice cover. Over the course of an annual cycle, this small scale structure routinely evolves from a network of mostly isolated brine and gas inclusions prevalent in cold ice, to a more connected, more permeable structure as the ice endures summer melt processes. In the case of extreme summer melt, sea ice can become "rotten", and it is expected that such rotten ice may become more prevalent as melt seasons lengthen. Rotten ice is approximately isothermal, largely drained of brine, and is typified by the presence of large multi-cm-scale void spaces that contribute to its high permeability and low structural integrity. These properties are expected to alter the ice cover response to dynamic forcing, ability to backscatter incident light, and its melt rate. An interdisciplinary effort to characterize the physical properties of rotten first-year ice, in concert with some of its chemical and biological properties, is being carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. Time-series samples focusing on the evolution of ice microstructure were acquired and analyzed for shore-fast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska in May - July of 2015. Laboratory studies have focused on assessing the seasonal evolution of optical properties of this ice, as well as the measurement of melt rates of ice grown under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Preliminary results from these studies illuminate some of the physical and biophysical controls on late summer ice melt.

  18. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Fagundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extreme weight conditions (EWC groups along a continuum may share some biological risk factors and intermediate neurocognitive phenotypes. A core cognitive trait in EWC appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Differences between individuals in these areas are likely to contribute to the differences in vulnerability to EWC. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a common pattern of executive dysfunction in EWC while comparing anorexia nervosa patients (AN, obese subjects (OB and healthy eating/weight controls (HC. METHODS: Thirty five AN patients, fifty two OB and one hundred thirty seven HC were compared using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in IGT score (F(1.79; p<.001, with AN and OB groups showing the poorest performance compared to HC. On the WCST, AN and OB made significantly more errors than controls (F(25.73; p<.001, and had significantly fewer correct responses (F(2.71; p<.001. Post hoc analysis revealed that the two clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Finally, OB showed a significant reduced performance in the inhibition response measured with the Stroop test (F(5.11; p<.001 compared with both AN and HC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EWC subjects (namely AN and OB have similar dysfunctional executive profile that may play a role in the development and maintenance of such disorders.

  19. Potassium carbonate: a highly efficient catalyst for the acylation of alco-hols, phenols and thiols under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A general, mild and efficient protocol has been developed for the synthesis of esters and thioesters. The process has been taking place using tetra n-butylammonium iodide (TBAI as a phase-transfer catalyst and in the presence of potassium carbonate (K2CO3. A wide range of esters and thioesters was prepared in high yields and suitable times by the treatment of alcohols, phenols and thiols with acetic anhydride. Acylation reactions of a number of alcohols, phenols and thiols with acetic anhydride demonstrated that potassium carbonate is a convenient and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of esters and thioesters. This is a mild, general and practical procedure for the synthesis of esters and thioesters in high yields and suitable times.

  20. Highly practical synthesis of nitriles and heterocycles from alcohols under mild conditions by aerobic double dehydrogenative catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weiyu; Wang, Chengming; Huang, Yong

    2013-04-19

    A mild, aerobic, catalytic process for obtaining nitriles directly from alcohols and aqueous ammonia is described. The reaction proceeds via a dehydrogenation cascade mediated by catalytic CuI, bpy, and TEMPO in the presence of O2. The substrate scope is broad including various functionalized aromatic and aliphatic alcohols. This protocol enabled the one-pot synthesis of various biaryl heterocycles directly from commercially available alcohols.

  1. Reactivity of Xe with ice at extreme P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanloup, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Maynard-Casely, H.; Gregoryanz, E.; Mezouar, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water is an important component of terrestrial and giant planets so that any reactivity with Xe at depth would have strong consequences on our knowledge of planetary dynamics as it heavily relies on Xe isotopes geochemistry. The chemistry of ‘noble gas’ have seen fascinating experimental and theoretical advances during the last twenty years as highlighted by review papers (1,2). Noble gas chemistry proceeds essentially by photosynthesis of precursors in a low-temperature noble-gas matrix. The pressure variable has seldom been investigated as a mean to enforce Xe to bond other elements (3). Xe is among the gases that stabilize clathrate hydrates through van der Waals interactions. Xe hydrates are stable up to 2.5 GPa, before dissociating into Xe plus ice VII (4). However, the chemistry of water with solid Xe has been successfully explored by UV photolysis (5,6). Those findings plus our own results on the stability of Xe oxides in the terrestrial crust (7) let us envisage that the chemistry of Xe with oxygen at extreme conditions could be flourishing. We have thus explored the reactivity of Xe with water up to 80 GPa by using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell combined with in situ x-ray diffraction measurements. Formation of a compound is indeed observed at conditions that could occur in the interiors of ice-rich giant planets Uranus and Neptune. To complement the x-ray diffraction data, ab initio calculations have been carried out to determine the molecular structure of the new found compound. These resuts hence add another example of noble gas sequestration in giant planets, as recently proposed for Ne (8). References: 1. W. Grochala, Chem. Soc. Rev. 1632, 36 (2007). 2. R. B. Gerber, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 55, 55 (2004). 3. A. I. Katz and V. A. Apkarian, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 6671-6678 (1990). 4. C. Sanloup et al., PNAS 99, 25 (2002). 5. M. Pettersson et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 505, 729 (1999). 6. L. Khriachtchev et al., JACS 130, 6114 (2008). 7. C. Sanloup et

  2. β-Alanine-DBU" A Highly Efficient Catalytic System forKnoevenageI-Doebner Reaction under Mild Conditionsβ-Alanine-DBU" A Highly Efficient Catalytic System forKnoevenageI-Doebner Reaction under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝令建; 雷宁; 缪震元; 盛春泉; 庄春林; 姚建忠; 张万年

    2012-01-01

    A mild and efficient Knoevenagel-Doebner reaction from malonic acid and a wide range of aldehydes was catalyzed by a catalytic system consisting offlalanine and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), affording the corresponding (E)-a,fl-unsaturated carboxylic acids in good to excellent yields and with high stereoselectivity. The advantage of the method is that the reaction could proceed smoothly at ambient temperature so that it can tolerate a variety of functional groups and avoid unnecessary side reactions.

  3. Analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank of hydropower station under combined operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbao; Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-06-01

    Combined operating condition usually refers to the control operating condition under which the highest and lowest water levels occur in a surge tank of hydropower station. In this paper, with the basic equations of surge analysis and nonlinear vibrational asymptotic method, analytical expressions of the worst superimposition time of surge waves in an upstream surge tank under four typical combined operating conditions (i.e. load-acceptance-then-rejection, successive load rejection, successive load acceptance and load-rejection-then-acceptance) are derived firstly. Then using these expressions, the analytical extreme water levels are determined. The analytical solutions are verified with numerical simulation results. Finally, the effect of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank on the control operating condition is investigated. The results indicate that: The analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank under various combined operating conditions are accurate due to the good agreements between the analytical results and the numerical results. With the increase of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank, the control operating condition for the highest water level shifts from load-acceptance-then-rejection condition to successive load rejection condition, and the control operating condition for the lowest water level shifts from load-rejection-then-acceptance condition to successive load acceptance condition.

  4. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five ...... ramp rates and reserves requirements....

  5. Extreme conditioning programs and injury risk in a US Army Brigade Combat Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; McNulty, Vancil; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    Brigades and battalions throughout the US Army are currently implementing a variety of exercise and conditioning programs with greater focus on preparation for mission-specific tasks. An Army physical therapy clinic working with a light infantry brigade developed the Advanced Tactical Athlete Conditioning (ATAC) program. The ATAC program is a unique physical training program consisting of high-intensity aquatic exercises, tactical agility circuits, combat core conditioning, and interval speed training. Along with ATAC, battalions have also incorporated components of fitness programs such as the Ranger Athlete Warrior program and CrossFit (Crossfit, Inc, Santa Monica, CA) an extreme conditioning program (ECP). To determine if these new programs (ATAC, ECP) had an effect on injury rates and physical fitness. Surveys were administered to collect personal characteristics, tobacco use, personal physical fitness training, Army physical fitness test results, and self-reported injuries. Medical record injury data were obtained 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of the new program. Predictors of injury risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Injury incidence among Soldiers increased 12% for overall injuries and 16% for overuse injuries after the implementation of the ATAC/ECPs. However, injury incidence among Soldiers not participating in ATAC/ECPs also increased 14% for overall injuries and 10% for overuse injuries. Risk factors associated with higher injury risk for Soldiers participating in ATAC/ECPs included: greater mileage run per week during unit physical training (OR (>16 miles per week÷≤7 miles per week)=2.24, 95% CI, 1.33-3.80); higher body mass index (BMI) (OR (BMI 25-29.9÷BMI<25)=1.77, 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), (OR (BMI =30÷BMI<25)=2.72, 95% CI, 1.67-4.43); cigarette use (OR (smoker÷nonsmoker)=1.80, 95% CI, 1.34-2.42); poor performance on the 2-mile run during

  6. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  7. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  8. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  9. Estimation of Extreme Values by the Average Conditional Exceedance Rate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naess

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a method for extreme value prediction on the basis of a sampled time series. The method is specifically designed to account for statistical dependence between the sampled data points in a precise manner. In fact, if properly used, the new method will provide statistical estimates of the exact extreme value distribution provided by the data in most cases of practical interest. It avoids the problem of having to decluster the data to ensure independence, which is a requisite component in the application of, for example, the standard peaks-over-threshold method. The proposed method also targets the use of subasymptotic data to improve prediction accuracy. The method will be demonstrated by application to both synthetic and real data. From a practical point of view, it seems to perform better than the POT and block extremes methods, and, with an appropriate modification, it is directly applicable to nonstationary time series.

  10. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  11. The effect of visual field condition on kinetic in upper extremities and e.m.g in lower extremities while performing reaching in normal adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyekang; Kang, Youngeun; Yoo, Minah; Lee, Bomjin; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Joongsook; Han, Dongwook; Oh, Taeyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study was to investigate mean velocity and angle of shoulder joint, activation of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius according to both eyes, dominant eye and non-dominant eye condition during reaching task in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Our research recruited 24 participants (male 11, female 13) in Silla University. Participants were performed reaching out movement by conditions of both eye, dominants eye, non-dominants eye. The target was placed at 45 degree diagonal direction and distance far away 130% of their arm length. Kinetic analysis of the upper extremities was investigated by QUALISYS 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activation were measured by EMG during reaching tasks. The collected data were statistically processed using the SPSS for win version 20.0. [Results] There was a significant difference of shoulder joint velocity of flexion, abduction and internal rotation according to visual field condition during reaching tasks. There was no significant difference of shoulder joint angle and muscle activation according to visual field conditions during reaching tasks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual field has an influence on shoulder joint velocity. Therefore, the visual field may be to play an important role in reach performance. PMID:28210047

  12. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  13. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziernicka-Wojtaszek Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971-2010. The subject, and aim of this study is the comparison of the frequency of occurrence of thermal, precipitation and pluvio-thermal conditions detrimental to agriculture in Poland during two periods: 1971-2000 and 1981-2010, constituting the former, and the current climate normal, respectively. Each month of the vegetation period (April-October was, in accordance with the current accounts carried out by agriculture correspondents, assigned to one of the following categories: favorable for vegetation, dry, dry and cool, cool, cool and humid, humid, dry and hot. An identical classification of meteorological vegetation conditions was also carried out for months characterized by extreme air temperature and precipitation values. Extreme values were defined as those monthly temperature mean values, and monthly precipitation totals, the probability of exceeding of which is lower than 10%, i.e. their probability of occurrence, or the socalled recurrence interval, is once every 10 years. The differences existing between the analyzed 30-year periods, can be attributed to the present day climate change - a significant increase in air temperature in April, June, July, and August, with a lack of significant precipitation trends. In the two compared periods, an increase in the number of extreme months from 74 to 82 was stated. The biggest changes during the extreme months were observed for precipitation deficits combined with hot air temperatures, namely, an increase from 15 to 29 months. In general, all the analyzed months of the vegetation period showed an increase in dry months (90 to 105 cases and a decrease in cool months (44 to 24 cases.

  14. Air conditioning of hotels in mild, warm and dry climates; Klimatisierung von Hotels in milden, warmen und trockenen Klimata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendin, Leonardo [Swegon BlueBox Group S.r.l., Cantarana (Venezuela)

    2011-05-15

    Hotels represent a promising area in the frame of possible energy reductions. The increase of different services which are given in hotels (e.g. swimming pools and spa) and the opportunity to work at different levels of temperature may induce to specific design suitable HVAC for this kind of applications. The paper presents an energy analysis of a hotel, based on dynamic simulations (TRNSYS) for determining net energy needs for heating, cooling and hot water. Three climates are considered: two mild climates (dry and humid) and one warm and dry climate. Terminal units, distribution loops and storage losses are taken into account. Three possible generation systems solutions are investigated for evaluating the primary energy consumptions. (orig.)

  15. A First-Principles Multi-phase Equation of State of Carbon under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, A A; Benedict, X L; Young, D A; Schwegler, E; Bonev, S A

    2008-02-01

    We describe the construction of a multi-phase equation of state for carbon at extreme pressures based on ab initio electronic structure calculations of two solid phases (diamond and BC8) and the liquid. Solid-phase free energies are built from knowledge of the cold curves and phonon calculations, together with direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state, which are used to extract anharmonic corrections to the phonon free energy. The liquid free energy is constructed based on results from molecular dynamics calculations and constraints determined from previously calculated melting curves, assuming a simple solid-like free energy model. The resulting equation of state is extended to extreme densities and temperatures with a Thomas Fermi-based free energy model. Comparisons to available experimental results are discussed.

  16. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  17. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of ‘‘extreme’’ weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rang...

  18. Investigation of carbon dioxide phase shift possibility under extreme Antarctic winter conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic winter atmosphere minimal temperature and pressure series reveal that $CO_2$ phase shift (deposition) is possible in some extreme cases, even leading to possible $CO_2$ snow phenomenon at Vostok Antarctic station and in other near South Pole regions. A hypothesis has been formulated that stable $CO_2$ snow cover might have formed in Earth past which may influence interpretation of glacial chronology records. This effect may also manifest in other minor gases. Its global climate role is discussed.

  19. Intestinal anisakiasis can cause intussusception in adults:An extremely rare condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomofumi; Miura; Akira; Iwaya; Takao; Shimizu; Junpei; Tsuchiya; Junichiro; Nakamura; Satoshi; Yamada; Tsutomu; Miura; Masahiko; Yanagi; Hiroyuki; Usuda; Iwao; Emura; Toru; Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of adult intussusception caused by anisakiasis. A 41-year-old man was admitted into our hospital for right lower abdominal colicky pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of intussusception. As pneumodynamic resolution by colonoscopy failed, surgery was performed. The anisakis body was found in the submucosal layer of the resection specimen. The patient was discharged 9 d after the operation. Anisakiasis may cause intussusception in any country wh...

  20. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  1. Core safety of Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Joshi; A K Nayak; M Singhal; D Mukhopadhaya

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear power is currently the fourth largest source of electricity production in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity. Currently, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation and seven other reactors are under construction. Most of these reactors are indigenously designed and built Heavy Water Reactors. In addition, a 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor has already been designed and in the process of deployment in near future for demonstration of power production from Thorium apart from enhanced safety features by passive means. India has ambitious plans to enhance the share of electricity production from nuclear. The recent Fukushima accident has raised concerns of safety of Nuclear Power Plants worldwide. The Fukushima accident was caused by extreme events, i.e., large earthquake followed by gigantic Tsunami which are not expected to hit India’s coast considering the geography of India and historical records. Nevertheless, systematic investigations have been conducted by nuclear scientists in India to evaluate the safety of the current Nuclear Power Plants in case of occurrence of such extreme events in any nuclear site. This paper gives a brief outline of the safety features of Indian Heavy Water Reactors for prevention and mitigation of such extreme events. The probabilistic safety analysis revealed that the risk from Indian Heavy Water Reactors are negligibly small.

  2. Operational flood management under large-scale extreme conditions, using the example of the Middle Elbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precautionary or technical flood protection measures, short-term strategies of the operational management, i.e. the initiation and co-ordination of preventive measures during and/or before a flood event are crucially for the reduction of the flood damages. This applies especially for extreme flood events. These events are rare, but may cause a protection measure to be overtopped or even to fail and be destroyed. In such extreme cases, reliable decisions must be made and emergency measures need to be carried out to prevent even larger damages from occurring.

    Based on improved methods for meteorological and hydrological modelling a range of (physically based extreme flood scenarios can be derived from historical events by modification of air temperature and humidity, shifting of weather fields and recombination of flood relevant event characteristics. By coupling the large scale models with hydraulic and geotechnical models, the whole flood-process-chain can be analysed right down to the local scale. With the developed GIS-based tools for hydraulic modelling FlowGIS and the Dike-Information-System, (IS-dikes it is possible to quantify the endangering shortly before or even during a flood event, so the decision makers can evaluate possible options for action in operational mode.

  3. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  4. Study on Strength of Hybrid Mortar Synthesis with Epoxy Resin, Fly Ash and Quarry Dust Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, P.; Muni Reddy, M. G., Dr.; Adiseshu, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Blend and characterization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether based thermosetting polymer mortar comprising an epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust are presented here for the strength study. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative process in Extreme conditions of commercial epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust based paste. In this way, thermosetting based hybrid mortars characterized by a different contents of normalized Fly ash and Quarry dust by a homogeneous distribution of the resin have been attained. Once hardened, these new composite materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the Fly ash and Rock sand pastes since the Resin provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced number of micro cracks. The micro structural characterization allows pointing out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars. A correlation between micro-structural features and mechanical properties of the mortar has also been studied in Extreme conditions.

  5. Effect of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation under mild and hydrothermal conditions in related to chemical evolution of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Takeya, Hitoshi; Kushibe, Takao

    2009-07-01

    The role of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation was inspected to see whether minerals possess catalytic activity under mild and hydrothermal conditions. Under mild conditions, oligopeptide formation from negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) using different minerals and the elongation of alanine oligopeptides ((Ala) 2-(Ala) 5) were attempted using apatite minerals. Oligo(Asp) up to 10 amino acid units from Asp were observed in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). Notable influence of minerals was not detected for the oligo(Asp) formation. Oligo(Asp) was gradually degraded by the further incubation in the presence of EDC in both the absence and presence of minerals. The formation of oligo(Glu) was less efficient in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole. The elongation from (Ala) 3, (Ala) 4, and (Ala) 5 and the formation of diketopiperazine from (Ala) 2 proceeded immediately in the presence of EDC in the meantime of the sample preparations. In addition, it was unexpected that the disappearance of the products and the reformation of the reactants occurred by the further incubation for 24 h; for instance, (Ala) 5 decreased but (Ala) 4 increased with increasing the reaction time in the reaction of (Ala) 4 with EDC. These facts suggest that the activation of the reactant amino acids or peptides immediately occurs. Under the simulated hydrothermal conditions, EDC did not enhance the formation of oligopeptides from Asp, Glu or Ala nor the spontaneous formation of (Ala) 5 from (Ala) 4.

  6. A predictive model for the influence of food components on survival of Listeria monocytogenes LM 54004 under high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Long; Ju, Xing-Rong; Wu-Ding

    2007-07-15

    The combination of high hydrostatic pressure with mild temperature was explored to achieve a predictive model of microbial inactivation in food matrix processing. The pressure processing conditions were fixed at 448 MPa for 11 min at the treatment temperature of 41 degrees C, which have been determined as the optimum processing conditions considering six log-cycle reductions of Listeria monocytogenes. Based on the results, response surface methodology (RSM) was performed in the present work, the influence of food components like soybean protein (0-5.00%), sucrose (0.25-13.25%), bean oil (0-10.00%), and pH (4-10) of the food matrix on survival of L. monocytogenes by high pressure and mild heat was studied, and a quadratic predictive model for the influence of food components and pH of food matrix on L. monocytogenes reduction by high pressure and mild heat was built with RSM accurately. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of L. monocytogenes reduction in milk buffer and food matrix designed in the present work, under the HPP treatment process parameters described above, were different. The soybean protein (P=0.0086), sucrose (P<0.0001), and pH (P=0.0136) significantly affected reduction of L. monocytogenes, but the effect of bean oil on reduction of L. monocytogenes was not significant (P=0.1028). The predictive model is significant since the level of significance was P<0.0001 and the calculated F value (11.53) is much greater than the tabulated F value (F(0.01 (14, 5))=9.77). Moreover, the adequacy of the predictive model equation for predicting the level of L. monocytogenes reduction was verified effectively by the validation data.

  7. EXTREME CONDITIONS IN A CLOSE ANALOG TO THE YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM: HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF ε ERIDANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, J. S. [SUPA, Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, B.; Holland, W. S. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Acke, B.; Vandenbussche, B.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pantin, E. E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif- sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Olofsson, G.; Brandeker, A.; De Vries, B. L. [Stockholm University Astrobiology Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dominik, C. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Bendo, G. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA SCO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 763 0355, Santiago (Chile); Di Francesco, J. [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Programs, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Fridlund, M. [ESA, SRE-SA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Harvey, P. M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: jsg5@st-andrews.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-08-10

    Far-infrared Herschel images of the ε Eridani system, seen at a fifth of the Sun's present age, resolve two belts of debris emission. Fits to the 160 μm PACS image yield radial spans for these belts of 12-16 and 54-68 AU. The south end of the outer belt is ≈10% brighter than the north end in the PACS+SPIRE images at 160, 250, and 350 μm, indicating a pericenter glow attributable to a planet ''c''. From this asymmetry and an upper bound on the offset of the belt center, this second planet should be mildly eccentric (e{sub c} ≈ 0.03-0.3). Compared to the asteroid and Kuiper Belts of the young Sun, the ε Eri belts are intermediate in brightness and more similar to each other, with up to 20 km sized collisional fragments in the inner belt totaling ≈5% of an Earth mass. This reservoir may feed the hot dust close to the star and could send many impactors through the Habitable Zone, especially if it is being perturbed by the suspected planet ε Eri b, at semi-major axis ≈3 AU.

  8. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  9. ATR-FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopic Studies of Aqueous U(IV)-oxalate Complexes under Mild Acidic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wansik; Jung, Euo Chang; Cho, Hyeryun; Park, Yangsoon; Ha, Yeongkeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The redox transformation process between U(VI) and U(IV) likely involves the participation of soluble or dissolved U(IV) species, such as U(IV)-hydroxo compounds and organic/inorganic ligand complexes. However, their role in the redox process has not been well documented, partly due to the ready oxidation of soluble U(IV) species, and partly due to the assumption that soluble or dissolved forms of U(IV) account for only a minor fraction of uranium in groundwater systems. In this study, a bidentate chelate ligand, oxalate (Ox) was selected to examine the complexation behaviors of U(IV) and ultimately its impact on the U(IV) solubility in mildly acidic solutions. Although some early studies reported that oxalate and pyrophosphate, i. e., multivalent anions, can form soluble U(IV) complexes, the related thermodynamic data and evidences for chemical speciation are very scarce. In our previous work, the U(IV)-Ox 1:1 complex was identified by monitoring the gradual transition of the characteristic absorption spectrum of U(OH){sup 3+} to that of UOx{sup 2+} upon the addition of oxalate at pH 1.6.2.0. This work aims to further provide spectroscopic evidence for the formation of multi-ligand complexes, i. e., U(Ox)n{sup 4-2n} (n ≥ 2) at pH 2-5 using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)- FTIR spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The solid phase of U(IV)-Ox complex system was also characterized through an XRD analysis. Analysis of the FTIR spectra is found to be useful to determine the complexation stoichiometry and to obtain the structural information of the complexes. The outcome of the spectroscopic analysis for the multi-ligand complexation equilibria will be discussed in detail.

  10. Guiding functional connectivity estimation by structural connectivity in MEG: an application to discrimination of conditions of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Pardo, José Angel; Bruña, Ricardo; Woolrich, Mark; Marcos, Alberto; Nobre, Anna C; Maestú, Fernando; Vidaurre, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups.

  11. Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-10-01

    The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at extreme temperatures and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-temperature high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at temperatures to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.

  12. How light modifies the electron–electron interaction under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A., E-mail: hervieux@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, CNRS and Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-10-02

    In the domain of extreme light–matter interactions, we show that the electron–electron interaction can be modified coherently by the electric field of the light. The latter play the role of a third partner not only acting on the electrons individually but also on their mutual interaction. By using an original formalism based on the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation and applied to the Dirac–Breit Hamiltonian in the presence of a time-dependent electromagnetic field, we obtain analytical expressions of new three-body light–matter interactions. - Highlights: • A time-dependent electromagnetic field can modify the electronic interaction. • Analytical expressions of this three-body light matter interactions are presented. • Effects can be evaluated with the amplitude of the laser and electronic distance.

  13. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  14. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  16. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  17. Extremal properties of conditional entropy and quantum discord for XXZ, symmetric quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the XXZ subclass of symmetric two-qubit X states, we study the behavior of quantum conditional entropy S_{cond} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2]. Numerical calculations show that the function S_{cond}(θ ) for X states can have at most one local extremum in the open interval from zero to π /2 (unimodality property). If the extremum is a minimum, the quantum discord displays region with variable (state-dependent) optimal measurement angle θ ^*. Such θ -regions (phases, fractions) are very tiny in the space of X-state parameters. We also discover the cases when the conditional entropy has a local maximum inside the interval (0,π /2). It is remarkable that the maxima exist in surprisingly wide regions, and the boundaries for such regions are defined by the same bifurcation conditions as for those with a minimum.

  18. Aggregation prone amyloid-β⋅CuII Species formed on the millisecond timescale at mildly acidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Trudslev; Borg, Christian Bernsen; Michaels, Thomas C. T.

    2015-01-01

    conditions, by using stopped-flow kinetic measurements (fluorescence and light-scattering), 1H NMR relaxation and ThT fluorescence. A minimal reaction model that relates the initial CuII binding and Aβ folding with downstream aggregation is presented. We demonstrate that a highly aggregation prone Aβ...

  19. Observations and Predictions of Wave Runup, Extreme Water Levels, and Medium-Term Dune Erosion during Storm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Suanez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France over the past decade (2004–2014 has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i astronomic tide; (ii storm surge; and (iii vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide water level—HTWL data sets obtained from high frequency field surveys. The aim was to quantify in-situ environmental conditions and dimensional swash parameters for the best calibration of Battjes [1] runup formula. In addition, an empirical equation based on observed tidal water level and offshore wave height was produced to estimate extreme water levels over the whole period of dune morphological change monitoring. A good correlation between this empirical equation (1.01Hmoξo and field runup measurements (Rmax was obtained (R2 85%. The goodness of fit given by the RMSE was about 0.29 m. A good relationship was noticed between dune erosion and high water levels when the water levels exceeded the dune foot elevation. In contrast, when extreme water levels were below the height of the toe of the dune sediment budget increased, inducing foredune recovery. These erosion and accretion phases may be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

  20. Unusual salinity conditions in the Yangtze estuary in 2006: impacts of an extreme drought or of the Three Gorges Dam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhijun; Chu, Ao; Stive, Marcel; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yan, Hong

    2011-07-01

    During the extreme dry year of 2006, abnormal salinity conditions in the Changjiang Estuary of the Yangtze River occurred in partial coincidence with the second impoundment phase of the TGD (Three Gorges Dam). Analysis of discharge observations in the upper reaches of the estuary and of salinity observations in the estuary as a whole reveals that in 2006 salinity was over 100 mg/l during 275 days, over 250 mg/l during 75 days and over 400 mg/l during 48 days. It is well known that this is due to extreme low discharges from the upper catchment area into the estuary. Moreover, large amounts of water consumed along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can also aggravate the low discharges that lead to stronger saltwater intrusion in the estuary. Of the 75 days that salinity was over 250 mg/l, the low discharge was decreased further by 10 to 20% due to water consumption. The additional impact of the impoundment phase of the TGD (lasting 37 days in autumn) was noticeable only during 7 days in 2006. During that period, the relative contributions of the TGD and the water consumption in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River amounted to 70 and 30%, respectively. It may be concluded that the impact of the second impoundment phase of the TGD on salinity intrusion in the estuary was modest, while the extreme drought of 2006 was the dominant cause.

  1. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-10-18

    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  2. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  3. Surrounding rock deformation regularity of roadway under extremely complicated geological conditions in deep mine and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长友; 何卓军; 万志军

    2003-01-01

    By combining the practices of deep mine mining in Changguang Mine field and using the Universal Distinct Element Code 3.0(UDEC3.0) numerical computing method, the distribution characteristics of deformation field and stress field as well as the surrounding rock deformation regularity of soft rock roadway are analyzed under extremely complicated geological conditions, a technical principle of bolting to control the surrounding rock of roadway is put forward. And also using a dynamic control for surrounding rocks designing method, the supporting parameters and implement plan are rationally determined. The experimental tests have obtained a good controlling result of surrounding rock.

  4. Mild oxidative stress induces redistribution of BACE1 in non-apoptotic conditions and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Tan

    Full Text Available BACE1 is responsible for β-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, which represents the first step in the production of amyloid β (Aβ peptides. Previous reports, by us and others, have indicated that the levels of BACE1 protein and activity are increased in the brain cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. The association between oxidative stress (OS and AD has prompted investigations that support the potentiation of BACE1 expression and enzymatic activity by OS. Here, we have established conditions to analyse the effects of mild, non-lethal OS on BACE1 in primary neuronal cultures, independently from apoptotic mechanisms that were shown to impair BACE1 turnover. Six-hour treatment of mouse primary cortical cells with 10-40 µM hydrogen peroxide did not significantly compromise cell viability but it did produce mild oxidative stress (mOS, as shown by the increased levels of reactive radical species and activation of p38 stress kinase. The endogenous levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein were not significantly altered in these conditions, whereas a toxic H2O2 concentration (100 µM caused an increase in BACE1 protein levels. Notably, mOS conditions resulted in increased levels of the BACE1 C-terminal cleavage product of APP, β-CTF. Subcellular fractionation techniques showed that mOS caused a major rearrangement of BACE1 localization from light to denser fractions, resulting in an increased distribution of BACE1 in fractions containing APP and markers for trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that mOS does not modify BACE1 expression but alters BACE1 subcellular compartmentalization to favour the amyloidogenic processing of APP, and thus offer new insight in the early molecular events of AD pathogenesis.

  5. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  6. Penetration Depth Measurements Using a Tunnel Diode Oscillator in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Charles C.

    2004-03-01

    The tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) has been used as a tool in condensed matter physics for over 30 years. We will discuss the application of the TDO to measure rf penetration depth in small metallic and superconducting samples in the range of 10 -1500 MHz. Our technique involves placing a sample in or on the inductor of a self-resonant tank circuit powered by a tunnel diode, and measuring the impedance of the sample by recording the frequency and amplitude shift as a function of magnetic field or temperature. This technique is very sensitive to the properties of the electrons in a sample, does not require contacts on a sample, can be used for arbitrarily small samples, is very compatible with pulsed magnetic fields, and works well in pressure cells. We will begin by giving a brief history of the TDO in condensed matter physics. We will describe the electronic theory of the TDO showing the important parameters necessary to keep the circuit stable and oscillating in different venues such as very low temperatures and pulsed magnetic fields. We will also describe some of the trade offs between stability and sensitivity in these extreme environments. We will then discuss how to interpret the data produced by the TDO, concentrating on the description of rf penetration in metallic and type II superconducting samples. Finally, as examples of the power of this TDO method, we will show Fermi surface measurements, type II superconducting phase diagrams, including details of the vortex system, and very recent results showing evidence of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Support for this project has come from the NHMFL and the NSF

  7. Copper-catalyzed direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via C-H bond activation under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongwei; Yi, Meiling; Wei, Donghui; Chen, Xuan; Wu, Yangjie; Cui, Xiuling

    2014-04-04

    A highly efficient and concise one-pot strategy for the direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative C-N coupling has been developed. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields for 22 examples starting from the parent aliphatic amines. This methodology provides a practical pathway to 2-aminoquinolines and features a simple system, high efficiency, environmental friendliness, low reaction temperature, and ligand, additives, base, and external oxidant free conditions.

  8. N-Bromosuccinimide Catalyzed One-pot and Rapid Synthesis of Acetamidobenzyl Naphthols under Mild and Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHATERIAN Hamid Reza; YARAHMADI Hossein; GHASHANG Majid; SAFARI MEHMANDOSTI Moharram

    2008-01-01

    An efficient,facile and expeditious direct protocol for the preparation of acetamidobenzyl naphthols employing a multi-component and one-pot condensation reaction of 2-naphthoi,benzaldehydes,and acetamide in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide(NBS)under thermal and microwave irradiation conditions has been described.The present protocol with NBS catalyst is convincingly superior to the recently reported catalytic methods.

  9. Transformation and accumulation of PAH and bound residues in soil under extreme conditions - a risk assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The degradation of PAH in contaminated soil does not proceed completely in the majority of cases. However microorganisms which are able to degrade PAH are present in PAH-contaminated soils normally. A total degradation of PAH in contaminated soils is often limited by a lack of bioavailability, which results from a lack of mass transfer. The analytical depletion of contaminants in soil is not only based on degradation processes but also on a fixation or immobilization of the xenobiotic substances as stronger adsorbed to or bound residues in the soil matrix. These bound residues were verified by using 14C-labelled PAH in different soil samples. To evaluate the long term fate of theses PAH-residues the stability and transformation of 14C-labelled non-extractable PAH-residues was investigated in detail under different extreme ecological and climate conditions such as biological stress, freezing and thawing cycles, and chemical worst case conditions. The transformation and remobilization of non-extractable PAH-residues was observed in long-time experiments and was very limited in general (Eschenbach et al. 2001). Only small amounts of non extractable residues were transformed and converted to CO2 and thereby detoxified. However the treatment with a complexing agent led to an increase of extractable 14C-activity. In a further set of experiments the long term risk of a groundwater contamination was assessed. Therefore the elution rate of 14C-PAH was investigated by a routinely usable column test system. It was found that the PAH elution was not solely controlled by desorption processes. The extractable PAH concentrations and elution rates were affected by the mineralization and formation of bound residues as well. For the assessment of the maximum PAH release rate the soil material was treated by extreme and worst case conditions as well. The impact of the elution of bidestillated water, of repeated freeze-thaw cycles and a simulation of acidic rain was investigated. The

  10. EFFECTS OF EXTREME AND UNUSUAL CONDITIONS ON LANA ALLOYS: INTERIM REPORT, FY14 (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Kirk L.

    2014-04-25

    The TTP proposed research aimed at determining: a) the rate at which these changes occurred and the effect of initial conditions, especially in the early phases of Hydrogen Heat Treatment (HHT), b) whether or not different LANA alloys would show similar effects, and c) whether common contaminants/poisons impacted LANA alloy hydride chemistry similarly to what had been found for Pd and Pd-alloy hydride chemistry.

  11. Novel portable press for synchrotron time-resolved 3-D micro-imagining under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, J.; Le Godec, Y., E-mail: yann.legodec@impmc.upmc.fr; Bergame, F.; Morand, M. [IMPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mezouar, M.; Bauchau, S.; Alvarez-Murga, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Perrillat, J. P. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France); Bromiley, G.; Berg, M. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); King, A.; Guignot, N.; Itié, J. P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin France (France); Atwood, Robert [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Here we present the instrumental development to extend the synchrotron X-ray microtomography techniques to in situ studies under static compression (HP) or shear stress or the both conditions at high temperatures (HT). To achieve this, a new rotating tomography Paris-Edinburgh cell (rotoPEc) has been developed. This ultra-compact portable device, easily and successfully adapted to various multi-modal synchrotron experimental set-up at ESRF, SOLEIL and DIAMOND is explained in detail.

  12. MECHANICAL STRENGTH RESPONSES OF POLED LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE UNDER EXTREME ELECTRIC FIELD AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    PZT (lead zirconate titanate), particularly PZT-5A, is used in a variety of critical actuation and sensing systems because of its high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficients. However, PZT is susceptible to mechanical failure. The evaluation of the mechanical strength of the material under the target working conditions is very important. This study presents part of the recent experimental developments in mechanical testing and evaluation of PZT materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ball-on-ring and four-point bending testing setups were used, with modifications made to account for testing requirements from high-level electric field and elevated temperature. The poled PZT-5A or equivalent material was tested under various specimen and testing conditions. The parameters of the distribution of strengths (characteristic strength and Weibull modulus) are discussed in relation to the testing conditions. Fractographic results based on scanning electron microscopy are also presented and discussed. The related data can serve as input for the design of piezoceramic devices, not only those used in energy systems like fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines, but also those used in structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, and other critical systems in aerospace and civil engineering.

  13. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  14. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  15. Extreme hypoxic conditions induce selective molecular responses and metabolic reset in detached apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka eCukrov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1,000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These

  16. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  17. Role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on extreme climate conditions over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Delworth, Thomas; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies observed over many areas of the globe like droughts, decline in sea ice or changes in the atmospheric circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. We investigate the importance of model resolution by analyzing GFDL models that vary in their atmospheric resolution and we assess the robustness of the results by comparing them to similar experiments performed with the NCAR coupled model. Further, we investigate the influence of model surface temperature biases on the simulated AMV teleconnections using a flux-adjusted experiment based on a model configuration that corrects for momentum, enthalpy and freshwater fluxes. We focus in this presentation on the impact of the AMV on the occurrence of the North American heat waves. We find that the AMV modulates by about 30% the occurrence of heat waves over North Mexico and the South-West of USA, with more heat waves during a warm phase of the AMV. The main reason for such an increase is that, during a warm AMV phase, the anomalously warm sea surface temperature leads to an increase of the atmospheric convection over the tropical Atlantic, as well as to a an anomalous downward motion over North America. This atmospheric response to AMV inhibits the precipitation over there and drives a deficit of soil moisture. In the summer, the latent heat of

  18. FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF INTERN DOCTORS WITH DIFFERENT SUCCESS LEVEL ACTIVITY IN EXTREME CONDITIONS IN THE COURSE OF DAILY DUTY IN CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Madzigon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of daily duty in clinic, the indeces of functional status, functional reserve of organism and mnestic (operator’s performance ability of intern doctors with different success level activity in extreme conditions were determined twice (in the beginning and at the end of the duty. It is shown that the higher success level activity in extreme conditions of interns, the more tolerance and strength of their body functional system formed in work process and it means the higher professional activity performance. Intern graduates activity preparation in extreme conditions is one of activities of Medical Institutions of Higher Education quality improvement

  19. Explosive Chemistry: Simulating the Chemistry of Energetic Materials at Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, E J; Manaa, M R; Fried, L E

    2003-11-18

    In the brief instant of a high-explosive detonation, the shock wave produces a pressure 500,000 times that of the Earth's atmosphere, the detonation wave travels as fast as 10 kilometers per second, and internal temperatures soar up to 5,500 Kelvin. As the shock propagates through the energetic material, the rapid heating coupled with compression that results in almost 30% volume reduction, initiate complex chemical reactions. A dense, highly reactive supercritical fluid is established behind the propagating detonation front. Energy release from the exothermic chemical reactions serve in turn to drive and sustain the detonation process until complete reactivity is reached. Several experimental results suggest the existence of strong correlations between the applied mechanical stress and shocks, the local heterogeneity and defects (dislocations, vacancies, cracks, impurities, etc.), and the onset of chemical reactions. The reaction chemistry of energetic materials at high pressure and temperature is, therefore, of considerable importance in understanding processes that these materials experience under impact and detonation conditions. Chemical decomposition models are critical ingredients in order to predict, among other things, the measured times to explosion and the conditions for ignition of hot spots, localized regions of highly concentrated energy associated with defects. To date, chemical kinetic rates of condense-phase energetic materials at detonation conditions are virtually non-existent, and basic questions such as: (a) which bond in a given energetic molecule breaks first, and (b) what type of chemical reactions (unimolecular versus bimolecular, etc.) that dominate early in the decomposition process, are still largely unknown.

  20. SIPEX 2012: Extreme sea-ice and atmospheric conditions off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, P.; Stammerjohn, S.; Reid, P.; Massom, R. A.; Hutchings, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, Antarctic sea-ice coverage was marked by weak annual-mean climate anomalies that consisted of opposing anomalies early and late in the year (some setting new records) which were interspersed by near-average conditions for most of the austral autumn and winter. Here, we investigate the ocean-ice-atmosphere system off East Antarctica, prior to and during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment [SIPEX] 2012, by exploring relationships between atmospheric and oceanic forcing together with the sea-ice and snow characteristics. During August and September 2012, just prior to SIPEX 2012, atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean was near-average, setting up the ocean-ice-atmosphere system for near-average conditions. However, below-average surface pressure and temperature as well as strengthened circumpolar winds prevailed during June and July 2012. This led to a new record (19.48×106 km2) in maximum Antarctic sea-ice extent recorded in late September. In contrast to the weak circum-Antarctic conditions, the East Antarctic sector (including the SIPEX 2012 region) experienced positive sea-ice extent and concentration anomalies during most of 2012, coincident with negative atmospheric pressure and sea-surface temperature anomalies. Heavily deformed sea ice appeared to be associated with intensified wind stress due to increased cyclonicity as well as an increased influx of sea ice from the east. This increased westward ice flux is likely linked to the break-up of nearly 80% of the Mertz Glacier Tongue in 2010, which strongly modified the coastal configuration and hence the width of the westward coastal current. Combined with favourable atmospheric conditions the associated changed coastal configuration allowed more sea ice to remain within the coastal current at the expense of a reduced northward flow in the region around 141°-145°E. In addition a westward propagating positive anomaly of sea-ice extent from the western Ross Sea during austral winter

  1. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D;

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translation...... in the catalytic efficiency of serine attachment to tRNA, but had no effect on the activity of MtArgRS. Further, the most pronounced improvements in the aminoacylation activity of MtSerRS induced by MtArgRS were observed under conditions of elevated temperature and osmolarity. These data indicate that formation...

  2. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Schlautman, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, Heino [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  3. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  4. A New Force-Matched Reactive Force Field for Bulk Water Under Extreme Thermodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Laurence; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    A many-body classical force field is presented for water under dissociative thermodynamic conditions. The force field is optimized by force-matching to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The force field contains short-ranged central and many-body over-coordination terms, and long-range Ewald electrostatics. It is optimized and tested on water at density 1.5 g/mL and 2000 K, which is approximately 10% dissociated according to DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce DFT radial distribution functions, as well as the distribution of wat and dissociation products. The calculated atomic self-diffusion constants appear about 50% lower than in DFT, although precise comparison is impossible due to the short timescale accessible to AIMD (about 20 ps). The force field is also compared to ReaxFF using the CHO parameter set of Chenowith et al. ReaxFF structural and dynamical properties are in overall fair agreement with DFT, although ReaxFF water is not dissociative at these conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Synchrotron Radiation and High Pressure: New Light on Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Current technological advances now make it possible to perform experiments on materials subjected to static or sustained conditions up to multimegabar pressures (>300 GPa) and from cryogenic temperatures to several thousand degrees (˜0.5 eV range). With these techniques, densities of condensed matter can be increased over an order of magnitude, causing numerous transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area largely been made possible by accelerating developments in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with new synchrotron radiation techniques. Significant advances have occurred in x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy. With recent developments, structure refinements based on polycrystalline data up to multimegabar pressures have been possible. Single-crystal methods have been extended to megabar pressure, with the prospect of full crystallographic refinements. `Three- dimensional' diffraction data can be collected for determining strength, deformation, and elastic tensors at high P-T conditions. Studies carried out during the past three years provide numerous breakthroughs in high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy and a broad range of inelastic scattering methods. Other experiments have exploited the use of x-ray radiography over a range of pressures. Finally, synchrotron infrared measurements have revealed a wealth of high-pressure phenomena, particularly for molecular systems. Examples to be discussed include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials.

  6. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  7. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  8. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schenten

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(DJ recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station.

  9. Cumene Liquid Oxidation to Cumene Hydroperoxide over CuO Nanoparticle with Molecular Oxygen under Mild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiying Zhang; Lefu Wang; Hongbing Ji; Bing Wu; Xiaoping Zeng

    2007-01-01

    CuO nanoparticle was synthesized via wet chemical method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic oxidation of cumene with molecular oxygen was studied over CuO nanoparticle. The catalysts showed markedly higher activities as compared to CuO prepared by conventional method, CUO/AI2O3, or homogeneous copper catalyst under comparable reaction conditions. The cumene conversion, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) yield, and selectivity using 0.25 g CuO nanoparticle catalyst and 0.1 mol cumene at 358 K for 7 h were 44.2%, 41.2% and 93.2%, respectively. The catalyst can be recycled. After 6 recycled experiments, no loss of catalytic activity was observed.

  10. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    A special place in the reconstruction of climate dynamics takes an analysis of extraordinary meteorological phenomena. These extreme weather events in the first place impact the functioning of, the rhythm and dynamics of the landscapes and determine not only the features of economy, but also certain aspects of historical development. In the analysis of primary chronicles and published data, along with the direct climatic characteristics (hot, warm, cold, wet, dry, etc.) a lot of attention was paid to abnormal (extreme) natural phenomena and indirect indications of climate variability (floods, crop failures, hunger years, epidemics, etc.). As a result, tables were compiled reflecting climatic basic characteristics and extremes for each year since 900 BC. X-XI centuries was a period of minor climatic optimum - the climate was warmer and drier than the modern one. In addition to higher temperatures (up to 1-3C above than mordern), during this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfall has led to a reduction in the number of small water reservoirs and flooding rivers. This is evidenced by Slavic settlements on floodplains of a number of rivers in the Moscow region. It is in this favorable climatic time the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks" was open. Catastrophic natural events had a minimum repeatability. For example, during the X century the Russian chronicles mentioned 41 extreme event, but for the XIII century - 102. Most of the villages and towns were located on the low floodplain terraces of rivers. The main farmland was concentrated there as well. In the "period of contrasts" (XIII - XIV centuries) there was an increase of intra-seasonal climate variability, humidity and widespread reduction in summer temperatures by 1-2C. The number of extreme weather events increased: cold prolonged winters, long rains in summers, cold weather returns in the early summer, early frosts in late summer - early autumn. Such conditions often

  11. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Pineda De Castro

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow.

  12. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda De Castro, Luis Felipe; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures) such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow. PMID:27167213

  13. Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K J; Gihring, T M; Banfield, J F

    1999-08-01

    Microbial populations, their distributions, and their aquatic environments were studied over a year (1997) at an acid mine drainage (AMD) site at Iron Mountain, Calif. Populations were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridizations with group-specific probes. Probes were used for the domains Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and the two species most widely studied and implicated for their role in AMD production, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Results show that microbial populations, in relative proportions and absolute numbers, vary spatially and seasonally and correlate with geochemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature, conductivity, and rainfall). Bacterial populations were in the highest proportion (>95%) in January. Conversely, archaeal populations were in the highest proportion in July and September ( approximately 50%) and were virtually absent in the winter. Bacterial and archaeal populations correlated with conductivity and rainfall. High concentrations of dissolved solids, as reflected by high conductivity values (up to 125 mS/cm), occurred in the summer and correlated with high archaeal populations and proportionally lower bacterial populations. Eukaryotes were not detected in January, when total microbial cell numbers were lowest (numbers of prokaryotes (10(8) to 10(9) cells/ml). T. ferrooxidans was in highest abundance (>30%) at moderate pHs and temperatures ( approximately 2.5 and 20 degrees C) in sites that were peripheral to primary acid-generating sites and lowest (0 to 5%) at low-pH sites (pH approximately 0.5) that were in contact with the ore body. L. ferrooxidans was more widely distributed with respect to geochemical conditions (pH = 0 to 3; 20 to 50 degrees C) but was more abundant at higher temperatures and lower pHs ( approximately 40 degrees C; pH approximately 0.5) than T. ferrooxidans.

  14. Non-heme manganese catalysts for on-demand production of chlorine dioxide in water and under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Scott D; Kim, Doyeon; Xiong, Silei; Medvedev, Grigori A; Caruthers, James; Hong, Seungwoo; Nam, Wonwoo; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2014-03-05

    Two non-heme manganese complexes are used in the catalytic formation of chlorine dioxide from chlorite under ambient temperature at pH 5.00. The catalysts afford up to 1000 turnovers per hour and remain highly active in subsequent additions of chlorite. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies revealed a Mn(III)(OH) species as the dominant form under catalytic conditions. A Mn(III)(μ-O)Mn(IV) dinuclear species was observed by EPR spectroscopy, supporting the involvement of a putative Mn(IV)(O) species. First-order kinetic dependence on the manganese catalyst precludes the dinuclear species as the active form of the catalyst. Quantitative kinetic modeling enabled the deduction of a mechanism that accounts for all experimental observations. The chlorine dioxide producing cycle involves formation of a putative Mn(IV)(O), which undergoes PCET (proton coupled electron-transfer) reaction with chlorite to afford chlorine dioxide. The ClO2 product can be efficiently removed from the aqueous reaction mixture via purging with an inert gas, allowing for the preparation of pure chlorine dioxide for on-site use and further production of chlorine dioxide.

  15. Controlling thermo-reversibility of gelatin gels through a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction under mild conditions for mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Moriyama, Kousuke; Kawakami, Koei

    2011-01-01

    A variety of cross-linking methods is used for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition at physiological temperature. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed cross-linking of tyrosine residues originally contained in native gelatin molecules for preparing such gelatin gels. The gelatin gels obtained through exposure to the enzymatic reaction showed a higher resistance to thermo-reversibility at 37°C than gels obtained through a thermally-induced gelation alone. In addition, the resistance property to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition was tunable by controlling enzymatic reaction conditions: higher peroxidase concentration and thermally-induced pre-gelation accomplished by cooling the gelatin solution prior to the enzymatic reaction produced gels with higher resistance to thermo-reversibility. Fibroblast cells enclosed in the gelatin gels obtained through the enzymatic reaction with thermally-induced pre-gelation showed 93% viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of peroxidase-catalyzed reaction for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-to-sol transition at physiological temperature toward applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields.

  16. Homogenous UV/periodate process in treatment of p-nitrophenol aqueous solutions under mild operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saien, Javad; Bazkiaei, Marzieh Fallah Vahed

    2017-06-20

    Aqueous solutions of p-nitrophenol (PNP) were treated with UV-activated potassium periodate (UV/KPI) in an efficient photo-reactor. Either periodate or UV alone had little effect; however, their combination led to a significant degradation and mineralization. The response surface methodology was employed for design of experiments and optimization. The optimum conditions for treatment of 30 mg/L of the substrate were determined as [KPI] = 386.3 mg/L, pH = 6.2 and T = 34.6°C, under which 79.5% degradation was achieved after 60 min. Use of 25 and 40 kHz ultrasound waves caused the degradation to enhance to 88.3% and 92.3%, respectively. The intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis, leading to propose the reaction pathway. The presence of water conventional bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and nitrate anions caused unfavorable effects in efficiency. Meanwhile, the kinetic study showed that PNP degradation follows a pseudo-first-order reaction and the activation energy was determined. The irradiation energy consumption required for one order of magnitude degradation was estimated as 11.18 kWh/m(3). Accordingly, comparison with the previously reported processes showed the superiority of PNP treatment with the employed process.

  17. Embedded optical probes for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement of materials in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, R. L.; Rodriguez, G.; Gibson, L. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Grover, M.; Lalone, B. M.; Udd, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop sensors for simultaneous, in situ pressure and temperature measurements under dynamic conditions by using an all-optical fiber-based approach. While similar tests have been done previously in deflagration-to-detonation tests (DDT), where pressure and temperature were measured to 82 kbar and 400°C simultaneously, here we demonstrate the use of embedded fiber grating sensors to obtain high temporal resolution, in situ pressure measurements in inert materials. We present two experimental demonstrations of pressure measurements: (1) under precise shock loading from a gas-gun driven plate impact and (2) under high explosive driven shock in a water filled vessel. The system capitalizes on existing telecom components and fast transient digitizing recording technology. It operates as a relatively inexpensive embedded probe (single-mode 1550 nm fiber-based Bragg grating) that provides a continuous fast pressure record during shock and/or detonation. By applying well-controlled shock wave pressure profiles to these inert materials, we study the dynamic pressure response of embedded fiber Bragg gratings to extract pressure amplitude of the shock wave and compare our results with particle velocity wave profiles measured simultaneously.

  18. Energy efficiency and renewable energy under extreme conditions: Case studies from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Tina [Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, BP 80358, 45163 Olivet, CEDEX 3 (France); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blake, David [British Antarctic Survey (United Kingdom); Magill, Peter [Australian Antarctic Division (Australia); El Naggar, Saad [Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany); Lidstrom, Sven [Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden); Ishizawa, Kenji [National Institute of Polar Research (Japan); Berte, Johan [International Polar Foundation (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    This article showcases a range of small and large scale energy efficiency and renewable energy deployments at Antarctic research stations and field camps. Due to the cold and harsh environment, significant amounts of fuel are needed to support humans working and living in Antarctica. The purchase, transportation and storage of large amounts of fossil fuel entail significant economic costs and environmental risks and have motivated developments in energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment. Over the past three decades, improved building design, behavioral change, cogeneration, solar collectors, solar panels and wind turbines have been found to be effective in Antarctica, demonstrating that harsh environmental conditions and technological barriers do not have to limit the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The ambition to run entire stations or field camps on 100% renewable energy is increasingly common and feasible. While the power requirements of Antarctic research stations are small compared to urban installations on other continents, these case studies clearly demonstrate that if energy efficiency and renewable energy can be deployed widely on the coldest, darkest and most remote continent of the world, their deployment should be more widespread and encouraged on other continents. (author)

  19. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum and the chromomagnetic trap formation under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelko, Sergei N.; Voronin, Vladimir E. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    The ensemble of Euclidean gluon field configurations represented by the domain wall network is considered. A single domain wall is given by the sine-Gordon kink for the angle between chromomagnetic and chromoelectric components of the gauge field. The domain wall separates the regions with Abelian self-dual and anti-self-dual fields. The network of the domain wall defects is introduced as a combination of multiplicative and additive superpositions of kinks. The character of the spectrum and eigenmodes of color-charged fluctuations in the presence of the domain wall network is discussed. Conditions for the formation of a stable thick domain wall junction (the chromomagnetic trap) during heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and the spectrum of color-charged quasi-particles inside the trap is evaluated. An important observation is the existence of the critical size L{sub c} of a single trap stable against gluon tachyonic modes. The size L{sub c} is related to the value of gluon condensate left angle g{sup 2} F{sup 2} right angle. The growth of large lumps of merged chromomagnetic traps and the concept of the confinement-deconfinement transition in terms of the ensemble of domain wall networks are outlined. (orig.)

  20. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  1. First-Principles Investigations on Thermal Conductivity and Average Ionization of CH Ablators Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    A plastic CH ablator (polystyrene) is often used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs. Upon intense laser or x-ray ablations, a CH ablator can be shocked to warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions. Many-body coupling and quantum electron degeneracy are expected to play an essential role in determining the properties of such warm dense plasmas. Using ab initio methods of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we have performed investigations on the principal Hugoniot of a CH ablator, the first-principles equation-of-state table of CH, and its effect on ICF simulations. In this presentation, we focus on the thermal conductivity and average ionization of CH-ablators under a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. The resulting thermal conductivity (κ) and average ionization () show large differences from the usual model predictions in the WDM regime. These results, being fitted with analytical functions of plasma density and temperature, have been incorporated into radiation -hydrodynamics codes. Their effects on the ICF implosion simulations will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Scientific Campaign 10 at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels.

  3. Men in extreme conditions: some medical and psychological aspects of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil-Weiss, T

    1983-08-01

    The second world war ended many years ago. Most of those who survived the stay at the German concentration camp at Auschwitz have already died of the consequences of their imprisonment; those still alive are already in the last third of their life. Is there any point in returning to the experiences of those days? Consideration of the mental hygiene of former prisoners cautions us that perhaps we should not do it. But consideration of the general interest holds that we are not entitled to ignore any knowledge that can contribute to social development--including medicine and psychology--even if acquired under unspeakably awful conditions. In addition, since the war new generations have grown up that play an increasingly significant role in various spheres of life but have little concrete information about those events; they can neither rationally nor emotionally understand how the horrors connected with fascism and the war could have happened. In a sense it is encouraging that they cannot grasp such inhuman behavior; nevertheless, we must adhere to the following motto: "Nothing must be forgotten, nobody will be forgotten." We owe it to those millions who did not survive--both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it. These are arguments in favor of returning to the facts that are ineffaceably recorded somewhere in our memories. In doing so, however, we must remember that at times we are revisiting experiences of a boy of 14 as recalled by a 50-year-old man. The material below, examining the medical as well as psychological aspects of imprisonment at Auschwitz, is based on my own memories, as an adolescent imprisoned at Auschwitz. I have tried to move from this individual account to more general statements, although the methodological apparatus on which scientific analysis is usually based is absent.

  4. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  5. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  6. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  7. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  8. Morphological variations of wild populations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) living in extreme environmental conditions in the Kenyan Rift-Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, T.C.; Nyingi, D. W.; Claude, J.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use geometric morphometric method to establish morphological differences between natural populations of Nile tilapia from two extreme environmental conditions (high temperature and salinity) in Kenya, and compare them to two populations from regions experiencing less extreme conditions. To determine genetic influence on morphology, we correlated genetic data with morphological data. The study observed significant morphological differences between all studied populations, inc...

  9. Kinetics of Materials at Extreme Conditions: Understanding the Time Dependent Approach to Equilibrium at MaRIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mcnabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eggert, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerreta, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dattelbaum, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greeff, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolken, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The National Nuclear Security Agency has recently recognized that a long-term need exists to establish a stronger scientific basis for the assessment and qualification of materials and manufacturing processes for the nuclear stockpile and other national security applications. These materials may have undergone substantial changes with age, or may represent new materials that are being introduced because of difficulties associated with reusing or recreating materials used in original stockpile components. Also, with advancements in manufacturing methods, the NNSA anticipates opportunities for an enhanced range of control over fabricated components, an enhanced pace of materials development, and enhanced functionality. The development of qualification standards for these new materials will require the ability to understand and control material characteristics that affect both mechanical and dynamic performance. A unique aspect for NNSA is that the performance requirements for materials are often set by system hydrodynamics, and these materials must perform in extreme environments and loading conditions. Thus, the scientific motivation is to understand “Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE).”

  10. Extreme storm surges in the south of Brazil: atmospheric conditions and shore erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Klose Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The region under study is regularly subject to the occurrence of storms associated with frontal systems and extratropical cyclones, since it is located near one of the cyclogenetic regions in South America. These storms can generate storm surges that cause anomalous high sea level rises on Cassino Beach. The use of reanalysis data along with an efficient technique for the location of the cyclone, using a vorticity threshold, has provided a new classification based upon the trajectories of events that produce positive sea level variation. Three patterns have been identified: 1 Cyclogenesis to the south of Argentina with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 47.5ºS and 57.5ºS; 2 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 35ºS and 42.5ºS; and 3 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the southeast and a trajectory between 35ºS and 57.5ºS. Maximum water level elevation above the mean sea level and beach erosion were associated, respectively, with winter and summer storms. Cassino beach displayed a seasonal morphological behavior, with short periods of episodic erosion associated with winter storm events followed by long periods of accretion characterized by the dominance of fair weather conditions.Marés meteorológicas que geram sobre-elevações do nível do mar são freqüentes na costa do Rio Grande do Sul e respondem às variações ocorridas na atmosfera. Torna-se importante, dessa maneira, definir padrões meteorológicos sinóticos responsáveis por gerar eventos de marés meteorológicas intensas na Praia do Cassino como objetivo desse trabalho. O uso de dados de reanálise associados a uma técnica eficiente de localização do ciclone, aplicando o conceito de vorticidade, permitiu definir uma nova classificação com base na trajetória de ciclones extratropicais responsáveis pela subida do nível do mar. Três padrões de trajetórias foram

  11. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Lee, H. J.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); White, T.; Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Wei, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 87544 (United States); Zastrau, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute for Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  12. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    , but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.......European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...... beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...

  13. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been...... lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after...... or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may...

  14. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory,an effective exchange field associated with the Dy-Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets.

  15. Imaging Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction) are numerous, and we...Caltech were reported in Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction

  16. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success of the mission. References: [1] A. Maslow (1943) Theory of Human Motivation [2] J. Stuster (1996) Bold Endeavors, Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration [3] Mars Society, Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

  17. Morphological changes to Escherichia coli O157:H7, commensal E. coli and Salmonella spp in response to marginal growth conditions, with special reference to mildly stressing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Karen L; Rowbury, Robin J; Humphrey, Tom J

    2003-01-01

    Certain rod-shaped bacteria have been reported to form elongated filamentous cells when exposed to marginal growth conditions, including refrigeration temperatures. To expand upon these observations, the filamentation of commensal Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp was investigated, following exposure to certain, mildly stressing, levels of temperature, pH or water activity (aw), with levels of cellular protein being monitored during cell elongation, in some experiments. Our studies indicated that cellular filamentation could be demonstrated in all 15 strains of the above organisms tested, following exposure to marginal conditions achieved by incubation at high or low temperatures, high or low pH values and low aw. The level of environmental stress causing filamentation tended to be specific to the particular organisms. For example, Salmonella spp formed filamentous cells at 44 degrees C, whereas E. coli strains, including O157, grew by binary fission at that temperature, but formed filamentous cells at 46 degrees C. In addition, plate count techniques to enumerate bacteria during filamentation, failed to reflect the increase in cell biomass that was occurring, whereas measurements of protein concentration demonstrated the increase quite strikingly. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the ability of food-borne pathogens to cause disease, since the infectious dose of a microorganism implicated in an outbreak of such disease is typically determined by a viable count method, which could underestimate the number of potential infectious units present in a food that had been stored in such a way as to provide marginal growth conditions.

  18. Extreme thermodynamic conditions: novel stoichiometries, violations of textbook chemistry, and intriguing possibilities for the synthesis of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios

    As evidenced by numerous experimental and theoretical studies, application of high pressure can dramatically modify the atomic arrangement and electronic structures of both elements and compounds. However, the great majority of research has been focused on the effect of pressure on compounds with constant stoichiometries (typically those stable under ambient conditions). Recent theoretical predictions, using advanced search algorithms, suggest that composition is another important variable in the search for stable compounds, i.e. that the more stable stoichiometry at elevated pressures is not a priory the same as that at ambient pressure. Indeed, thermodynamically stable compounds with novel compositions were theoretically predicted and experimentally verified even in relatively simple chemical systems including: Na-Cl, C-N, Li-H, Na-H, Cs-N, H-N, Na-He, Xe-Fe. These materials are stable due to the formation of novel chemical bonds that are absent, or even forbidden, at ambient conditions. Tuning the composition of the system thus represents another important, but poorly explored approach to the synthesis of novel materials. By varying the stoichiometry one can design novel materials with enhanced properties (e.g. high energy density, hardness, superconductivity etc.), that are metastable at ambient conditions and synthesized at thermodynamic conditions less extreme than that those required for known stoichiometries. Moreover, current outstanding questions, ``anomalies'' and ``paradoxes'' in geo- and planetary science (e.g. the Xenon paradox) could be addressed based on the stability of surprising, stoichiometries that challenge our traditional ``textbook'' picture. In this talk, I will briefly present recent results and highlight the need of close synergy between experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the challenging and complex field of variable stoichiometry under pressure. Finally, possible new routes for the synthesis of novel materials will be

  19. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  20. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  1. Stimuli-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on N-Isopropylacrylamide and Itaconic Acid for Entrapment and Controlled Release of Candida rugosa Lipase under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Milašinović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli responsive pH- and temperature-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery systems, as those based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm and itaconic acid (IA, have been attracting much of the attention of the scientific community nowadays, especially in the field of drug release. By adjusting comonomer composition, the matrix is enabled to protect the incorporated protein in the highly acidic environment of upper gastrointestinal tract and deliver it in the neutral or slightly basic region of the lower intestine. The protein/poly(NiPAAm-co-IA hydrogels were synthetized by free radical crosslinking copolymerization and were characterized concerning their swelling capability, mechanical properties, and morphology. The pore structure and sizes up to 1.90 nm allowed good entrapment of lipase molecules. Model protein, lipase from Candida rugosa, was entrapped within hydrogels upon mild conditions that provided its protection from harmful environmental influences. The efficiency of the lipase entrapment reached 96.7%, and was dependent on the initial concentration of lipase solution. The swelling of the obtained hydrogels in simulated pH and temperature of gastrointestinal tract, the lipase entrapment efficiency, and its release profiles from hydrogels were investigated as well.

  2. Taps/valves in extreme conditions. Choice for tap-actuator sets for refining and petrochemical operations in severe conditions. Main steam isolation valves in extremely severe conditions. Presentation of the SRV (Safety Relief Valve) development; Robinets vannes en conditions extremes. Choix d`ensembles robinets-operateurs pour des operations en conditions severes dans le raffinage et la petrochimie. Vannes d`isolement vapeur principales en conditions tres severes. Presentation du developpement de la vanne SRV (safety relief valve)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, X.F.; Aubry, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Guesnon, D. [Technicatome Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, R. [Vanatome, 07 - Annonay (France); Mainguette, Ph. [Adareg (France)

    1998-05-01

    This series of 3 papers was presented during a workshop organized by the French Society of mechanical engineers in 1997. The aim of the workshop was to take stock of the most recent developments in the domain of taps and valves devoted to extreme condition uses (very high or very low temperatures or pressures and corrosive ambiences). The first paper deals with selection criteria for the choice of valve-actuator sets devoted to high temperature liquid aromatic fluids in the refining and petrochemical industries (technical specifications, selection, qualification tests, quality control and tests feedback). The second paper presents the global conceiving process which led to adapt a general concept of valve to a specific application to propulsion reactors of nuclear ships: the steam isolation valves (technical specifications, particular constraints, prototype and serial product, maintenance and experience feedback). The third paper concerns the development of a safety relief valve for the superfluid helium cooling system of the superconducting magnets of the future LHC (Large Hadron Collider) of the CERN (technical specifications, general characteristics, functioning principle, technology and conceiving, test of prototypes and results). (J.S.)

  3. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies on the life cycle of rainfall extremes over South America: non-summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-09-01

    Previous study showed that the interaction of synoptic disturbances with intraseasonal anomalies is important for heavy rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the La Plata basin during the austral summer. Here, we conduct similar analysis to study the evolution of rainfall extremes during austral spring (SON), fall (MAM) and winter (JJA). A relatively homogeneous region over southeastern South America, whose limits change little from season to season, is heavily affected by extreme precipitation events, as indicated by the value of the 95th percentile of daily rainfall, higher during the spring season (16.94 mm day-1) and lower in winter (13.79 mm day-1). From 1979 to 2013, extreme rainfall events are more frequent in spring (131 events) and less frequent in fall (112 events). Similar to summertime extreme events, synoptic-scale waves continue to be the main drivers of extreme precipitation over the region. The interaction between these waves and intraseasonal anomalies during the development of rainfall extremes over southeastern South America is observed especially during neutral ENSO and La Niña conditions. Warm ENSO phases tend to favor more frequent extremes in all three seasons and extreme events during El Niños are associated with synoptic waves, with no significant interaction with intraseasonal anomalies.

  4. Aqueous hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol over an Rh/reduced graphene oxide synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal process under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yanlin [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Industry, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Fan, Guangyin, E-mail: fanguangyin@cwnu.edu.cn [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Industry, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Wang, Chenyu [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The Rh nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Rh NPs/RGO) nanocatalyst synthesized by a solvothermal technique showed high activity and stability for the hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol under mild conditions. - Highlights: • Rh/RGO was synthesized through a one-pot polyol reduction of GO and RhCl{sub 3}. • Complete HDC of 4-chlorophenol was obtained in aqueous phase without any additive. • The Rh/RGO exhibited an excellent catalytic performance for HDC reaction. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported rhodium nanoparticles (Rh-NPs/RGO) was synthesized through one-pot polyol co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and rhodium chloride. The catalytic property of Rh-NPs/RGO was investigated for the aqueous phase hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). A complete conversion of 4-CP into high valued products of cyclohexanone (selectivity: 23.2%) and cyclohexanol (selectivity: 76.8%) was successfully achieved at 303 K and balloon hydrogen pressure in a short reaction time of 50 min when 1.5 g/L of 4-CP was introduced. By comparing with Rh-NPs deposited on the other supports, Rh-NPs/RGO delivered the highest initial rate (111.4 mmol/g{sub Rh} min) for 4-CP HDC reaction under the identical conditions. The substantial catalytic activity of Rh-NPs/RGO can be ascribed to the small and uniform particle size of Rh (average particle size was 1.7 ± 0.14 nm) on the surface of the RGO sheets and an electron-deficient state of Rh in the catalyst as a result of the strong interaction between the active sites and the surface function groups of RGO.

  5. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  6. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA): A new organic solid acid for the nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles in the presence of NaNO2 under mild and heterogeneous conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholamabbas Chehardoli; Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Toktam Faal-Rastegar; Shadpour Mallakpour; Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani

    2009-07-01

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  7. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  8. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  9. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  10. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  11. Exploratory results from a new rotary shear designed to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions of crustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S.; Violay, M. E.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Di Felice, F.; Di Stefano, G.; Romeo, G.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-12-01

    A challenging goal in experimental rock deformation is to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions typical of coseismic slip in crustal earthquakes: large slip (up to 50 m), slip rates (0.1-10 m/s), accelerations (> 10 m/s2) and normal stress (> 50 MPa). Moreover, fault zones usually contain non-cohesive rocks (gouges) and fluids. The integration of all these deformation conditions is such a technical challenge that there is currently no apparatus in the world that can reproduce seismic slip. Yet, the determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates remains one of the main unknowns in earthquake physics, as it cannot be determined (or very approximately) by seismic wave inversion analysis. In the last thirty years, rotary shear apparatus were designed that combine large normal stresses and slip but low slip rates (high-pressure rotary shears first designed by Tullis) or low normal stresses but large slip rates and slip (rotary shears first designed by Shimamoto). Here we present the results of experiments using a newly-constructed Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA), installed at INGV in Rome, which extends the combination of normal stress, slip and slip rate achieved by previous apparatus and reproduces the conditions likely to occur during an earthquake in the shallow crust. SHIVA uses two brushless engines (max power 300 kW, max torque 930 Nm) and an air actuator (thrust 5 tons) in a rotary shear configuration (nominally infinite displacement) to slide hollow rock cylinders (30/50 mm int./ext. diameter) at slip rates ranging from 10 micron/s up to 6.5 m/s, accelerations up to 80 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. SHIVA can also perform experiments in which the torque on the sample (rather than the slip rate) is progressively increased until spontaneous failure occurs: this experimental capability should better reproduce natural conditions. The apparatus is equipped with a sample chamber to carry out experiments in the presence of fluids (up to 15

  12. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  13. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, compression.

  14. Opportunities for in-situ diffraction studies of advanced materials under extreme conditions at the US spallation neutron source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Hodges

    2008-11-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Currently ramping up to 1.4 MW operating power, SNS will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. Built by a partnership of six DOE laboratories SNS is operated as a user facility, open to scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and government laboratories in the United States and abroad. Eighteen dedicated beamline instruments are currently funded; four are completed and in operation, five are to be commissioned within a year and the others are at various stages of design and construction. All instruments at SNS have been designed to best in class and will provide unprecedented opportunities to explore the structure and dynamics of all materials. Amongst the funded instruments are a high-resolution very fast powder diffractometer (POWGEN3) optimized for parametric studies of materials under a wide range of conditions (, , and flowing gases), an ultrahigh-pressure diffractometer (SNAP) for materials under extreme conditions of pressure (up to 100 GPa) and temperature, an engineering materials diffractometer (VULCAN) for mapping strain, texture and fundamental aspects of materials behaviour of high performance materials under strain forces, a high flux disordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) for liquids, glasses and disorder in crystalline materials, and a small angle scattering diffractometer (EQSANS) for investigating precipitates, crystallization, domains and nanoparticles in composite materials. ORNL/SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  15. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat.

  16. Active and Recyclable Catalytic Synthesis of Indoles by Reductive Cyclization of 2-(2-Nitroaryl)acetonitriles in the Presence of Co-Rh Heterobimetallic Nanoparticles with Atmospheric Hydrogen under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Isaac; Chung, Hyunho; Park, Jang Won; Chung, Young Keun

    2016-11-04

    A cobalt-rhodium heterobimetallic nanoparticle-catalyzed reductive cyclization of 2-(2-nitroaryl)acetonitriles to indoles has been achieved. The tandem reaction proceeds without any additives under the mild conditions (1 atm H2 and 25 °C). This procedure could be scaled up to the gram scale. The catalytic system is significantly stable under these reaction conditions and could be reused more than ten times without loss of catalytic activity.

  17. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  18. Assessment of hydrological extremes in the basins of Shilka and Argun rivers (Far East of Russia) in changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Daria; Semenova, Olga; Vinogradova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Transbaikal region of Russia is formed by the basins of the Argun and Shilka Rivers (the upreaches of the Amur River). This region is simultaneously under the flood and drought hazard threat due to the combination of dry continental climate and monsoon impacts. Observed intensification of extreme hazard events in the region requires the scientific base of development of adaptation and mitigation measures. The aim of the study is the analysis of long-term variability of hydrological characteristics of the region by the means of mathematical statistics and projection of hydrological extremes in changing conditions of climate and landscapes based on hydrological modelling. Our research consisted of two stages. Firstly, we developed the database of observed daily hydrographs for about 50 runoff gauges of the region with average continuous period of observations 50 years (up to 2013) and areas from 12.3 to 200000 km2. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted and the trends of changes were assessed and analyzed. At the second stage we selected four river watersheds as the objects of modelling, namely, the gauging stations at the rivers Zun-Cooka, Gazipur, Borzya and Mogoytuy, ranging in size from 100 to 4000 km2. The basins are characterized by the variety of runoff conditions. Average elevation is about 650 m, hilly plateaus dominate the relief. The landscapes are taiga and forest-steppe with discontinuous permafrost. The climate is continental, annual precipitation varies within the range 200-450 mm, runoff - from 30 to 100 mm. The objectives of modelling stage were 1) the estimation of the hydrological model's parameters and its validation at historical data, 2) development of conceptual scenarios of changes of climate and landscapes, 3) running the model in projection mode to assess the implications of possible changes in hydrological regime. High variability of climate and hydrological regime do not allow for conventional modelling procedures to be

  19. Granulites by name but eclogite facies by formation conditions: extreme metamorphism recorded by Saxony-type granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Brien, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    The type locality `granulite' from the Saxonian Granulitgebirge is a felsic, granitic to granodioritic rock, composed predominantly of feldspars and quartz along with minor garnet, kyanite and rutile, and exhibiting a strong mylonitic fabric. In such rocks abundant mesoperthitic K-feldspar testifies to the former presence of high temperature (>900^oC) ternary feldspar. In intermediate to mafic layers the common antiperthite, when reconstituted to its single phase precursor, yields unequivocal ultrahigh-temperature (>1000^oC) conditions by feldspar solvus thermometry. The presence of kyanite together with such feldspar requires pressures (>15 kbar) equivalent to mantle depths. In addition, orthopyroxene, where present, is demonstrably of secondary origin. Importantly, experimental results show that the position of the orthopyroxene-out reaction curve for granitic/granodioritic compositions coincides with that of the plagioclase-out reaction in rocks of quartz-tholeiite composition. This means that the orthopyroxene-free felsic `granulites' formed at conditions above those generally taken as defining the start of the eclogite facies. It has long been known that rare mafic lenses contain clinopyroxene with jadeite content approaching or even exceeding that of omphacite. The presence or absence of plagioclase in these omphacite-bearing rocks is purely a function of bulk composition: more quartz tholeiitic rocks are plagioclase-free and are thus eclogites. Likewise, tectonic lenses of garnet peridotites in the granulite massifs are a clear indicator of metamorphism at mantle depths. Recent discoveries have extended the formation depths of some of these rocks even further as coesite (in eclogite) and microdiamond (in granulites) have been discovered in the nearby Erzgebirge. Even more remarkable are consistent ca. 340 Ma zircon ages which, along with other evidence, point to exhumation rates of several mm/a. The presence of garnet peridotites, combined with the

  20. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-09-01

    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  1. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  2. Boric acid as a mild and efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aziz Shahrisa; Somayeh Esmati; Mahdi Gholamhosseini Nazari

    2012-07-01

    An efficient green chemistry method has been developed for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthol derivatives via a one-pot three-component condensation of 2-naphthol, aldehydes and amide in the presence of boric acid as a mild catalyst.

  3. Study of radon measurement instrumentation in extreme environmental conditions; Estudio de la instrumentacion de medida de radon en condiciones ambientales extremas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, V.; Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, L.; Vargas, A.; Grossi, C.

    2011-07-01

    Within the framework of the scientific project of the Nuclear Safety Council ''Study of environmental monitoring instrumentation and measurement of radon in extreme environmental conditions' at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona has established a partnership with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) to conduct a study to identify the most appropriate filters to minimize the influence of measurement conditions, particularly with respect to moisture on the response of continuous radon detectors and integrators. (Author)

  4. Left-right coordination from simple to extreme conditions during split-belt locomotion in the chronic spinal adult cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Desrochers, Étienne; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Dambreville, Charline

    2017-01-01

    Coordination between the left and right sides is essential for dynamic stability during locomotion. The immature or neonatal mammalian spinal cord can adjust to differences in speed between the left and right sides during split-belt locomotion by taking more steps on the fast side. We show that the adult mammalian spinal cord can also adjust its output so that the fast side can take more steps. During split-belt locomotion, only certain parts of the cycle are modified to adjust left-right coordination, primarily those associated with swing onset. When the fast limb takes more steps than the slow limb, strong left-right interactions persist. Therefore, the adult mammalian spinal cord has a remarkable adaptive capacity for left-right coordination, from simple to extreme conditions. Although left-right coordination is essential for locomotion, its control is poorly understood, particularly in adult mammals. To investigate the spinal control of left-right coordination, a spinal transection was performed in six adult cats that were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Spinal cats performed tied-belt locomotion from 0.1 to 1.0 m s(-1) and split-belt locomotion with low to high (1:1.25-10) slow/fast speed ratios. With the left hindlimb stepping at 0.1 m s(-1) and the right hindlimb stepping from 0.2 to 1.0 m s(-1) , 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 left-right step relationships could appear. The appearance of 1:2+ relationships was not linearly dependent on the difference in speed between the slow and fast belts. The last step taken by the fast hindlimb displayed longer cycle, stance and swing durations and increased extensor activity, as the slow limb transitioned to swing. During split-belt locomotion with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 relationships, the timing of stance onset of the fast limb relative to the slow limb and placement of both limbs at contact were invariant with increasing slow/fast speed ratios. In contrast, the timing of stance onset of the slow limb

  5. Value-at-Risk-Estimation in the Mexican Stock Exchange Using Conditional Heteroscedasticity Models and Theory of Extreme Values

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Iván Aguirre Salado; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Martha Elva Ramírez Guzmán; José René Valdez Lazalde; Carlos Arturo Aguirre Salado

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an approach for estimating value at risk (VaR) of the Mexican stock exchange index (IPC) by using a combination of the autoregressive moving average models (ARMA); three different models of the arch family, one symmetric (GARCH) and two asymmetric (GJR-GARCH and EGARCH); and the extreme value theory (EVT). The ARMA models were initially used to obtain uncorrelated residuals, which were later used for the analysis of extreme values. The GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH models, by...

  6. Materials research in the solar furnace. Materials testing in extreme conditions; Materialforschung im Sonnenofen. Werkstoffpruefung unter extremen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecker, M. [DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln-Porz (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Extreme temperatures can be achieved with concentrated solar radiation. High heating and cooling rates are possible, and furnace walls are not required. This makes the solar furnace a unique tool for testing of high-temperature materials as cooperations with the DLR Institute of Materials Research have shown. (orig.) [German] Mit konzentrierter Sonnenstrahlung koennen extreme Temperaturen erreicht werden. Hohe Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten sind moeglich; im Allgemeinen kann auf begrenzende Ofenwandungen verzichtet werden. Damit stellt der Sonnenofen, in Verbindung mit einer geeigneten Mess- und Regeltechnik, ein einzigartiges Pruefwerkzeug fuer Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe dar, wie Kooperationen mit dem DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung gezeigt haben. (orig.)

  7. Identification of Extreme Events Under Climate Change Conditions Over Europe and The Northwest-atlantic Region: Spatial Patterns and Time Series Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.

    In the context of climate change and the resulting possible impacts on socio-economic conditions for human activities it seems that due to a changed occurrence of extreme events more severe consequences have to be expected than from changes in the mean climate. These extreme events like floods, excessive heats and droughts or windstorms possess impacts on human social and economic life in different categories such as forestry, agriculture, energy use, tourism and the reinsurance business. Reinsurances are affected by nearly 70% of all insured damages over Europe in the case of wind- storms. Especially the December 1999 French windstorms caused damages about 10 billion. A new EU-founded project (MICE = Modelling the Impact of Climate Ex- tremes) will focus on these impacts caused by changed occurrences of extreme events over Europe. Based upon the output of general circulation models as well as regional climate models, investigations are carried out with regard to time series characteristics as well as the spatial patterns of extremes under climate changed conditions. After the definition of specific thresholds for climate extremes, in this talk we will focus on the results of the analysis for the different data sets (HadCM3 and CGCMII GCM's and RCM's, re-analyses, observations) with regard to windstorm events. At first the results of model outputs are validated against re-analyses and observations. Especially a comparison of the stormtrack (2.5 to 8 day bandpass filtered 500 hPa geopotential height), cyclone track, cyclone frequency and intensity is presented. Highly relevant to damages is the extreme wind near the ground level, so the 10 m wind speed will be investigated additionally. of special interest to possible impacts is the changed spatial occurrence of windspeed maxima under 2xCO2-induced climate change.

  8. Visible light mediated efficient oxidative benzylic sp(3) C-H to ketone derivatives obtained under mild conditions using O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hong; Bian, Changliang; Hu, Xia; Niu, Linbin; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-09-25

    A photooxygenation of benzylic sp(3) C-H reaction has been demonstrated using O2 mediated by visible light. This protocol provides a simple and mild route to obtain ketones from benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds. Various benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds can be transformed into the desired ketone derivatives in moderate to good yields. The (18)O2 labelling experiments demonstrated that the oxygen introduced into ketone originated from dioxygen. A plausible mechanism has been proposed accordingly.

  9. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  10. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  11. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  12. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  13. Coupled large-eddy simulation and morphodynamics of a large-scale river under extreme flood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Stony Brook University Team

    2016-11-01

    We present a coupled flow and morphodynamic simulations of extreme flooding in 3 km long and 300 m wide reach of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, which includes three islands and hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the VFS-Geophysics model to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 500 year flood. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. The geometrical data of the river, islands and structures are obtained from LiDAR, sub-aqueous sonar and in-situ surveying to construct a digital map of the river bathymetry. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river reveal complex sediment dynamics near the hydraulic structures. The numerically captured scour depth near some of the structures reach a maximum of about 10 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems. This work was funded by a Grant from Minnesota Dept. of Transportation.

  14. From dimer to condensed phases at extreme conditions: accurate predictions of the properties of water by a Gaussian charge polarizable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricaud, Patrice; Predota, Milan; Chialvo, Ariel A; Cummings, Peter T

    2005-06-22

    Water exhibits many unusual properties that are essential for the existence of life. Water completely changes its character from ambient to supercritical conditions in a way that makes it possible to sustain life at extreme conditions, leading to conjectures that life may have originated in deep-sea vents. Molecular simulation can be very useful in exploring biological and chemical systems, particularly at extreme conditions for which experiments are either difficult or impossible; however this scenario entails an accurate molecular model for water applicable over a wide range of state conditions. Here, we present a Gaussian charge polarizable model (GCPM) based on the model developed earlier by Chialvo and Cummings [Fluid Phase Equilib. 150, 73 (1998)] which is, to our knowledge, the first that satisfies the water monomer and dimer properties, and simultaneously yields very accurate predictions of dielectric, structural, vapor-liquid equilibria, and transport properties, over the entire fluid range. This model would be appropriate for simulating biological and chemical systems at both ambient and extreme conditions. The particularity of the GCPM model is the use of Gaussian distributions instead of points to represent the partial charges on the water molecules. These charge distributions combined with a dipole polarizability and a Buckingham exp-6 potential are found to play a crucial role for the successful and simultaneous predictions of a variety of water properties. This work not only aims at presenting an accurate model for water, but also at proposing strategies to develop classical accurate models for the predictions of structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties.

  15. The critical role of N- and C-terminal contact in protein stability and folding of a family 10 xylanase under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stabilization strategies adopted by proteins under extreme conditions are very complex and involve various kinds of interactions. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of proteins have their N- and C-terminal elements in close contact and suggested they play a role in protein folding and stability. However, the biological significance of this contact remains elusive. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we investigate the role of N- and C-terminal residue interaction using a family 10 xylanase (BSX with a TIM-barrel structure that shows stability under high temperature, alkali pH, and protease and SDS treatment. Based on crystal structure, an aromatic cluster was identified that involves Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 holding the N- and C-terminus together; this is a unique and important feature of this protein that might be crucial for folding and stability under poly-extreme conditions. CONCLUSION: A series of mutants was created to disrupt this aromatic cluster formation and study the loss of stability and function under given conditions. While the deletions of Phe4 resulted in loss of stability, removal of Trp6 and Tyr343 affected in vivo folding and activity. Alanine substitution with Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 drastically decreased stability under all parameters studied. Importantly, substitution of Phe4 with Trp increased stability in SDS treatment. Mass spectrometry results of limited proteolysis further demonstrated that the Arg344 residue is highly susceptible to trypsin digestion in sensitive mutants such as DeltaF4, W6A and Y343A, suggesting again that disruption of the Phe4-Trp6-Tyr343 (F-W-Y cluster destabilizes the N- and C-terminal interaction. Our results underscore the importance of N- and C-terminal contact through aromatic interactions in protein folding and stability under extreme conditions, and these results may be useful to improve the stability of other proteins under suboptimal conditions.

  16. FEATURES OF MENTAL CONDITIONS OF THE PATIENTS HAVING OBLITERATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES AT A STAGE OF AN AGGRAVATION AND REMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yur’evna Shpakovskaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Article is devoted to an urgent problem of mental conditions of patients of the lower extremities having obliterating atherosclerosis. Authors set as the purpose to analyse mental conditions of the patients having obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities at a stage of an aggravation and remission. Research techniques. Psychodiagnostic research techniques: poll, observation, content analysis of medical documentation. Results. In a research it is shown that at patients as at a stage of remission as well as at an aggravation stage emotional states have the expressed adverse character. The characteristic of features of subjective health, activity and mood, indexes of personal and situational uneasiness of the patients who are at different stages of a disease and healthy people is given. Significant distinctions, in features of emotional reaction at patients with an obliterating atherosclerosis, with a dominance of neurotic frustration as a neurasthenia, existence of the alarm as situationally – caused, and quality of the personal characteristic are revealed. Range of application of results. Results of a research can be used in the course of medico-psychological maintenance and rehabilitation of patients with an obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities at a stage of an aggravation and remission.

  17. U3F12(H2O), a noncentrosymmetric uranium(IV) fluoride prepared via a convenient in situ route that creates U4+ under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D; Sefat, Athena S; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2013-08-05

    A new noncentrosymmetric U(4+)-containing fluoride, U3F12(H2O), has been synthesized via a mild hydrothermal route and its crystal structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material exhibits a complex three-dimensional structure that is based on [U6F33(H2O)2)](9-) hexanuclear building units consisting of corner- and edge-shared UF8, UF9, and UOF7 polyhedra. Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements revealed that the SHG efficiency for U3F12(H2O) is comparable to that of α-SiO2. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated that the U(4+)(f(2))-containing material exhibits a singlet ground state at low temperature. IR and UV-vis reflectance spectra were obtained, and the thermal behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis.

  18. Unraveling the plasma-material interface with real time diagnosis of dynamic boron conditioning in extreme tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, F. Javier; Bedoya, Felipe; Krstić, Predrag S.; Allain, Jean P.; Irle, Stephan; Skinner, Charles H.; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of the role of boron and oxygen in the chemistry of deuterium retention in boronized ATJ graphite irradiated by the extreme environment of a tokamak deuterium plasma. The experimental results were obtained by the first XPS measurements inside the plasma chamber of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, between the plasma exposures. The subtle interplay of boron, carbon, oxygen and deuterium chemistry is explained by reactive molecular dynamics simulations, verified by quantum-classical molecular dynamics and successfully compared to the measured data. The calculations deciphered the roles of oxygen and boron for the deuterium retention and predict deuterium uptake into a boronized carbon surface close in value to that previously predicted for a lithiated and oxidized carbon surface.

  19. The critical role of partially exposed N-terminal valine residue in stabilizing GH10 xylanase from Bacillus sp.NG-27 under poly-extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms that govern protein stability under poly-extreme conditions continues to be a major challenge. Xylanase (BSX from Bacillus sp. NG-27, which has a TIM-barrel structure, shows optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline pH, and is resistant to denaturation by SDS and degradation by proteinase K. A comparative circular dichroism analysis was performed on native BSX and a recombinant BSX (R-BSX with just one additional methionine resulting from the start codon. The results of this analysis revealed the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in the unfolding of BSX in response to an increase in temperature. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the poly-extremophilicity of BSX to deduce the structural features responsible for its stability under one set of conditions, in order to gain information about its stability in other extreme conditions. To systematically address the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in BSX stability, a series of mutants was generated in which the first hydrophobic residue, valine (Val1, was either deleted or substituted with various amino acids. Each mutant was subsequently analyzed for its thermal, SDS and proteinase K stability in comparison to native BSX. CONCLUSIONS: A single conversion of Val1 to glycine (Gly changed R-BSX from being thermo- and alkali- stable and proteinase K and SDS resistant, to being thermolabile and proteinase K-, alkali- and SDS- sensitive. This result provided insight into the structure-function relationships of BSX under poly-extreme conditions. Molecular, biochemical and structural data revealed that the poly-extremophilicity of BSX is governed by a partially exposed N-terminus through hydrophobic interactions. Such hitherto unidentified N-terminal hydrophobic interactions may play a similar role in other proteins, especially those with TIM-barrel structures. The results of the present study are therefore of major significance for protein folding

  20. Immobilization of L-Lysine on Zeolite 4A as an Organic-Inorganic Composite Basic Catalyst for Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzad; Rezapour, Mehdi; Kianpour, Sahar [Islamic Azad Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Lysine (Lys) immobilized on zeolite 4A was prepared by a simple adsorption method. The physical and chemical properties of Lys/zeolite 4A were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis. The obtained organic-inorganic composite was effectively employed as a heterogeneous basic catalyst for synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. No by-product formation, high yields, short reaction times, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity with reusability of the catalyst are the salient features of the present catalyst.

  1. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    frequency of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions with regards to the extreme phases of AMO and NAO. While the function was decaying, the tail asymptotically merged into and stabilized at the theoretical probability of the event. As the basin scale increased, the probability of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions decreased. The Merrimack River watershed will most likely experience greater than average discharge as its extreme condition, therefore development should be avoided on flood plains. Furthermore, the current reservoir storage capacity in the Merrimack should be improved in order to accommodate excess water input and minimize flood damage. Future research should target changes in the magnitude and timing of high discharge events in order to develop adaptation strategies for aging hydraulic infrastructure in the region.

  2. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  3. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70 degrees C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70 degrees C, and fed with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while a biofilm reactor directly inoculated with the enrichment cultures reached stable state much faster (8 days) but with very low hydrogen yield (0.69 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed). These results indicate that hydraulic pressure is necessary for successful immobilization of bacteria on carriers, while there is the risk of washing out specific high yielding bacteria.

  4. Discussions about Calculation of Conditional Extreme of Multivariate Function%多元函数条件极值的求法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方倩珊; 吴全荣

    2014-01-01

    Combined with examples, this paper first discussed six methods about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function: the substitution elimination method, the Lagrange multiplier method, the geometrical model method, the parametric equation method, the gradient inner product method, inequality method. And then it analyzed applicable condition of various calculation methods and pointed out the non-precise aspects in some textbooks about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function in order to help students choose the appropriate method when solving such problems.%结合具体实例,分别从代入消元法、拉格朗日乘数法、几何模型法、参数方程法、梯度内积法、不等式法等六个角度探讨了多元函数条件极值的多种求法,比较了各种求法适用的条件,并指出某些教材中多元函数条件极值求法的不严谨性。旨在帮助学生在求解此类问题时选择适当的方法,把握正确的解题方向。

  5. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenko К.V.; Korchazhkina N.B.; Petrova М.S.; Ruzova Т.К.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years) with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a cond...

  6. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  7. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  8. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  9. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  10. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Development Dept.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  11. A comprehensive literature review of the pelvis and the lower extremity FE human models under quasi-static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, R M A; Thewlis, D; Paul, G

    2012-01-01

    Finite Element Modeling (FEM) has become a vital tool in the automotive design and development processes. FEM of the human body is a technique capable of estimating parameters that are difficult to measure in experimental studies with the human body segments being modeled as complex and dynamic entities. Several studies have been dedicated to attain close-to-real FEMs of the human body (Pankoke and Siefert 2007; Amann, Huschenbeth et al. 2009; ESI 2010). The aim of this paper is to identify and appraise the state-of-the art models of the human body which incorporate detailed pelvis and/or lower extremity models. Six databases and search engines were used to obtain literature, and the search was limited to studies published in English since 2000. The initial search results identified 636 pelvis-related papers, 834 buttocks-related papers, 505 thigh-related papers, 927 femur-related papers, 2039 knee-related papers, 655 shank-related papers, 292 tibia-related papers, 110 fibula-related papers, 644 ankle-related papers, and 5660 foot-related papers. A refined search returned 100 pelvis-related papers, 45 buttocks-related papers, 65 thigh-related papers, 162 femur-related papers, 195 knee-related papers, 37 shank-related papers, 80 tibia-related papers, 30 fibula-related papers and 102 ankle-related papers and 246 foot-related papers. The refined literature list was further restricted by appraisal against a modified LOW appraisal criteria. Studies with unclear methodologies, with a focus on populations with pathology or with sport related dynamic motion modeling were excluded. The final literature list included fifteen models and each was assessed against the percentile the model represents, the gender the model was based on, the human body segment/segments included in the model, the sample size used to develop the model, the source of geometric/anthropometric values used to develop the model, the posture the model represents and the finite element solver used for the

  12. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L.; Kavembe, Geraldine D.; Papah, Michael B.; Brix, Kevin V.; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N.; Ojoo, Rodi O.; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  13. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas F. Bianchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa, which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1 were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1 and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1 and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1 and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1. Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO, TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage. Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  14. Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa Under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Funk, C. C.; Senay, G. B.; Dinku, T.; Policelli, F. S.; Block, P.; Baigorria, G. A.; Beyene, S.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective strategies to adapt to changes in the character of droughts and floods in Africa will rely on improved seasonal prediction systems that are robust to an evolving climate baseline and can be integrated into disaster preparedness and response. Many efforts have been made to build models to improve seasonal forecasts in the Greater Horn of Africa region (GHA) using satellite and climate data, but these efforts and models must be improved and translated into future conditions under evolving climate conditions. This has considerable social significance, but is challenged by the nature of climate predictability and the adaptability of coupled natural and human systems facing exposure to climate extremes. To address these issues, work is in progress under a project funded by NASA. The objectives of the project include: 1) Characterize and explain large-scale drivers in the ocean-atmosphere-land system associated with years of extreme flood or drought in the GHA. 2) Evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art seasonal forecast methods for prediction of decision-relevant metrics of hydrologic extremes. 3) Apply seasonal forecast systems to prediction of socially relevant impacts on crops, flood risk, and economic outcomes, and assess the value of these predictions to decision makers. 4) Evaluate the robustness of seasonal prediction systems to evolving climate conditions. The National Drought Mitigation Center (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA) is leading this project in collaboration with the USGS, Johns Hopkins University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, NASA, and GHA local experts. The project is also designed to have active engagement of end users in various sectors, university researchers, and extension agents in GHA through workshops and/or webinars. This project is expected improve and implement new and existing climate- and remote sensing-based agricultural

  15. Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J at extreme environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kirti V; Charde, Pravin N; Meshram, Sudhir U; Shendre, Latika P; Dubey, Vijay S; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2012-12-01

    Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced cost-effectively in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J were tested using parameters viz. surface tension (ST) reduction, F(CMC) (highest dilution factor to reach critical micelle concentration) and emulsification index (EI-24) of pesticides; monocrotophos and imidacloprid at extreme environmental conditions. Results have shown that ST reduction of biosurfactants was stable at pH 2-11. High F(CMC) of the biosurfactant in the fermented whey at low pH improved emulsification of pesticides. ST marginally increased at 5% and 15% NaCl, resulting in high EI-24 and F(CMC). Over a range of temperatures 30-121 °C, ST remained low with a higher F(CMC) and EI-24 at 60 °C than at 121 and 30 °C. The biosurfactants have shown differences in their surface-active property and have marked specificity to emulsify pesticides in extreme environmental conditions.

  16. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  17. Model Test Setup and Program for Experimental Estimation of Surface Loads of the SSG Kvitsøy Pilot Plant from Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul

    This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank.......This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...

  18. Effect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García Cela, Esther; Gil-Serna, J.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Acevedo, H. (Horacio); B. Patiño; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in pre-harvest and freshly harvested wheat. Spanish climatic conditions point to Aspergillus species as probably responsible for this OTA. In this study the effectiveness of 5 non-specific antifungal chemicals used on wheat fields (25.9% tebuconazole + 60.0% N,N-capramide dimethyl; 12.70% tebuconazole + 12.7% prothioconazole + 59.5% N,N‐amide dimethyldecane; 12.5% epoxiconazole; 12.5% tetraconazole; and 70% thiophanate methyl) and an extract from Equisetum ar...

  19. Consortium for Health and Military Performance and American College of Sports Medicine consensus paper on extreme conditioning programs in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Michael F; Nindl, Bradley C; Deuster, Patricia A; Baumgartner, Neal; Kane, Shawn F; Kraemer, William J; Sexauer, Lisa R; Thompson, Walter R; O'Connor, Francis G

    2011-01-01

    A potential emerging problem associated with increasingly popularized extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) has been identified by the military and civilian communities. That is, there is an apparent disproportionate musculoskeletal injury risk from these demanding programs, particularly for novice participants, resulting in lost duty time, medical treatment, and extensive rehabilitation. This is a significant and costly concern for the military with regard to effectively maintaining operational readiness of the Force. While there are certain recognized positive aspects of ECPs that address a perceived and/or actual unfulfilled conditioning need for many individuals and military units, these programs have limitations and should be considered carefully. Moreover, certain distinctive characteristics of ECPs appear to violate recognized accepted standards for safely and appropriately developing muscular fitness and are not uniformly aligned with established and accepted training doctrine. Accordingly, practical solutions to improve ECP prescription and implementation and reduce injury risk are of paramount importance.

  20. Necessary Condition for Conditional Extreme Values under Equality Constrains and Application in the Theory of Optimization%等式约束条件极值存在的必要条件及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐军强

    2014-01-01

    The conditional extreme values for multivariable functions under equality constrains was investigated by start⁃ing from the method of Lagrange multipliers. The necessary condition for the existence of conditional extreme values was obtained by theory of linear equations. Its application in the theory of optimization was discussed. The optimal solution is obtained with this necessary condition by converting inequality constrains into equality constrains.%从拉格朗日乘子法出发,考虑多元函数在等式约束条件下的极值问题。由线性方程组理论得到多元函数在一个或多个等式约束条件下极值点存在的必要条件。并进一步考虑该条件在优化理论中的应用,通过将不等式约束转化为等式约束,运用等约束条件下极值存在的必要条件获得最优解。

  1. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions.

  2. Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2011-12-01

    Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed

  3. Constraints on Earth's inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q R

    2016-02-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth's inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density-sound velocity data of Earth's core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (V P) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch's law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the V P of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth's inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller V P than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth's core are required to explain Earth's core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth's core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect.

  4. Surgery under extreme conditions in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the importance of regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missair, Andres; Gebhard, Ralf; Pierre, Edgar; Cooper, Lebron; Lubarsky, David; Frohock, Jeffery; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2010-01-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake that struck Port-au-Prince, Haiti caused >200,000 deaths, thousands of injuries requiring immediate surgical interventions, and 1.5 million internally displaced survivors. The earthquake destroyed or disabled most medical facilities in the city, seriously hampering the ability to deliver immediate life- and limb-saving surgical care. A Project Medishare/University of Miami Miller School of Medicine trauma team deployed to Haiti from Miami within 24 hours of the earthquake. The team began work at a pre-existing tent facility in the United Nations (UN) compound based at the airport, where they encountered 225 critically injured patients. However, non-sterile conditions, no means to administer oxygen, the lack of surgical equipment and supplies, and no anesthetics precluded the immediate delivery of general anesthesia. Despite these limitations, resuscitative care was administered, and during the first 72 hours following the event, some amputations were performed with local anesthesia. Because of these austere conditions, an anesthesiologist, experienced and equipped to administer regional block anesthesia, was dispatched three days later to perform anesthesia for limb amputations, debridements, and wound care using single shot block anesthesia until a better equipped tent facility was established. After four weeks, the relief effort evolved into a 250-bed, multi-specialty trauma/intensive care center staffed with >200 medical, nursing, and administrative staff. Within that timeframe, the facility and its staff completed 1,000 surgeries, including spine and pediatric neurological procedures, without major complications. This experience suggests that when local emergency medical resources are completely destroyed or seriously disabled, a surgical team staffed and equipped to provide regional nerve block anesthesia and acute pain management can be dispatched rapidly to serve as a bridge to more advanced field surgical and intensive care

  5. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  6. Thermostatic and rheological responses of DPD fluid to extreme shear under modified Lees-Edwards boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, Abouzar; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Jabbarzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and rheological interactions between velocity-dependent thermostats of Lowe-Andersen (LA) and Nosé-Hoover-Lowe-Andersen (NHLA), and modified Lees-Edwards (M-LEC) boundary condition were studied in the context of Dissipative Particle Dynamics method. Comparisons were made with original Lees-Edwards method to characterise the improvements that M-LEC offers in conserving the induced shear momentum. Different imposed shear velocities, heat bath collision/exchange frequencies and thermostating probabilities were considered. The presented analyses addressed an unusual discontinuity in momentum transfer that appeared in form of nonphysical jumps in velocity and temperature profiles. The usefulness of M-LEC was then quantified by evaluating the enhancements in obtained effective shear velocity, effective shear rate, Péclet number, and dynamic viscosity. System exchange frequency (Γ) with Maxwellian heat bath was found to play an important role, in that its larger values facilitated achieving higher shear rates with proper temperature control at the cost of deviation from an ideal momentum transfer. Similar dynamic viscosities were obtained under both shearing modes between LA and NHLA thermostats up to Γ = 10, whilst about twice the range of viscosity (1 %). The main benefits of this modification were to facilitate momentum flow from shear boundaries to the system bulk. In addition, it was found that there exist upper thresholds for imposing shear on the system beyond which temperature cannot be controlled properly and nonphysical jumps reappear.

  7. Iron-silica interaction at extreme conditions and the electrically conducting layer at the base of Earth's mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovinsky, L; Dubrovinskaia, N; Langenhorst, F; Dobson, D; Rubie, D; Gessmann, C; Abrikosov, I A; Johansson, B; Baykov, V I; Vitos, L; Le Bihan, T; Crichton, W A; Dmitriev, V; Weber, H-P

    2003-03-01

    The boundary between the Earth's metallic core and its silicate mantle is characterized by strong lateral heterogeneity and sharp changes in density, seismic wave velocities, electrical conductivity and chemical composition. To investigate the composition and properties of the lowermost mantle, an understanding of the chemical reactions that take place between liquid iron and the complex Mg-Fe-Si-Al-oxides of the Earth's lower mantle is first required. Here we present a study of the interaction between iron and silica (SiO2) in electrically and laser-heated diamond anvil cells. In a multianvil apparatus at pressures up to 140 GPa and temperatures over 3,800 K we simulate conditions down to the core-mantle boundary. At high temperature and pressures below 40 GPa, iron and silica react to form iron oxide and an iron-silicon alloy, with up to 5 wt% silicon. At pressures of 85-140 GPa, however, iron and SiO2 do not react and iron-silicon alloys dissociate into almost pure iron and a CsCl-structured (B2) FeSi compound. Our experiments suggest that a metallic silicon-rich B2 phase, produced at the core-mantle boundary (owing to reactions between iron and silicate), could accumulate at the boundary between the mantle and core and explain the anomalously high electrical conductivity of this region.

  8. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Kocev, Dragi; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The food- and airborne fungal genus Wallemia comprises seven xerophilic and halophilic species: W. sebi, W. mellicola, W. canadensis, W. tropicalis, W. muriae, W. hederae and W. ichthyophaga. All listed species are adapted to low water activity and can contaminate food preserved with high amounts of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has higher influence on the production of secondary metabolites than other tested solutes. Mass spectrometric analysis of selected extracts revealed that NaCl in the medium affects the production of some compounds with substantial biological activities (wallimidione, walleminol, walleminone, UCA 1064-A and UCA 1064-B). In particular an increase in NaCl concentration from 5% to 15% in the growth media increased the production of the toxic metabolites wallimidione, walleminol and walleminone. PMID:28036382

  9. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit (Parus major) and the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  10. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit ( Parus major) and the Blue Tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  11. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  12. Fabrication of Thin Films of α-Fe2O3 via Atomic Layer Deposition Using Iron Bisamidinate and Water under Mild Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jason R; Kim, Dong Wook; Rimoldi, Martino; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown to be an excellent method for depositing thin films of iron oxide. With limited iron precursors available, the methods widely used require harsh conditions such as high temperatures and/or the use of oxidants such as ozone or peroxide. This letter aims to show that bis(N,N'-di-t-butylacetamidinato) iron(II) (iron bisamidinate or FeAMD) is an ideal ALD precursor because of its reactivity with water and relative volatility. Using in situ QCM analysis, we show outstanding conformal self-limiting growth of FeOx using FeAMD and water at temperatures lower than 200 °C. By annealing thin films of FeOx at 500 °C, we observe the formation of α-Fe2O3, confirming that we can use FeAMD to fabricate thin films of catalytically promising iron oxide materials using moderate growth conditions.

  13. Reduced mass absorption cross section of black carbon under an extremely polluted condition in southern suburb of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Hua, Y.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, B.; Xing, J.; Jiang, S.; Cai, R.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), as one of the most important climate-warming agent, has been the focus of extensive studies in recent years. Mass absorption cross section (MAC) is a key parameter to assess the radiative forcing by linking the mass concentration with the radiation effect. In this study, we conducted a two-month field campaign in Beijing, the capital city of China, in a October and November, a period that severe PM2.5 pollution occurred. PM2.5 offline samples were collected daily onto quartz fiber filters by a Partisol 2300 Speciation Sampler. Size-segregated aerosol samples of the size ranged from 0.056 - 10 µm with 11 bins were collected onto quartz fiber filters by a cascade impactor developed by National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). A DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer were used to analyze the samples. The MAC of BC is measured by a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. In contrast to previous studies, we found that after "shadow effect" has been corrected, the MAC is reduced from 14 m2/g to 5 m2/g with the increase of BC concentrations. There was no significant correlation between MAC with secondary inorganic aerosols. Such unexpected reduction in MAC of BC is possibly associated with the microphysical property of BC modulated under serious pollution condition. The study of size-segregated species concentrations shows that the size distribution of BC is unimodal, with the peak around 0.56-1.8 µm. The results also show the proportion of BC larger than 0.56 µm is significant increased. Additionally, "soot superaggregate", as distinct from conventional sub-micron aggregates, was found in the bins of BC with size ranged from 1 to1.8 µm. Such high carbon aerosol proportion and large BC size distribution suggests that emissions from residential biomass burning is dominant during this episode. This study suggests that the optical property for BC from different emission sectors should be considered in the estimation of radiative forcing.

  14. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S E; Johnston, V; Ross, M; Coppieters, M W

    2017-02-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts ( n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (⩾85% agreement) was achieved for 13 facilitators (high motivation to return-to-work; high self-efficacy for return-to-work and recovery; availability of modified/alternative duties; flexible return-to-work arrangements; positive coping skills; limited heavy work exertion; supportive return-to-work policies; supportive supervisor/management; no catastrophic thinking; no fear avoidance to return-to-work; no fear avoidance to pain/activity; return to meaningful work duties; high job satisfaction) and six barriers (mood disorder diagnosis; pain/symptoms at more than one musculoskeletal site; heavy upper extremity exertions at work; lack of flexible return-to-work arrangements; lack of support from supervisor/management; high level of pain catastrophizing). Future prognostic studies are required to validate these biopsychosocial factors to further improve return-to-work outcomes.

  15. Galaxy Transformation Under Extreme Conditions: The Evolution of Galaxies in the Largest Structures in the High Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaux, Brian Clark

    This dissertation describes research performed in the field of observational astrophysics as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environment (ORELSE) survey. The general motivation of the research presented in this dissertation is to investigate the processes responsible for the evolution of galaxies in a wide range of physical conditions over cosmic time. Throughout this dissertation, galaxy populations will be considered in the very nearby universe (i.e., within one billion light years from Earth), the middle-aged universe (i.e., eight billion years ago), and in the very early universe (i.e., just one billion years after the beginning of the universe). In each chapter I present unique data from observations taken and analyzed specifically for the ORELSE survey. In the first part of this dissertation I describe the context, aims, and current state of the ORELSE survey. The studies presented in this dissertation span a large range of galaxy samples and investigate a variety of different astrophysical phenomena. As all of these studies fall under the context of galaxy evolution, these initial sections will set the framework for the variety of studies presented in this thesis. In the second part of this dissertation I present four studies undertaken to investigate various aspects of galaxy evolution. The first of these studies is an investigation of a large population of very distant galaxies detected in one of the ORELSE fields. The survey in this field represents the deepest survey of a particular kind of very distant galaxy population known as Lymanalpha Emitter (LAEs). The number of LAEs found in this survey far exceeded expectations for such galaxies and are shown to be in excess of every other survey of similar galaxies at similar distances. This result has important consequences for galaxy evolution studies, as it suggests that faint LAEs may be much more numerous than previously thought. This work also has important consequences for

  16. Selective production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates from wheat straw using dilute HCl or FeCl3 solutions under mild conditions. X-ray and thermo-gravimetric analysis of the solid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, G; Krisanti, E; Giuntoli, J; de Jong, W

    2011-05-01

    The present work explores the combined production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates and an upgraded solid residue from wheat straw using a dilute-acid pretreatment at mild temperature. Dilute aqueous HCl solutions were studied at temperatures of 100 and 120°C, and they were compared to dilute FeCl(3) under the same conditions. Comparable yields of soluble sugars and acetic acid were obtained, affording an almost complete removal of pentoses when using 200 mM aqueous solutions at 120°C. The solid residues of pretreatment were characterized showing a preserved crystallinity of the cellulose, and a almost complete removal of ash forming matter other than Si. Results showed upgraded characteristic of the residues for thermal conversion applications compared to the untreated wheat straw.

  17. Ultra-deep oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyzed under mild conditions by polymolybdates supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Luis; Murrieta, Florentino; Navarrete, Juan; Jimenez-Cruz, Federico [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Procesos y Reactores, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fuentes, Gustavo A.; Hernandez-Teran, Maria Eugenia [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad A. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-05-17

    The evaluation of the catalytic oxidative desulfurization (OD) activity of alumina-supported polymolybdates (Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was carried out using organosulfur model compounds and diesel fuel. Hydrogen peroxide was the oxidizing reagent. Ultra-deep desulfurization, 97.8% removal of sulfur in diesel fuel, was achieved by reaction under mild conditions followed by solvent extraction. The catalyst was prepared by equilibrium adsorption and characterized by infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, {sup 31}P and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectroscopies. Our results indicate that the phosphomolybdate used during synthesis of the catalysts decomposes and forms hydrated hepta- and octamolybdates as well as phosphate ions on the surface of alumina. (author)

  18. A study of X100 pipeline steel passivation in mildly alkaline bicarbonate solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under potentiodynamic conditions and Mott-Schottky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The key steps involved in X100 pipeline steel passivation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions from the pre-passive to transpassive potential regions have been analyzed here using a step-wise anodizing-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) routine. Pre-passive steps involve parallel dissolution-adsorption in early stages followed by clear diffusion-adsorption control shortly before iron hydroxide formation. Aggressive NS4 chlorides/sulfate promote steel dissolution whilst inhibiting diffusion in pre-passive steps. Diffusive and adsorptive effects remain during iron hydroxide formation, but withdraw shortly thereafter during its removal and the development of the stable iron carbonate passive layer. Passive layer protectiveness is evaluated using EIS fitting, current density analysis, and correlations with semiconductive parameters, consistently revealing improved robustness in colder, bicarbonate-rich, chloride/sulfate-free conditions. Ferrous oxide formation at higher potentials results in markedly lower impedances with disordered behavior, and the involvement of the iron(III) valence state is observed in Mott-Schottky tests exclusively for 75 °C conditions.

  19. [The ability for psych self-regulation as a factor in resistance to the stresses in extreme conditions of space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A G; Bystritskaia, A F; Smirnova, T M

    2005-01-01

    Significance of the ability for psych self-regulation in the context of resistance to the stresses of space flight was studied in an experiment with 9 test-subjects simulating such factors of space flights as 8 to 9-day isolation and confinement, some physiological effects of microgravity in a head-down position at -8 degrees for 7 d, artificial climate, and implementation of dock and piloting operations. Stress resistance, self-regulation, mental performance and behavior were assessed with the use of computerized tests "Mirror coordinograph", "Relaxometer", and "SOPR-monitoring". The ability to voluntary control psych was shown to be favorable to stress-resistance and rapid recovery of mental efficiency after the natural decline in consequence of the experimental simulation. The ability for psych self-regulation is one of the major criteria of professional selection for exposure to extreme conditions.

  20. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl2) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg(-1) dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  2. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  3. Green-chemistry Compatible Approach to TiO2-supported PdAu Bimetallic Nanoparticles for Solvent-free 1-Phenylethanol Oxidation under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bing Chang; Chang-Hai Liu; Jie Liu; Yu-Yan Zhou; Xu Gao; Sui-Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    TiO2-supported PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with small size and good dispersity were prepared by the room-temperature ionic liquid-assisted bimetal sputtering, which is simple, environmentally friendly, and free of additives and byproducts. Pd/Au atomic ratio can be tuned by controlling the sputtering conditions simply. High catalytic activity was found in PdAu–NPs–TiO2 hybrids for solvent-free selective oxidation of 1-phenylethanol using O2 as the oxidant at the low temperature of 50 °C and low pressure of 1 atm. It was found that Pd/Au ratio strongly affected the catalytical activity, and the highest conversion of about 35%and turnover frequency of about 421 h-1 were achieved at 1:1 of Pd/Au atomic ratio. The synergistic effect in PdAu NPs was also discussed based on the comprehensive characterization results. The present approach may offer an alternative platform for future development of green-chemistry compatible bimetallic nanocatalysts.

  4. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  5. Psychological and psycho-vegetative technologies of diagnostics and correction the behavior of professionals working in extreme conditions (state of problem and prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to promising areas of research regulatory processes (self-control оf the professionals working in special and extreme conditions of professional activity. The actuality of creation a comprehensive compact of the selection methods, adaptation the technologies to professional tasks, methods of psychological assistance of the specialists of hazardous occupations was shown. It was done an overview of foreign studies of the features of psychological regulation and self-control in stressful situations, neurophysiological correlates of self-control and aggressive behavior. The results of trainings of the development of the capacity for self-control, increasing resistance to the negative effects of mental exhaustion, were described. There were expounded the results of domestic investigations of the association between the self-regulation of behavior and profile of reactivity among mentally healthy and ill persons. The necessity of the development of psychodiagnostic and psychological programs for specialists in the professions of risk, aimed to improve the efficiency of regulatory processes for the adaptation to the conditions of professional activity.

  6. The direct and indirect effects of the negative affectivity trait on self reported physical function among patients with upper extremity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Mohamadi, Amin; Mellema, Jos J; Tourjee, Stephen M; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-30

    Negative affectivity is a personality trait that predisposes people to psychological distress and low life satisfaction. Negative affectivity may also affect pain intensity and physical function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We explored the association of negative affectivity to pain intensity and self-reported physical function, and tested whether pain intensity mediates the effect of negative affectivity on physical function. In a cross-sectional study, 102 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions presenting to an orthopedic surgeon completed self-report measures of negative affectivity, pain intensity, and physical function in addition to demographic and injury information. We used the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to quantify the indirect effect of negative affectivity on physical function through pain intensity. Negative affectivity correlated with greater pain intensity and lower self-reported physical function significantly. Also, pain intensity mediated the association of negative affectivity with physical function. The indirect effect accounted for one-third of the total effect. To conclude, negative affectivity is associated with decreased engagement in daily life activities both directly, but also indirectly through increased pain intensity. Treatments targeting negative affectivity may be more economical and efficient for alleviation of pain and limitations associated with musculoskeletal illness than those addressing coping strategies or psychological distress.

  7. Miniaturized disk bend test-a new technique for monitoring the changes of mechanical properties of structural materials operating in extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Method of Miniaturized Disk Bend Test (MDBT) originally designed for the tests of irradiated materials is a convenient technique for monitoring the degradation of mechanical properties of structural materials operating in extreme conditions. A small size of specimens (disks with 3 mm in diameter and 0.1-0.3 mm in thickness) as well as possibility to use the standard equipments for tension and/or pressure tests allow minimizing the financial charge for application of this method in practice and enable to keep up in the real time with (watch on) the changes of materials mechanical properties induced by the effect of unfavorable environment. Wide application of MDBT or other methods for miniaturized specimen tests does possible to inspect on the fly the changes of strength and ductility of the materials, and, of the expense of it, to prevent an alert conditions caused by the materials degradation, for instance, catastrophic embrittlement.In the paper, methodical aspects of MDBT technique application for estimation of structural materials mechanical properties have been considered. By the example of own results and literature data, the possibilities of MDBT method are demonstrated as well as the correlation of obtained from this technique parameters with the standard mechanical properties such as strength, yield stress and ductility of metals.

  8. VARIABLE AND EXTREME IRRADIATION CONDITIONS IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM INFERRED FROM THE INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF {sup 10}Be IN ISHEYEVO CAIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gounelle, Matthieu [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et de Cosmochimie du Museum, CNRS and Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, CP52, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris (France); Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire, E-mail: gounelle@mnhn.fr [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CRPG-CNRS, BP 20, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2013-02-01

    A search for short-lived {sup 10}Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 CAIs had {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be){sub 0} ratios vary between {approx}10{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup -2} for CAI 411. The initial ratio of CAI 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 CAIs, suggesting that the more likely origin of CAI 411 {sup 10}Be is early solar system irradiation. The low ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} [{<=} 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}] with which CAI 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 10{sup 19} protons cm{sup -2}, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other CAIs are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} protons cm{sup -2}. The variable and extreme value of the initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite CAIs is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.

  9. Urban development under extreme hydrologic and weather conditions for El Paso-Juarez: Recommendations resulting from hydrologic modeling, GIS, and remote sensing analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    During the 2006 El Paso-Juarez flood there were many concerns regarding the capability of the existing stormwater system to handle 50- and 100-year flood events in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico area. Moreover in 2008, a considerable wet year from the normal 223 mm of annual precipitation for El Paso demonstrated that the area could very well received large amounts of precipitation at localized areas in short periods of time, representing a great flood threat to residents living in areas prone to flood. Some climate change projections for the area are exactly what had occurred over the last two decades; an increased number of torrential rainstorms over smaller concentrated pieces of land separated by longer years of drought between rainstorms. This study consisted in three projects focused on three critical regions within the El Paso-Juarez area that were greatly affected by the 2006 Flood. The goal was to identify if natural arroyos or the existent built stormwater system, could properly managed the projected precipitation patterns. The three projects described in this dissertation touch on the following points: (a) the importance of a reliable precipitation model that could accurately describes precipitation patterns in the region under extreme drought and wet climates conditions; (b) differences in land use/land cover characteristics as factors promoting or disrupting the possibility for flooding, and (c) limitations and capabilities of existent stormwater systems and natural arroyos as means to control flooding. Conclusions and recommendations are shown below, which apply not only to each particular project, but also to all study areas and similar areas in the El Paso-Juarez region. Urbanization can improve or worsen a pre-existing natural stormwater system if built under its required capacity. Such capacity should be calculated considering extreme weather conditions, based on a denser network of precipitation stations to capture the various microclimates

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  11. Storm time spatial variations in TEC during moderate geomagnetic storms in extremely low solar activity conditions (2007-2009) over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Surendra; Vyas, B. M.; Khekale, P. V.

    2013-07-01

    The total electron content (TEC) measurements from a network of GPS receivers were analyzed to investigate the storm time spatial response of ionosphere over the Indian longitude sector. The GPS receivers from the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network which are uniquely located around the ˜77°E longitude are used in the present study so as to get the complete latitudinal coverage from the magnetic equator to low mid-latitude region. We have selected the most intense storms but of moderate intensity (-100 nT extremely low solar activity conditions in 2007-2009. Though the storms are of moderate intensity, their effects on equatorial to low mid-latitude ionosphere are found to be very severe as TEC deviations are more than 100% during all the storms studied. Interesting results in terms of spatial distribution of positive/negative effects during the main/early recovery phase of storms are noticed. The maximum effect was observed at crest region during two storms whereas another two storms had maximum effect near the low mid-latitude region. The associated mechanisms like equatorial electrodynamics and neutral dynamics are segregated and explained using the TIMED/GUVI and EEJ data during these storms. The TEC maps are generated to investigate the storm time development/inhibition of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA).

  12. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  13. The genomic sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139 reveals a species that thrives in cold waters and extreme environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the genome sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139, isolated from a high-altitude Andean lake. Comparative genomic analyses of the Exiguobacterium genomes available suggest that our strain belongs to the same species as the previously reported E. pavilionensis str. RW-2 and Exiguobacterium str. GIC 31. We describe this species and propose the chiriqhucha name to group them. ‘Chiri qhucha’ in Quechua means ‘cold lake’, which is a common origin of these three cosmopolitan Exiguobacteria. The 2,952,588-bp E. chiriqhucha str. N139 genome contains one chromosome and three megaplasmids. The genome analysis of the Andean strain suggests the presence of enzymes that confer E. chiriqhucha str. N139 the ability to grow under multiple environmental extreme conditions, including high concentrations of different metals, high ultraviolet B radiation, scavenging for phosphorous and coping with high salinity. Moreover, the regulation of its tryptophan biosynthesis suggests that novel pathways remain to be discovered, and that these pathways might be fundamental in the amino acid metabolism of the microbial community from Laguna Negra, Argentina.

  14. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-28

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  15. Tribological behaviour of plasma nitrided cast iron D6510 and cast steel S0050A under the inclined-impact sliding condition with extremely high contact pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, J.; Nie, X.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma nitriding as a surface modification was applied on two substrate materials: cast iron D6510 and cast steel S0050A. After measurement of the friction coefficients of the treated samples using a pin-on-disc tribotester, an inclined impact-sliding wear tester was utilized to investigate their tribological behaviour under tilting contact with extremely high contact pressure. While numerous surface fatigue cracks, severe chipping, and peeling of the compound layer were observed for the treated cast steel sample, the treated cast iron sample had far fewer surface fatigue cracks without chipping or peeling of the compound at the same test condition. The governing mechanisms of the treated cast iron sample’s superior resistance to surface fatigue failure were revealed by studying the cross-sectional hardness and nitrogen concentration profile. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated that the treated cast iron sample had a smaller nitrogen concentration gradient, which led to a smaller hardness gradient as measured. The results suggest that a smaller hardness gradient between the compound layer and the diffusion zone and a thicker hardened case was able to improve the wear resistance and surface fatigue cracking resistance against high contact loads. Moreover, the smaller friction coefficient of the treated cast iron sample could also be beneficial for improving the wear resistance.

  16. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most significant impacts of climate change in cities due to increased pluvial flood risk. Hence, reliable information on changes in sub-daily extreme precipitation is needed for robust adaptation strategies. This study explores...

  17. MACS-Himalaya: A photogrammetric aerial oblique camera system designed for highly accurate 3D-reconstruction and monitoring in steep terrain and under extreme illumination conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, Joerg; Berger, Ralf; Hein, Daniel; Bucher, Tilman

    2017-04-01

    The DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed the MACS-Himalaya, a custom built Modular Aerial Camera System specifically designed for the extreme geometric (steep slopes) and radiometric (high contrast) conditions of high mountain areas. It has an overall field of view of 116° across-track consisting of a nadir and two oblique looking RGB camera heads and a fourth nadir looking near-infrared camera. This design provides the capability to fly along narrow valleys and simultaneously cover ground and steep valley flank topography with similar ground resolution. To compensate for extreme contrasts between fresh snow and dark shadows in high altitudes a High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was implemented, which typically takes a sequence of 3 images with graded integration times, each covering 12 bit radiometric depth, resulting in a total dynamic range of 15-16 bit. This enables dense image matching and interpretation for sunlit snow and glaciers as well as for dark shaded rock faces in the same scene. Small and lightweight industrial grade camera heads are used and operated at a rate of 3.3 frames per second with 3-step HDR, which is sufficient to achieve a longitudinal overlap of approximately 90% per exposure time at 1,000 m above ground at a velocity of 180 km/h. Direct georeferencing and multitemporal monitoring without the need of ground control points is possible due to the use of a high end GPS/INS system, a stable calibrated inner geometry of the camera heads and a fully photogrammetric workflow at DLR. In 2014 a survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried in a wingpod by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at altitudes up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced in regions and outcrops normally inaccessible to

  18. Response of the extremely halophilic Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4 to UV radiation and space conditions in the EXPOSE -ADAPT project on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrihan, Sergiu; Grosbacher, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    The international project ADAPT focuses on the response of different microorganisms to outer space conditions. In 2007, the European Space Agency (ESA) has installed the Columbus laboratory and the exposure facility EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station (ISS). One of the microorganisms that were exposed for 18 months on the ISS is Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4, an extremely halophilic archaeon which was isolated from about 250 million years old alpine salt deposits (1). Ground experiments with Hcc. dombrowskii included irradiation with different wavelengths and doses of UV, using a Hg low pressure lamp, a solar simulator SOL2 (both at the DLR, Cologne) and a Mars UV simulation lamp (2). Cells were embedded in halite crystals which were formed on quartz discs by evaporation of high salt buffers. Methods for analyzing the effects of exposure on Hcc. dombrowskii include the estimation of colony forming units (CFUs), staining for viability with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit (2), establishing long term liquid cultures and determination of the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) with specific antibodies (3). Counting of viable (green) and dead (red) cells showed an apparent preservation of viability following exposure to about 21 kJ/m2 in ground experiments, but the calculated D37 (dose of 37 % survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii was about 400 kJ/m2 in salt crystals (2). CPDs were detected in about 6-8% of cells of Hcc. dombrowskii following exposure to a dose of 3000 kJ/m2 (200-400 nm). Preliminary results with the samples of Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS suggested preservation of cellular morphology and stainability with the fluorescent dyes of the LIVE/DEAD kit, as well as formation of CPDs in about 2-3 % of the cells. The determination of the survival of cells by measuring proliferation requires months of incubation; data can be expected in May or June 2010. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus

  19. Mild Slope Ligningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    Der gives en beskrivelse af forudsætningerne for Mild Slope ligningen, som kort fortalt kan benyttes til at beregne harmoniske, lineære bølger i områder med "små" gradienter på dybderne.......Der gives en beskrivelse af forudsætningerne for Mild Slope ligningen, som kort fortalt kan benyttes til at beregne harmoniske, lineære bølger i områder med "små" gradienter på dybderne....

  20. Fluorescence response of 4-(N,N'-dimethylamino)benzonitrile in room temperature ionic liquids: observation of photobleaching under mild excitation condition and multiphoton confocal microscopic study of the fluorescence recovery dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Kotni; Banerjee, Sanghamitra; Rangaraj, Nandini; Samanta, Anunay

    2010-02-11

    The fluorescence behavior of 4-(N,N'-dimethylamino) benzonitrile has been studied in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) as a function of temperature, excitation wavelength, and exposure time. Dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states of the molecule has been observed and the relative intensities of the two emission bands and the peak position of the ICT emission are found consistent with the viscosity and polarity of the ILs. Temperature dependence study reveals a blue shift of the ICT emission peak with lowering of temperature indicating that under this condition the emission occurs from incompletely solvated state of the molecule. The observed excitation wavelength dependence of the emission behavior has been attributed to the microheterogeneity of the media. Exposure of the solution to the exciting radiation under very mild condition is found to influence the relative intensities of the two emission bands; an enhancement of the LE emission accompanied by a slight decrease of the ICT emission is observed. The emission intensities, however, return almost to their original values when the exposed solution is kept in the dark. The observation has been attributed to photoreaction of the exposed molecules and the recovery to replenishment of phototransformed molecules by the surrounding unexposed molecules. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been studied by multiphoton confocal fluorescence microscopic technique to obtain insight into the recovery dynamics. The diffusion coefficient estimated from this study is found to be lower than that predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation by a factor of nearly 7 indicating the microheterogeneous nature of the ILs.

  1. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled tr...

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  3. Laser ablation for membrane processing of AlGaN/GaN- and micro structured ferroelectric thin film MEMS and SiC pressure sensors for extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, J.; Vanko, G.; Dzuba, J.; Ryger, I.; Lalinsky, T.; Benkler, Manuel; Lucki, Michal

    2015-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), Schottky diodes and/or resistors have been presented as sensing devices for mechanical or chemical sensors operating in extreme conditions. In addition we investigate ferroelectric thin films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Creation of appropriate diaphragms and/or cantilevers out of SiC is necessary for further improvement of sensing properties of such MEMS sensors. For example sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN based MEMS pressure sensor can be modified by membrane thickness. We demonstrated that a 4H-SiC 80μm thick diaphragms can be fabricated much faster with laser ablation than by electrochemical, photochemical or reactive ion etching (RIE). We were able to verify the feasibility of this process by fabrication of micromechanical membrane structures also in bulk 3C-SiC, borosilicate glass, sapphire and Al2O3 ceramic substrates by femtosecond laser (520nm) ablation. On a 350μm thick 4H-SiC substrate we produced an array of 275μm deep and 1000μm to 3000μm of diameter blind holes without damaging the 2μm AlN layer at the back side. In addition we investigated ferroelectric thin films as they can be deposited and micro-patterned by a direct UV-lithography method after the ablation process for a specific membrane design. The risk to harm or damage the function of thin films was eliminated by that means. Some defects in the ablated membranes are also affected by the polarisation of the laser light. Ripple structures oriented perpendicular to the laser polarisation promote creation of pin holes which would perforate a thin membrane. We developed an ablation technique strongly inhibiting formation of ripples and pin poles.

  4. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Long-Term and Extreme Value Estimation of Wind and Sea Conditions for Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy power plants are expected to become one of the major future contribution to the sustainable electricity production. Optimal design of wave energy power plants is associated with modeling of physical, statistical, measurement and model uncertainties. This paper presents stochastic models....... The stochastic model for extreme value estimation covers annual extreme value distributions and the statistical uncertainty due to limited amount of available data. Furthermore, updating based on new available data is explained based on a Bayesian approach. The statistical uncertainties are estimated based...... on the Maximum-Likelihood method, and the extreme value estimation uses the peaks-over-threshold (POT) method. Two generic examples of reliability assessments for failure due to fatigue and extreme...

  6. Full extremal process, cluster law and freezing for two-dimensional discrete Gaussian Free Field

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren

    2016-01-01

    We study the extremal process associated with the Discrete Gaussian Free Field (DGFF) in scaled-up (square-)lattice versions of bounded open planar domains subject to mild regularity conditions on the boundary. We prove that, in the scaling limit, this process tends to a Cox process decorated by independent, correlated clusters whose distribution is completely characterized. As an application, we control the scaling limit of the discrete supercritical Liouville measure, extract a Poisson-Diri...

  7. Ice at the Late Cambrian Equator: Climate Extremes During a Greenhouse Earth and the Last Gasp of Proterozoic-like Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T. J.; Runkel, A. C.; Cowan, C. A.; Fox, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Upper Cambrian siliciclastics deposited along the equatorial shoreline of Laurentia preserve a record of freezing terrestrial conditions at a time commonly thought to have been a significant Greenhouse Earth. Evidence for freezing occurs within a discrete stratigraphic interval at several outcrops of the Furongian (~501-488 Ma) Jordan Formation in southeastern Minnesota, USA, and consists of large-scale (up to 1.5 meter) sandstone intraclasts preserved in swash-zone lithofacies. These clasts are interpreted to represent brecciated frozen beach and dune sand on the Late Cambrian shoreline. Intraclasts are presently uncemented; nowhere is the original cement preserved. However, intraclast features allow for interpretation of syndepositional mechanical behavior of clasts and characterization of early cement properties. Many allochthonous intraclasts preserve sharp, angular corners and delicate irregular edges, which indicate that such clasts were hard in the depositional environment. Conversely, rare clasts are folded, and relationships with host sediment dictate that folding occurred prior to burial. Such observations require that some clasts behaved ductilely in the depositional environment. Intraclasts also show apparent in situ disaggregation, suggesting that the cement was ephemeral in the sedimentary environment. Ice-cemented sand on modern frozen beaches provides a precise analogue for these sandstone intraclasts, exhibiting the critical inferred behaviors, physical characteristics and recurring morphologies observed in the Cambrian examples. Late Cambrian freezing conditions coincide with an abrupt faunal turnover recorded in these siliciclastics as well as in coeval circum-Laurentian carbonate rock. Thus, frozen shoreline deposits provide physical evidence for the long-postulated cold-water event that initiated this turnover. Brief episodes of equatorial cooling and an offshore carbonate platform dominated by microbialite, oolite, and ribbon rock indicate

  8. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  9. 超低出生体重儿生存状况分析%Investigation of the extremely low birth weight infant living condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹芳; 童笑梅

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To investigate the extremely low birth weight infant's (ELBWI) quality of life and related intervention measures through review of ELBWI's living condition from a single centre NICU in recently years. 【Method】 It was retrospectively analyzed about the clinical data of 32 patients of ELBWI from February 2000 to January 2012. 【Results】 The ELBWI suvival rate, mortality rate, abandon rate were 34. 4%, 25. 0%,and 40. 6% respectively. The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) ELBWI suvival rate was 75. 0%. Female suvival rate(72. 7%) was higer than male's in all suvival patients. The common direct causes of death were pulmonary haemorrhage (62. 5%), hyaline membrane disease (12. 5%),intracranial haemorrhage(12. 5%) and gastrointestinal bleeding(12. 5%). The data were divided into two stages (February 2000~January 2006 vs February 2006~January 2012). Compared with the former group,the abandon rate of the later was obviously lower(28. 0% vs 85. 7%) and suvival rate was significantly higher (44% vs 0%). There was significant diffrence of ART between survival group and mortality/abandon group(P<0. 05) with single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis.【Conclusion】 Positive treatment and timely processing of complications can improve ELBWI survival rate and reduce mortality. The treatment of survival limits.ELBWI should weigh up pros and cons,and should elevated the living quality of ELBWI.%[目的] 通过对12年来中心NICU中超低出生体重儿(extremely low birth weight infant,ELBWI)的生存状况分析,探讨ELBWI的生存质量及相关干预措施. [方法]对本院新生儿病房NICU自2000年2月-2012年1月的32例ELBWI进行回顾性分析. [结果]12年来ELBWI存活率34.4%,病死率25.0%,放弃率40.6%,辅助生育的ELBWI均积极治疗,存活率75.0%.所有存活者中女性占72.7%,明显高于男性.直接死亡原因最常见肺出血(62.5%),其次为早产儿肺透明膜病(12.5

  10. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  11. Curating a Mild Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of our exhibition “Mild Apocalypse. Feral Landscapes in Denmark” (2016) we discuss how we curated insights generated in a collaborative cross-disciplinary research project about a former mining site in Denmark. We approach this industrially disturbed and radically altered landscape......-based curating must follow suit by creating novel objects, thereby making exhibitions into provisional analyses and blurring conventional lines between art galleries and museums of cultural history....

  12. Changes of Frequency of Summer Precipitation Extremes over the Yangtze River in Association with Large-scale Oceanic-atmospheric Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Changes of the frequency of precipitation extremes (the number of days with daily precipitation exceeding the 90th percentile of a daily climatology,referred to as R90N) in summer (June-August) over the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River arc analyzed based on daily observations during 1961-2007.The first singular value decomposition (SVD) mode of R90N is linked to an ENSO-like mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the previous winter.Responses of different grades of precipitation events to the climatic mode are compared.It is notable that the frequency of summer precipitation extremes is significantly related with the SSTA in the Pacific,while those of light and moderate precipitation are not.It is suggested that the previously well-recognized impact of ENSO on summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is essentially due to a response in summer precipitation extremes in the region,in association with the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern.A negative relationship is found between the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and precipitation extremes over the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River.In contrast,light rainfall processes are independent from the SST and EASM variations.

  13. Curating a Mild Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    that often go unnoticed? We argue that exhibition work when practiced as a form of research provides an opportunity for turning “trivial” environmental disaster into sensational experience by deliberately playing with objects to make what we think of as analytical figures. That is, exhibition artefacts...... as an effect of the so-called Anthropocene era, but one which is in a sense insignificant and undramatic – a mild apocalypse. This poses a challenge to both our anthropological research and our curatorial practices: how do we bring the Anthropocene home and draw attention to the inconspicuous disasters...

  14. EXTENDED MILD-SLOPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红

    2001-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.

  15. The transition of mild to severe wear of ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The transition of mild to severe wear of ceramics depends on the operating conditions (normal load, velocity and temperature) and material properties (like grain size, mechanical and thermal material properties). Adachi et al. [Wear 203¿204 (1997) 291] introduced the transition of mild to severe wea

  16. Can decision rules simulate carbon allocation for years with contrasting and extreme weather conditions? A case study for three temperate beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Verbeeck, Hans; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of carbohydrates to different tree processes and organs is crucial to understand the overall carbon (C) cycling rate in forest ecosystems. Decision rules (DR) (e.g. functional balances and source-sink relationships) are widely used to model C allocation in forests. However, standard......) and for two contrasting sites not used for parameterisation (the beech forest of Sorø, Denmark, for 1999-2006, and Collelongo, Italy, for 2005-2006). At Hesse, 2003 was characterised by a severe and extreme drought and heat wave. The standard DR allocation scheme captured the average annual dynamics of C...... of the standard DR allocation model to simulate year-to-year variability was limited. The amended DR allocation scheme improved the annual simulations and allowed capturing the stand growth dynamics at Hesse during the extreme 2003 summer and its important lag effect on next year's wood production. Modelling...

  17. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  18. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik T Nilsen

    Full Text Available The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion

  19. Physiological Responses to Microclimate Cooling Used By the Air Soldier Dressed at MOPP 4 in an Extreme Desert Condition: Effects of Six Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    4. Durnin, JVGA and J Womersley. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness : measurements on 481 men and... TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE DISCLAIMER STATEMENTS... Table 1. All tests were performed in a simulated extreme desert environment (51.7°C dry bulb (Tdb), 16.6°C dew point (Tdp) (14% rh), 1.3 m∙sec-1

  20. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  1. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  2. A Green Route for the One-Pot Synthesis of 1,2-Disubstituted Benzimidazoles Using Iron(Ill) Phosphate under Solventless Conditions%A Green Route for the One-Pot Synthesis of 1,2-Disubstituted Benzimidazoles Using Iron(Ill) Phosphate under Solventless Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behbahani, F.K.; Ziaei, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Disubstituted benzimidazoles are selectively synthesized in high yields under extremely mild conditions via the condensation of o-phenylenediamine derivatives with aldehyde derivatives using catalytic amount of iron(Ⅲ) phosphate under solventfree conditions. The use of readily available iron(Ⅲ) phosphate as a reusable and recyelable catalyst makes this process quite simple, convenient, and environment-friendly.

  3. Determinants of lipoprotein(a) assembly: a study of wild-type and mutant apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes isolated from human and rhesus monkey lipoprotein(a) under mild reductive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, C; Mandala, M; Pfaffinger, D; Scanu, A M

    1995-12-19

    We previously observed that rhesus monkey lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is lysine-binding defective (Lys-) and attributed this deficiency to the presence of Arg72 in the lysine-binding site (LBS) of kringle IV-10 of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] [Scanu, A.M., Miles, L.A., Fless, G.M., Pfaffinger, D., Eisenbart, J., Jackson, E., Hoover-Plow, J.L., Brunck, T., & Plow, E.F. (1993) J. Clin. Invest. 91, 283-291]. We also identified human mutants having Arg72 instead of Trp72 (wild type) in the LBS of kringle IV-10 [Scanu, A M., Pfaffinger, D., lEE, J.C., & Hinman, J. (1994) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1227, 41-45]. Unique to the human mutant phenotype were the very low levels of plasma Lp(a), suggesting structural differences between human and rhesus apo(a) and a possible divergent mode of Lp(a) assembly. In order to explore the possibility of a relationship between apo(a) LBS and Lp(a) assembly, we developed a novel method for isolating wild-type and mutant apo(a) phenotypes in a free form by subjecting each parent Lp(a) to mild reductive conditions using 2 mM dithioerythritol (DTE) and 100 mM of the lysine analogue, epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). The application of this method to the study of wild-type and mutant apo(a) species showed that regardless of the source of Lp(a), i.e., positive lysine binding (Lys+) or negative lysine binding (Lys-), all of the isolated free apo(a)s were Lys+. Moreover, incubation of free apo(a)s with their autologous human or rhesus low-density lipoproteins (LDL) generated Lp(a) complexes which were structurally and functionally indistinguishable from their parent native Lp(a). In each instance, the reassembly process was inhibited by the presence of either EACA or proline. These two reagents had a minimal effect on either Lp(a) or reassembled Lp(a) [RLp(a)]. Free apo(a) bound to apoB100 of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) to form a triglyceride-rich Lp(a). These results show that (1) both human and rhesus Lp(a) are amenable to dissassembly and

  4. Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164083.html Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids Skin condition cleared ... March 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Despite widespread use, antibiotics are not an effective treatment for milder cases ...

  5. The Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline ID24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, S; Mathon, O; Mairs, T; Kantor, I; Agostini, G; Strohm, C; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Berruyer, G; Chappelet, P; Clavel, C; Dominguez, M C

    2016-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has recently made available to the user community a facility totally dedicated to Time