WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely high precision

  1. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  2. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  3. High Precision Astrometry with MICADO at the European Extremely Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, S; Eisenhauer, F; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Fritz, T K; Genzel, R

    2009-01-01

    In this article we identify and discuss various statistical and systematic effects influencing the astrometric accuracy achievable with MICADO, the near-infrared imaging camera proposed for the 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These effects are instrumental (e.g. geometric distortion), atmospheric (e.g. chromatic differential refraction), and astronomical (reference source selection). We find that there are several phenomena having impact on ~100 micro-arcsec scales, meaning they can be substantially larger than the theoretical statistical astrometric accuracy of an optical/NIR 42m-telescope. Depending on type, these effects need to be controlled via dedicated instrumental design properties or via dedicated calibration procedures. We conclude that if this is done properly, astrometric accuracies of 40 micro-arcsec or better - with 40 micro-arcsec/year in proper motions corresponding to ~20 km/s at 100 kpc distance - can be achieved in one epoch of actual observations

  4. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Christian; Betters, Christopher H; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a...

  5. Single Mode, Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2014-04-01

    The `holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a limiting factor in current multimode fiber fed instruments (Baudrand & Walker 2001), can be eliminated by proper design, and the diffraction limited input to the spectrograph allows for very compact instrument designs, which provide excellent optomechanical stability. A SMF is the ideal interface for new, very precise wavelength calibrators, like laser frequency combs (Steinmetz et al. 2008, Osterman et al. 2012), or SMF based Fabry-Perot Etalons (Halverson et al. 2013). At near infrared wavelengths, these technologies are ready to be implemented in on-sky instruments, or already in use. We discuss a novel concept for such a spectrograph.

  6. State of the Field: Extreme Precision Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra; Arriagada, Pamela; Baluev, Roman V; Bean, Jacob L; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A; Carroll, Thorsten; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Dawson, Rebekah I; Diddams, Scott A; Dumusque, Xavier; Eastman, Jason D; Endl, Michael; Figueira, Pedro; Ford, Eric B; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Fournier, Paul; Furesz, Gabor; Gaudi, B Scott; Gregory, Philip C; Grundahl, Frank; Hatzes, Artie P; Hebrard, Guillaume; Herrero, Enrique; Hogg, David W; Howard, Andrew W; Johnson, John A; Jorden, Paul; Jurgenson, Colby A; Latham, David W; Laughlin, Greg; Loredo, Thomas J; Lovis, Christophe; Mahadevan, Suvrath; McCracken, Tyler M; Pepe, Francesco; Perez, Mario; Phillips, David F; Plavchan, Peter P; Prato, Lisa; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar; Robertson, Paul; Santos, Nuno C; Sawyer, David; Segransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Tilo; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stephane; Valenti, Jeff A; Wang, Sharon X; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm/s measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this precision are summarized here. Beginning with the HARPS spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to produce even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision radial velocity community include distinguishing center of mass Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities, and the proper ...

  7. Frequency combs and precision spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingöz, Arman

    2012-06-01

    Development of the optical frequency comb has revolutionized optical metrology and precision spectroscopy due to its ability to provide a precise link between microwave and optical frequencies. A novel application that aims to extend the precision and accuracy obtained to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is the generation of XUV frequency combs via intracavity high harmonic generation (HHG). Recently, we have been able to generate > 200 μW average power per harmonic and demonstrate the comb structure of the high harmonics by resolving atomic argon and neon lines at 82 and 63 nm, respectively [1]. The argon transition linewidth of 10 MHz, limited by residual Doppler broadening, is unprecedented in this spectral region and places a stringent upper limit on the linewidth of individual comb teeth. To overcome this limitation, we have constructed two independent intracavity HHG sources to study the phase coherence directly via the heterodyne beats between them. With these developments, ultrahigh precision spectroscopy in the XUV is within grasp and has a wide range of applications that include tests of bound state quantum electrodynamics, development of nuclear clocks, and searches for variation of fundamental constants using the enhanced sensitivity of highly charged ions.[4pt] [1] Arman Cing"oz et al., Nature 482, 68 (2012).

  8. EXPRES: the EXtreme PREcision Spectrograph at the Discovery Channel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra; Jurgenson, Colby; McCracken, Tyler; Sawyer, David; Blackman, Ryan; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we will commission EXPRES at the DCT to carry out a high precision radial velocity planet search. The instrument has a resolution of R=150,000 and spans a wavelength range from 390 - 680 nm. There are several features designed to ensure high fidelity spectra: a well scrambled fiber coupling, vibration isolation, a vacuum enclosure to maintain temperature stability to better than 1 mK and pressure stability better than 1 mTorr. The spectrometer has a unique flat-fielding system and a wavelength-dependent exposure meter. The laser frequency comb provides wavelength precision better than 5 cm/s and the overall instrumental error budget is 17 cm/s for a single observation. The fully characterized CCD detector has 9-micron pixels and a 10K by 10K format. The instrument will be commissioned for facility use with a fully automated extraction and Doppler analysis pipeline.This instrument and our analytial techniques aim to push the experiemental frontier on extreme Doppler precision toward 10 cm/s. Progress on RV precision is critical for measuring masses of exoplanets so that we can derive densities for small transiting planets and interpret the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. We will carry out a survey of 50 bright stars in the first year after commissioning EXPRES.

  9. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  10. High-precision Photometric Redshifts from Spitzer/IRAC: Extreme [3.6]-[4.5] Colors Identify Galaxies in the Redshift Range z~6.6-6.9

    CERN Document Server

    Smit, Renske; Franx, Marijn; Oesch, Pascal A; Ashby, Matthew L N; Willner, S P; Labbe, Ivo; Holwerda, Benne; Fazio, Giovanni G; Huang, J -S

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of studying galaxies in the z>~7 universe is the infrequent confirmation of their redshifts through spectroscopy, a phenomenon thought to occur from the increasing opacity of the intergalactic medium to Lya photons at z>6.5. The resulting redshift uncertainties inhibit the efficient search for [C II] in z~7 galaxies with sub-mm instruments such as ALMA, given their limited scan speed for faint lines. One means by which to improve the precision of the inferred redshifts is to exploit the potential impact of strong nebular emission lines on the colors of z~4-8 galaxies as observed by Spitzer/IRAC. At z~6.8, galaxies exhibit IRAC colors as blue as [3.6]-[4.5] ~-1, likely due to the contribution of [O III]+Hb to the 3.6 mum flux combined with the absence of line contamination in the 4.5 mum band. In this paper we explore the use of extremely blue [3.6]-[4.5] colors to identify galaxies in the narrow redshift window z~6.6-6.9. When combined with an I-dropout criterion, we demons...

  11. High Precision Electon Beam Polarimetry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutta, D

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades high precision electron beam polarimetry has been at the fore-front of progress made in leveraging the spin degrees of freedom in nuclear and particle physics experiments...

  12. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  13. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  14. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: Current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J S S V; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F M; Anandarao, B G

    2016-01-01

    PARAS is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 A, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching ~1 m/s over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of ~10 cm/s in the optical and <1 m/s in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the dat...

  15. High precision thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

  16. Research News -- Meson scattering at high precision

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B

    2007-01-01

    A fascinating new generation of experiments has determined certain meson scattering parameters at high precision. A confluence of highly sophisticated theory as well as new experimental ideas have led to this state of affairs, which sheds important light on the properties of the strong interactions. A brief review of the experiments and the theory is presented.

  17. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  18. High-speed precision motion control

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2011-01-01

    Written for researchers and postgraduate students in Control Engineering, as well as professionals in the Hard Disk Drive industry, this book discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). The editors present a number of control algorithms that enable fast seeking and high precision positioning, and propose problems from commercial products, making the book valuable to researchers in HDDs. Each chapter is self contained, and progresses from concept to technique, present application examples that can be used within automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufactu

  19. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement...

  20. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  1. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  2. High-Precision Photometry with the RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M.; Howell, S.; Davis, D.; McGruder, C. H., III; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Mattox, J. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    We plan to conduct a high-precision photometric search for transitting extra-solar planets using the refurbished 1.3 m (50 inch) Robotically-Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak. The photometric capabilities and extra-solar planet search strategy for the RCT are discussed. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  3. The Promise of Many Worlds: Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets with Extreme Precision Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, technological advancement aligned with some of mankind's oldest and most compelling questions to give birth to exoplanet science. Since then, the study of exoplanets, more than any other field of astrophysics, has grown in direct consonance with new instrumentation. In this dissertation talk I will discuss the development of three precision spectrographs that are pushing the limits on current radial velocity (RV) precision: (a) PARAS, a workhorse optical instrument achieving ~1m/s over several months, (b) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, an upcoming NIR instrument for the 10m Hobby Eberly Telescope, and (c) NEID, an extreme precision instrument that will be the centerpiece of the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research (NN-EXPLORE) partnership. The path to the extreme precisions required to detect Earth analogs (~10cm/s), requires severe technical artistry and demands unprecedented performance from both hardware and software. I will summarize the most challenging sources of measurement error and the hardware solutions we have innovated, including my work on the invention of an efficient ball lens double scrambler (patent pending) that essentially retires issues of illumination instability. As software architect of these instruments, I will also describe the pathways to extreme precision data analysis pipelines, rooted firmly in the heritage of current instruments in the field. Fortunately, the scientific return from these meticulously produced spectra will be manifold, extending beyond precision RVs. I will briefly discuss my work leveraging the stability and resolution of similar instruments for stellar activity diagnosis and the determination of insidious false positives, as well as for the direct detection of reflected light from exoplanets. These efforts together underline both the formidable demands and rich rewards of extreme precision spectroscopy, which remains our fundamental tool for the discovery of potentially habitable non

  4. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Carleo, I; Gratton, R; Benatti, S; Bonavita, M; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Desidera, S; Claudi, R; Sissa, E

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 micron) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the v...

  5. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  6. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  7. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, T. C.; Morgan, J. P.; Marchant, N. J.; Bolton, S. M.

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank is presented. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in a battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on-board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display.

  8. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 108 to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  9. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  10. Recent high precision surveys at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    The task of surveying and aligning the components of PEP has provided an opportunity to develop new instruments and techniques for the purpose of high precision surveys. The new instruments are quick and easy to use, and they automatically encode survey data and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compares them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  11. Towards Precision Photometry with Extremely Large Telescopes: the Double Subgiant Branch of NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Turri, P; Stetson, P B; Fiorentino, G; Andersen, D R; Véran, J -P; Bono, G

    2015-01-01

    The Extremely Large Telescopes currently under construction have a collecting area that is an order of magnitude larger than the present largest optical telescopes. For seeing-limited observations the performance will scale as the collecting area but, with the successful use of adaptive optics, for many applications it will scale as $D^4$ (where $D$ is the diameter of the primary mirror). Central to the success of the ELTs, therefore, is the successful use of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) that applies a high degree correction over a field of view larger than the few arcseconds that limits classical adaptive optics systems. In this letter, we report on the analysis of crowded field images taken on the central region of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 in $K_s$ band using GeMS at the Gemini South telescope, the only science-grade MCAO system in operation. We use this cluster as a benchmark to verify the ability to achieve precise near-infrared photometry by presenting the deepest $K_s$ photometry...

  12. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin, E-mail: djanders@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm{sup 3} lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm{sup 3} LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  13. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apreysan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bornheim, Adi [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Duarte, Javier [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Newman, Harvey [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pena, Cristian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Trevor, Jason [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm3 lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  14. Mechanical Analysis of high precision manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Elle

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance that high precision manipulators are well designed from a mechanical point of view. A thorough analysis of all mechanical aspects concerning an accurate manipulator will make a good basis for further design. This paper presents a new approach to mechanical analysis of high-precision manipulators. A typical six axis anthropomorphic manipulator configuration is chosen as a model for the analysis. The paper is divided into two main parts; static deformation analysis and dynamic analysis. The static deformation analysis consists of three sub-parts; link deformation, joint deformation and total mechanical deformation. A simple fixed beam deformation model is used to simulate every link. Both specific gravity and a load attached at the end of the beam is considered. By varying material, outer dimensions and wall thickness it is possible to determine optimal values. Looking at the whole structure with an attacking force at the end, it is possible to select appropriate motor/transmission combinations. Each combination represents compliance and combined with the arm compliance the total deformation can be found. The result shows that deformation due to compliance in the joints represents 97

  15. Highly precise and compact ultrahigh vacuum rotary feedthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiura, Y.; Kitano, K.

    2012-03-01

    The precision and rigidity of compact ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) rotary feedthroughs were substantially improved by preparing and installing an optimal crossed roller bearing with mounting holes. Since there are mounting holes on both the outer and inner races, the bearing can be mounted directly to rotary and stationary stages without any fixing plates and housing. As a result, it is possible to increase the thickness of the bearing or the size of the rolling elements in the bearing without increasing the distance between the rotating and fixing International Conflat flanges of the UHV rotary feedthrough. Larger rolling elements enhance the rigidity of the UHV rotary feedthrough. Moreover, owing to the structure having integrated inner and outer races and mounting holes, the performance is almost entirely unaffected by the installation of the bearing, allowing for a precise optical encoder to be installed in the compact UHV rotary feedthrough. Using position feedback via a worm gear system driven by a stepper motor and a precise rotary encoder, the actual angle of the compact UHV rotary feedthrough can be controlled with extremely high precision.

  16. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...... the application of the A-E modulation to the sensor feedback loop theoretically derives the main advantage of this method-increasing of the modulation order and shows its real potential compared to the analog magnetometer with consequential digitalization. The comparison is realized on the modular magnetometer...

  17. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    allowing configurations with modulator inside and outside the feedback loop. The last principle is demonstrated on the project of the fully digital fluxgate magnetometer based on the digital signal processor (DSP). The results of the presented projects are compared with recently published competitive......This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...

  18. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  19. New research trends on high-precision time transfer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Ruifang; QUAN; Run’ai; HOU; Feiyan; WANG; Shaofeng; XIANG; Xiao; ZHOU; Conghua; WANG; Mengmeng; LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Shou’gang

    2015-01-01

    High-precision time transfer plays an important role in the areas of fundamental research and applications. Accompanying w ith the remarkable improvements in the ability of generating and measuring high-accuracy time-frequency signal,seeking for new time-transfer techniques betw een distant clocks w ith much further improved accuracy attracts attentions w orld-w idely. The time-transfer technique based on optical pulses has the highest precision presently,and the further improvement in the accuracy is heavily dependent on the time-domain properties of the pulse as w ell as the sensitivity of the applied measurement on the exchanged pulse. The application of optical frequency comb in time transfer for a precision up to femtosecond level are currently the focus of much interest,and has recently achieved many breakthroughs. Further investigations show that,utilizing quantum techniques,i.e. quantum measurement technique and quantum optical pulse source,can lead to a new limit on the measured timing information. Furthermore,it can be immune from atmospheric parameters,such as pressure,temperature,humidity and so on.Such quantum improvements on time-transfer have a bright prospect in the future applications requiring extremely high-accuracy timing and ranging. The potential achievements w ill form a technical basis for the future realization of sub-femtosecond time transfer system.

  20. Photonic systems for high precision radial velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss new instrumentation and techniques designed to maximize the Doppler radial velocity (RV) measurement precision of next generation exoplanet discovery instruments. These systems include a novel wavelength calibration device based on an all-fiber fabry-perot interferometer, a compact and efficient optical fiber image scrambler based on a single high-index ball lens, and a unique optical fiber mode mixer. These systems have been developed specifically to overcome three technological hurdles that have classically hindered high precision RV measurements in both the optical and near-infrared (NIR), namely: lack of available wavelength calibration sources, inadequate decoupling of the spectrograph from variable telescope illumination, and speckle-induced noise due to mode interference in optical fibers. The instrumentation presented here will be applied to the Habitable-zone Planet Finder, a NIR RV instrument designed to detect rocky planets orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M-dwarfs, and represents a critical technological step towards the detection of potentially habitable Earth-like planets. While primarily focused in the NIR, many of these systems will be adapted to future optical RV instruments as well, such as NASA's new Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrometer for the WIYN telescope.

  1. High precision laser forming for micro actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger K.G.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Brouwer, D.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Nakata, Yoshiki; Xu, Xianfan; Roth, Stephan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-01-01

    For assembly of micro-devices, such as photonic devices, the precision alignment of components is often critical for their performance. Laser forming, also known as laser-adjusting, can be used to create an integrated microactuator to align the components with sub-micron precision after bonding. In

  2. Design and High Precision Monitoring of Detector Structures at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Friedrich; Riegler, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Situated on the outskirts of Geneva, CERN is the leading center for particle physics in the world. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with its 27 km ringshaped accelerator, which is currently under construction and will be operational in 2008, will begin a new era in high energy physics by revealing the basic constituents of the universe. One of the experiments is ALICE (A Large Ion - Colliding - Experiment), a detector consisting of multiple layers of sub detectors around the collision point to detect dierent types and properties of particles created in the collisions. Those particles are identified via their energy, momentum, track and decay products, and it is therefore important to align the various sub detectors very precisely to each other and monitor their position. The monitoring systems have to operate for an extended period of time under extreme conditions (e.g. high radiation) and must not absorb too many of the particles created in the collisions. This dissertation describes monitoring systems develo...

  3. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  4. High-precision astrometry towards ELTs

    CERN Document Server

    Massari, Davide; Tolstoy, Eline; McConnachie, Alan; Stuik, Remko; Schreiber, Laura; Andersen, David; Clénet, Yann; Davies, Richard; Gratadour, Damien; Kuijken, Konrad; Navarro, Ramon; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Turri, Paolo; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of paving the road for future accurate astrometry with MICADO at the European-ELT, we performed an astrometric study using two different but complementary approaches to investigate two critical components that contribute to the total astrometric accuracy. First, we tested the predicted improvement in the astrometric measurements with the use of an atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) by simulating realistic images of a crowded Galactic globular cluster. We found that the positional measurement accuracy should be improved by up to ~2 mas with the ADC, making this component fundamental for high-precision astrometry. Second, we analysed observations of a globular cluster taken with the only currently available Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics assisted camera, GeMS/GSAOI at Gemini South. Making use of previously measured proper motions of stars in the field of view, we were able to model the distortions affecting the stellar positions. We found that they can be as large as ~200 mas, and that our bes...

  5. Precision and accuracy of 3D lower extremity residua measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Pilgram, Thomas K.

    1996-04-01

    Accurate and reproducible geometric measurement of lower extremity residua is required for custom prosthetic socket design. We compared spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) and 3D optical surface scanning (OSS) with caliper measurements and evaluated the precision and accuracy of each system. Spiral volumetric CT scanned surface and subsurface information was used to make external and internal measurements, and finite element models (FEMs). SXCT and OSS were used to measure lower limb residuum geometry of 13 below knee (BK) adult amputees. Six markers were placed on each subject's BK residuum and corresponding plaster casts and distance measurements were taken to determine precision and accuracy for each system. Solid models were created from spiral CT scan data sets with the prosthesis in situ under different loads using p-version finite element analysis (FEA). Tissue properties of the residuum were estimated iteratively and compared with values taken from the biomechanics literature. The OSS and SXCT measurements were precise within 1% in vivo and 0.5% on plaster casts, and accuracy was within 3.5% in vivo and 1% on plaster casts compared with caliper measures. Three-dimensional optical surface and SXCT imaging systems are feasible for capturing the comprehensive 3D surface geometry of BK residua, and provide distance measurements statistically equivalent to calipers. In addition, SXCT can readily distinguish internal soft tissue and bony structure of the residuum. FEM can be applied to determine tissue material properties interactively using inverse methods.

  6. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  7. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  8. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  9. High precision flux measurements with ENUBET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzato, M.; ENUBET collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The challenges of precision neutrino physics (i.e the study of CP violation) require measurements of absolute ν cross sections at the GeV scale with exquisite (O(1)%) precision. Such precision is presently limited to about 10% by the uncertainties on neutrino flux at the source. A reduction of this uncertainty by one order of magnitude can be achieved monitoring the positron production in the decay tunnel originating from the Ke3 decays of charged kaons in a sign and momentum selected narrow band beam. This novel technique enables the measurement of the most relevant cross-sections for CP violation (νe and {\\displaystyle \\bar{ν }}e) with a precision of 1% and requires a special instrumented beam-line. Such non-conventional beam-line will be developed in the framework of the ENUBET Horizon-2020 Consolidator Grant (PI A. Longhin), recently approved by the European Research Council (grant agreement N° 681647). In this poster, we will present the Project and the early experimental results on ultra-compact calorimeters that can embedded in the instrumented decay tunnel.

  10. Design of High Precision Temperature Measurement System based on Labview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the LabVIEW software platform, a high precision temperature measuring device is designed based on the principle of the thermocouple. The system uses the STM32 MCU as the main control chip, using AD7076 analog digital converter. The converter has 8 channel, synchronous sampling, and bipolar input. Improving the precision of temperature measurement by cold end compensation, fitting and other measures. The test results show that, the device temperature measurement precision can reach ±0.1 °C, has the advantages of small size, high precision, and reliable performance, this high precision temperature measurement can be widely used in industrial production.

  11. High Precision Orbit Determination of CHAMP Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qile; LIU Jingnan; GE Maorong

    2006-01-01

    The precision orbit determination of challenging minisatellite payload(CHAMP) satellite was done based on position and navigation data analyst(PANDA) software which is developed in Wuhan University, using the onboard GPS data of year 2002 from day 126 to 131. The orbit accuracy was assessed by analyzing the difference from GFZ post-processed science orbits (PSO), the GPS carrier and pseudo-range data residuals and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals.

  12. Prospects for High-Precision Pulsar Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, K; Kramer, M; Stappers, B W; van Straten, W; Cordes, J M

    2011-01-01

    Timing pulses of pulsars has proved to be a most powerful technique useful to a host of research areas in astronomy and physics. Importantly, the precision of this timing is not only affected by radiometer noise, but also by intrinsic pulse shape changes, interstellar medium (ISM) evolution, instrumental distortions, etc. In this paper we review the known causes of pulse shape variations and assess their effect on the precision and accuracy of a single measurement of pulse arrival time with current instrumentation. Throughout this analysis we use the brightest and most precisely timed millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J0437-4715, as a case study, and develop a set of diagnostic tools to evaluate profile stability in timing observations. We conclude that most causes of distortion can be either corrected by state-of-the-art techniques or taken into account in the estimation of time-of-arrival (TOA) uncertainties. The advent of a new generation of radio telescopes (e.g. the Square Kilometre Array, SKA), and their in...

  13. High-precision spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Widmann, E

    2001-01-01

    We present first results of laser and microwave spectroscopy experiments of antiprotonic helium performed at the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. Extending a series of previous measurements done at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) of CERN, several laser- induced transitions of the antiproton in the exotic three-body system He/sup 2+/-e/sup -/-p could be determined with a precision down to 1.3*10/sup -7/. This constitutes an improvement of a factor 3 over previous measurements, and allows to test accurate three-body calculations of this system that include QED corrections. The observed agreement on the same level can be used to infer CPT limits on the antiproton charge and mass. Furthermore, a first indication of a resonance signal of a two-laser microwave triple experiment to measure the hyperfine splitting of antiprotonic helium could been observed. Such a measurement has the potential to determine the antiproton magnetic moment to a higher precision that it is known today. (19 refs).

  14. High-precision Absolute Coordinate Measurement using Frequency Scanned Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tianxiang; Riles, Keith; Li, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report high-precision absolute position measurement performed with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI). We reported previously on measurement of absolute distance with FSI [1]. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision of 2-dimensional measurements is better than 1 micron, and in 3-dimensional measurements, the precision on X and Y is confirmed to be below 1 micron, while the confirmed precision on Z is about 2 microns, where the confirmation is limited by the lower precision of the moving stage in Z direction.

  15. A Novel High-Precision Laser Wavemeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-qiang; ZHENG Hon-gxing

    2007-01-01

    The wavemeter can measure a wavelength of a tuned laser and an unknown laser. Due to the Doppler shift, the wavemeter operates and establishes coherent interference fringes on the detectors according to the Michelson interference principle. The electronic signals of the reference laser and an unknown laser both are multiplied frequency by PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) unit so as to enhance the resolutions of the wavemeter. PLL unit consists of NE564 and 74LS193.The movable reflector of the wavemeter is driven by a voice-coin motor. The closed loop feedback design can ensure the movable reflector to move in constant speed all the time. Experiment results show that precision of this wavemeter is super to 1×10-6, approaching to 2×10-7.

  16. Relativistic QED Plasma at Extremely High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization scheme of QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) at high temperatures is used to calculate the effective parameters of relativistic plasma in the early universe. Renormalization constants of QED play role of effective parameters of the theory and can be used to determine the collective behavior of the medium. We explicitly show that the dielectric constant, magnetic reluctivity, Debye length and the plasma frequency depend on temperature in the early universe. Propagation speed, refractive index, plasma frequency and Debye shielding length of a QED plasma are computed at extremely high temperatures in the early universe. We also found the favorable conditions for the relativistic plasma from this calculations.

  17. Computer Controlled High Precise,High Voltage Pules Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但果; 邹积岩; 丛吉远; 董恩源

    2003-01-01

    High precise, high voltage pulse generator made up of high-power IGBT and pulse transformers controlled by a computer are described. A simple main circuit topology employed in this pulse generator can reduce the cost meanwhile it still meets special requirements for pulsed electric fields (PEFs) in food process. The pulse generator utilizes a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to generate trigger signals. Pulse-frequency, pulse-width and pulse-number are controlled via RS232 bus by a computer. The high voltage pulse generator well suits to the application for fluid food non-thermal effect in pulsed electric fields, for it can increase and decrease by the step length 1.

  18. High precision droplet based new form manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves,S; Hadjiconstantinou, N; Miller, W O; Orme, M; Sahai, V; Shapiro, A B

    1999-09-16

    In collaboration with the University of California at Irvine (UCI), we are working on a new technology that relies on the precise deposition of nanoliter molten-metal droplets that are targeted onto a substrate by electrostatic charging and deflection. By this way, three-dimensional (3D) structural materials can be manufactured microlayer by microlayer. Because the volume of the droplets are small, they rapidly solidify on impact, bringing forth a material component with fine grain structures which lead to enhanced material properties (e.g., strength). UCI is responsible for an experimental investigation of the manufacturing feasibility of this process. LLNL has unique expertise in the computational modeling of 3D heat transfer and solid mechanics and has the large-scale computer resources necessary to model this large system. Process modeling will help move this technology from the bench-top to an industrial process. Applications at LLNL include rapid prototyping of metal parts and manufacturing new alloys by co-jetting different metals.

  19. APERTURE: a precise extremely large reflective telescope using re-configurable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Coverstone, V. L.; Cao, J.; Chung, Y.-W.; Corbineau, M.-C.; Case, A.; Murchison, B.; Lorenz, C.; Luo, G.; Pekosh, J.; Sepulveda, J.; Schneider, A.; Yan, X.; Ye, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the pressing needs for the UV-Vis is a design to allow even larger mirrors than the JWST primary at an affordable cost. We report here the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts phase 1 study. Our project is called A Precise Extremely large Reflective Telescope Using Reconfigurable Elements (APERTURE). The idea is to deploy a continuous membrane-like mirror. The mirror figure will be corrected after deployment to bring it into better or equal lambda/20 deviations from the prescribed mirror shape. The basic concept is not new. What is new is to use a different approach from the classical piezoelectric-patch technology. Instead, our concept is based on a contiguous coating of a so called magnetic smart material (MSM). After deployment a magnetic write head will move on the non-reflecting side of the mirror and will generate a magnetic field that will produce a stress in the MSM that will correct the mirror deviations from the prescribed shape.

  20. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  1. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  2. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7–9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  3. Developing Performance Estimates for High Precision Astrometry with TMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeck, Matthias; Do, Tuan; Ellerbroek, Brent; Herriot, Glen; Meyer, Leo; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wang, Lianqi; Yelda, Sylvana

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive optics on Extremely Large Telescopes will open up many new science cases or expand existing science into regimes unattainable with the current generation of telescopes. One example of this is high-precision astrometry, which has requirements in the range from 10 to 50 micro-arc-seconds for some instruments and science cases. Achieving these requirements imposes stringent constraints on the design of the entire observatory, but also on the calibration procedures, observing sequences and the data analysis techniques. This paper summarizes our efforts to develop a top down astrometry error budget for TMT. It is predominantly developed for the first-light AO system, NFIRAOS, and the IRIS instrument, but many terms are applicable to other configurations as well. Astrometry error sources are divided into 5 categories: Reference source and catalog errors, atmospheric refraction correction errors, other residual atmospheric effects, opto-mechanical errors and focal plane measurement errors. Results are developed in parametric form whenever possible. However, almost every error term in the error budget depends on the details of the astrometry observations, such as whether absolute or differential astrometry is the goal, whether one observes a sparse or crowded field, what the time scales of interest are, etc. Thus, it is not possible to develop a single error budget that applies to all science cases and separate budgets are developed and detailed for key astrometric observations. Our error budget is consistent with the requirements for differential astrometry of tens of micro-arc-seconds for certain science cases. While no show stoppers have been found, the work has resulted in several modifications to the NFIRAOS optical surface specifications and reference source design that will help improve the achievable astrometry precision even further.

  4. Design of High Precision Temperature Measurement System based on Labview

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Zhu; Jin Liu; Haima Yang; Chaochao Yan

    2015-01-01

    Using the LabVIEW software platform, a high precision temperature measuring device is designed based on the principle of the thermocouple. The system uses the STM32 MCU as the main control chip, using AD7076 analog digital converter. The converter has 8 channel, synchronous sampling, and bipolar input. Improving the precision of temperature measurement by cold end compensation, fitting and other measures. The test results show that, the device temperature measurement precision can reach ±0.1 ...

  5. High-Precision Spectroscopy of Pulsating Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, C; Desmet, M; Carrier, F; Zima, W; Briquet, M; De Ridder, J

    2007-01-01

    We review methodologies currently available to interprete time series of high-resolution high-S/N spectroscopic data of pulsating stars in terms of the kind of (non-radial) modes that are excited. We illustrate the drastic improvement of the detection treshold of line-profile variability thanks to the advancement of the instrumentation over the past two decades. This has led to the opportunity to interprete line-profile variations with amplitudes of order m/s, which is a factor 1000 lower than the earliest line-profile time series studies allowed for.

  6. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  7. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  8. High-precision gauging of metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Mats; Lillekjendlie, Bjorn

    1994-11-01

    Raufoss AS designs and produces air brake fittings for trucks and buses on the international market. One of the critical components in the fittings is a small, circular metal ring, which is going through 100% dimension control. This article describes a low-price, high accuracy solution developed at SINTEF Instrumentation based on image metrology and a subpixel resolution algorithm. The measurement system consists of a PC-plugg-in transputer video board, a CCD camera, telecentric optics and a machine vision strobe. We describe the measurement technique in some detail, as well as the robust statistical techniques found to be essential in the real life environment.

  9. Design and preliminary test of precision segment positioning actuator for the California Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorell, Kenneth R.; Aubrun, Jean-Noel; Clappier, Robert R.; Shelef, Ben; Shelef, Gad

    2003-01-01

    In order for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) to achieve the required optical performance, each of its 1000 primary mirror segments must be positioned relative to adjacent segments with nanometer-level accuracy. This can be accomplished using three actuators for each segment to actively control the segment in tip, tilt, and piston. The Keck telescopes utilize a segmented primary mirror similar to CELT employing a highly successful actuator design. However, because of its size and the shear number of actuators (3000 vs. 108 for Keck), CELT will require a different design. Sensitivity to wind loads and structural vibrations, the large dynamic range, low operating power, and extremely reliable operation, all achieved at an affordable unit cost, are the most demanding design requirements. This paper examines four actuator concepts and presents a trade-off between them. The concept that best met the CELT requirements is described along with an analysis of its performance. The concept is based on techniques that achieve the required accuracy while providing a substantial amount of vibration attenuation and damping. A prototype actuator has been built to validate this concept. Preliminary tests confirm predicted behavior and future tests will establish a sound baseline for final design and production.

  10. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  11. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  12. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  13. Galvanometer deflection: a precision high-speed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, D P; Raamot, J

    1976-06-01

    An X-Y galvanometer deflection system capable of high precision in a random access mode of operation is described. Beam positional information in digitized form is obtained by employing a Ronchi grating with a sophisticated optical detection scheme. This information is used in a control interface to locate the beam to the required precision. The system is characterized by high accuracy at maximum speed and is designed for operation in a variable environment, with particular attention placed on thermal insensitivity.

  14. Optical design of the NASA-NSF extreme precision Doppler spectrograph concept "WISDOM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stuart I.; Fżrész, Gábor; Simcoe, Robert A.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Woods, Deborah F.

    2016-08-01

    The WISDOM instrument concept was developed at MIT as part of a NASA-NSF funded study to equip the 3.5m WIYN telescope with an extremely precise radial velocity spectrometer. The spectrograph employs an asymmetric white pupil optical design, where the instrument is split into two nearly identical "Short" (380 to 750 nm) and "Long"" (750 to 1300 nm) wavelength channels. The echelle grating and beam sizes are R3.75/125mm and R6/80mm in the short and long channels respectively. Together with the pupil slicer, and octagonal to rectangular fibre coupling, this permits resolving powers over R = 120k with a 1.2" diameter fibre on the sky. A factor of two reduction in the focal length between the main collimator OAP and the transfer collimator ensures a very compact instrument, with a small white pupil footprint, thereby enabling small cross-dispersing and camera elements. A dichroic is used near the white pupil to split each of the long and short channels into two, so that the final spectrograph has 4 channels; namely "Blue," "Green," "Red" and "NIR." Each of these channels has an anamorphic VPH grism for cross-dispersion, and a fully dioptric all-spherical camera objective. The spectral footprints cover 4k×4k and 6k×6k CCDs with 15 µm pixels in the short "Blue" and "Green" wavelength channels, respectively. A 4k×4k CCD with 15 μm pixels is used in the long "Red" channel, with a HgCdTe 1.7 μm cutoff 4k×4k detector with 10um pixels is to be used in the long "NIR" channel. The white pupil relay includes a Mangin mirror very close to the intermediate focus to correct the white pupil relay Petzval curvature before it is swept into a cylinder by the cross-dispersers. This design decision allows each of the dioptric cameras to be fully optimised and tested independently of the rest of the spectrograph. The baseline design for the cameras also ensures that the highest possible (diffraction limited) image quality is achieved across all wavelengths, while also ensuring

  15. Fiber link design for the NASA-NSF extreme precision Doppler spectrograph concept "WISDOM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Pawluczyk, Rafal; Fournier, Paul; Simcoe, Robert; Woods, Deborah F.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design of the fiber-optic coupling and light transfer system of the WISDOM (WIYN Spectrograph for DOppler Monitoring) instrument. As a next-generation Precision Radial Velocity (PRV) spectrometer, WISDOM incorporates lessons learned from HARPS about thermal, pressure, and gravity control, but also takes new measures to stabilize the spectrograph illumination, a subject that has been overlooked until recently. While fiber optic links provide more even illumination than a conventional slit, careful engineering of the interface is required to realize their full potential. Conventional round fiber core geometries have been used successfully in conjunction with optical double scramblers, but such systems still retain a memory of the input illumination that is visible in systems seeking sub-m/s PRV precision. Noncircular fibers, along with advanced optical scramblers, and careful optimization of the spectrograph optical system itself are therefore necessary to study Earth-sized planets. For WISDOM, we have developed such a state-of-the-art fiber link concept. Its design is driven primarily by PRV requirements, but it also manages to preserve high overall throughput. Light from the telescope is coupled into a set of six, 32 μm diameter octagonal core fibers, as high resolution is achieved via pupil slicing. The low-OH, step index, fused silica, FBPI-type fibers are custom designed for their numerical aperture that matches the convergence of the feeding beam and thus minimizes focal ratio degradation at the output. Given the demanding environment at the telescope the fiber end tips are mounted in a custom fused silica holder, providing a perfect thermal match. We used a novel process, chemically assisted photo etching, to manufacture this glass fiber holder. A single ball-lens scrambler is inserted into the 25m long fibers. Employing an anti-reflection (AR) coated, high index, cubic-zirconia ball lens the alignment of the scrambler components are

  16. High precision modeling at the 10^{-20} level

    CERN Document Server

    Andres, M; Costea, A; Hackmann, E; Herrmann, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Nesemann, L; Rievers, B; Stephan, E P

    2011-01-01

    The requirements for accurate numerical simulation are increasing constantly. Modern high precision physics experiments now exceed the achievable numerical accuracy of standard commercial and scientific simulation tools. One example are optical resonators for which changes in the optical length are now commonly measured to 10^{-15} precision. The achievable measurement accuracy for resonators and cavities is directly influenced by changes in the distances between the optical components. If deformations in the range of 10^{-15} occur, those effects cannot be modeled and analysed any more with standard methods based on double precision data types. New experimental approaches point out that the achievable experimental accuracies may improve down to the level of 10^{-17} in the near future. For the development and improvement of high precision resonators and the analysis of experimental data, new methods have to be developed which enable the needed level of simulation accuracy. Therefore we plan the development o...

  17. Precise nuclear moments of extremely proton-rich nuclus {sup 23}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp [International Christian University (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Ichikawa, Y.; Yamada, K.; Kawamura, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Ozawa, A.; Moriguchi, T.; Ishibashi, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Asahi, K.; Uchida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, T.; Hasama, Y.; Iijima, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Electric quadrupole coupling constant eqQ/h of the extremely proton-rich {sup 23}Al (I{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup + }, T{sub 1/2} = 0.47 s) nucleus implanted into an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal has been measured for the first time, using the {beta}-ray detecting nuclear quadrupole resonance method ({beta}-NQR) in a high magnetic field. As a preliminary result, the quadrupole coupling constant was determined as vertical bar eqQ/h({sup 23}Al) vertical bar = 2.66{+-}0.77 MHz. Using the quadrupole coupling constant of {sup 27}Al in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reference, the Q moment of the ground state of {sup 23}Al was extracted as vertical bar Q({sup 23}Al) vertical bar {approx} 160 mb, which is well explained by the shell model calculation in the sd-shell model space with the USD interaction.

  18. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  19. A Computer-Adaptive Disability Instrument for Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis Research Demonstrated Promising Breadth, Precision and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M.; McDonough, Christine M.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Latham, Nancy; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Felson, David; Kim, Young-jo; Hunter, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a prototype measure (OA-DISABILITY-CAT) for osteoarthritis research using Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) methodologies. Study Design and Setting We constructed an item bank consisting of 33 activities commonly affected by lower extremity (LE) osteoarthritis. A sample of 323 adults with LE osteoarthritis reported their degree of limitation in performing everyday activities and completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire-II (HAQ-II). We used confirmatory factor analyses to assess scale unidimensionality and IRT methods to calibrate the items and examine the fit of the data. Using CAT simulation analyses, we examined the performance of OA-DISABILITY-CATs of different lengths compared to the full item bank and the HAQ-II. Results One distinct disability domain was identified. The 10-item OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated a high degree of accuracy compared with the full item bank (r=0.99). The item bank and the HAQ-II scales covered a similar estimated scoring range. In terms of reliability, 95% of OA-DISABILITY reliability estimates were over 0.83 versus 0.60 for the HAQ-II. Except at the highest scores the 10-item OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated superior precision to the HAQ-II. Conclusion The prototype OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated promising measurement properties compared to the HAQ-II, and is recommended for use in LE osteoarthritis research. PMID:19216052

  20. FIRST PRECISION LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEGLECTED EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE BINARY HR BOOTIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, Ronald G. [Faculty Research Associate, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, One Pari Drive, Rosman, NC 28772 (United States); Benkendorf, Barry; Dignan, James B. [Astronomy Group, Physics and Engineering Department, Bob Jones University, 1700 Wade Hampton Boulevard, Greenville, SC 29614 (United States); Robb, Russell [University of Victoria and Guest Observer, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Canada); Kring, James [Physics Department, Auburn University, 206 Allison Lab, Auburn, Alabama, 36849 (United States); Faulkner, Danny R. [University of South Carolina, Lancaster, 476 Hubbard Drive, Lancaster, SC 29720 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    HR Bootis is a neglected binary that is found to be a solar-type (G2V) extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB). It was discovered by Hanley and Shapley in 1940. Surprisingly, little has been published in the intervening years. In 1999 it was characterized by a 0.31587 day orbital period. Since that time it has been observed by various observers who have determined ∼20 timings of minimum light over the past ∼15,000 orbits. Our observations in 2012 represent the first precision curves in the BVR{sub c}I{sub c} Johnson–Cousins wavelength bands. The light curves have rather low amplitudes, averaging some 0.5 magnitudes, yet they exhibit total eclipses, which is typical of the rare group of solar-type EMRBs. An improved linear ephemeris was computed along with a quadratic ephemeris showing a decaying orbit, which indicates magnetic breaking may be occurring. The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a contact system with a somewhat low 21% Roche-lobe fill-out but a mass ratio of q = 4.09 (0.2444), which defines it as an EMRB. Two spots, both hot, were allowed to iterate to fit the light curve asymmetries. Their radii are 32° and 16°. Both are high-latitude polar spots indicative of strong magnetic activity. The shallow contact yet nearly equal component temperatures makes it an unusual addition to this group.

  1. High precision spectroscopy and imaging in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.

    2014-03-01

    Application of microwave methods for development of the THz frequency range has resulted in elaboration of high precision THz spectrometers based on nonstationary effects. The spectrometers characteristics (spectral resolution and sensitivity) meet the requirements for high precision analysis. The gas analyzers, based on the high precision spectrometers, have been successfully applied for analytical investigations of gas impurities in high pure substances. These investigations can be carried out both in absorption cell and in reactor. The devices can be used for ecological monitoring, detecting the components of chemical weapons and explosive in the atmosphere. The great field of THz investigations is the medicine application. Using the THz spectrometers developed one can detect markers for some diseases in exhaled air.

  2. Bounding the Probability of Error for High Precision Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kae, Andrew; Learned-Miller, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We consider models for which it is important, early in processing, to estimate some variables with high precision, but perhaps at relatively low rates of recall. If some variables can be identified with near certainty, then they can be conditioned upon, allowing further inference to be done efficiently. Specifically, we consider optical character recognition (OCR) systems that can be bootstrapped by identifying a subset of correctly translated document words with very high precision. This "clean set" is subsequently used as document-specific training data. While many current OCR systems produce measures of confidence for the identity of each letter or word, thresholding these confidence values, even at very high values, still produces some errors. We introduce a novel technique for identifying a set of correct words with very high precision. Rather than estimating posterior probabilities, we bound the probability that any given word is incorrect under very general assumptions, using an approximate worst case ...

  3. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  4. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  5. Intellective high-precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Zhou, Qinhe; Kuang, Yongcong; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Zhixin

    2001-09-01

    Considering that the resistance of macromolecule resistor varies in a wide range and humidity sensor component is sensitive to temperature as well, a intelligent high- precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument was proposed in this paper, the instrument is based on the integration of frequency-and-period-measuring method, and sensing characteristic calculation and compensation using interpolation. Practical applications show that the instrument has the advantages of high precision, simple peripheral circuit, low cost, suitability for remote measurement, strong ability of anti-interference and wide operation range.

  6. Design considerations of high precision 6-HTRT parallel manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-feng; SUN Li-ning

    2006-01-01

    Describes a new architecture of a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom and focuses on improving orientation accuracy of movable platform in mechanism, error correction and control methods. A set of formulations about inverse kinematics, Jacobin matrix, and forward kinematics for the high precision 6-HTRT parallel robots is presented. The analysis of errors existing in the manipulator is discussed and a novel approach for error correction is advanced. By DSP technique, inverse kinematics is solved in real time conditions with high precision and the hardware control system is given. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  7. Design and control of a high precision drive mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; He, Yongqiang; Wang, Haowei; Zhang, Shuyang; Zhang, Donghua; Wei, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a high precision drive mechanism (HPDM) for space application, such as the directional antenna, the laser communication device, the mobile camera and other pointing mechanisms. In view of the great practical significance of high precision drive system, control technology for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system is also studied and a PMSM servo controller is designed in this paper. And the software alignment was applied to the controller to eliminate the steady error of the optical encoder, which helps to realize the 1 arcsec (1σ) control precision. To assess its capabilities, the qualification environment testing including the thermal vacuum cycling testing, and the sinusoidal and random vibration were carried out. The testing results show that the performance of the HPDM is almost the same between the former and the end of each testing.

  8. High precision module for Chaos Many-Body Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Grossu, I V; Felea, D; Jipa, Al

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a C# high precision relativistic many-body module integrated with Chaos Many-Body Engine. As a direct application, we used it for estimating the butterfly effect involved by the gravitational force in a specific nuclear relativistic collision toy-model.

  9. Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for High Precision Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotariu, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Ellenbroek, R.

    2008-01-01

    Iterative learning control (ILC) is a very effective technique to reduce systematic errors that occur in systems that repetitively perform the same motion or operation. However, several characteristics have prevented standard ILC from being widely used for high precision motion systems. Most importa

  10. High-Precision Spectroscopy with Counter-Propagating Femtosecond Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Barmes, Itan; Eikema, Kjeld S E

    2013-01-01

    An experimental realization of high-precision direct frequency comb spectroscopy using counter-propagating femtosecond pulses on two-photon atomic transitions is presented. Doppler broadened background signal, hampering precision spectroscopy with ultrashort pulses, is effectively eliminated with a simple pulse shaping method. As a result, all four 5S-7S two-photon transitions in a rubidium vapor are determined with both statistical and systematic uncertainties below 10$^{-11}$, which is an order of magnitude better than previous experiments on these transitions.

  11. GENERATION AND CONTROL OF HIGH PRECISION BEAMS AT LEPTON ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Chiu Chao

    2007-06-25

    Parity violation experiments require precision manipulation of helicity-correlated beam coordinates on target at the nm/nrad-level. Achieving this unprecedented level of control requires a detailed understanding of the particle optics and careful tuning of the beam transport to keep anomalies from compromising the design adiabatic damping. Such efforts are often hindered by machine configuration and instrumentation limitations at the low energy end. A technique has been developed at CEBAF including high precision measurements, Mathematica-based analysis for obtaining corrective solutions, and control hardware/software developments for realizing such level of control at energies up to 5 GeV.

  12. Calibration of the TWIST high-precision drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Grossheim, A; Olin, A; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.08.105

    2010-01-01

    A method for the precise measurement of drift times for the high-precision drift chambers used in the TWIST detector is described. It is based on the iterative correction of the space-time relationships by the time residuals of the track fit, resulting in a measurement of the effective drift times. The corrected drift time maps are parametrised individually for each chamber using spline functions. Biases introduced by the reconstruction itself are taken into account as well, making it necessary to apply the procedure to both data and simulation. The described calibration is shown to improve the reconstruction performance and to extend significantly the physics reach of the experiment.

  13. High Precision Time Domain Forward Modeling for Crosshole Electromagnetic Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shuhai; Zhao Liying

    2007-01-01

    To improve the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography, high precision of forward modeling is necessary. A pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) forward modeling was used to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation between two boreholes. The PSTD algorithm is based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm for spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. Besides having the strongpoint of the FDTD method, the calculation precision of the PSTD algorithm is higher than that of the FDTD method under the same calculation condition. The forward modeling using the PSTD method will play an important role in enhancing the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography.

  14. High Efficiency Positron Accumulation for High-Precision Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hoogerheide, S Fogwell; Novitski, E; Gabrielse, G

    2015-01-01

    Positrons are accumulated within a Penning trap designed to make more precise measurements of the positron and electron magnetic moments. The retractable radioactive source used is weak enough to require no license for handling radioactive material and the radiation dosage one meter from the source gives an exposure several times smaller than the average radiation dose on the earth's surface. The 100 mK trap is mechanically aligned with the 4.2 K superconducting solenoid that produces a 6 tesla magnetic trapping field with a direct mechanical coupling.

  15. Nucleosynthesis Predictions and High-Precision Deuterium Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Riemer-Sørensen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new high-precision measurements of the deuterium abundance from absorbers along the line of sight to the quasar PKS1937–1009 were presented. The absorbers have lower neutral hydrogen column densities (N(HI ≈ 18 cm − 2 than for previous high-precision measurements, boding well for further extensions of the sample due to the plenitude of low column density absorbers. The total high-precision sample now consists of 12 measurements with a weighted average deuterium abundance of D/H = 2 . 55 ± 0 . 02 × 10 − 5 . The sample does not favour a dipole similar to the one detected for the fine structure constant. The increased precision also calls for improved nucleosynthesis predictions. For that purpose we have updated the public AlterBBN code including new reactions, updated nuclear reaction rates, and the possibility of adding new physics such as dark matter. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis prediction of D/H = 2 . 456 ± 0 . 057 × 10 − 5 is consistent with the observed value within 1.7 standard deviations.

  16. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  17. Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Molecules can be used to test fundamental physics. Such tests often require cold molecules for detailed spectroscopic analysis. Cooling internal degrees of freedom provides a high level of state-selectivity, with large populations in the molecular states of interest. Cold translational motion allows slow, bright beams to be created, allowing long interaction times. In this tutorial article we describe the common techniques for producing cold molecules for high-precision spectroscopy experiments. For each technique we give examples of its application in experiments that use molecular structure to probe fundamental physics, choosing one experiment in particular as a case study. We then discuss a number of new techniques, some currently under development, others proposed, that promise high flux sources of cold molecules applicable to precise spectroscopic tests of fundamental physics.

  18. Design of high-precision ranging system for laser fuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, He; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the high-precision ranging in the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze, a new type of pulsed laser ranging system has been designed. The laser transmitting module, laser receiving module and ranging processing module have been designed respectively. The factors affecting the ranging accuracy are discussed. And the method of improving the ranging accuracy is studied. The high-precision ranging system adopts the general high performance microprocessor C8051FXXX as the core. And the time interval measurement chip TDC-GP21 was used to implement the system. A PCB circuit board was processed to carry on the experiment. The results of the experiment prove that a centimeter level accuracy ranging system has been achieved. The works can offer reference for ranging system design of the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze.

  19. High-precision ground-based photometry of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mooij Ernst J.W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-precision photometry of transiting exoplanet systems has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of their atmospheres. The best targets are the bright exoplanet systems, for which the high number of photons allow very high signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the current instruments are not optimised for these high-precision measurements, either they have a large read-out overhead to reduce the readnoise and/or their field-of-view is limited, preventing simultaneous observations of both the target and a reference star. Recently we have proposed a new wide-field imager for the Observatoir de Mont-Megantic optimised for these bright systems (PI: Jayawardhana. The instruments has a dual beam design and a field-of-view of 17' by 17'. The cameras have a read-out time of 2 seconds, significantly reducing read-out overheads. Over the past years we have obtained significant experience with how to reach the high precision required for the characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres. Based on our experience we provide the following advice: Get the best calibrations possible. In the case of bad weather, characterise the instrument (e.g. non-linearity, dome flats, bias level, this is vital for better understanding of the science data. Observe the target for as long as possible, the out-of-transit baseline is as important as the transit/eclipse itself. A short baseline can lead to improperly corrected systematic and mis-estimation of the red-noise. Keep everything (e.g. position on detector, exposure time as stable as possible. Take care that the defocus is not too strong. For a large defocus, the contribution of the total flux from the sky-background in the aperture could well exceed that of the target, resulting in very strict requirements on the precision at which the background is measured.

  20. A high-precision polarimeter for small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Cotton, Daniel V.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna

    2017-02-01

    We describe Mini-HIPPI (Miniature HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument), a stellar polarimeter weighing just 650 gm but capable of measuring linear polarization to ˜10-5. Mini-HIPPI is based on the use of a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal modulator. It can easily be mounted on a small telescope and allows us to study the polarization of bright stars at levels of precision which are hitherto largely unexplored. We present results obtained with Mini-HIPPI on a 35-cm telescope. Measurements of polarized standard stars are in good agreement with predicted values. Measurements of a number of bright stars agree well with those from other high-sensitivity polarimeters. Observations of the binary system Spica show polarization variability around the orbital cycle.

  1. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  2. High precision {sup 14}C AMS at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, Filippo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)], E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it; De Cesare, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); D' Onofrio, Antonio; Lubritto, Carmine; Marzaioli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Passariello, Isabella [CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Rogalla, Detlef [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Sabbarese, Carlo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Borriello, Gianluca; Casa, Giovanni; Palmieri, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The CIRCE AMS system started operation in March 2005. The measurement of isotopic ratios {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C in samples of archaeological and environmental interest has rapidly attained high precision and accuracy levels in routine operation. The results of the intercomparison campaign in the framework of the VIRI program, as well as the outcome of a statistical analysis of the about 200 control measurements performed with standard samples, have shown the capability of the whole system for high precision measurements ({delta}R/R < 0.3%), allowing systematic investigations in both archaeological and environmental sciences. {sup 26}Al AMS has been implemented for the measurement of the astrophysically relevant {sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction cross section, while a beam line is under construction for the measurement of actinides isotopic ratios.

  3. Some comments on high precision study of neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenky, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    I discuss here some problems connected with the high precision study of neutrino oscillations. In the general case of n-neutrino mixing I derive a convenient expression for transition probability in which only independent terms (and mass-squared differences) enter. For three-neutrino mixing I discuss a problem of a definition of a large (atmospheric) neutrino mass-squared difference. I comment also possibilities to reveal the character of neutrino mass spectrum in future reactor neutrino experiments.

  4. High Precision Signal Processing Algorithm for White Light Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

    2008-01-01

    A new signal processing algorithm for absolute temperature measurement using white light interferometry has been proposed and investigated theoretically. The proposed algorithm determines the phase delay of an interferometer with very high precision (≪ one fringe) by identifying the zero order fringe peak of cross-correlation of two fringe scans of white light interferometer. The algorithm features cross-correlation of interferometer fringe scans, hypothesis testing and fine tuning. The hypot...

  5. High-Precision Computation: Mathematical Physics and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D. H.; Barrio, R.; Borwein, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit oating-point arithmetic is suficiently accurate for most scientic applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientic computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion e ort. This pa- per presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides someanalysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, studies of the one structure constant, scattering amplitudes of quarks, glu- ons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, experimental mathematics, evaluation of orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration of ODEs, computation of periodic orbits, studies of the splitting of separatrices, detection of strange nonchaotic at- tractors, Ising theory, quantum held theory, and discrete dynamical systems. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable compo- nent of a modern large-scale scientic computing environment.

  6. VCA Direct-Drive High Speed and Precision XY Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xingyu; FENG Xiaomei; ZHANG Dawei

    2007-01-01

    In order to compensate for the limitation of conventional XY table used in semiconductor integrated circuits(IC) packaging and improve its speed and accuracy, a voice coil actuator (VCA)direct-drive high-speed and precision positioning XY table used in wire bonder was proposed. Also, a novel flexible decoupling mechanism was used in the positioning table, and the small moving mass enabled the positioning table to move at high speed and precision. XY table deformation interference caused by assembly error and instant interference generated by dynamic load moving with high speed and acceleration can be eliminated through the flexible decoupling mechanism. Considering the positioning table as lumped mass spring system, the dynamic equations of the mechanical sys-tem and the VCA were built according to the Newton mechanics principle and electromagnetic theory. Then the electromechanical coupling control model of the system was created through Laplace transform. Based on displacement PID controller, the Icop-locked controlling algorithm of the positioning system was investigated. The dynamic control algorithm effectively improved the system dynamic performance. The precision test of the prototype machine was carried out, and the results val-idated the correctness of the model and the theory. Compared with traditional XY table, the tablehas higher speed, acceleration and positioning accuracy.

  7. High precision spectroscopy of pionic and antiprotonic atoms; Spectroscopie de precision des atomes pioniques et antiprotoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, P

    1998-04-15

    The study of exotic atoms, in which an orbiting electron of a normal atom is replaced by a negatively charged particle ({pi}{sup -}, {mu}{sup -}, p, {kappa}{sup -}, {sigma}{sup -},...) may provide information on the orbiting particle and the atomic nucleus, as well as on their interaction. In this work, we were interested in pionic atoms ({pi}{sup -14} N) on the one hand in order to determine the pion mass with high accuracy (4 ppm), and on the other hand in antiprotonic atoms (pp-bar) in order to study the strong nucleon-antinucleon interaction at threshold. In this respect, a high-resolution crystal spectrometer was coupled to a cyclotron trap which provides a high stop density for particles in gas targets at low pressure. Using curved crystals, an extended X-ray source could be imaged onto the detector. Charge-Coupled Devices were used as position sensitive detectors in order to measure the Bragg angle of the transition to a high precision. The use of gas targets resolved the ambiguity owing to the number of K electrons for the value of the pion mass, and, for the first time, strong interaction shift and broadening of the 2p level in antiprotonic hydrogen were measured directly. (author)

  8. A fast and precise indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-15

    Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.

  9. A Fast and Precise Indoor Localization Algorithm Based on an Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.

  10. Automated high precision secondary pH measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastkowski, F.; Jakobsen, P. T.; Stefan, F.; Kristensen, H. B.; Jensen, H. D.; Kawiecki, R.; Wied, C. E.; Kauert, A.; Seidl, B.; Spitzer, P.; Eberhardt, R.; Adel, B.

    2013-04-01

    A new setup for high precision, automated secondary pH measurements together with a reference measurement procedure has been developed and tested in interlaboratory comparisons using buffers pH 4.005, pH 7.000, and pH 10.012 at 25 °C and 37 °C. Using primary buffers as standards, a standard uncertainty in pH better than 0.005 can be reached. The central measuring device is a one piece, thermostatted cell of PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) with a built-in Hamilton® Single Pore™ Glass electrode. Due to its flow-through principle this device allows pH measurements with low consumption of measurement solutions. The very hydrophobic and smooth PFA as construction material facilitates complete emptying of the cell. Furthermore, the tempering unit affords very precise temperature control and hence contributes to the low target uncertainty of the produced secondary buffer solutions. Use of a symmetric measurement sequence and the two point calibration was sufficient to reach high precision and accuracy.

  11. Intrinsic Instrumental Polarization and High-Precision Pulsar Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Griffin; Paulin, Remi; Carozzi, Tobia; Johnston, Simon; van Straten, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Radio telescopes are used to accurately measure the time of arrival (ToA) of radio pulses in pulsar timing experiments that target mostly millisecond pulsars (MSPs) due to their high rotational stability. This allows for detailed study of MSPs and forms the basis of experiments to detect gravitational waves. Apart from intrinsic and propagation effects, such as pulse-to-pulse jitter and dispersion variations in the interstellar medium, timing precision is limited in part by the following: polarization purity of the telescope's orthogonally polarized receptors, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the pulsar profile, and the polarization fidelity of the system. Using simulations, we present how fundamental limitations in recovering the true polarization reduce the precision of ToA measurements. Any real system will respond differently to each source observed depending on the unique pulsar polarization profile. Using the profiles of known MSPs we quantify the limits of observing system specifications that yield s...

  12. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  13. Key techniques of the high precision gravity field system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Shi; Lu, Hongyan; Shi, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based gravity time series provide a direct method to monitor all sources of mass changes from local to global scale. But the effectively infinite spatial sensitivity of gravity measurements make it difficult to isolate the signal of interest. The high precision gravity field system is an alternative approach of modeling mass changes under-ground. The field system, consists of absolute gravity, gravity and gravity gradient, GNSS, leveling and climate hydrology measurements, can improve the signal-to-noise ratio for many applications by removing contributions of unwanted signal from elevation changes, air pressure changes, local hydrology, and others. The networks of field system combination, such as field-profile in more than 100 kilometers, can be used in critical zone with high seismic risk for monitoring earth dynamics, volcanic and seismic phenomena. The system is constituted by 9 typical observation stations in 3*3 array (or 4 in 2*2 array) in 60 square meters field, each station is designed for integrated measurements, including absolute gravity, gravity gradient, elevation changes, air pressure and hydrology. Time-lapse gravity changes resulting from absolute gravimeter (FG5 or A10) with standard deviation less than 2 μGal, without the contributions of Earth tides, loading and polar motion. Additional measurements such as air pressure change, local hydrology and soil moisture are indispensable. The elevation changes resulting from GNSS (on the base station) and leveling (between stations) with precision less than 10 mm. The gravity gradient is the significant measurement for delimiting the location of the related mass changes underground the station, which is measured by Scintrex CG-5 gravimeters in different height (80cm in the test field), with precision less than 10 E. It is necessary to improve the precision of gravity gradient measurements by certain method in field experiment for the high precision measurement system. Acknowledgment: This

  14. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  15. High precision u/th dating of first Polynesian settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Burley

    Full Text Available Previous studies document Nukuleka in the Kingdom of Tonga as a founder colony for first settlement of Polynesia by Lapita peoples. A limited number of radiocarbon dates are one line of evidence supporting this claim, but they cannot precisely establish when this event occurred, nor can they afford a detailed chronology for sequent occupation. High precision U/Th dates of Acropora coral files (abraders from Nukuleka give unprecedented resolution, identifying the founder event by 2838±8 BP and documenting site development over the ensuing 250 years. The potential for dating error due to post depositional diagenetic alteration of ancient corals at Nukuleka also is addressed through sample preparation protocols and paired dates on spatially separated samples for individual specimens. Acropora coral files are widely distributed in Lapita sites across Oceania. U/Th dating of these artifacts provides unparalleled opportunities for greater precision and insight into the speed and timing of this final chapter in human settlement of the globe.

  16. A High-Precision Forecasting Model and Its Constructing Method for Vein-Type Gold Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A high-precision forecasting and prospecting model incorporating the “field theory-field structure analysis-field simulation”, a temporal and spatial structural framework reflecting local extremely fine structures, is established to make an effective extraction and an integrated analysis of multivariate forecasting information. This model can best show not only the coupling between metallogenic anomalous structure, mineralized structure and information structure, but also the extraction, optimization, matching and summarization of key forecasting information. The technological keys to this model are the fine structural analysis of geological and geophysical and geochemical anomalous fields and metallogenic fields, and the establishment of occurrence patterns for the spatial location of orebodies.

  17. Precision Muon Tracking Detectors for High-Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Philipp; Kroha, Hubert; Richter, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers with 15 mm tube diameter are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking over large areas at high background rates as expected at future high-energy hadron colliders including HL-LHC. The chamber design and construction procedures have been optimized for mass production and provide sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 ?m. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. It exceeds the one of the ATLAS muon drift tube (MDT) chambers, which are operated at unprecedentedly high background rates of neutrons and gamma-rays, by an order of magnitude, which is sufficient for almost the whole muon detector acceptance at FCC-hh at maximum luminosity. sMDT operational and construction experience exists from ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrades which are in progress or under preparation for LHC Phase 1 and 2.

  18. Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer players in ... and fitness and not wearing shin guards are risk factors for injury in female soccer ... do not differ from the studies done in male adolescent and adult soccer players.

  19. Test results of high-precision large cryogenic lens holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, C.; Reutlinger, A.; Boesz, A.; Leberle, T.; Mottaghibonab, A.; Eckert, P.; Dubowy, M.; Gebler, H.; Grupp, F.; Geis, N.; Bode, A.; Katterloher, R.; Bender, R.

    2012-09-01

    For the Euclid mission a Pre-Development phase is implemented to prove feasibility of individual components of the system [1]. The Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) of EUCLID requires high precision large lens holders (?170 mm) at cryogenic temperatures (150K). The four lenses of the optical system are made of different materials: fused silica, CaF2, and LF5G15 that are mounted in a separate lens barrel design. Each lens has its separate mechanical interface to the lens barrel, the so called adaption ring. The performance of the lens holder design is verified by adapted test equipment and test facility including an optical metrology system. The characterization of the lens deformation and displacement (decenter, tilt) due to mechanical loads of the holder itself as well as thermally induced loads are driven by the required submicron precision range and the operational thermal condition. The surface deformation of the lens and its holder is verified by interferometric measurements, while tilt and position accuracy are measured by in-situ fibre based distance sensors. The selected distance measurement sensors have the capability to measure in a few mm range with submicron resolution in ultra high vacuum, in vibration environments and at liquid nitrogen temperatures and below. The calibration of the measurement system is of crucial importance: impacts such as temperature fluctuation, surface roughness, surface reflectivity, straylight effects, etc. on the measured distance are carefully calibrated. Inbuilt thermal expansion effects of the fibre sensors are characterized and proven with lens dummy with quasi zero CTE. The paper presents the test results and measured performance of the high precision large cryogenic lens holders attained by the metrology system. These results are presented on behalf of the EUCLID consortium.

  20. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) is a joint service satellite communications system that provides global , survivable, secure, protected, and jam...three satellites fully integrated into the Milstar constellation. October 2014: On October 16, 2014, the program received PEO certification for the...Combined Orbital Operation, Logistics Sustainment ( COOLS ) contract, it will be completed and coordinated in CY 2016. The AEHF system being sustained

  1. Extremely high Q-factor toroidal metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that, owing to the unique topology of the toroidal dipolar mode, its electric/magnetic field can be spatially confined within subwavelength, externally accessible regions of the metamolecules, which makes the toroidal planar metamaterials a viable platform for high Q-factor resonators due to interfering toroidal and other dipolar modes in metamolecules.

  2. High precision fundamental constants at the TeV scale

    CERN Document Server

    Moch, S; Alekhin, S; Blumlein, J; de la Cruz, L; Dittmaier, S; Dowling, M; Erler, J; Espinosa, J R; Fuster, J; Tormo, X Garcia i; Hoang, A H; Huss, A; Kluth, S; Mulders, M; Papanastasiou, A S; Piclum, J; Rabbertz, K; Schwinn, C; Schulze, M; Shintani, E; Uwer, P; Zerf, N

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 2014 Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics (MITP) scientific program on "High precision fundamental constants at the TeV scale". The two outstanding parameters in the Standard Model dealt with during the MITP scientific program are the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ and the top-quark mass $m_t$. Lacking knowledge on the value of those fundamental constants is often the limiting factor in the accuracy of theoretical predictions. The current status on $\\alpha_s$ and $m_t$ has been reviewed and directions for future research have been identified.

  3. Globular Cluster Streams as Galactic High-Precision Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Küpper, A H W; Bonaca, A; Johnston, K V; Hogg, D W; Kroupa, P; Santiago, B X

    2015-01-01

    Tidal streams of globular clusters are ideal tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential. Compared to the few known, complex and diffuse dwarf-galaxy streams, they are kinematically cold, have thin morphologies and are abundant in the halo of the Milky Way. Their coldness and thinness in combination with potential epicyclic substructure in the vicinity of the stream progenitor turns them into high-precision scales. With the example of Palomar 5, we demonstrate how modeling of a globular cluster stream allows us to simultaneously measure the properties of the disrupting globular cluster, its orbital motion, and the gravitational potential of the Milky Way.

  4. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  5. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  6. High precision spectra at large redshift for dynamical DE cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonometto, S A; Maccio', A V; Stinson, G

    2010-01-01

    The next generation mass probes will investigate DE nature by measuring non-linear power spectra at various z, and comparing them with high precision simulations. Producing a complete set of them, taking into account baryon physics and for any DE state equation w(z), would really be numerically expensive. Regularities reducing such duty are essential. This paper presents further n-body tests of a relation we found, linking models with DE state parameter w(z) to const.-w models, and also tests the relation in hydro simulations.

  7. High-precision methods in eigenvalue problems and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Akulenko, Leonid D

    2004-01-01

    This book presents a survey of analytical, asymptotic, numerical, and combined methods of solving eigenvalue problems. It considers the new method of accelerated convergence for solving problems of the Sturm-Liouville type as well as boundary-value problems with boundary conditions of the first, second, and third kind. The authors also present high-precision asymptotic methods for determining eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of higher oscillation modes and consider numerous eigenvalue problems that appear in oscillation theory, acoustics, elasticity, hydrodynamics, geophysics, quantum mechanics, structural mechanics, electrodynamics, and microelectronics.

  8. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  9. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  10. Repeated High-Precision Gravity and GPS Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, P.; Harris, R. N.; Allis, R.; Chapman, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    Repeated high-precision gravity and GPS measurements are becoming a common tool for tracking changes in subsurface reservoirs. Despite this, there is little literature which discusses measurement techniques and the expected errors. Our research has focused on improving measurement techniques to be applied to ground water and geothermal steam reservoirs, including quantifying the minimum error levels with modern equipment. We applied these methods in two studies: ground water monitoring of the southern Salt Lake valley, Utah, USA, and steam monitoring of The Geysers geothermal field, California, USA. Gravity measurements using modern relative high-precision meters, such as Scintrex CG-3Ms or L&R E series, can now be routinely made to an accuracy of 5 μ Gal. Such accuracy requires the use of time series analysis at each station, and non-linear instrument drift functions. Modern computerized meters are capable of internally storing a time series of measurements for each station; older meters can often be fitted to log such data to a field computer. This time series, typically of 10-15 minute duration in our work, can then be analyzed in several ways to produce stable estimates of the gravity reading. In particular, our research has emphasized using a weighted arithmetic average (for long occupations), or a Thiele extrapolation scheme (for shorter station occupations). Instrument drift is removed through a superposition of a linear long-term drift function, and an empirical staircase function formed from differences between repeated station occupations. To achieve high-accuracy GPS measurements while maximizing the number of field stations in a survey, rapid-static measurements are necessary. We have tested the effect of occupation time and processing schemes on the absolute accuracy of the resulting GPS position. Using a post-processing differential method with a fixed (but not necessarily continuous) base station within 15 km, positioning error of <4 cm vertical is

  11. New machining method of high precision infrared window part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haicheng; Su, Ying; Xu, Zengqi; Guo, Rui; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xuanmin

    2016-10-01

    Most of the spherical shell of the photoelectric multifunctional instrument was designed as multi optical channel mode to adapt to the different band of the sensor, there were mainly TV, laser and infrared channels. Without affecting the optical diameter, wind resistance and pneumatic performance of the optical system, the overall layout of the spherical shell was optimized to save space and reduce weight. Most of the shape of the optical windows were special-shaped, each optical window directly participated in the high resolution imaging of the corresponding sensor system, and the optical axis parallelism of each sensor needed to meet the accuracy requirement of 0.05mrad.Therefore precision machining of optical window parts quality will directly affect the photoelectric system's pointing accuracy and interchangeability. Processing and testing of the TV and laser window had been very mature, while because of the special nature of the material, transparent and high refractive rate, infrared window parts had the problems of imaging quality and the control of the minimum focal length and second level parallel in the processing. Based on years of practical experience, this paper was focused on how to control the shape and parallel difference precision of infrared window parts in the processing. Single pass rate was increased from 40% to more than 95%, the processing efficiency was significantly enhanced, an effective solution to the bottleneck problem in the actual processing, which effectively solve the bottlenecks in research and production.

  12. High Precision Signal Processing Algorithm for White Light Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new signal processing algorithm for absolute temperature measurement using white light interferometry has been proposed and investigated theoretically. The proposed algorithm determines the phase delay of an interferometer with very high precision (<< one fringe by identifying the zero order fringe peak of cross-correlation of two fringe scans of white light interferometer. The algorithm features cross-correlation of interferometer fringe scans, hypothesis testing and fine tuning. The hypothesis test looks for a zero order fringe peak candidate about which the cross-correlation is symmetric minimizing the uncertainty of mis-identification. Fine tuning provides the proposed algorithm with high precision subsample resolution phase delay estimation capability. The shot noise limited performance of the proposed algorithm has been analyzed using computer simulations. Root-mean-square (RMS phase error of the estimated zero order fringe peak has been calculated for the changes of three different parameters (SNR, fringe scan sample rate, coherence length of light source. Computer simulations showed that the proposed signal processing algorithm identified the zero order fringe peak with a miss rate of 3 x 10-4 at 31 dB SNR and the extrapolated miss rate at 35 dB was 3 x 10-8. Also, at 35 dB SNR, RMS phase error less than 10-3 fringe was obtained. The proposed signal processing algorithm uses a software approach that is potentially inexpensive, simple and fast.

  13. Dynamics of High-Speed Precision Geared Rotor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Teik C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gears are one of the most widely applied precision machine elements in power transmission systems employed in automotive, aerospace, marine, rail and industrial applications because of their reliability, precision, efficiency and versatility. Fundamentally, gears provide a very practical mechanism to transmit motion and mechanical power between two rotating shafts. However, their performance and accuracy are often hampered by tooth failure, vibrations and whine noise. This is most acute in high-speed, high power density geared rotor systems, which is the primary scope of this paper. The present study focuses on the development of a gear pair mathematical model for use to analyze the dynamics of power transmission systems. The theory includes the gear mesh representation derived from results of the quasi-static tooth contact analysis. This proposed gear mesh theory comprising of transmission error, mesh point, mesh stiffness and line-of-action nonlinear, time-varying parameters can be easily incorporated into a variety of transmission system models ranging from the lumped parameter type to detailed finite element representation. The gear dynamic analysis performed led to the discovery of the out-of-phase gear pair torsion modes that are responsible for much of the mechanical problems seen in gearing applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on effectual design approaches to minimize the influence of gear dynamics and to mitigate gear failure in practical power transmission systems.

  14. MultiView High Precision VLBI Astrometry at Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, María J.; Dodson, Richard; Orosz, Gabor; Imai, Hiroshi; Frey, Sandor

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will revitalize all aspects of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) astronomy at lower frequencies. In the last decade, there have been huge strides toward routinely achieving high precision VLBI astrometry at frequencies dominated by tropospheric contributions, most notably at 22 GHz, using advanced phase-referencing techniques. Nevertheless, to increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements at low radio frequencies (phase-referencing calibrator. The MultiView technique holds the key to compensating for atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two-dimensional interpolation in the visibility domain. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ∼100 μas astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit. MultiView will achieve its full potential with the enhanced sensitivity and multibeam capabilities of SKA and the pathfinders, which will enable simultaneous observations of the target and calibrators. Our demonstration indicates that the 10 μas goal of astrometry at ∼1.6 GHz using VLBI with SKA is feasible using the MultiView technique.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  16. The development of high precision carbon fiber composite mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiao-teng; Wang, Yong-jie; Xie, Yong-jie; Ma, Zhen; Fan, Xue-wu

    2016-10-01

    Due to low density, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient, duplicate molding, etc., carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is one of the potential materials of the optical mirror. The process developed for Φ300mm high precision CFRP mirror described in this paper. A placement tool used to improve laying accuracy up to ± 0.1°.A special reinforced cell structure designed to increase rigidity and thermal stability. Optical replication process adopted for surface modification of the carbon fiber composite mirror blank. Finally, surface accuracy RMS of Φ300mm CFRP mirror is 0.22μm, surface roughness Ra is about 2nm, and the thermal stability can achieve 13nm /°C from the test result. The research content is of some reference value in the infrared as well as visible light applications.

  17. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzier, A; Henault, F; Leger, A; Cara, C; LeDuigou, J M; Preis, O; Kern, P; Delboulbe, A; Martin, G; Feautrier, P; Stadler, E; Lafrasse, S; Rochat, S; Ketchazo, C; Donati, M; Doumayrou, E; Lagage, P O; Shao, M; Goullioud, R; Nemati, B; Zhai, C; Behar, E; Potin, S; Saint-Pe, M; Dupont, J

    2016-01-01

    Context: Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5e-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on vari...

  18. The QCD coupling and parton distributions at high precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2010-07-15

    A survey is given on the present status of the nucleon parton distributions and related precision calculations and precision measurements of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sup 2}{sub Z}). We also discuss the impact of these quantities on precision observables at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  19. High precision optomechanical assembly using threads as mechanical reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bergeron, Guy; Cantin, Mario

    2016-09-01

    A convenient method to assemble optomechanical components is to use threaded interface. For example, lenses are often secured inside barrels using threaded rings. In other cases, multiple optical sub-assemblies such as lens barrels can be threaded to each other. Threads have the advantage to provide a simple assembly method, to be easy to manufacture, and to offer a compact mechanical design. On the other hand, threads are not considered to provide accurate centering between parts because of the assembly clearance between the inner and outer threads. For that reason, threads are often used in conjunction with precision cylindrical surfaces to limit the radial clearance between the parts to be centered. Therefore, tight manufacturing tolerances are needed on these pilot diameters, which affect the cost of the optical assembly. This paper presents a new optomechanical approach that uses threads as mechanical reference. This innovative method relies on geometric principles to auto-center parts to each other with a very low centering error that is usually less than 5 μm. The method allows to auto-center an optical group in a main barrel, to perform an axial adjustment of an optical group inside a main barrel, and to perform stacking of multiple barrels. In conjunction with the lens auto-centering method that also used threads as a mechanical reference, this novel solution opens new possibilities to realize a variety of different high precision optomechanical assemblies at lower cost.

  20. High precision measurement of electrical resistance across endothelial cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschugguel, W; Zhegu, Z; Gajdzik, L; Maier, M; Binder, B R; Graf, J

    1995-05-01

    Effects of vasoactive agonists on endothelial permeability was assessed by measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) grown on porous polycarbonate supports. Because of the low values of TEER obtained in this preparation (< 5 omega cm2) a design of an Ussing type recording chamber was chosen that provided for a homogeneous electric field across the monolayer and for proper correction of series resistances. Precision current pulses and appropriate rates of sampling and averaging of the voltage signal allowed for measurement of < 0.1 omega resistance changes of the endothelium on top of a 21 omega series resistance of the support and bathing fluid layers. Histamine (10 microM) and thrombin (10 U/ml) induced an abrupt and substantial decrease of TEER, bradykinin (1 microM) was less effective, PAF (380 nM) and LTC4 (1 microM) had no effect. TEER was also reduced by the calcium ionophore A-23187 (10 microM). The technique allows for measurements of TEER in low resistance monolayer cultures with high precision and time resolution. The results obtained extend previous observations in providing quantitative data on the increase of permeability of HUVECs in response to vasoactive agonists.

  1. HIGH PRECISION ROVIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF OH{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus, Charles R.; Hodges, James N.; Perry, Adam J.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Müller, Holger S. P., E-mail: bjmccall@illinois.edu [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The molecular ion OH{sup +} has long been known to be an important component of the interstellar medium. Its relative abundance can be used to indirectly measure cosmic ray ionization rates of hydrogen, and it is the first intermediate in the interstellar formation of water. To date, only a limited number of pure rotational transitions have been observed in the laboratory making it necessary to indirectly calculate rotational levels from high-precision rovibrational spectroscopy. We have remeasured 30 transitions in the fundamental band with MHz-level precision, in order to enable the prediction of a THz spectrum of OH{sup +}. The ions were produced in a water cooled discharge of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and He, and the rovibrational transitions were measured with the technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy. These values have been included in a global fit of field free data to a {sup 3}Σ{sup −} linear molecule effective Hamiltonian to determine improved spectroscopic parameters which were used to predict the pure rotational transition frequencies.

  2. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  3. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  4. A high-precision control system for robotic welding positioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yu; Fan Ding; Chen Jianhong

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at the robotic welding positioner with characteristic of parameter change, load change, nonlinearity, and an intelligent control system was researched and developed. This control system used a two-mode controller that based on Fuzzy and PID control method. The results of simulation show that the dynamic and steady performances of the intelligent controller are better than that of single PID or Fuzzy controller. This paper has made a detail theoretical analysis of the constitution design and real-time controlled software and brought up the design and fulfillment method of multi-task real-time control software of high precisely and numerically controlled welding positioner , which has a good result in practice.

  5. Suppression of radiation damping for high precision quantitative NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, Kevin; Julien, Maxime; Remaud, Gérald S; Akoka, Serge

    2015-10-01

    True quantitative analysis of concentrated samples by (1)H NMR is made very difficult by Radiation Damping. A novel NMR sequence (inspired by the WET NMR sequence and by Outer Volume Saturation methods) is therefore proposed to suppress this phenomenon by reducing the spatial area and consequently the number of spins contributing to the signal detected. The size of the detected volume can be easily chosen in a large range and line shape distortions are avoided thanks to a uniform signal suppression of the outer volume. Composition of a mixture can as a result be determined with very high accuracy (precision and trueness) at the per mille level whatever the concentrations and without hardware modification.

  6. Monolithic interferometer for high precision radial velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Lee, Brian

    2009-08-01

    In high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies, a stable wide field Michelson interferometer is very critical in Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instruments. Adopting a new design, monolithic interferometers are homogenous and continuous in thermal expansion, and field compensation and thermal compensation are both satisfied. Interferometer design and fabrication are decrypted in details. In performance evaluations, field angle is typically 22° and thermal sensitivity is typically -1.7 x 10-6/°C, which corresponds to ~500 m/s /°C in RV scale. In interferometer stability monitoring using a wavelength stabilized laser source, phase shift data was continuously recorded for nearly seven days. Appling a frequent calibration every 30 minutes as in typical star observations, the interferometer instability contributes less than 1.4 m/s in RV error, in a conservative estimation.

  7. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Henault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; LeDuigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5 × 10-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on various pixel parameters. The minimization of function parameters was done iteratively, until convergence was obtained, revealing the pixel information needed for the calibration of astrometric measurements. Results: The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4 × 10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 × 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than five pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 × 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3 × 10-5 pixel was reached.

  8. Precision muon tracking detectors for high-energy hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Ph.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Richter, R.

    2017-02-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers with 15 mm tube diameter are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking over large areas at high background rates as expected at future high-energy hadron colliders including HL-LHC. The chamber design and construction procedures have been optimised for mass production and provide sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. It exceeds the one of the ATLAS muon drift tube (MDT) chambers, which are operated at unprecedentedly high background rates of neutrons and γ-rays, by an order of magnitude, which is sufficient for almost the whole of the muon detector acceptance at FCC-hh at maximum luminosity. sMDT operational and construction experience exists from ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrades which are in progress or under preparation for LHC Phase 1 and 2.

  9. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  10. High-precision experiments on a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boell, O.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    A single, trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Two Ra{sup +} experiments are under construction at KVI. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for an all-optical, high-stability frequency standard, i.e. a clock. The off-the-shelf availability of semiconductor lasers for all necessary transitions is highly advantageous. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. The same system and experimental hardware will be used to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics by measuring Atomic Parity Violation. This will serve as a low-energy test of the running of the electroweak mixing angle. Recent calculations have shown Ra{sup +} to be the superior candidate. Recently we have succeeded in the production and efficient slowing down of isotopes around {sup 213}Ra at the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI. Progress has been made in the development of ion traps and in the laser set-up in a dedicated laser laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of the radium ion and the first ever trapping of this particle are planned in the near future.

  11. Evaluation of High-Precision Sensors in Structural Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihter Erol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intricate branches of metrology involves the monitoring of displacements and deformations of natural and anthropogenic structures under environmental forces, such as tidal or tectonic phenomena, or ground water level changes. Technological progress has changed the measurement process, and steadily increasing accuracy requirements have led to the continued development of new measuring instruments. The adoption of an appropriate measurement strategy, with proper instruments suited for the characteristics of the observed structure and its environmental conditions, is of high priority in the planning of deformation monitoring processes. This paper describes the use of precise digital inclination sensors in continuous monitoring of structural deformations. The topic is treated from two viewpoints: (i evaluation of the performance of inclination sensors by comparing them to static and continuous GPS observations in deformation monitoring and (ii providing a strategy for analyzing the structural deformations. The movements of two case study objects, a tall building and a geodetic monument in Istanbul, were separately monitored using dual-axes micro-radian precision inclination sensors (inclinometers and GPS. The time series of continuous deformation observations were analyzed using the Least Squares Spectral Analysis Technique (LSSA. Overall, the inclinometers showed good performance for continuous monitoring of structural displacements, even at the sub-millimeter level. Static GPS observations remained insufficient for resolving the deformations to the sub-centimeter level due to the errors that affect GPS signals. With the accuracy advantage of inclination sensors, their use with GPS provides more detailed investigation of deformation phenomena. Using inclinometers and GPS is helpful to be able to identify the components of structural responses to the natural forces as static, quasi-static, or resonant.

  12. Extremely High Q-factor metamaterials due to Anapole Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ideal anapole metamaterials have infinite Q-factor. We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost cancelled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q-factor at the resonance frequency. The size of the system, at the mm range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q-factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of higher than the external incoming field.

  13. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  14. Silicon Avalanche Pixel Sensor for High Precision Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ascenzo, N; Moon, C S; Morsani, F; Ratti, L; Saveliev, V; Navarro, A Savoy; Xie, Q

    2013-01-01

    The development of an innovative position sensitive pixelated sensor to detect and measure with high precision the coordinates of the ionizing particles is proposed. The silicon avalanche pixel sensors (APiX) is based on the vertical integration of avalanche pixels connected in pairs and operated in coincidence in fully digital mode and with the processing electronics embedded on the chip. The APiX sensor addresses the need to minimize the material budget and related multiple scattering effects in tracking systems requiring a high spatial resolution in the presence of a large occupancy. The expected operation of the new sensor features: low noise, low power consumption and suitable radiation tolerance. The APiX device provides on-chip digital information on the position of the coordinate of the impinging charged particle and can be seen as the building block of a modular system of pixelated arrays, implementing a sparsified readout. The technological challenges are the 3D integration of the device under CMOS ...

  15. High precision analysis of the solar twin HIP 100963

    CERN Document Server

    Galarza, Jhon Yana; Ramírez, Ivan; Karakas, Amanda I; Asplund, Martin; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Methods. We used the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck I Telescope to acquire high resolution (R $\\approx$ 70000) and high-signal-to-noise ratio spectra (S/N $\\approx$ 400 - 650 per pixel) of HIP 100963 and the Sun, for a differential abundance analysis. We measured the equivalent widths (EWs) of iron lines to determine the stellar parameters employing the differential spectroscopic equilibrium. We determine through a differential abundance analysis with respect to the Sun, the composition of volatile, refractory and neutron-capture elements. Results. The stellar parameters that we found are: $T_{\\rm{eff}}=5818 \\pm 4$ K, log $g = 4.49 \\pm 0.01$ dex, $v_{t} = 1.03 \\pm 0.01 $ $\\rm{km\\ {s}}^{-1}$ and [Fe/H] $ = -\\ 0.003 \\pm 0.004$ dex. These low errors allow us to compute a precise mass ($1.03^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$ \\sm) and age (2.0 $\\pm$ 0.4 Gyr), obtained using Yonsei-Yale isochrones. Using our [Y/Mg] ratio, we have determined an age of $2.1 \\pm 0.4$ Gyr, in agreement with the age computed using isochrones. Our isochr...

  16. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  17. High-precision heliostat for long-path light tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawat, Tom; Stephen, Thomas M.; DeMaziere, Martine M.; Neefs, Eddy

    2003-08-01

    A heliostat has been designed and built for use in optical remote sensing of the atmosphere. The heliostat uses two flat mirrors to track the sun and direct the sunlight to optical instruments. A stepper motor driven horizontal turntable is used to track the sun in azimuth and support an elevation assembly and a mechanical tower. The stepper motor driven elevation assembly drives an acquisition mirror that tracks the sun in elevation. This mirror directs the solar beam to a secondary mirror fixed on the mechanical tower. The secondary mirror then directs the solar beam along the axis of the tracker for use in measurements. A sensitive, high resolution CCD camera, receives a small part of the solar beam to analyze for fine servo-control. Ground based tests have demonstrated this instrument"s tracking capability for the sun, the moon, stars and for long pathlength sources. Presently, this system is coupled with a high-resolution Brucker 120M spectrometer used to obtain solar absorption spectra. The heliostat directs the solar radiation along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision was measured to be better than 0.5 arcsec. A description of the heliostat is presented, as well as the results of ground tests.

  18. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  19. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  20. Research Progress of Key Technology of High-Speed and High Precision Motorized Spindles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wan-li; MI Hai-qing; HUANG Hon-gwu

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining and high precision machining are two tendencies of the manufacturing technology worldwide. The motorized spindle is the core component of the machine tools for achieving the high speed and high precise machining, which affects the general development level of the machine tools to a great extent. Progress of the key techniques is reviewed in this paper, in which the high speed and high precision spindle bearings, the dynamical and thermal characteristics of spindles, the design technique of the high frequency motors and the drivers, the anti-electromagnetic damage technique of the motors, and the machining and assembling technique are involved. Finally, tha development tendencies of the motorized spindles are presented.

  1. High-precision Mg isotopic systematics of bulk chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Martin; Handler, Monica R.; Baker, Joel A.

    2010-08-01

    Variations of the mass-independent abundance of 26Mg ( δ26Mg*) and stable Mg ( δ25Mg) isotope composition of chondrites are important because they constrain the homogeneity of 26Al and Mg isotopes in the proto-planetary disc and the validity of the short-lived 26Al-to- 26Mg chronometer applied to meteorites. We present high-precision Mg isotope data and Al/Mg ratios of chondrites representing nearly all major chondrite classes, including a step-leaching experiment on the CM2 chondrite Murchison. δ26Mg* variations in leachates of Murchison representing acid soluble material are ≤ 30 times smaller than reported for neutron-rich isotopes of Ti and Cr and do not reveal resolvable deficits in δ26Mg* (-0.002 to + 0.118‰). Very small variations in δ26Mg* anomalies in bulk chondrites (-0.006 to + 0.019‰) correlate with increasing 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and δ50Ti, reflecting the variable presence of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in some types of carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, release of radiogenic 26Mg produced by 26Al decay from CAI material in the step-leaching of Murchison best explains the high δ26Mg* observed in the last, aggressive, leaching steps of this experiment. Overall, the observed variations in δ26Mg* are small and potential differences beyond that which result from the presence of CAI-like material cannot be detected within the analytical uncertainties of this study (± 0.004‰). The results do not allow radical heterogeneity of 26Al (≥±30%) or measurable Mg nucleosynthetic heterogeneity (≥±0.005‰) to have existed on a planetesimal scale in the proto-planetary disc. Combined with published δ26Mg* data for CAIs, the bulk chondrite data yield a precise initial ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (5.21 ± 0.06) × 10 -5 and δ26Mg* = -0.0340 ± 0.0016‰ for the Solar System. However, it is not possible with the currently available data to determine with certainty whether CAIs and the material from which planetesimals accreted including

  2. Is Extremely High Life Satisfaction during Adolescence Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether extremely high life satisfaction was associated with adaptive functioning or maladaptive functioning. Six hundred ninety-eight secondary level students completed the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale [Huebner, 1991a, School Psychology International, 12, pp. 231-240], Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  3. common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies on soccer concentrate on male soccer players.5-7 Although participation ... the prevalence and injury profile of lower extremity injuries in female high school ... An extended duration of skills (p=0.0001) and fitness (p=0.02) training in this .... The results (Table V) show that shin guards were associated with a reduced ...

  4. High precision optical finishing of lightweight silicon carbide aspheric mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Young, Kevin

    2010-10-01

    Critical to the deployment of large surveillance optics into the space environment is the generation of high quality optics. Traditionally, aluminum, glass and beryllium have been used; however, silicon carbide becomes of increasing interest and availability due to its high strength. With the hardness of silicon carbide being similar to diamond, traditional polishing methods suffer from slow material removal rates, difficulty in achieving the desired figure and inherent risk of causing catastrophic damage to the lightweight structure. Rather than increasing structural capacity and mass of the substrate, our proprietary sub-aperture aspheric surface forming technology offers higher material removal rates (comparable to that of Zerodur or Fused Silica), a deterministic approach to achieving the desired figure while minimizing contact area and the resulting load on the optical structure. The technology performed on computer-controlled machines with motion control software providing precise and quick convergence of surface figure, as demonstrated by optically finishing lightweight silicon carbide aspheres. At the same time, it also offers the advantage of ideal pitch finish of low surface micro-roughness and low mid-spatial frequency error. This method provides a solution applicable to all common silicon carbide substrate materials, including substrates with CVD silicon carbide cladding, offered by major silicon carbide material suppliers. This paper discusses a demonstration mirror we polished using this novel technology. The mirror is a lightweight silicon carbide substrate with CVD silicon carbide cladding. It is a convex hyperbolic secondary mirror with 104mm diameter and approximately 20 microns aspheric departure from best-fit sphere. The mirror has been finished with surface irregularity of better than 1/50 wave RMS @632.8 nm and surface micro-roughness of under 2 angstroms RMS. The technology has the potential to be scaled up for manufacturing capabilities of

  5. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  6. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  7. High-Precision Direct Mass Determination of Unstable Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The extension of systematic high-precision measurements of the nuclear mass to nuclei far from the valley of $\\beta$ stability is of great interest in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The mass, or binding energy, is a fundamental gross property and a key input parameter for nuclear matter calculations. It is also a sensitive probe for collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. \\\\ \\\\ For such purposes, nuclear masses need to be known to an accuracy of about 10$^{-7}$ (i.e. $\\Delta$M~$\\leq$~10~keV for A~=~100). To resolve a particular mass from its nuclear isomers and isobars, resolving power of 10$^6$ are often required. To achieve this, the ions delivered by the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are confined in a Penning quadrupole trap. This trap is placed in the very homogeneous and stable magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. Here, the cyclotron frequency and hence the mass are determined. \\\\ \\\\ The first measurements using this new technique have been completed for a long chain of Cs ...

  8. High precision predictions for exclusive $VH$ production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present a resummation-improved prediction for $VH$ + 0 jets production at the Large Hadron Collider. We focus on highly-boosted final states in the presence of jet veto to suppress the $t{\\bar t}$ background. In this case, conventional fixed-order calculations are plagued by the existence of large Sudakov logarithms $\\alpha_s^n \\log^m (p_T^{veto}/Q)$ for $Q\\sim m_V + m_H$ which lead to unreliable predictions as well as large theoretical uncertainties, and thus limit the accuracy when comparing experimental measurements to the Standard Model. In this work, we show that the resummation of Sudakov logarithms beyond the next-to-next-to-leading-log accuracy, combined with the next-to-next-to-leading order calculation, reduces the scale uncertainty and stabilizes the perturbative expansion in the region where the vector bosons carry large transverse momentum. Our result improves the precision with which Higgs properties can be determined from LHC measurements using boosted Higgs techniques.

  9. A portable laser system for high precision atom interferometry experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Malte; Giorgini, Antonio; Tino, Guglielmo M; Peters, Achim

    2010-01-01

    We present a modular rack-mounted laser system for the cooling and manipulation of neutral rubidium atoms which has been developed for the portable gravimeter GAIN, an atom interferometer that will be capable of performing high precision gravity measurements directly at sites of geophysical interest. This laser system is designed to be compact, mobile and robust, yet it still offers improvements over many conventional laboratory-based laser systems. Our system is contained in a standard 19" rack and emits light at five different wavelengths simultaneously on up to 12 fibre ports at a total output power of 800 mW. These wavelengths can be changed and switched between ports in less than a microsecond. The setup includes two phase-locked Raman lasers with a phase noise spectral density of less than 1 \\mu rad/sqrt(Hz) in the frequency range in which our gravimeter is most sensitive to noise. We characterize this laser system and evaluate the performance limits it imposes on an interferometer.

  10. Engine for Miniature High-Precision Propulsion System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I SBIR research project that will result in a feasibility demonstration of a miniature divert engine producing precise impulse bits smaller than...

  11. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  12. Interferometric Star Tracker for High Precision Pointing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to adapt the precision star tracker it is currently developing under several DoD contracts for deep space lasercom beam...

  13. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  14. High Precise Internal Friction Calculation for Force Vibration Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Li-Min; FEI Guang-Tao; SHUI Jia-Peng; CUI Ping; WU Bing; CHEN Xiao-Ming; LUI Ke-Tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ For the necessity of measuring the small phase difference of internal friction, a detailed comparison is carried out among the fast Fourier transformation (FFT), correlation function and three-parameter sine wave curve-fit methods. The comparison shows that the three-parameter sine wave curve-fit method can obtain more precise phase angle difference than correlation methods. Compared with the FFT algorithm, the three-parameter sine wave curve-fit method can obtain more precise frequency values.

  15. High-precision, high-throughput stability determinations facilitated by robotics and a semiautomated titrating fluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Marshall Hall; Sims, Dorothy A; Pielak, Gary J; Yi, Fang

    2003-06-24

    The use of statistical modeling to test hypotheses concerning the determinants of protein structure requires stability data (e.g., the free energy of denaturation in H(2)O, DeltaG(HOH)) from hundreds of protein mutants. Fluorescence-monitored chemical denaturation provides a convenient method for high-precision, high-throughput DeltaG(HOH) determination. For eglin c we find that a throughput of about 20 min per protein can be attained in a two-channel semiautomated titrating fluorometer. We find also that the use of robotics for protein purification and preparation of the solutions for chemical denaturation gives highly precise DeltaG(HOH) values in which the standard deviation of values from multiple preparations (+/-0.051 kcal/mol) differs very little from multiple measurements from a single preparation (+/-0.040 kcal/mol). Since the variance introduced into model fitting by DeltaG(HOH) increases as the square of measurement error, there is a premium on precision. In fact, the fraction of stability behavior explicable by otherwise perfect models goes from 98% to only 50% over the error range commonly reported for chemical denaturation measurements (0.1-0.6 kcal/mol). We have found that the precision of chemical denaturation DeltaG(HOH) measurements depends most heavily on the precision of the instrument used, followed by protein purity and the capacity to precisely prepare the solutions used for titrations.

  16. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  17. Radio emission from Supernovae and High Precision Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Torres, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    The present thesis work makes contributions in two scientific fronts: differential astrometry over the largest angular scales ever attempted (approx. 15 arcdegrees) and numerical simulations of radio emission from very young supernovae. In the first part, we describe the results of the use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) in one experiment designed to measure with very high precision the angular distance between the radio sources 1150+812 (QSO) and 1803+784 (BL Lac). We observed the radio sources on 19 November 1993 using an intercontinental array of radio telescopes, which simultaneously recorded at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. VLBI differential astrometry is capable, Nature allowing, of yielding source positions with precisions well below the milliarcsecond level. To achieve this precision, we first had to accurately model the rotation of the interferometric fringes via the most precise models of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP; precession, polar motion and UT1, nutation). With this model, we successfully connected our phase delay data at both frequencies and, using difference astrometric techniques, determined the coordinates of 1803+784 relative to those of 1150+812-within the IERS reference frame--with an standard error of about 0.6 mas in each coordinate. We then corrected for several effects including propagation medium (mainly the atmosphere and ionosphere), and opacity and source-structure effects within the radio sources. We stress that our dual-frequency measurements allowed us to accurately subtract the ionosphere contribution from our data. We also used GPS-based TEC measurements to independently find the ionosphere contribution, and showed that these contributions agree with our dual-frequency measurements within about 2 standard deviations in the less favorables cases (the longest baselines), but are usually well within one standard deviation. Our estimates of the relative positions, whether using dual-frequency-based or GPS-based ionosphere

  18. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C.; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2017-05-01

    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209Bi82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209Bi82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  19. Simultaneous Precision Gravimetry and Magnetic Gradiometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A High Precision, Quantum Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, K S; Everitt, P J; McDonald, G D; Manju, P; Wigley, P B; Sooriyabandara, M A; Kuhn, C C N; Debs, J E; Close, J D; Robins, N P

    2016-09-23

    A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A 5×10^{6}  atom F=1 spinor condensate of ^{87}Rb is released into free fall for up to 750 ms and probed with a T=130  ms Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states |m_{f}=1,0,-1⟩, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with a 1000 run precision of Δg/g=1.45×10^{-9} and the magnetic field gradient to a precision of 120  pT/m.

  20. Extremely high Q -factor metamaterials due to anapole excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Chuguevsky, Vitaly; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2017-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit unusual, almost perfect anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost canceled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q -factor at the resonance frequency. Thus we have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that metamaterials approaching ideal anapole behavior have very high Q -factor. The size of the system, at the millimeter range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q -factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the estimated local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of 104 higher than the external incoming field.

  1. Research on a High-Precision Delay Circuit in Data Acquisition Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Kai; SU Hong-qi; YANG Gong-xun

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel precision delay circuit design for high-speed data acquisition systems. Many studies have suggested that various advanced electronic measurement apparatuses require that the delay circuit should have a high precision and a short delay interval. Practically, however, such measurement apparatuses are low in precision and long in delay interval at present. The structure and function of a data acquisition system is introduced first; then the principle of ramp-based precision delay circuits and the digitally programmable delay generator is studied and the precision delay circuit is designed. The authors also demonstrated 8-bit programmable delay circuits with a timing precision of 10 ps. Therefore the programmable precision delay circuit here presented has a higher precision, shorter interval and more detectable function than any other precision delay circuit.

  2. High Precision GNSS Guidance for Field Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Jurišica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System guidance for field mobile robots. Several GNSS systems and receivers, as well as multiple measurement methods and principles of GNSS systems are examined. We focus mainly on sources of errors and investigate diverse approaches for precise measuring and effective use of GNSS systems for real‐ time robot localization. The main body of the article compares two GNSS receivers and their measurement methods. We design, implement and evaluate several mathematical methods for precise robot localization.

  3. Seismicity analysis in Indonesia region from high precision hypocenter location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Andri; Shiddiqi, Hasbi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono, Wandono

    2015-04-01

    As a complex tectonic region, Indonesia has a high seismicity rate which is related to subduction and collision as well as strike-slip fault. High-precision earthquake locations with adequate relocation method and proper velocity model are necessary for seismicity analysis. We used nearly 25,000 earthquakes that were relocated using double-difference method. In our relocation process, we employed teleseismic, regional, and local P-wave arrival times. Furthermore, we employed regional-global nested velocity models that take into account the subduction slab in the study region by using a 3D model for area inside and a 1D model for area outside Indonesia. Relocation results show shifted hypocenters that are generally perpendicular to the trench. Beneath western Sunda arc, the Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) extents to a depth of about 300 km and depicts a gently dipping slab. The WBZ beneath eastern Sunda arc extends deeper to about 500 km and depicts a steep slab geometry. In the Sunda-Banda transition zone, we found anomalously low seismicity beneath the oceanic-continental transition region. The WBZ of the severely curved Banda arc extends to a depth of about 600 km and depicts a two-slab model. In the Molucca collision zone, seismicity clearly depicts two opposing slabs of the Molucca sea plate, i.e. to the east and to the west. Around Sulawesi region, most earthquakes are related to the north Sulawesi trench and depict subducted slab beneath the northern part of the island. In Sumatra region, we identified a seismic gap in the WBZ between 70 km and 150 km. Seismicity gaps are also detected beneath particular regions, e.g. Mentawai region, and several parts along the subducted slab. Similar to the Sumatra region, beneath eastern Sunda arc, seismic gap in WBZ is also detected but deeper, i.e. at depths of 150 km to 250 km. Furthermore, we used global centroid moment tensor catalog data available for earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 or greater. In general, focal mechanism

  4. Precision Teaching in the High School Classroom: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Jere E.

    1978-01-01

    In a review of Breuning's study of conventional vs. precision teaching (TM 503 458), Brophy praises the research design used. However, the interpretation and reporting of Breuning's data are questioned. The effects of instructional method have been confused with the effects of incentive manipulation. The practicality and ethical justification are…

  5. A high precision magnetometer based on pulsed NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigl, R; Haeberlen, U; Jungmann, K; Putlitz, GZ; vonWalter, P

    1996-01-01

    A magnetometer based on pulsed proton magnetic resonance has been developed and constructed. The system will be employed for an accurate measurement of the absolute magnetic field in the region of 1.45 T in a precision experiment on the muon's anomalous magnetic moment at the Brookhaven National Lab

  6. CUSB-II: A high precision electromagnetic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamberger, R.D.; Heintz, U.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Narain, M.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Tuts, P.M.; Franzini, P.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q.W. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1991-11-15

    The design, construction and performance of a very compact precision electromagnetic spectrometer is described. The CUSB-II detectors has been used to study {gamma} spectroscopy, search for exotic particles and measure properties of the B and B{sup *} mesons at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. (orig.).

  7. High-precision Stellar Limb-darkening in Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Tsiaras, A.; Howarth, I. D.; Homeier, D.

    2017-09-01

    Characterization of the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets relies on accurate measurements of the extent of the optically thick area of the planet at multiple wavelengths with a precision ≲ 100 parts per million (ppm). Next-generation instruments onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) are expected to achieve ∼10 ppm precision for several tens of targets. A similar precision can be obtained in modeling only if other astrophysical effects, including the stellar limb-darkening, are properly accounted for. In this paper, we explore the limits on precision due to the mathematical formulas currently adopted to approximate the stellar limb-darkening, and due to the use of limb-darkening coefficients obtained either from stellar-atmosphere models or empirically. We recommend the use of a two-coefficient limb-darkening law, named “power-2,” which outperforms other two-coefficient laws adopted in the exoplanet literature in most cases, and particularly for cool stars. Empirical limb-darkening based on two-coefficient formulas can be significantly biased, even if the light-curve residuals are nearly photon-noise limited. We demonstrate an optimal strategy to fitting for the four-coefficient limb-darkening in the visible, using prior information on the exoplanet orbital parameters to break some of the degeneracies that otherwise would prevent the convergence of the fit. Infrared observations taken with the JWST will provide accurate measurements of the exoplanet orbital parameters with unprecedented precision, which can be used as priors to improve the stellar limb-darkening characterization, and therefore the inferred exoplanet parameters, from observations in the visible, such as those taken with Kepler/K2, the JWST, and other past and future instruments.

  8. WISDOM: the WIYN spectrograph for Doppler monitoring: a NASA-NSF concept for an extreme precision radial velocity instrument in support of TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Simcoe, Robert; Barnes, Stuart I.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Egan, Mark; Foster, Rick; Hellickson, Tim; Malonis, Andrew; Phillips, David; Shectman, Stephen; Walsworth, Ronald; Winn, Josh; Woods, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission highlighted that precision radial velocity (PRV) follow-up is a real bottleneck in supporting transiting exoplanet surveys. The limited availability of PRV instruments, and the desire to break the "1 m/s" precision barrier, prompted the formation of a NASA-NSF collaboration `NN-EXPLORE' to call for proposals designing a new Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS). By securing a significant fraction of telescope time on the 3.5m WIYN at Kitt Peak, and aiming for unprecedented long-term precision, the EPDS instrument will provide a unique tool for U.S. astronomers in characterizing exoplanet candidates identified by TESS. One of the two funded instrument concept studies is led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in consortium with Lincoln Laboratories, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Carnegie Observatories. This paper describes the instrument concept WISDOM (WIYN Spectrograph for DOppler Monitoring) prepared by this team. WISDOM is a fiber fed, environmentally controlled, high resolution (R=110k), asymmetric white-pupil echelle spectrograph, covering a wide 380-1300nm wavelength region. Its R4 and R6 echelle gratings provide the main dispersion, symmetrically mounted on either side of a vertically aligned, vacuum-enclosed carbon fiber optical bench. Each grating feeds two cameras and thus the resulting wavelength range per camera is narrow enough that the VPHG cross-dispersers and employed anti-reflection coatings are highly efficient. The instrument operates near room temperature, and so thermal background for the near-infrared arm is mitigated by thermal blocking filters and a short (1.7μm) cutoff HgCdTe detector. To achieve high resolution while maintaining small overall instrument size (100/125mm beam diameter), imposed by the limited available space within the observatory building, we chose to slice the telescope pupil 6 ways before coupling light into fibers. An atmospheric dispersion corrector and fast

  9. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  10. Toward High-Precision Astrometry with WFPC2. I. Deriving an Accurate PSF

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J; Anderson, Jay; King, Ivan R.

    2000-01-01

    The first step toward doing high-precision astrometry is the measurement of individual stars in individual images, a step that is fraught with dangers when the images are undersampled. The key to avoiding systematic positional error in undersampled images is to determine an extremely accurate point-spread function (PSF). We apply the concept of the {\\it effective} PSF, and show that in images that consist of pixels it is the ePSF, rather than the often-used instrumental PSF, that embodies the information from which accurate star positions and magnitudes can be derived. We show how, in a rich star field, one can use the information from dithered exposures to derive an extremely accurate effective PSF by iterating between the PSF itself and the star positions that we measure with it. We also give a simple but effective procedure for representing spatial variations of the HST PSF. With such attention to the PSF, we find that we are able to measure the position of a single reasonably bright star in a single image...

  11. ADVANCED DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH-PRECISION WOODWORKING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucisano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at performing the highest precision during woodworking, a mix of alternative approaches, fruitfully integrated in a common design strategy, is essential. This paper represents an overview of technical solutions, recently developed by authors, in design of machine tools and their final effects on manufacturing. The most advanced solutions in machine design are reported side by side with common practices or little everyday expedients. These design actions are directly or indirectly related to the rational use of materials, sometimes very uncommon, as in the case of magnetorheological fluids chosen to implement an active control in speed and force on the electro-spindle, and permitting to improve the quality of wood machining. Other actions are less unusual, as in the case of the adoption of innovative anti-vibration supports for basement. Tradition or innovation, all these technical solutions contribute to the final result: the highest precision in wood machining.

  12. Electroweak Precision Physics from Low to High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S

    2007-01-01

    Electroweak precision observables (EWPO) can give valuable information about the last unknown paramter of the Standard Model (SM), the Higgs-boson mass M_H^SM. EWPO can also restrict the parameter space of new physics models (NPM) such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We review the respective constraints from the W boson mass, the effective leptonic mixing angle, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and electric dipole moments. Within the MSSM also the lightest Higgs-boson mass, M_h, is discussed as a precision observable. The EWPO, supplemented with B physics observables and astrophysical data can be used to determine indirectly the preferred mass scales of Supersymmetry and M_h.

  13. The high precise/efficient pre/postprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Ichiro; Shinoda, Junichi

    2002-12-01

    According to the advancement of computers, communication technologies and other devices, digitization of data such as design information and so on has advanced rapidly. Hence, the development of unified systems for CAD/CAM/CAE is extremely important. In this article, we shall state four techniques as technical tools useful for digital processing, which are to be comprised in our unified system for CAD/CAM/CAE.

  14. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeger, Karsten M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  15. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  16. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  17. High precision survey and alignment techniques in accelerator construction

    CERN Document Server

    Gervaise, J

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of precision surveying are briefly reviewed, and an historical account is given of instruments and techniques used during the construction of the Proton Synchrotron (1954-59), the Intersecting Storage Rings (1966-71), and the Super Proton Synchrotron (1971). A nylon wire device, distinvar, invar wire and tape, and recent automation of the gyrotheodolite and distinvar as well as auxiliary equipment (polyurethane jacks, Centipede) are discussed in detail. The paper ends summarizing the present accuracy in accelerator metrology, giving an outlook of possible improvement, and some aspects of staffing for the CERN Survey Group. (0 refs).

  18. High-precision temperature control and stabilization using a cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Daiki; Murata, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Hiroya; Komine, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    We describe a method for precisely controlling temperature using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler that involves inserting fiber-reinforced-plastic dampers into a conventional cryosystem. Temperature fluctuations in a GM cryocooler without a large heat bath or a stainless-steel damper at 4.2 K are typically of the order of 200 mK. It is particularly difficult to control the temperature of a GM cryocooler at low temperatures. The fiber-reinforced-plastic dampers enabled us to dramatically reduce temperature fluctuations at low temperatures. A standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations of 0.21 mK could be achieved when the temperature was controlled at 4.200 0 K using a feedback temperature control system with two heaters. Adding the dampers increased the minimum achievable temperature from 3.2 to 3.3 K. Precise temperature control between 4.200 0 and 300.000 K was attained using the GM cryocooler, and the standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations was less than 1.2 mK even at 300 K. This technique makes it possible to control and stabilize the temperature using a GM cryocooler.

  19. High-precision analysis of SF6 at ambient level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the development of a technique for the precise analysis of ambient SF6. This technique, which involves a gas chromatograph/electron capture detector (GC-ECD coupled with an Activated Alumina-F1 (AA-F1 column, performed well in the measurements, particularly in terms of accuracy, which complies with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-recommended compatibility of 0.02 ppt. Compared to the Porapak Q technique, we observed a sharper peak shape for the SF6 stream, which substantiates the improvement in the analytical precision. The traceability to the WMO scale was tested by calibrating the GC-ECD/AA-F1 analyser using five SF6 standards provided by the WMO/Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL for SF6 (NOAA, United States of America. After calibration by various methods, the GC-ECD/AA-F1 accurately estimated the mole fraction of SF6 in the working standard prepared by the World Calibration Centre for SF6 operated by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA/Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. Among the calibration methods, the two-point calibration method emerged to be the most economical procedure in terms of the data quality and measurement time. It was found that the KRISS scale of SF6/N2 was biased by 0.13 ppt when compared to the WMO scale of SF6/air; this bias is probably due to a different matrix.

  20. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  1. Table-Top Milliwatt-Class Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonic Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Klas, Robert; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hädrich, Steffen; Shamir, Yariv; Tünnermann, Andreas; Rothhardt, Jan; Limpert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) lasers are essential for the investigation of fundamental physics. Especially high repetition rate, high photon flux sources are of major interest for reducing acquisition times and improving signal to noise ratios in a plethora of applications. Here, an XUV source based on cascaded frequency conversion is presented, which delivers due to the drastic better single atom response for short wavelength drivers, an average output power of (832 +- 204) {\\mu}W at 21.7 eV. This is the highest average power produced by any HHG source in this spectral range surpassing precious demonstrations by more than a factor of four. Furthermore, a narrow-band harmonic at 26.6 eV with a relative energy bandwidth of only {\\Delta}E/E= 1.8 x 10E-3 has been generated, which is of high interest for high precision spectroscopy experiments.

  2. A High Precision, Optical Polarimeter to Measure Inclinations of High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2008-01-01

    We present commissioning data for the POLISH instrument obtained on the Hale 5-m telescope. The goal of this high precision polarimeter is to constrain orbital inclination of high mass X-ray binaries and to therefore obtain independent mass estimates for their black hole companions. We have obtained photon shot noise limited precision on standard stars, and we have measured the polarization of bright stars at the part per million level on a nightly basis. Systematic effects have been reduced to less than 1% of the measured polarization for polarized sources and to the part per million level for weakly polarized sources. The high sensitivity of this instrument to asymmetry suggests that valuable contributions will be made in many other fields, including studies of extrasolar planets, debris disks, and stellar astrophysics.

  3. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Asadoor, M.; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; O'Toole, A.; Peña Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Shaner, M.; Sobacchi, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of {1}{ × 10^{-11}}textrm { m}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}}. We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of {5.7}{ × 10^{-9}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 10 mHz and {6.4}{ × 10^{-10}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  4. Aerospace Laser Ignition/Ablation Variable High Precision Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor); Edwards, David L. (Inventor); Campbell, Jason J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A laser ignition/ablation propulsion system that captures the advantages of both liquid and solid propulsion. A reel system is used to move a propellant tape containing a plurality of propellant material targets through an ignition chamber. When a propellant target is in the ignition chamber, a laser beam from a laser positioned above the ignition chamber strikes the propellant target, igniting the propellant material and resulting in a thrust impulse. The propellant tape is advanced, carrying another propellant target into the ignition chamber. The propellant tape and ignition chamber are designed to ensure that each ignition event is isolated from the remaining propellant targets. Thrust and specific impulse may by precisely controlled by varying the synchronized propellant tape/laser speed. The laser ignition/ablation propulsion system may be scaled for use in small and large applications.

  5. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, V., E-mail: volodya@caltech.edu [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); DeSalvo, R. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Sannio, C.so Garibaldi 107, Benevento 82100 (Italy); Asadoor, M. [Mayfield Senior School, 500 Bellefontaine Street, Pasadena, California 91105 (United States); Oklahoma State University, 219 Student Union, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States); Bhawal, A. [Arcadia High School, 180 Campus Drive, Arcadia, California 91007 (United States); Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Gong, P. [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Industrial and System Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0205 (United States); Kim, C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lottarini, A. [Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Minenkov, Y. [Sezione INFN Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica  1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Murphy, C. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); University of Melbourne Grattan Street, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); O' Toole, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Peña Arellano, F. E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  6. Design of High-Precision Frequency Measure System Based on CPLD Time Delay Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Qian; Ding Wei; Wang Hao, E-mail: fengqian@eqhb.gov.cn [Institute of Seismology, China Earthquake Administration, 40 Hongshan Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan (China)

    2011-02-01

    Introduced a method for high-precision frequency measurement, which do do not need the complicated measuring control circumstance. CPLD is used for improving the precision of measurement by the method of quantization time-delay. High precision frequency adjustable module based on the method has been used on the photoelectricity data acquisition system. Frequency accuracy is -8.306x10{sup -10}, which meet the requirement of instrument.

  7. Research on controlling middle spatial frequency error of high gradient precise aspheric by pitch tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hou, Xi; Wan, Yongjian; Shi, Chunyan; Zhong, Xianyun

    2016-09-01

    Extreme optical fabrication projects known as EUV and X-ray optic systems, which are representative of today's advanced optical manufacturing technology level, have special requirements for the optical surface quality. In synchroton radiation (SR) beamlines, mirrors of high shape accuracy is always used in grazing incidence. In nanolithograph systems, middle spatial frequency errors always lead to small-angle scattering or flare that reduces the contrast of the image. The slope error is defined for a given horizontal length, the increase or decrease in form error at the end point relative to the starting point is measured. The quality of reflective optical elements can be described by their deviation from ideal shape at different spatial frequencies. Usually one distinguishes between the figure error, the low spatial error part ranging from aperture length to 1mm frequencies, and the mid-high spatial error part from 1mm to 1 μm and from1 μm to some 10 nm spatial frequencies, respectively. Firstly, this paper will disscuss the relationship between slope error and middle spatial frequency error, which both describe the optical surface error along with the form profile. Then, experimental researches will be conducted on a high gradient precise aspheric with pitch tool, which aim to restraining the middle spatial frequency error.

  8. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E. T.; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R. K.; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2″×0.51″) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (≤±2 mV or ±0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (≤±1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  9. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  10. High Performance and Increased Precision Techniques for Feynman Loop Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K.; de Doncker, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Kapenga, J.; Olagbemi, O.; Yuasa, F.

    2016-10-01

    For the investigation of physics within and beyond the Standard Model, a precise evaluation of higher order corrections in perturbative quantum field theory is required. We have worked on the development of a computational method for Feynman loop integrals with a fully numerical approach. It is based on numerical integration and extrapolation techniques. In this paper, we describe the status and new developments in our techniques for the numerical computation of Feynman loop integrals. Separation of ultra-violet divergences is important for the renormalization procedure. In our analyses, the separation can be done numerically. For 2-loop integrals we have performed the calculations for up to 4-point functions, and for 2-point functions we can handle up to 4- loop integrals. We report the status and accuracy of the computations with detailed numerical comparisons to results in the literature, in order to demonstrate that our method will evolve into an important component of automated systems for the study of higher-order radiative corrections.

  11. High-precision timeline for Earth's most severe extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Seth D; Bowring, Samuel; Shen, Shu-zhong

    2014-03-04

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe loss of marine and terrestrial biota in the last 542 My. Understanding its cause and the controls on extinction/recovery dynamics depends on an accurate and precise age model. U-Pb zircon dates for five volcanic ash beds from the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China, define an age model for the extinction and allow exploration of the links between global environmental perturbation, carbon cycle disruption, mass extinction, and recovery at millennial timescales. The extinction occurred between 251.941 ± 0.037 and 251.880 ± 0.031 Mya, an interval of 60 ± 48 ka. Onset of a major reorganization of the carbon cycle immediately precedes the initiation of extinction and is punctuated by a sharp (3‰), short-lived negative spike in the isotopic composition of carbonate carbon. Carbon cycle volatility persists for ∼500 ka before a return to near preextinction values. Decamillenial to millennial level resolution of the mass extinction and its aftermath will permit a refined evaluation of the relative roles of rate-dependent processes contributing to the extinction, allowing insight into postextinction ecosystem expansion, and establish an accurate time point for evaluating the plausibility of trigger and kill mechanisms.

  12. High precision Hugoniot measurements of D2 near maximum compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, John; Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The Hugoniot response of liquid deuterium has been widely studied due to its general importance and to the significant discrepancy in the inferred shock response obtained from early experiments. With improvements in dynamic compression platforms and experimental standards these results have converged and show general agreement with several equation of state (EOS) models, including quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). This approach to modeling the EOS has also proven quite successful for other materials and is rapidly becoming a standard approach. However, small differences remain among predictions obtained using different local and semi-local density functionals; these small differences show up in the deuterium Hugoniot at ~ 30-40 GPa near the region of maximum compression. Here we present experimental results focusing on that region of the Hugoniot and take advantage of advancements in the platform and standards, resulting in data with significantly higher precision than that obtained in previous studies. These new data may prove to distinguish between the subtle differences predicted by the various density functionals. Results of these experiments will be presented along with comparison to various QMD calculations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Impact of Planetary Gravitation on High Precision Neutral Atom Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharek, H.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Park, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Bzowski, M.; Schwadron, N.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) have been extremely successful in providing very important information on physical processes inside and outside our heliosphere. For instance, recent IBEX observations provided new insights into the local interstellar environment and improved measurements of the interstellar He temperature, velocity, and direction of the interstellar flow vector. Since particle collisions are rare and radiation pressure is negligible for these neutrals, gravitational forces mainly determine the trajectories of neutral He atoms. Depending on the distance of an ENA to the source of a gravitational field and its relative speed and direction this can result in a significant deflection and acceleration. In this presentation we study the impact of the gravitational effects of the Earth, Moon, and Jupiter on ENA measurements performed in Earth orbit. We show that planetary gravitational effects do not significantly affect the interstellar neutral gas parameters obtained from IBEX observations. We further study the possibility whether the He focusing cone of the Sun or Jupiter could be measured by IBEX, and whether these cones could be used as an independent measure of the interstellar He temperature. These topics are of particular importance for future missions such as IMAP, which will provide ENA images for a broader energy range and with better sensitivity and resolution.

  14. New linear piezomotors for high-force precise positioning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Barillot, Francois; Six, Marc F.; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    Piezomotors are an increasingly competitive alternative to electromagnetic stepper motors, especially in applications where large bandwidths and/or precise positioning control are desired. Piezomotors use a combination of electromechanical and frictional forces and, compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, have the advantages that no power supply is required to maintain the motor in position and no lubrication is necessary in the device. The operating principle of these motors relies on the use of an ultrasonic vibration, which is created via the piezoelectric effect (at resonance in most cases), in order to generate vibration forces at the `stator/rotor' contact interface. A mechanical preload is also applied at this contact interface and is responsible for the motor's holding force at rest. To meet the specifications of an aerospace application, we developed a new design of Linear PiezoMotors (LPMs). The first prototype we built shows very promising results, and makes the LPM a serious candidate to replace conventional stepper motors. The LPM features the following characteristics: a standing force of 100 N, a blocked force of 37 N, a maximum actuation speed of 23 mm/s, a maximum run of 10 mm, a mass of 500 g, an electrical power of 2.2 W, and a position accuracy superior to 1 micrometers . To our knowledge, the driving force delivered by the LPM has never before been achieved in resonant devices. This paper describes the physical operating principles of the LPM, as well as the modeling tools and experimental techniques we used for its development. Several implementation schemes are also presented and show the wide range of possible applications offered by the linear piezomotor.

  15. Treatment algorithms for high-energy traumas of lower extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-energy traumas are open or closed injuries caused by force (missile, traffic injuries, crush or blust injuries, falling from heights, affecting the body surface and transferring high amount of kinetic energy inducing great damage to the tissue. Management of such lower extremity injuries has evolved over past several decades, but still remains a difficult task for every surgical team. Specific anatomic and functional characteristics combined with extensive injuries demands specific treatment protocols. Multiple injuries In a multiple injured patient the first priority is management of life-threatening trauma. Despite other injuries, surgical treatment of limb-threatening injuries must start as soon as life-threatening condition has been managed. Treatment algorithms Algorithms are especially beneficial in management of severely injured, but salvageable extremities and in making decision on amputation. Insight into mechanisms of injury, as well as systematic examination of the affected limb, should help us understand the extensiveness of trauma and make an adequate management plan. Prevention of infection and surgical approach Prevention of wound infection and surgical approach to high- energy limb trauma, which includes wound extension, wound excision, skeletal stabilization and if necessary muscle compartment release, should be done in the first 6 hours after injury. Methods of soft tissue reconstruction Commonly used methods for soft tissue defects must provide wound coverage in less than five days following injury. Rehabilitation Early passive and active mobilization and verticalization of patients is very important for successful treatment. Conclusion Good and timely evaluation of the injured and collaboration between plastic and orthopedic surgeons from the beginning of treatment, are crucial for final outcome.

  16. Design and development of a high-precision, high-payload telescope dual-drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Michael S.; Beets, Timothy A.; Beno, Joseph H.; Mock, Jason R.; Murphy, Brian T.; South, Brian J.; Good, John M.

    2010-07-01

    A high precision, dual drive system has been designed and developed for the Wide Field Upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* at McDonald Observatory in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment‡. Analysis, design and controls details will be of interest to designers of large scale, high precision robotic motion devices. The drive system positions the 19,000 kg star tracker to a precision of less than 5 microns along its 4-meter travel. While positioning requirements remain essentially equal to the existing HET, tracker mass increases by a factor greater than 5. The 10.5-meter long tracker is driven at each end by planetary roller screws, each having two distinct drive sources dictated by the desired operation: one slowly rotates the screw when tracking celestial objects and the second rotates the nut for rapid displacements. Key results of the roller screw rotordynamics analysis are presented. A description of the complex bearing arrangement providing required degrees of freedom as well as the impact of a detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis addressing necessary safety systems is also presented. Finite element analysis results demonstrate how mechanical springs increase the telescope's natural frequency response by 22 percent. The critical analysis and resulting design is provided.

  17. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  18. Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bosheng; Seaberg, Matthew H; Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Porter, Christina L; Karl,, Robert; Mancuso, Christopher A; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Adams, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme of spectromicroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, where the spectral response of the sample at different wavelengths is imaged simultaneously. It is enabled by applying ptychographical information multiplexing (PIM) to a tabletop EUV source based on high harmonic generation, where four spectrally narrow harmonics near 30 nm form a spectral comb structure. Extending PIM from previously demonstrated visible wavelengths to the EUV/X-ray wavelengths promises much higher spatial resolution and more powerful spectral contrast mechanism, making PIM an attractive spectromicroscopy method in both the microscopy and the spectroscopy aspects. Besides the sample, the multicolor EUV beam is also imaged in situ, making our method a powerful beam characterization technique. No hardware is used to separate or narrow down the wavelengths, leading to efficient use of the EUV radiation.

  19. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum...

  20. High precision Symplectic Integrators for the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Farrés, Ariadna; Blanes, Sergio; Casas, Fernando; Makazaga, Joseba; Murua, Ander

    2012-01-01

    Using a Newtonian model of the Solar System with all 8 planets, we perform extensive tests on various symplectic integrators of high orders, searching for the best splitting scheme for long term studies in the Solar System. These comparisons are made in Jacobi and Heliocentric coordinates and the implementation of the algorithms is fully detailed for practical use. We conclude that high order integrators should be privileged, with a preference for the new $(10,6,4)$ method of (Blanes et al., 2012)

  1. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  2. In-plane laser forming for high precision alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gert-Willem; Brouwer, Dannis; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Laser microforming is extensively used to align components with submicrometer accuracy, often after assembly. While laser-bending sheet metal is the most common laser-forming mechanism, the in-plane upsetting mechanism is preferred when a high actuator stiffness is required. A three-bridge planar ac

  3. Highly Stretchable, Hysteresis-Free Ionic Liquid-Based Strain Sensor for Precise Human Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Yun; Kim, Min Hyeong; Oh, Yong Suk; Jung, Soo-Ho; Jung, Jae Hee; Sung, Hyung Jin; Lee, Hyung Woo; Lee, Hye Moon

    2017-01-18

    A highly stretchable, low-cost strain sensor was successfully prepared using an extremely cost-effective ionic liquid of ethylene glycol/sodium chloride. The hysteresis performance of the ionic-liquid-based sensor was able to be improved by introducing a wavy-shaped fluidic channel diminishing the hysteresis by the viscoelastic relaxation of elastomers. From the simulations on visco-hyperelastic behavior of the elastomeric channel, we demonstrated that the wavy structure can offer lower energy dissipation compared to a flat structure under a given deformation. The resistance response of the ionic-liquid-based wavy (ILBW) sensor was fairly deterministic with no hysteresis, and it was well-matched to the theoretically estimated curves. The ILBW sensors exhibited a low degree of hysteresis (0.15% at 250%), low overshoot (1.7% at 150% strain), and outstanding durability (3000 cycles at 300% strain). The ILBW sensor has excellent potential for use in precise and quantitative strain detections in various areas, such as human motion monitoring, healthcare, virtual reality, and smart clothes.

  4. A high-precision, distributed geodetic strainmeter based on dual coaxial cable Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J.; Wei, T.; Wei, M.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of surface deformation are essential for understanding a wide range of geophysical problems, including earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and glaciers. Current geodetic technologies, such as GPS, InSAR, borehole and laser strainmeters, are costly and limited in their temporal or spatial resolution. Here we present a new type of strainmeter based on coaxial cable Bragg grating (CCBG) sensing technology that provides high-precision, distributed strain measurements at a moderate cost. The coaxial-cable-based strainmeter is designed to cover a long distance (~ km) under harsh environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures. To minimize the environmental noises, two CCBGs are introduced into the geodetic strainmeter: one is used to measure the strain applied on it, and the other acts as a reference only to detect the environmental noises. The environmental noises are removed using the inputs from the strained CCBG and the reference CCBG in a frequency mixer. The test results show that the geodetic strainmeter with dual CCBGs has micron-strain accuracy in the lab.

  5. High-Precision Registration of Point Clouds Based on Sphere Feature Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Huang, Youping; Towers, David Peter

    2016-12-30

    Point cloud registration is a key process in multi-view 3D measurements. Its precision affects the measurement precision directly. However, in the case of the point clouds with non-overlapping areas or curvature invariant surface, it is difficult to achieve a high precision. A high precision registration method based on sphere feature constraint is presented to overcome the difficulty in the paper. Some known sphere features with constraints are used to construct virtual overlapping areas. The virtual overlapping areas provide more accurate corresponding point pairs and reduce the influence of noise. Then the transformation parameters between the registered point clouds are solved by an optimization method with weight function. In that case, the impact of large noise in point clouds can be reduced and a high precision registration is achieved. Simulation and experiments validate the proposed method.

  6. Design of High Precision Horizontal Control Network for Large-Scale Hydropower Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenglu; LUO Changlin; DENG Yong; XIE Niansheng

    2006-01-01

    A new solution of combination network of GPS and high precise distance measurements with EDM is proposed. Meanwhile, it's inadvisable only using GPS network without distance measurements. Three schemes: terrestrial network, GPS network and combination network are discussed for horizontal control network design of Xiangjiaba Dam in view of precision, reliability, coordinate and outlay in detail.

  7. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, A; Losito, R; Peronnard, P; Secondo, R; Spiezia, G

    2014-01-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. ...

  8. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin

    2013-12-23

    Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing or expanding a very thin and brief surface melt in the solder by amounts controlled in the nanoscale range, allowing post assembly correction of the mirror mount points. We believe this technology will be one of the keys to realize a sub-1 arc-sec thin-glass x-ray telescope.

  10. A high-precision algorithm for axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gokhman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for highly accurate computation of axisymmetric potential flow. The principal feature of the algorithm is the use of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates are used to write down the equations and to specify quadrilateral elements following the boundary. In particular, boundary conditions for the Stokes' stream-function are satisfied exactly. The velocity field is determined by differentiating the stream-function. We avoid the use of quadratures in the evaluation of Galerkin integrals, and instead use splining of the boundaries of elements to take the double integrals of the shape functions in closed form. This is very accurate and not time consuming.

  11. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  12. Unraveling high precision stereocontrol in a triple cascade organocatalytic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2008-11-07

    The mechanism and stereoselectivity in an organocatalyzed triple cascade reaction between an aldehyde, electron deficient olefin and an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde are investigated for the first time using density functional theory. The factors responsible for high levels of observed stereoselectivity (Enders et al., Nature, 2006, 441, 861) towards the generation of cyclohexene carbaldehyde with four contiguous stereocentres are unravelled. The triple cascade reaction, comprising a Michael, Michael and aldol sequence as the key elementary reactions, is studied by identifying the corresponding transition states for the stereoselective C-C bond-formation. In the first Michael addition step between the enamine (derived from the chiral catalyst and propanal) and nitrostyrene, energetically the most preferred mode of addition is found to be between the si-face of (E)-anti-enamine on the si-face of nitrostyrene. The addition of the si-face of the nitroalkane anion on the re-face of the iminium ion (formed between the enal and the catalyst) is the lowest energy pathway for the second Michael addition step. The high level of asymmetric induction is rationalized with the help of relative activation barriers associated with the competitive diastereomeric pathways. Interesting weak interactions, along with the steric effects offered by the bulky alpha-substituent on the pyrrolidine ring, are identified as critical to the stereoselectivity in this triple cascade reaction. The predicted stereoselectivities using computed energetics are found to be in perfect harmony with the experimental stereoselectivities.

  13. High-precision metrology of highly charged ions via relativistic resonance fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postavaru, O; Harman, Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-21

    Resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions is investigated with regard to precisely measuring atomic properties. For this purpose an ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation is employed that allows for studying relativistic ions. These systems provide a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying x-ray lasers. We show how the narrowing of sidebands in the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by interference due to an additional optical driving can be exploited to determine atomic dipole or multipole moments to unprecedented accuracy.

  14. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  15. High precision, low disturbance calibration system for the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter High Voltage apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, G.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillation lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3%/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  16. High precision, medium flux rate CZT spectroscopy for coherent scatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel A.; Hassan, Mehadi; Brady, David J.; Iniewski, Kris

    2016-05-01

    CZT detectors are primary candidates for many next-generation X-ray imaging systems. These detectors are typically operated in either a high precision, low flux spectroscopy mode or a low precision, high flux photon counting mode. We demonstrate a new detector configuration that enables operation in a high precision, medium flux spectroscopy mode, which opens the potential for a variety of new applications in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and baggage scanning. In particular, we describe the requirements of a coded aperture coherent scattering X-ray system that can perform fast imaging with accurate material discrimination.

  17. Stellar Astrophysics Using Ultra-High Precision CCD Time Series Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Everett, M.; Huber, M.; Ciardi, D.; van Belle, G.

    2001-05-01

    Using time-series CCD photometry and a wide-field imager, we have extended the techniques of differential photometry to provide robust photometric precisions for each star over the entire field of view. Reaching photometric precisions of 2 milli-magnitudes, we produced high cadence light curves for over 12,000 stars at mid- and high galactic latitude. The fraction of stars seen to be variable is higher than the canonical wisdom, being 10-14 will present the details of our techniques, sample light curves, methods to access the data, and a summary of astrophysical uses of such high precision data.

  18. On the Mitigation of Solar Index Variability for High Precision Orbit Determination in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Orbit Covariance Estimation and ANalysis (OCEAN) high precision orbit deter- mination tool in order to determine the suitability of each model for...Covariance Estimation and ANalysis (OCEAN) software was used to preform high precision orbit estimations. OCEAN is a highly configurable, database...lowest RMS position difference for each time span is highlighted in bold text . The Jacchia-Bowman 2008 models are labeled as JB08, the NRLMSISE-00

  19. High-Precision Measurements of Brightness Variation of Nereid

    CERN Document Server

    Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nereid, a satellite of Neptune, has a highly eccentric prograde orbit with a semi-major axis larger than 200 Neptune radius and is classified as an irregular satellite. Although the capture origin of irregular satellites has been widely accepted, several previous studies suggest that Nereid was formed in the circumplanetary disk of Neptune and was ejected outward to the present location by Triton. Our time-series photometric observations confirm that the spin is stable and non-chaotic with a period of 11.5 hr as indicated by Grav et al. (2003). The optical colors of Nereid are indistinguishable from those of trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs, especially those with neutral colors. We also find the consistency of Nereid's rotation with the size-rotation distribution of small outer bodies. It is more likely that Nereid originates in an immigrant body captured from a heliocentric orbit which was 4-5 AU away from Neptune's orbit.

  20. High precision pointing with a multiline spectrometer at the VTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-12-01

    We are investigating the pointing quality of the VTT, Tenerife under the aspect of suitability for long-term heliosesimological observations. Tests have shown that thermal and mechanical loads within the telescope may create spurious image drifts with shift rates of up to 5 arcsec per hour. During daylong recordings this will reduce significantly the effective size of the field-of-view and may infer artificial lateral movements into the data. The underlying problem that not all image position offsets developing during a measurement may be compensated for is common to most high-resolution solar telescopes independently of the type of pointing system used. We are developing new approaches to address this problem which are to be tested in the near future at the VTT. The simulations established so far show that the problem may be reduced by more than 90 %.

  1. DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH PRECISION SIX COMPONENT STRAIN GAUGE BALANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhao-ming; HANBu-zhang

    2004-01-01

    The measurement accuracy of a wind tunnel balance is the key factor to improve the measurement accuracy for a test model in the wind tunnel. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the wind tunnel balance, a great deal of investigation is carried out in China. This paper summarizes a program to improve the measurement accuracy of wind tunnel balances. In the program, the investigation is carried out in three aspects (1) designing a drag component of the balance in low interactions (2) choosing high quality foil strain gauges with temperature self-compensation (3) choosing the excellent gauges and mounting them meticulously. As an example, these research achievements are applied in a φ18 six component balance. The measurement accuracy of a GB-04 standard model in a transonic wind tunnel with the φ18 six component balance comes up to the advanced world standard.

  2. Derivative properties from high-precision equations of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbakhsh, Reza; Konttorp, Morten; Raeissi, Sona; Peters, Cor J; O'Connell, John P

    2014-12-11

    In this study, the behavior of derivative properties estimated by equations of state, including isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity, speed of sound, and the Joule-Thomson coefficient for pure compounds and a mixture, has been investigated. The Schmidt-Wagner and Jacobsen-Stewart equations of state were used for predictions of derivative properties of 10 different pure compounds from various nonpolar hydrocarbons, nonpolar cyclic hydrocarbons, polar compounds, and refrigerants. The estimations were compared to experimental data. To evaluate the behavior of mixtures, the extended corresponding states principle (ECS) was studied. Analytical relationships were derived for isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound. The ECS calculations were compared to the reference surface data of methane + ethane. The ECS principle was found to generate data of high quality.

  3. A high precision high PSRR bandgap reference with thermal hysteresis protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yintang; Li Yani; Zhu Zhangming, E-mail: yanili@mail.xidian.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-09-15

    To meet the accuracy requirement for the bandgap voltage reference by the increasing data conversion precision of integrated circuits, a high-order curvature-compensated bandgap voltage reference is presented employing the characteristic of bipolar transistor current gain exponentially changing with temperature variations. In addition, an over-temperature protection circuit with a thermal hysteresis function to prevent thermal oscillation is proposed. Based on the CSMC 0.5 {mu}m 20 V BCD process, the designed circuit is implemented; the active die area is 0.17 x 0.20 mm{sup 2}. Simulation and testing results show that the temperature coefficient is 13.7ppm/K with temperature ranging from -40 to 150 {sup 0}C, the power supply rejection ratio is -98.2 dB, the line regulation is 0.3 mV/V, and the power consumption is only 0.38 mW. The proposed bandgap voltage reference has good characteristics such as small area, low power consumption, good temperature stability, high power supply rejection ratio, as well as low line regulation. This circuit can effectively prevent thermal oscillation and is suitable for on-chip voltage reference in high precision analog, digital and mixed systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high precision high PSRR bandgap reference with thermal hysteresis protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yintang, Yang; Yani, Li; Zhangming, Zhu

    2010-09-01

    To meet the accuracy requirement for the bandgap voltage reference by the increasing data conversion precision of integrated circuits, a high-order curvature-compensated bandgap voltage reference is presented employing the characteristic of bipolar transistor current gain exponentially changing with temperature variations. In addition, an over-temperature protection circuit with a thermal hysteresis function to prevent thermal oscillation is proposed. Based on the CSMC 0.5 μm 20 V BCD process, the designed circuit is implemented; the active die area is 0.17 × 0.20 mm2. Simulation and testing results show that the temperature coefficient is 13.7ppm/K with temperature ranging from -40 to 150 °C, the power supply rejection ratio is -98.2 dB, the line regulation is 0.3 mV/V, and the power consumption is only 0.38 mW. The proposed bandgap voltage reference has good characteristics such as small area, low power consumption, good temperature stability, high power supply rejection ratio, as well as low line regulation. This circuit can effectively prevent thermal oscillation and is suitable for on-chip voltage reference in high precision analog, digital and mixed systems.

  5. High photon flux table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet source

    CERN Document Server

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Hoffmann, Armin; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) enables extreme ultraviolet radiation with table-top setups. Its exceptional properties, such as coherence and (sub)-femtosecond pulse durations, have led to a diversity of applications. Some of these require a high photon flux and megahertz repetition rates, e.g. to avoid space charge effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. To date this has only been achieved with enhancement cavities. Here, we establish a novel route towards powerful HHG sources. By achieving phase-matched HHG of a megahertz fibre laser we generate a broad plateau (25 eV - 40 eV) of strong harmonics, each containing more than $10^{12}$ photons/s, which constitutes an increase by more than one order of magnitude in that wavelength range. The strongest harmonic (H25, 30 eV) has an average power of 143 $\\mu$W ($3\\cdot10^{13}$ photons/s). This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications in photoelectron or coincidence spectroscopy, coherent diffractive imaging or (multidimensional) surface science.

  6. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  7. Extremely high-frequency micro-Doppler measurements of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Silvious, Jerry L.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Green, Jeremy A.; Wikner, David A.

    2014-05-01

    The development of sensors that are capable of penetrating smoke, dust, fog, clouds, and rain is critical for maintaining situational awareness in degraded visual environments and for providing support to the Warfighter. Atmospheric penetration properties, the ability to form high-resolution imagery with modest apertures, and available source power make the extremely high-frequency (EHF) portion of the spectrum promising for the development of radio frequency (RF) sensors capable of penetrating visual obscurants. Comprehensive phenomenology studies including polarization and backscatter properties of relevant targets are lacking at these frequencies. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing a fully-polarimetric frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) instrumentation radar to explore polarization and backscatter properties of in-situ rain, scattering from natural and man-made surfaces, and the radar cross section and micro-Doppler signatures of humans at EHF frequencies, specifically, around the 220 GHz atmospheric window. This work presents an overview of the design and construction of the radar system, hardware performance, data acquisition software, and initial results including an analysis of human micro-Doppler signatures.

  8. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  9. High precision stress measurements in semiconductor structures by Raman microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Stress in silicon structures plays an essential role in modern semiconductor technology. This stress has to be measured and due to the ongoing miniaturization in today's semiconductor industry, the measuring method has to meet certain requirements. The present thesis deals with the question how Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the state of stress in semiconductor structures. In the first chapter the relation between Raman peakshift and stress in the material is explained. It is shown that detailed stress maps with a spatial resolution close to the diffraction limit can be obtained in structured semiconductor samples. Furthermore a novel procedure, the so called Stokes-AntiStokes-Difference method is introduced. With this method, topography, tool or drift effects can be distinguished from stress related influences in the sample. In the next chapter Tip-enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) and its application for an improvement in lateral resolution is discussed. For this, a study is presented, which shows the influence of metal particles on the intensity and localization of the Raman signal. A method to attach metal particles to scannable tips is successfully applied. First TERS scans are shown and their impact on and challenges for high resolution stress measurements on semiconductor structures is explained. (orig.)

  10. A research of a high precision multichannel data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-na; Tang, Xiao-ping; Yan, Wei

    2013-08-01

    The output signals of the focusing system in lithography are analog. To convert the analog signals into digital ones which are more flexible and stable to process, a desirable data acquisition system is required. The resolution of data acquisition, to some extent, affects the accuracy of focusing. In this article, we first compared performance between the various kinds of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) available on the market at the moment. Combined with the specific requirements (sampling frequency, converting accuracy, numbers of channels etc) and the characteristics (polarization, amplitude range etc) of the analog signals, the model of the ADC to be used as the core chip in our hardware design was determined. On this basis, we chose other chips needed in the hardware circuit that would well match with ADC, then the overall hardware design was obtained. Validation of our data acquisition system was verified through experiments and it can be demonstrated that the system can effectively realize the high resolution conversion of the multi-channel analog signals and give the accurate focusing information in lithography.

  11. High Precision Cosmology with the Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Marzieh

    around the fiducial model of the standard recombination scenario. Though theoretically well studied, the detailed assumptions in the recombination history, based on standard atomic physics, have never been directly tested. However, for our CMB-based cosmological inferences to be reliable, the recombination scenario needs to be observationally verified. We approach this problem in a model-independent way and construct rank-ordered parameter eigen-modes with the highest power to probe Xe. We study various properties of these modes, including their convergence, fiducial model-dependence, dataset dependence, and the eigen-modes response to marginalization over different standard parameters. We demonstrate that, if enough modes are included, the eigen-modes form a practically complete set of basis function for expanding different physically motivated Xe perturbations. We also develop an information-based criterion to truncate the eigen-mode hierarchy, which can be used in similar hierarchical model selections as well. We show how our measurements of cosmic parameters will be affected if possible deviations in the recombination history are ignored. The method is applied to simulations of Planck+ACTPol and a cosmic variance limited survey with differing simulated recombination histories and the recovered Xe trajectories are constructed. We also apply the method to the best currently available CMB datasets, WMAP9+ACT/SPT. The first constructed eigen-mode turns out to be a direct measure of the damping envelope. Its current measurement with SPT slightly indicates a damping tail anomaly, while ACT data agree well with the standard scenario. High resolution Planck data will resolve this tension with high significance.

  12. “MODAL NOISE” IN SINGLE-MODE FIBERS: A CAUTIONARY NOTE FOR HIGH PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITY INSTRUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Samuel; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schwab, Christian, E-mail: shalverson@psu.edu [Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Exploring the use of single-mode fibers (SMFs) in high precision Doppler spectrometers has become increasingly attractive since the advent of diffraction-limited adaptive optics systems on large-aperture telescopes. Spectrometers fed with these fibers can be made significantly smaller than typical “seeing-limited” instruments, greatly reducing cost and overall complexity. Importantly, classical mode interference and speckle issues associated with multi-mode fibers, also known as “modal noise,” are mitigated when using SMFs, which also provide perfect radial and azimuthal image scrambling. However, SMFs do support multiple polarization modes, an issue that is generally ignored for larger-core fibers given the large number of propagation modes. Since diffraction gratings used in most high resolution astronomical instruments have dispersive properties that are sensitive to incident polarization changes, any birefringence variations in the fiber can cause variations in the efficiency profile, degrading illumination stability. Here we present a cautionary note outlining how the polarization properties of SMFs can affect the radial velocity (RV) measurement precision of high resolution spectrographs. This work is immediately relevant to the rapidly expanding field of diffraction-limited, extreme precision RV spectrographs that are currently being designed and built by a number of groups.

  13. Spectral Unmixing Plate Reader: High-Throughput, High-Precision FRET Assays in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Tory M; Peterson, Kurt C; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Gillispie, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a microplate reader that records a complete high-quality fluorescence emission spectrum on a well-by-well basis under true high-throughput screening (HTS) conditions. The read time for an entire 384-well plate is less than 3 min. This instrument is particularly well suited for assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Intramolecular protein biosensors with genetically encoded green fluorescent protein (GFP) donor and red fluorescent protein (RFP) acceptor tags at positions sensitive to structural changes were stably expressed and studied in living HEK cells. Accurate quantitation of FRET was achieved by decomposing each observed spectrum into a linear combination of four component (basis) spectra (GFP emission, RFP emission, water Raman, and cell autofluorescence). Excitation and detection are both conducted from the top, allowing for thermoelectric control of the sample temperature from below. This spectral unmixing plate reader (SUPR) delivers an unprecedented combination of speed, precision, and accuracy for studying ensemble-averaged FRET in living cells. It complements our previously reported fluorescence lifetime plate reader, which offers the feature of resolving multiple FRET populations within the ensemble. The combination of these two direct waveform-recording technologies greatly enhances the precision and information content for HTS in drug discovery.

  14. Single Crystal Piezomotor for Large Stroke, High Precision and Cryogenic Actuations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes a novel single crystal piezomotor for large stroke, high precision, and cryogenic actuations with capability of position set-hold with...

  15. The High Precision Vibration Signal Data Acquisition System Based on the STM32

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu Hui-Ling; Zhu Xin-Yin

    2014-01-01

    ... changes in cable resistance. Therefore, this paper proposed a high precision vibration signal acquisition with storage function based on STM32 microcontroller in order to promote safety in engineering construction...

  16. Development of precision numerical controlled high vacuum electron beam welding machine

    CERN Document Server

    Li Shao Lin

    2002-01-01

    The structure, main technical parameters and characteristics of the precision numerical controlled high vacuum electron beam welding machine are introduced. The design principle, some features and solutions to some key technique problems of this new type machine are described

  17. Development of a High Power Programmable Precise Time-Delay Trigger/Ignition System for MFCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bi; HE Yuan-hang; ZHANG Qing-ming; MA Yue-fen

    2008-01-01

    High-power precise delay trigger/ignition system is a programmable pulse generator developed for experiment controlling in explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators.Precise delay pulses are generated by the digital circuit,after being magnified and sharpened through multistage isolated amplifiers and rising edge sharpening device,high-voltage steep delay pulses with precision less than us level are obtained.This system has been used in our compact magnetic flux compression generator experiments in place of the traditional primaeord delay device.

  18. High Precision Prediction of Rolling Force Based on Fuzzy and Nerve Method for Cold Tandem Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    The rolling force model for cold tandem mill was put forward by using the Elman dynamic recursive network method, based on the actual measured data. Furthermore, a good assumption is put forward, which brings a full universe of discourse self-adjusting factor fuzzy control, closed-loop adjusting, based on error feedback and expertise into a rolling force prediction model, to modify prediction outputs and improve prediction precision and robustness. The simulated results indicate that the method is highly effective and the prediction precision is better than that of the traditional method. Predicted relative error is less than ±4%, so the prediction is high precise for the cold tandem mill.

  19. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  1. Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-01

    The field of laser-matter interaction traditionally deals with the response of atoms, molecules and plasmas to an external light wave. However, the recent sustained technological progress is opening the possibility of employing intense laser radiation to prompt or substantially influence physical processes beyond atomic-physics energy scales. Available optical laser intensities exceeding $10^{22}\\;\\text{W/cm$^2$}$ can push the fundamental light-electron interaction to the extreme limit where radiation-reaction effects dominate the electron dynamics, can shed light on the structure of the quantum vacuum and can prime the creation of particles like electrons, muons and pions and the corresponding antiparticles. Also, novel sources of intense coherent high-energy photons and laser-based particle colliders can pave the way to nuclear quantum optics and can even allow for potential discovery of new particles beyond the Standard Model. These are the main topics of the present article, which is devoted to a review o...

  2. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  3. Study of the data taking strategy for a high precision τ mass measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-Kai; ZHANG Jian-Yong; MO Xiao-Hu; YUAN Chang-Zheng

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high precision τ mass measurement at the high luminosity experiment BESⅢ, Monte Carlo simulation and sampling technique are utilized to simulate various data taking cases for single and multi-parameter fits by virtue of which the optimal scheme is determined. The optimized proportion of luminosity distributed at selected points and the relation between precision and luminosity are obtained. In addition, the optimization of the fit scheme is confirmed by scrutinizing a variety of fit possibilities.

  4. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  5. A high precision technique to correct for residual atmospheric dispersion in high-contrast imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, P; Jovanovic, N; Lozi, J; Martinache, F; Minowa, Y; Kudo, T; Takami, H; Hayano, Y; Narita, N

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopy of exoplanets requires high contrast imaging. For habitable exoplanets in particular, located at small angular separation from the host star, it is crucial to employ small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraphs that efficiently suppress starlight. These coronagraphs, in turn, require careful control of the wavefront which directly impacts their performance. For ground-based telescopes, atmospheric refraction is also an important factor, since it results in a smearing of the PSF, that can no longer be efficiently suppressed by the coronagraph. Traditionally, atmospheric refraction is compensated for by an atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC). ADC control relies on an a priori model of the atmosphere whose parameters are solely based on the pointing of the telescope, which can result in imperfect compensation. For a high contrast instrument like the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, which employs very small IWA coronagraphs, refraction-induced sm...

  6. High precision cross-correlated imaging in few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Kristensen, Torben; Tanggaard Alkeskjold, Thomas; Rottwitt, Karsten; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The trend of increasing data traffic in conventional communication systems demands utilizing new methods for data transmission, which in combination with traditional techniques, enable overcoming the predicted capacity limit. Mode division multiplexing (MDM), where higher-order modes (HOMs) in a few-mode fiber (FMF) are used as multiple spatial communication channels, comes in this context as a viable approach to enable the optimization of high-capacity links. From this perspective, it becomes highly necessary to possess a diagnostic tool for the precise modal characterization of FMFs. Among existing approaches for modal content analysis, several methods as S2, C2 in time and frequency domain are available. In this contribution we will present an improved time-domain cross-correlated (C2) imaging technique for the experimental evaluation of modal properties in HOM fibers over a broad range of wavelengths. Our modified setup makes it possible to adjust the time resolution of the system according to the needs of the required fiber measurement. We show that by tuning the spectral shape of the source (SuperK EXTREME filtered by SuperK Select), we enhance the time resolution of the system, which allows us to distinguishing differential time delays between HOMs in the picosecond timescale. Broad wavelength scanning in combination with spectral shaping, allows us to estimate the modal behavior of FMF without prior knowledge of the fiber parameters. We performed our demonstration at wavelengths from 850nm to 1100nm which can be easily extended to other wavelengths of interest just by replacing components with the appropriate coating. The method presented here aims to serve as flexible diagnostic tool that can be implemented in MDM systems for judicious evaluation of modal dispersion in FMFs.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF LIDAR DATA FOR GENERATING A HIGH-PRECISION ROADWAY MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jeong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating of a highly precise map grows up with development of autonomous driving vehicles. The highly precise map includes a precision of centimetres level unlike an existing commercial map with the precision of meters level. It is important to understand road environments and make a decision for autonomous driving since a robust localization is one of the critical challenges for the autonomous driving car. The one of source data is from a Lidar because it provides highly dense point cloud data with three dimensional position, intensities and ranges from the sensor to target. In this paper, we focus on how to segment point cloud data from a Lidar on a vehicle and classify objects on the road for the highly precise map. In particular, we propose the combination with a feature descriptor and a classification algorithm in machine learning. Objects can be distinguish by geometrical features based on a surface normal of each point. To achieve correct classification using limited point cloud data sets, a Support Vector Machine algorithm in machine learning are used. Final step is to evaluate accuracies of obtained results by comparing them to reference data The results show sufficient accuracy and it will be utilized to generate a highly precise road map.

  8. Classification of LIDAR Data for Generating a High-Precision Roadway Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Generating of a highly precise map grows up with development of autonomous driving vehicles. The highly precise map includes a precision of centimetres level unlike an existing commercial map with the precision of meters level. It is important to understand road environments and make a decision for autonomous driving since a robust localization is one of the critical challenges for the autonomous driving car. The one of source data is from a Lidar because it provides highly dense point cloud data with three dimensional position, intensities and ranges from the sensor to target. In this paper, we focus on how to segment point cloud data from a Lidar on a vehicle and classify objects on the road for the highly precise map. In particular, we propose the combination with a feature descriptor and a classification algorithm in machine learning. Objects can be distinguish by geometrical features based on a surface normal of each point. To achieve correct classification using limited point cloud data sets, a Support Vector Machine algorithm in machine learning are used. Final step is to evaluate accuracies of obtained results by comparing them to reference data The results show sufficient accuracy and it will be utilized to generate a highly precise road map.

  9. Proposed design for high precision refractive index sensor using integrated planar lightwave circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi; Fujii, Yusaku; Zhang, Shulian; Hou, Wenmei

    2009-07-01

    A high precision and compact refractive index sensor is proposed. The combination of coarse measurement utilizing the change of the angle of refraction and fine measurement utilizing the phase change is newly proposed to measure absolute refractive index precisely. The proposed method does not need expensive optical measurement equipment such as an optical spectrum analyzer. The integrated planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology enables us to obtain a compact sensor that is preferable for the practical use. The principle, design, and some configurations for precise refractive index measurement are described.

  10. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  11. High resolution simulations of extreme weather event in south Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, C.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade, like most region of Mediterranean Europe, Sardinia has experienced severe precipitation events generating flash floods resulting in loss of lives and large economic damage. A numerical meteorological operational set-up is applied in the local weather service with the aim to improve the operational short range weather forecast of the Service with particular attention to intense, mostly rare and potentially severe, events. On the early hours of 22 October 2008 an intense and almost stationary mesoscale convective system interested particularly the south of Sardinia, heavy precipitation caused a flash flood with fatalities and numerous property damages. The event was particularly intense: about 400 mm of rain in 12 hours (a peak of 150 mm in an hour) were misured by the regional network of weather stations and these values appear extremely meaningfulls since those are about seven times the climatological monthly rainfall for that area and nearly the climatological annual rainfall. With the aim to improve significantly quantitative precipitation forecasting, it was evaluated a different set-up of a high resolution convection resolving model (MM5) initialised with different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF and NCAR). In this paper it is discussed the meteorological system related to the mentioned event by using different numerical weather models (GCM and LAM) combined with conventional data, radar Doppler and Meteosat images. Preliminary results say that a different set-up of a non hydrostatic model can forecast severe convection events in advance of about one day and produce more realistic rainfall than that current operational and also improve the weather forecasts to respect the ECMWF-GCM. So it could drive an operational alert system in order to limit the risks associated with heavy precipitation events.

  12. MRPC-PET: A new technique for high precision time and position measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: kdoroud@cern.ch [World Laboratory, Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Li, S. [World Laboratory, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Zichichi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); PH Dept, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Zuyeuski, R. [World Laboratory, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-12-21

    The purpose of this paper is to consider a new technology for medical diagnosis: the MRPC-PET. This technology allows excellent time resolution together with 2-D position information thus providing a fundamental step in this field. The principle of this method is based on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) capable of high precision time measurements. We have previously found that the route to precise timing is differential readout (this requires matching anode and cathode strips); thus crossed strip readout schemes traditionally used for 2-D readout cannot be exploited. In this paper we consider the time difference from the two ends of the strip to provide a high precision measurement along the strip; the average time gives precise timing. The MRPC-PET thus provides a basic step in the field of medical technology: excellent time resolution together with 2-D position measurement.

  13. Precision ring rolling technique and application in high-performance bearing manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance bearing has significant application in many important industry fields, like automobile, precision machine tool, wind power, etc. Precision ring rolling is an advanced rotary forming technique to manufacture high-performance seamless bearing ring thus can improve the working life of bearing. In this paper, three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques adapt to different dimensional ranges of bearings are introduced, which are cold ring rolling for small-scale bearing, hot radial ring rolling for medium-scale bearing and hot radial-axial ring rolling for large-scale bearing. The forming principles, technological features and forming equipments for three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques are summarized, the technological development and industrial application in China are introduced, and the main technological development trend is described.

  14. A High-Precision Registration Technology Based on Bundle Adjustment in Structured Light Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiview 3D data registration precision will decrease with the increasing number of registrations when measuring a large scale object using structured light scanning. In this paper, we propose a high-precision registration method based on multiple view geometry theory in order to solve this problem. First, a multiview network is constructed during the scanning process. The bundle adjustment method from digital close range photogrammetry is used to optimize the multiview network to obtain high-precision global control points. After that, the 3D data under each local coordinate of each scan are registered with the global control points. The method overcomes the error accumulation in the traditional registration process and reduces the time consumption of the following 3D data global optimization. The multiview 3D scan registration precision and efficiency are increased. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Multiscale Multisensor Data Fusion and Application in High Precision Marking and Cutting Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The multisensor online measure system for high precision marking and cutting robot system is designed and the data fusion method is introduced, which combines augment state multiscale process with extend Kalman filter. The technology measuring the three-dimensional deforming information of profiled bars is applied. The experimental result shows that applying the multisensor data fusion technology can enhance the measure precision and the reliability of measure system.

  16. FOTOMCAp: a new quasi-automatic code for high-precision photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, Romina

    2016-01-01

    The search for Earth-like planets using the transit technique has encouraged the development of strategies to obtain light curves with increasingly precision. In this context we developed the FOTOMCAp program. This is an IRAF quasi-automatic code which employs the aperture correction method and allows to obtain high-precision light curves. In this contribution we describe how this code works and show the results obtained for planetary transits light curves.

  17. FOTOMCAp: a new quasi-automatic code for high-precision photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    The search for Earth-like planets using the transit technique has encouraged the development of strategies to obtain light curves with increasing precision. In this context we developed the fotomcap program. This is an iraf quasi-automatic code which employs the aperture correction method and allows to obtain high-precision light curves. In this contribution we describe how this code works and show the results obtained for planetary transits light curves.

  18. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology for Long Term High Precision Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezočnik, Rok; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Sterle, Oskar; Bilban, Gregor; Pfeifer, Norbert; Stopar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new methodology for high precision monitoring of deformations with a long term perspective using terrestrial laser scanning technology. In order to solve the problem of a stable reference system and to assure the high quality of possible position changes of point clouds, scanning is integrated with two complementary surveying techniques, i.e., high quality static GNSS positioning and precise tacheometry. The case study object where the proposed methodology was tested is a high pressure underground pipeline situated in an area which is geologically unstable. PMID:22303152

  19. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  20. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  1. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Kotuš, Srđan M; Carswell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift $z=1$, HE 0515$-$4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption-line system at $z_{abs}=1.1508$, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$). A variation of just $\\sim$3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N $\\approx250$ pix$^{-1}$). This provides the most precise measurement of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from a single absorption system to date, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-1.42\\pm0.55_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.65_{\\rm sys}$ ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of $\\sim$150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelengt...

  2. High-precision Thickness Setting Models for Titanium Alloy Plate Cold Rolling without Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaochen; YANG Quan; HE Fei; SUN Youzhao; XIAO Huifang

    2015-01-01

    Due to its highly favorable physical and chemical properties, titanium and titanium alloy are widely used in a variety of industries. Because of the low output of a single batch, plate cold rolling without tension is the most common rolling production method for titanium alloy. This method is lack of on-line thickness closed-loop control, with carefully thickness setting models for precision. A set of high-precision thickness setting models are proposed to suit the production method. Because of frequent variations in rolling specification, a model structural for the combination of analytical models and statistical models is adopted to replace the traditional self-learning method. The deformation resistance and friction factor, the primary factors which affect model precision, are considered as the objectives of statistical modeling. Firstly, the coefficient fitting of deformation resistance analytical model based on over-determined equations set is adopted. Additionally, a support vector machine(SVM) is applied to the modeling of the deformation resistance and friction factor. The setting models are applied to a 1450 plate-coiling mill for titanium alloy plate rolling, and then thickness precision is found consistently to be within 3%, exceeding the precision of traditional setting models with a self-learning method based on a large number of stable rolling data. Excellent application performance is obtained. The proposed research provides a set of high-precision thickness setting models which are well adapted to the characteristics of titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension.

  3. High-precision thickness setting models for titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Yang, Quan; He, Fei; Sun, Youzhao; Xiao, Huifang

    2015-03-01

    Due to its highly favorable physical and chemical properties, titanium and titanium alloy are widely used in a variety of industries. Because of the low output of a single batch, plate cold rolling without tension is the most common rolling production method for titanium alloy. This method is lack of on-line thickness closed-loop control, with carefully thickness setting models for precision. A set of high-precision thickness setting models are proposed to suit the production method. Because of frequent variations in rolling specification, a model structural for the combination of analytical models and statistical models is adopted to replace the traditional self-learning method. The deformation resistance and friction factor, the primary factors which affect model precision, are considered as the objectives of statistical modeling. Firstly, the coefficient fitting of deformation resistance analytical model based on over-determined equations set is adopted. Additionally, a support vector machine(SVM) is applied to the modeling of the deformation resistance and friction factor. The setting models are applied to a 1450 plate-coiling mill for titanium alloy plate rolling, and then thickness precision is found consistently to be within 3%, exceeding the precision of traditional setting models with a self-learning method based on a large number of stable rolling data. Excellent application performance is obtained. The proposed research provides a set of high-precision thickness setting models which are well adapted to the characteristics of titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension.

  4. Design and algorithm research of high precision airborne infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Fu, Yan; Chen, Zhao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    There are shortcomings of low precision, touch shaking, and sharp decrease of touch precision when emitting and receiving tubes are failure in the infrared touch screen. A high precision positioning algorithm based on extended axis is proposed to solve these problems. First, the unimpeded state of the beam between emitting and receiving tubes is recorded as 0, while the impeded state is recorded as 1. Then, the method of oblique scan is used, in which the light of one emitting tube is used for five receiving tubes. The impeded information of all emitting and receiving tubes is collected as matrix. Finally, according to the method of arithmetic average, the position of the touch object is calculated. The extended axis positioning algorithm is characteristic of high precision in case of failure of individual infrared tube and affects slightly the precision. The experimental result shows that the 90% display area of the touch error is less than 0.25D, where D is the distance between adjacent emitting tubes. The conclusion is gained that the algorithm based on extended axis has advantages of high precision, little impact when individual infrared tube is failure, and using easily.

  5. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  6. High Precision Calculations of the Lennard-Jones Lattice Constants for Five Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The total potential energy of a crystal as described by the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential depends in part upon the calculation of lattice constants. Knowing these constants to high precision is useful for prediction of the lattice type and simulation of crystals such as rare-gas solids or germanium detectors, but reaching higher precision is computationally costly and challenging. Presented here is the extension of the precision of the lattice constants, Lp, up to 32 decimal digits, and in some cases corrections from previous publication. The Lp terms are given for 4 cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, hexagonal-close-pack, and diamond lattices. This precision was obtained through the use of careful parallelization technique, exploitation of the symmetries of each lattice, and the ``onionization'' of the simulated crystal. The results of this computation, along with the tools and algorithm strategies to make this computation possible, are explained in detail graphically.

  7. High Throughput, High Precision Hot Testing Tool for HBLED Wafer Level Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solarz, Richard [KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, CA (United States); McCord, Mark [KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The Socrates research effort developed an in depth understanding and demonstrated in a prototype tool new precise methods for teh characterization of color characteristics and flux from individual LEDs for the production of uniform quality lighting. This effort was focused on improving the color quality and consistency of solid state lighting and potentially reducing characterization costs for all LED product types. The patented laser hot testing method was demonstrated to be far more accurate than all current state of the art color and flux characterization methods in use by the solid state lighting industry today. A seperately patented LED grouping method (statistical binning) was demonstrated to be a useful approach to improving utilization of entire lots of large color and flux distributions of manufactured LEDs for high quality color solid-state lighting. At the conclusion of the research in late 2015 the solid-state lighting industry was however generally satisfied with its existing production methods for high quality color products for the small segment of customers that demand it, albeit with added costs.

  8. High precision locating control system based on VCM for Talbot lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lixin; Deng, Qian; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the high precision and efficiency requirements of Z-direction locating in Talbot lithography, a control system based on Voice Coil Motor (VCM) was designed. In this paper, we built a math model of VCM and its moving characteristic was analyzed. A double-closed loop control strategy including position loop and current loop were accomplished. The current loop was implemented by driver, in order to achieve the rapid follow of the system current. The position loop was completed by the digital signal processor (DSP) and the position feedback was achieved by high precision linear scales. Feed forward control and position feedback Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) control were applied in order to compensate for dynamic lag and improve the response speed of the system. And the high precision and efficiency of the system were verified by simulation and experiments. The results demonstrated that the performance of Z-direction gantry was obviously improved, having high precision, quick responses, strong real-time and easily to expend for higher precision.

  9. Optimizing Planning and Delivery of High-Precision Robotic Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ High-precision robotic radiotherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) are two relatively new radiotherapy techniques that particularly aim at a highly localized delivery of a curative dose to the tumor, while achieving excellent sparing of the surrounding

  10. Optimizing Planning and Delivery of High-Precision Robotic Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ High-precision robotic radiotherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) are two relatively new radiotherapy techniques that particularly aim at a highly localized delivery of a curative dose to the tumor, while achieving excellent sparing of the surrounding he

  11. A high precision chemical abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary: constraints on planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Ramirez, I; Yong, D; Melendez, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision, differential elemental abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/HIRES spectra. The secondary star in this double system is known to host a transiting giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around the primary star. The derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the primary and secondary stars are identical within the errors: $0.146 \\pm 0.014$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.033 dex) and $0.155 \\pm 0.007$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.023 dex), respectively. Extremely precise differential abundance ratios of 23 elements have been measured (mean error of $\\sigma$([X/Fe]) = 0.013 dex) and are found to be indistinguishable between the two stars: $\\Delta$[X/Fe] (secondary - primary) = $+0.001 \\pm 0.006$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.008 dex). The striking similarity in the chemical composition of the two stellar components in HAT-P-1 is contrary to the possible 0.04 dex level difference seen in 16 Cyg A+B, which also hosts a giant planet, at least 3 time...

  12. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  13. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotuš, S. M.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift z = 1, HE 0515-4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption line system at zabs = 1.1508, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant (Δα/α). A variation of just ˜3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N ≈ 250 pix-1). This provides the most precise measurement of Δα/α from a single absorption system to date, Δα/α = -1.42 ± 0.55stat ± 0.65sys ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of ˜150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelength calibration. These would add an ˜2 ppm systematic error to our measurement and up to ˜10 ppm to other measurements using Mg and Fe transitions. However, we corrected the UVES spectra using well-calibrated spectra of the same quasar from the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, leaving a residual 0.59 ppm systematic uncertainty, the largest contribution to our total systematic error. A similar approach, using short observations on future well-calibrated spectrographs to correct existing high S/N spectra, would efficiently enable a large sample of reliable Δα/α measurements. The high-S/N UVES spectrum also provides insights into analysis difficulties, detector artefacts and systematic errors likely to arise from 25-40-m telescopes.

  14. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-speed CMOS Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 micro sec, precisions of 0.5 m/s in air and 0.2 m/s in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision High Speed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  15. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  16. Studies on fast timing and high precision tracking performance of Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Han, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC), produced in large scales, are widely used as trigger detectors with O(ns) time resolution in high energy and high intensity experiments. To confront the future high experimental frontiers, such as the super-LHC, RPCs equipped with fine-pitch readout strips were tested with 180GeV/c muon at CERN SPS H8 beam line, to assess the viability of using RPCs for both fast timing and high precision tracking trigger.

  17. Towards high precision measurements of nuclear g-factors for the Be isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamine, A., E-mail: icot@riken.jp [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wada, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Okada, K. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Y. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Schury, P.; Arai, F. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, I. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Imamura, K. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Department of Physics, Meiji University, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa (Japan); Ichikawa, Y.; Ueno, H. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wollnik, H. [Department of Chemistry and BioChemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Schuessler, H.A. [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-06-01

    We describe the present status of future high-precision measurements of nuclear g-factors utilizing laser-microwave double and laser-microwave-rf triple resonance methods for online-trapped, laser-cooled radioactive beryllium isotope ions. These methods have applicability to other suitably chosen isotopes and for beryllium show promise in deducing the hyperfine anomaly of {sup 11}Be with a sufficiently high precision to study the nuclear magnetization distribution of this one-neutron halo nucleus in a nuclear-model-independent manner.

  18. Diamond turning of high-precision roll-to-roll imprinting molds for fabricating subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Yan, Jiwang; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-06-01

    Diamond turning of high-precision molds is a vital process for the roll-to-roll-based ultraviolet resin imprinting process in fabricating subwavelength gratings. The effects of the grating shape and grating period on diffraction efficiencies and diffraction angles were simulated. Experiments were then conducted to examine the effects of shape design, grating period, and cutting speed on machinability of the mold. According to the optical measurement results, the performance of the subwavelength gratings matched the design well at various incident angles. The results confirm that diamond turning of high-precision molds is a feasible approach for ensuring the continual mass production of subwavelength gratings.

  19. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  20. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  1. A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.

  2. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  3. High-Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic in ScientificComputation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required: some of these applications require roughly twice this level; others require four times; while still others require hundreds or more digits to obtain numerically meaningful results. Such calculations have been facilitated by new high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. These activities have yielded a number of interesting new scientific results in fields as diverse as quantum theory, climate modeling and experimental mathematics, a few of which are described in this article. Such developments suggest that in the future, the numeric precision used for a scientific computation may be as important to the program design as are the algorithms and data structures.

  4. HIGH-PRECISION POSITIONING AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF UAV-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rieke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Available micro-sized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in the civilian domain currently make use of common GPS receivers and do not address scenarios where high-precision positioning of the UAV is an inevitable requirement. However, for use cases such as creating orthophotos using direct georeferencing, an improved positioning needs to be developed. This article analyses the requirements for integrating Real Time Kinematic positioning into micro-sized UAVs. Additionally, it describes the data processing and synchronisation of the high-precision position data for a workflow of orthorectification of aerial imagery. Preliminary results are described for the use case of precision farming. The described approach for positioning has the potential to achieve a positional accuracy of 1–3 cm, which can be considered as adequate for direct georeferencing of aerial imagery.

  5. A high-precision K-band LFMCW radar for range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingzhuo; Chen, Xiuwei; Zou, Yongliao

    2016-11-01

    K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in high-precision range measurement, if its range resolution is made be close to mm magnitude, good performance is not only needed in hardware design, algorithm selection and optimization is but also needed. In K-band LFMCW radar system, CZT algorithm is modified according to practical radar echo signal, its simulation model is built in the System Generator tool software, the corresponding algorithm is implemented in FPGA. K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in range measurement of great volume storage tank, the outfield experiment was done according to application, experiment result shows that range measurement precision may reach mm magnitude, the system can meet the requirement of remote high-precision measurement.

  6. High Precision Measurement of the differential W and Z boson cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of several systematic effects and allows therefore for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions.

  7. High signal-to-noise ratio observations and the ultimate limits of precision pulsar timing

    CERN Document Server

    Oslowski, Stefan; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Demorest, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the sensitivity of high-precision pulsar timing experiments will be ultimately limited by the broadband intensity modulation that is intrinsic to the pulsar's stochastic radio signal. That is, as the peak flux of the pulsar approaches that of the system equivalent flux density, neither greater antenna gain nor increased instrumental bandwidth will improve timing precision. These conclusions proceed from an analysis of the covariance matrix used to characterise residual pulse profile fluctuations following the template matching procedure for arrival time estimation. We perform such an analysis on 25 hours of high-precision timing observations of the closest and brightest millisecond pulsar, PSR J0437-4715. In these data, the standard deviation of the post-fit arrival time residuals is approximately four times greater than that predicted by considering the system equivalent flux density, mean pulsar flux and the effective width of the pulsed emission. We develop a technique based on principa...

  8. High precision metrology method for unobscured Three Mirror Anastigmatic (TMA) mapping camera boresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi-ting; Jiao, Wen-chun; Liao, Zhi-bo

    2012-10-01

    High precision of mapping camera boresight directly affects the positioning accuracy of geographical location and photogrammetry. Although it can fulfill the request of good performance for unobscured TMA optical system, which adopted computer aided alignment method, single lens was unobscured which unable ascertain boresight by using lens centering technology, and boresight is randomicity as a result of compensating relation of multivariables. A novel method using the measurement of theodolite space intersection was proposed to rapidly and high accurately complete establish the relation between boresight and a cube in precision alignment stage, simultaneously, the relation of component deflexion and boresight have been simulated by computer model reverse optimization. Thus, the image quality and precision of boresight was effective operated according to the request of satellite assembly.

  9. A High-precision Motion Compensation Method for SAR Based on Image Intensity Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Ke-bin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the platform instability and precision limitations of motion sensors, motion errors negatively affect the quality of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. The autofocus Back Projection (BP algorithm based on the optimization of image sharpness compensates for motion errors through phase error estimation. This method can attain relatively good performance, while assuming the same phase error for all pixels, i.e., it ignores the spatial variance of motion errors. To overcome this drawback, a high-precision motion error compensation method is presented in this study. In the proposed method, the Antenna Phase Centers (APC are estimated via optimization using the criterion of maximum image intensity. Then, the estimated APCs are applied for BP imaging. Because the APC estimation equals the range history estimation for each pixel, high-precision phase compensation for every pixel can be achieved. Point-target simulations and processing of experimental data validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. A robust and high precision optimal explicit guidance scheme for solid motor propelled launch vehicles with thrust and drag uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Padhi, Radhakant; Mallaram, Sanjeev; Mallikarjuna Rao, G.; Manickavasagam, M.

    2016-10-01

    A new nonlinear optimal and explicit guidance law is presented in this paper for launch vehicles propelled by solid motors. It can ensure very high terminal precision despite not having the exact knowledge of the thrust-time curve apriori. This was motivated from using it for a carrier launch vehicle in a hypersonic mission, which demands an extremely narrow terminal accuracy window for the launch vehicle for successful initiation of operation of the hypersonic vehicle. The proposed explicit guidance scheme, which computes the optimal guidance command online, ensures the required stringent final conditions with high precision at the injection point. A key feature of the proposed guidance law is an innovative extension of the recently developed model predictive static programming guidance with flexible final time. A penalty function approach is also followed to meet the input and output inequality constraints throughout the vehicle trajectory. In this paper, the guidance law has been successfully validated from nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulation studies by designing an inner-loop autopilot as well, which enhances confidence of its usefulness significantly. In addition to excellent nominal results, the proposed guidance has been found to have good robustness for perturbed cases as well.

  11. The precise determination of mass through the oscillations of a very high-Q superconductor oscillating system

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Osvaldo F

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is based upon the fact that if an object is part of a highly stable oscillating system, it is possible to obtain an extremely precise measure for its mass in terms of the energy trapped in this resonance. The subject is timely since there is great interest in Metrology on the establishment of a new electronic standard for the kilogram. Our contribution to such effort includes both the proposal of an alternative definition for mass in terms of energy, as well as the description of a realistic experimental system in which this definition might actually be applied. The setup consists of an oscillating type-II superconducting loop (the SEO system) subjected to the gravity and magnetic fields. The system is shown to be able to reach a dynamic equilibrium by trapping energy up to the point it levitates against the surrounding magnetic and gravitational fields, behaving as an extremely high-Q spring-load system. The proposed energy-mass equation applied to the electromechanical oscillating system e...

  12. Peculiarities of high-overtone transition probabilities in carbon monoxide revealed by high-precision calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Emile S., E-mail: esmedved@orc.ru [The Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Akademika Semenova 1, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir V.; Stolyarov, Andrey V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1/3, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gordon, Iouli E. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In the recent work devoted to the calculation of the rovibrational line list of the CO molecule [G. Li et al., Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 216, 15 (2015)], rigorous validation of the calculated parameters including intensities was carried out. In particular, the Normal Intensity Distribution Law (NIDL) [E. S. Medvedev, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 174307 (2012)] was employed for the validation purposes, and it was found that, in the original CO line list calculated for large changes of the vibrational quantum number up to Δn = 41, intensities with Δn > 11 were unphysical. Therefore, very high overtone transitions were removed from the published list in Li et al. Here, we show how this type of validation is carried out and prove that the quadruple precision is indispensably required to predict the reliable intensities using the conventional 32-bit computers. Based on these calculations, the NIDL is shown to hold up for the 0 → n transitions till the dissociation limit around n = 83, covering 45 orders of magnitude in the intensity. The low-intensity 0 → n transition predicted in the work of Medvedev [Determination of a new molecular constant for diatomic systems. Normal intensity distribution law for overtone spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and anomalies in overtone absorption spectra of diatomic molecules, Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 1984] at n = 5 is confirmed, and two additional “abnormal” intensities are found at n = 14 and 23. Criteria for the appearance of such “anomalies” are formulated. The results could be useful to revise the high-overtone molecular transition probabilities provided in spectroscopic databases.

  13. Remote and high precision step height measurement with an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    An optical fiber multiplexing low coherence and high coherence interferometric system, which includes a Fizeau interferometer as the sensing element and a Michelson interferometer as the demodulating element, is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer is placed in the remote field for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry is employed for demodulating the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by searching precisely the peak of the low coherence interferogram symmetrically from two sides of the low coherence interferogram and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  14. High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchter, Thomas; Thirstrup, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    A high precision measurement technique for characterizing the propagation loss in silica low-loss optical waveguides, based on measuring the contrast of a Fabry-Perot cavity, is demonstrated. The cavity consists of the waveguide coupled to two polarization-maintaining fibers, each end facet coated...

  15. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultra-short period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit midpoint is now m...

  16. An optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system for measuring remote and high precision step height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system including a Fizeau interferometer and a Michelson interferometer is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer which is inserted in the remote sensing field is used for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which is stabilized by a feedback loop works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry to demodulate the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by using the symmetrical peak-searching method to address the peak of the low coherence interferogram precisely and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  17. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  18. Analysis of Trace Hydrogen Isotopes in Fusion Fuel Cycle by High Precision Gas Chromatograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Li-ling; YANG; Hong-guang; ZHAO; Wei-wei; HE; Chang-shui; LIU; Zhen-xing; ZHAN; Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to analysis of hydrogen isotopes in the fuel cycle system of fusion reactors,gas chromatography(GC)was found to be an effectively analytical technique.Compared with conventional GC,the high-precision GC with a cryogenic column could achieve fairly good performance to reduce the retention time.

  19. High-precision spectroscopy of the HD+ molecule at the 1-p.p.b. level

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, J; Hilico, L; Eikema, K S E; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2016-01-01

    Recently we reported a high precision optical frequency measurement of the (v,L):(0,2)->(8,3) vibrational overtone transition in trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen (HD+) ions at 10 mK temperature. Achieving a resolution of 0.85 parts-per-billion (p.p.b.) we found the experimental value ($\

  20. Early Bronze Jericho : High-precision C-14 dates of short-lived palaeobotanic remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, HJ; Van Der Plicht, J; Mook, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable series of high-precision radiocarbon dates in a stratified archaeological context are of great importance for interdisciplinary chronological and historical studies. The Early Bronze Age in the Near East is characterized by the beginning of the great civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia,

  1. Microplasma patterning of bonded microchannels using high-precision "injected" electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Craig; Gruner, Philipp J; Szili, Endre J; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Bradley, James W; Ralston, John; Steele, David A; Short, Robert D

    2011-02-07

    A rapid, high-precision method for localised plasma-treatment of bonded PDMS microchannels is demonstrated. Patterned electrodes were prepared by injection of molten gallium into preformed microchannel guides. The electrode guides were prepared without any additional fabrication steps compared to conventional microchannel fabrication. Alignment of the "injected" electrodes is precisely controlled by the photomask design, rather than positioning accuracy of alignment tools. Surface modification is detected using a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine B), revealing a well-defined micropattern with regions less than 100 µm along the length of the microchannel.

  2. Investigation of the proton-neutron interaction by high-precision nuclear mass measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    Savreux, R P; Akkus, B

    2007-01-01

    We propose to measure the atomic masses of a series of short-lived nuclides, including $^{70}$Ni, $^{122-130}$Cd, $^{134}$Sn, $^{138,140}$Xe, $^{207-210}$Hg, and $^{223-225}$Rn, that contribute to the investigation of the proton-neutron interaction and its role in nuclear structure. The high-precision mass measurements are planned for the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP that reaches the required precision of 10 keV in the nuclear mass determination.

  3. Characterization of precision of a handling system in high performance transfer press for micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arentoft, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Multi-step micro bulk forming is characterized by complex processes and high precision requirements. In particular the demands regarding handling accuracy between different forming steps are of the order of a few mm. The paper introduces a methodology for the analysis and characterization...... of this transfer system on component level and system level. Laser interferometry is used in combination with analytical models to predict the positioning ability of the actuator in a static as well as dynamic mode. In combination with an analysis of the grippers, a full description of the transfer precision...

  4. High precision measurement of the differential $W$ and $Z$ boson production cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sommer, Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^-$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z/\\gamma^*$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Slides for DIS 2017 in Birmingham

  5. Enabling ultra high precision on hard steels using surface defect machining

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an extension to an idea coined during the 13th EUSPEN Conference (P6.23) named "surface defect machining" (SDM). The objective of this work was to demonstrate how a conventional CNC turret lathe can be used to obtain ultra high precision machined surface finish on hard steels without recourse to a sophisticated ultra precision machine tool. An AISI 4340 hard steel (69 HRC) workpiece was machined using a CBN cutting tool with and without SDM. Post-machining measurements by a Form...

  6. A faster, high precision algorithm for calculating symmetric and asymmetric $M_{T2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for calculating the stransverse mass, $M_{T2}$, in either symmetric or asymmetric situations has been developed which exhibits good stability, high precision and quadratic convergence for the majority of the $M_{T2}$ parameter space, leading to up to a factor of ten increase in speed compared to other $M_{T2}$ calculators of comparable precision. This document describes and validates the methodology used by the algorithm, and provides comparisons both in terms of accuracy and speed with other existing implementations.

  7. A High Precision Direct Integration Scheme Based on Variational Principle and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics response of systems to impact or loading may be effectively treated by direct integration. However, it is often difficult to select the time-step of integration properly, especially in the case which the system is badly stiff. High Precision Direct integration based on variational principle is given (HPD-VP for homogeneous systems and HHPD-VP method for the nonhomogeneous systems are given. This method not only takes the advantage of variational principle formula, which is much precise and is stiff A-stable, but also can avoid the truncation error of the computer. For the large systems, especially, the systems with different frequency or the stiff systems, our methods are stable, accurate and efficient. Numerical experiments show the convergence order of the scheme derived from the variational principle, and is much precise and is effective in engineering.

  8. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  9. High precision measurements of the diamond Hugoniot in and above the melt region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; McWilliams, R S; Collins, G

    2008-08-05

    High precision laser-driven shock wave measurements of the diamond principal Hugoniot have been made at pressures between 6 and 19 Mbar. Shock velocities were determined with 0.3-1.1% precision using a velocity interferometer. Impedance matching analysis, incorporating systematic errors in the equation-of-state of the quartz standard, was used to determine the Hugoniot with 1.2-2.7% precision in density. The results are in good agreement with published ab initio calculations which predict a small negative melt slope along the Hugoniot, but disagree with previous laser-driven shock wave experiments which had observed a large density increase in the melt region. In the extensive solid-liquid coexistence regime between 6 and 10 Mbar these measurements indicate that the mixed phase may be slightly more dense than would be expected from a simple interpolation between liquid and solid Hugoniots.

  10. Creep strength of iridium at extremely high temperatures; Zeitstandfestigkeit von Iridium bei extrem hohen Temperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Werkstofftechnik; Lupton, D. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Braun, F. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Merker, J. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.; Helmich, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.

    1994-12-31

    On iridium in the initial state and after carrying out creep tests, apart from metallographic and fractographic work, investigations on the distribution of trace impurities were done by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and investigations of the crystal structure were carried out with the aid of Kossel technique, a special field of X-ray bending. Although iridium of high purity was used for the investigations, enrichment of hydrogen, carbon, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, nickel and chromium was proved by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy at the grain boundaries, where the average contents in iridium were only about 1 {mu}g/g. In the creep test, creep fracture lines were found in the range of 1800 to 2300 C and about 0.5 to 12 hours on iridium samples with a square cross section of 1 mm. It follows from the results that this noble metal has a considerable resistance to heat at these temperatures, which makes its use up to 2300 C possible. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Es erfolgten am Iridium im Ausgangszustand und nach Durchfuehrung der Zeitstandversuche neben metallographischen und fraktographischen Arbeiten Untersuchungen zur Verteilung der Spurenverunreinigungen mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie sowie Untersuchungen der Kristallstruktur mit Hilfe der Kossel-Technik, einem Spezialgebiet der Roentgenbeugung. Obwohl fuer die Untersuchungen hochreines Iridium verwendet wurde, konnten mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie in den Korngrenzen Anreicherungen von Wasserstoff, Kohlenstoff, Natrium, Kalium, Calcium, Magnesium, Silizium, Eisen, Nickel und Chrom nachgewiesen werden, wobei die durchschnittlichen Gehalte in Iridium nur um 1 {mu}g/g lagen. Im Zeitstandversuch wurden an Iridiumproben mit 1 mm Vierkantquerschnitt Zeitbruchlinien im Bereich von 1800 bis 2300 C und etwa 0,5 bis 12 Stunden aufgenommen. Aus den Ergebnissen folgt, dass das Edelmetall bei diesen Temperaturen noch eine beachtliche Warmfestigkeit besitzt, die

  11. Artificial incoherent speckles enable precision astrometry and photometry in high-contrast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Pathak, Prashant; Hagelberg, Janis; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art coronagraphs employed on extreme adaptive optics enabled instruments, are constantly improving the contrast detection limit for companions at ever closer separations to the host star. In order to constrain their properties and ultimately compositions, it is important to precisely determine orbital parameters and contrasts with respect to the stars they orbit. This can be difficult in the post coronagraphic image plane, as by definition the central star has been occulted by the coronagraph. We demonstrate the flexibility of utilizing the deformable mirror in the adaptive optics system in SCExAO to generate a field of speckles for the purposes of calibration. Speckles can be placed up to $22.5~\\lambda/D$ from the star, with any position angle, brightness and abundance required. Most importantly, we show that a fast modulation of the added speckle phase, between $0$ and $\\pi$, during a long science integration renders these speckles effectively incoherent with the underlying halo. We quantitativ...

  12. High precision strain mapping of topological insulator HgTe/CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Benedikt; Thomas, Candice; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bernier, Nicolas; Meunier, Tristan; Ballet, Philippe; Rouvière, Jean-Luc

    2017-06-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) represent a class of matter associated with unique electronic and spin properties held by chiral and massless Dirac fermions. The lattice mismatch between the HgTe layer and the CdTe substrate, which is the reason for the TI properties in HgTe/CdTe, is less than 0.4%. Measuring it necessitates an extremely sensitive technique, while a nanometric spatial resolution is mandatory to characterize the strain gradient across the layers. In this letter, we demonstrate the use of nano-beam precession electron diffraction to map the strain of the whole stack, thus experimentally addressing the strain distribution in such systems. Strain maps with a precision of 0.03% and a spatial resolution of 1.9 nm show good agreement with finite element simulations of the expected strain. Strain values and gradients are within the intervals predicted to yield the TI properties of the material.

  13. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  14. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  15. Extreme High and Low Temperature Operation of the Silicon-On-Insulator Type CHT-OPA Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    A new operational amplifier chip based on silicon-on-insulator technology was evaluated for potential use in extreme temperature environments. The CHT-OPA device is a low power, precision operational amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing capability, and it is rated for operation between -55 C and +225 C. A unity gain inverting circuit was constructed utilizing the CHT-OPA chip and a few passive components. The circuit was evaluated in the temperature range from -190 C to +200 C in terms of signal gain and phase shift, and supply current. The investigations were carried out to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions and aeronautic applications under wide temperature incursion. Re-restart capability at extreme temperatures, i.e. power switched on while the device was soaked at extreme temperatures, was also investigated. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling under a wide temperature range on the operation of this high performance amplifier were determined. The results from this work indicate that this silicon-on-insulator amplifier chip maintained very good operation between +200 C and -190 C. The limited thermal cycling had no effect on the performance of the amplifier, and it was able to re-start at both -190 C and +200 C. In addition, no physical degradation or packaging damage was introduced due to either extreme temperature exposure or thermal cycling. The good performance demonstrated by this silicon-on-insulator operational amplifier renders it a potential candidate for use in space exploration missions or other environments under extreme temperatures. Additional and more comprehensive characterization is, however, required to establish the reliability and suitability of such devices for long term use in extreme temperature applications.

  16. Crossing historical and sedimentary archives to reconstruct an extreme flood event calendar in high alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Arnaud, F.; Allignol, F.; Legaz, A.; Melo, A.

    2010-09-01

    to reconstruct a high-resolution flood calendar to assess a reliable frequency of extreme flood events which can be compared with precise climatic parameters as the instrumental and reconstructed temperature. Finally it was equally possible to compare the recorded intensity of flood events between the both archives and thus estimate the hazard perception and vulnerability of local people throughout the last three centuries.

  17. High-Precision U-Pb Zircon Dates as Benchmarks in Absolute Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bowring, S. A.; Schoene, B.

    2003-12-01

    High-precision IDTIMS U-Pb zircon dates provide the most precise and accurate isotopic benchmarks in absolute time, due to the concordancy check of the paired U-Pb decay schemes, the precisely measured 235U and 238U decay constants, very high initial parent/daughter ratios, and the robust nature of zircon to loss or gain of U and Pb over geologic time. However, caveats to the use of such zircon dates include the accurate assessment and minimization of random and systematic errors in the analytical methods, and decay constant uncertainties. Unfortunately, there exists little consensus within the U-Pb geochronological community regarding an international zircon standard for the external assessment of interlaboratory reproducibility, while residual questions remain regarding the potential for systematic error in the single available high-precision counting experiment of the U decay constants1. Stringent criteria are imposed on candidates for zircon geochronology standards including the absence of inheritance and Pb-loss at both the single grain scale and the resolution of microbeam techniques. We present an example of the potential and limitations of a possible zircon standard, AS3, from the Duluth Complex, North American Midcontinent Rift2. New data for 27 single zircons are indistinguishable from prior results, with 207Pb/206Pb and upper intercept dates identical within error to a U-Pb concordia date of 1099.1+/-0.2 Ma (+/-1.2 Ma with systematic errors) based on 12 concordant and equivalent analyses. However, we must reiterate that a zircon population exhibiting consistent concordancy remains elusive, as AS3 and all Paleozoic and older standard candidates so far examined contain grains exhibiting Pb-loss, although rigorous selection and preparation of zircons through diamagnetic separation and aggressive abrasion can mitigate this phenomenon. The continued screening of candidate standards by both IDTIMS and SHRIMP techniques should be an organized, international

  18. High precision mobile location framework and its service based on virtual reference station of GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Sun, Liangyu; Yao, Lianbi

    2008-10-01

    The wireless communication technology and space technology are synchronously developed in recent years, which bring up the development of location based service (LBS). At present, many location technology methods were developed. However, all these methods can only provide a relative poor location precision and depend on high cost. The technology of Virtual Reference Station (VRS) of GPS is then involved in this paper. One of the objective in this paper is aim to give the LBS position structure to improve the mobile location position when a mobile position instrument is connected with VRS network. The cheaper GPS built-in Personal Designer Aid (PDA) is then used to achieve a higher precision by using RTCM data from existing VRS network. In order to obtain a high precision position when using the low-cost GPS receiver as a rover, the infrusture of the mobile differential correction system is then put forward. According to network transportation of RTCM via internet protocol (NTRIP), the message is communicated through wireless network, such as GPRS, CDMA and so on. The rough coordinate information is sent to VRS control center continuously, and then the VRS correction information is replied to rover in the data format of RTCM3.1. So the position will be updated based on mathematic solution after the decoding of RTCM3.1 data. The thought of LBS position can improve the precision, and can speed the LBS.

  19. A study on using image serving technology for high precision mechanical positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuen-Horng; Hsiao, Muh-Don; Lai, Kuo-Jung

    2016-12-01

    This paper focused on using image server technology for high precision mechanical positioning. Rapid and precise positioning systems depend on the correct positions of CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video cameras, as well as on pattern matching modes. This study deals with four different positions captured by an automatic detection system employing a CCD video camera. According to a variety of hybrid image registration systems, this study proposes an entire set of methods for achieving optimal hybrid pattern matching. First, the four different position detections captured by the CCD video camera in low-resolution were examined. Next, the original position detection was carried out in high-resolution, in order to derive a precise set of CCD video camera positions. The fiducial mark (FM) was then divided into two types in the optimal option for pattern matching: the "fiducial mark" and "non-fiducial mark", which were then used for sampling. The automatic detection method is able to achieve the first pattern matching detection for recognized images. Unrecognized images or images that cannot have an FM were subjected to fine pattern matching detection. When it is not possible to find more than one FM after the proposed detection method, this suggests that the position of the CCD video camera should be reset. In this paper, the results of the experiment regarding the CCD camera precision location and the segmentation of fiducial patterns or insignificant fiducial patterns can detect and segment more unique areas and areas with unique features.

  20. Development and simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for high-precision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipulya, N. D.; Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present the results of analytical modeling and 3D computer simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge, which is used for high-accuracy measurements and precision instruments. We propose and simulate a new method of a bridge balancing process by changing the microchannel geometry. This process is based on the “etching in microchannel” technology we developed earlier (doi:10.1088/1742-6596/681/1/012035). Our method ensures a precise control of the flow rate and flow direction in the bridge microchannel. The advantage of our approach is the ability to work without any control valves and other active electronic systems, which are usually used for bridge balancing. The geometrical configuration of microchannels was selected based on the analytical estimations. A detailed 3D numerical model was based on Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar fluid flow at low Reynolds numbers. We investigated the behavior of the Wheatstone bridge under different process conditions; found a relation between the channel resistance and flow rate through the bridge; and calculated the pressure drop across the system under different total flow rates and viscosities. Finally, we describe a high-precision microfluidic pressure sensor that employs the Wheatstone bridge and discuss other applications in complex precision microfluidic systems.

  1. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  2. High Precision Measurement of the differential vector boson cross-sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Aaron James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 eV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The cross section of single W events has also been measured precisely at center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV and the W charge asymmetry has been determ...

  3. High-precision optical systems with inexpensive hardware: a unified alignment and structural design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrow, Edward G.; Chavez, Victor H.

    2011-09-01

    High-precision opto-mechanical structures have historically been plagued by high costs for both hardware and the associated alignment and assembly process. This problem is especially true for space applications where only a few production units are produced. A methodology for optical alignment and optical structure design is presented which shifts the mechanism of maintaining precision from tightly toleranced, machined flight hardware to reusable, modular tooling. Using the proposed methodology, optical alignment error sources are reduced by the direct alignment of optics through their surface retroreflections (pips) as seen through a theodolite. Optical alignment adjustments are actualized through motorized, sub-micron precision actuators in 5 degrees of freedom. Optical structure hardware costs are reduced through the use of simple shapes (tubes, plates) and repeated components. This approach produces significantly cheaper hardware and more efficient assembly without sacrificing alignment precision or optical structure stability. The design, alignment plan and assembly of a 4" aperture, carbon fiber composite, Schmidt-Cassegrain concept telescope is presented.

  4. A near infrared laser frequency comb for high precision Doppler planet surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bally J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most exciting area of astronomical research today is the study of exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, engaging the imagination not just of the astronomical community, but of the general population. Astronomical instrumentation has matured to the level where it is possible to detect terrestrial planets orbiting distant stars via radial velocity (RV measurements, with the most stable visible light spectrographs reporting RV results the order of 1 m/s. This, however, is an order of magnitude away from the precision needed to detect an Earth analog orbiting a star such as our sun, the Holy Grail of these efforts. By performing these observations in near infrared (NIR there is the potential to simplify the search for distant terrestrial planets by studying cooler, less massive, much more numerous class M stars, with a tighter habitable zone and correspondingly larger RV signal. This NIR advantage is undone by the lack of a suitable high precision, high stability wavelength standard, limiting NIR RV measurements to tens or hundreds of m/s [1, 2]. With the improved spectroscopic precision provided by a laser frequency comb based wavelength reference producing a set of bright, densely and uniformly spaced lines, it will be possible to achieve up to two orders of magnitude improvement in RV precision, limited only by the precision and sensitivity of existing spectrographs, enabling the observation of Earth analogs through RV measurements. We discuss the laser frequency comb as an astronomical wavelength reference, and describe progress towards a near infrared laser frequency comb at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the University of Colorado where we are operating a laser frequency comb suitable for use with a high resolution H band astronomical spectrograph.

  5. High-Precision Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerayut Jamjaem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present high-precision half-wave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 μm CMOS technology, +/- 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 μAp-p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.Keywords-component; half-wave; rectifier circuit; highprecession; dual phase;

  6. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  7. An Approach to Predicting Hydrocarbon with High Precision Gravity and Seismic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiwen

    1996-01-01

    @@ There are two ways for predicting hydrocarbon reservoirs with gravity data. One is related to the indirect prediction techniques used to delineate hydrocarbon-bearing structures with dense grids of survey and high-precision gravity data. The other is direct prediction technique based on high precision gravity data, which is used to measure negative anomalies resulted from significant density changes of porous formations when saturated with different kinds of liquid. The density change of porous formations may be as high as -0.3 × 103 to -0.1 × 103kg/m3 when saturated with oil instead of water and -0.6× 103 to -0.2 × 103 kg/m3 when saturated with gas instead of water.

  8. High-speed, high-precision thermal printing heads for bar code printers; Kosoku koseisai bar cord printer yo TPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Thermal printing heads (TPHs), having the world's first resolution of 24 dots/mm and printing speed of 254 mm/s, have been developed. The high-precision, high-durability TPH is realized, based on the high-precision techniques as one of the company's strong areas, combined with the techniques for high power-resistant film structure and high wear-resistant protective film. At the same time, the structure of high thermal conductivity and thermal efficiency is adopted, to control heat accumulation and realize high-quality images. It is expected to find wide use in various areas, centered by distribution industry, e.g., for bar code label printers, and name plate, postal card and name card printing, with the standardized recording width of A6 size and resolution of 8 to 24 dots/mm. (translated by NEDO)

  9. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  10. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  11. High-Precision Superallowed Fermi β Decay Measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C. E.

    2016-09-01

    High-precision measurements of the ft -values for superallowed Fermi β decays between nuclear isobaric analogue states provide demanding tests of the electroweak Standard Model, including confirmation of the Conserved Vector Current hypothesis at the level of 1 . 2 ×10-4 , the most stringent limits on weak scalar currents, and the most precise determination of the Vud element of the CKM quark-mixing matrix. The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF produces high-quality beams of several of the superallowed emitters with world-record intensities and hosts a suite of state-of-the-art spectrometers for the measurement of superallowed half-lives, branching ratios, QEC values, and charge-radii. Recent highlights from the superallowed program at ISAC, including high-precision half-life measurements for the light superallowed emitters 10C, 14O, 18Ne, and 26mAl and branching-ratio measurements for the heavy superallowed emitters 62Ga and 74Rb will be presented. The impact of these measurements on tests of the Standard Model, and future developments in the superallowed program at ISAC with the new high-efficiency GRIFFIN γ - ray spectrometer, will be discussed. Research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs Program. TRIUMF receives federal funding via the National Research Council of Canada.

  12. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  13. High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-01-01

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference. PMID:25330046

  14. High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF. Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level and attitude (half-degree-level-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  15. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  16. A Study of Particle Beam Spin Dynamics for High Precision Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Andrew J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model, high precision experiments to measure fundamental properties of particles are an important frontier. One group of such measurements involves magnetic dipole moment (MDM) values as well as searching for an electric dipole moment (EDM), both of which could provide insights about how particles interact with their environment at the quantum level and if there are undiscovered new particles. For these types of high precision experiments, minimizing statistical uncertainties in the measurements plays a critical role. \\\\ \\indent This work leverages computer simulations to quantify the effects of statistical uncertainty for experiments investigating spin dynamics. In it, analysis of beam properties and lattice design effects on the polarization of the beam is performed. As a case study, the beam lines that will provide polarized muon beams to the Fermilab Muon \\emph{g}-2 experiment are analyzed to determine the effects of correlations between the phase space variables and the overall polarization of the muon beam.

  17. Quality of silicon convex lenses fabricated by ultra-high precision diamond machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Infra-red optical components are made mainly from hard and brittle materials such as germanium and silicon. Silicon machining is characterised by some difficulties when ultra-high precision machined by mono-crystalline single-point diamond. Accelerated tool wear and machined-surface deterioration may take place if the machining parameters are not properly selected. In this study, we conducted a machining test on an ultra-high precision machine tool, using ductile regime cutting conditions when fabricating a convex surface on a silicon lens of aperture of 60 mm diameter, and using a mono-crystalline diamond. It was found that the cutting conditions for shaping a convex surface of 500 mm radius resulted in good form accuracy. However, more attention should be paid to optimising the holding force of the vacuum chuck employed.

  18. High Precision and High Yield Fabrication of Dense Nanoparticle Arrays onto DNA Origami at Statistically Independent Binding Sites †

    OpenAIRE

    Takabayashi, Sadao; Klein, William P.; Onodera, Craig; Rapp, Blake; Flores-Estrada, Juan; Lindau, Elias; Snowball, Lejmarc; Sam, Joseph Tyler; Padilla, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeunghoon; Knowlton, William B.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.

    2014-01-01

    High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templa...

  19. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  20. Technological Considerations and Constraints in the Manufacture of High Precision Ball and Roller Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.S.Rajendiran,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings for application in Aircraft systems are to be manufactured to higher accuracy levels. Various technology details like raw material, processing stages and facilities such as machining, heat treatment, grinding, super finishing, assembly and inspection are to be considered for manufacture. However the facilities available presently in India are inadequate to produce high precision bearings. This paper deals with the prototype manufacture of bearings for some typical applications.

  1. Comment on "High-Precision Determination of the Electric and Magnetic Form Factors of the Proton"

    CERN Document Server

    Arrington, J

    2011-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Bernauer, et al. present fits to the proton electromagnetic form factors, GEp(Q^2) and GMp(Q^2), along with extracted proton charge and magnetization radii based on large set of new, high statistical precision (<0.2%) cross section measurements. The Coulomb corrections they apply differ dramatically from more modern and complete calculations, implying significant error in their final results.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-precision abundances for stars with planets (Ramirez+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.; Asplund, M.

    2013-11-01

    High-precision stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented for 111 stars; 52 of them are late-F type dwarfs and 59 are metal-rich solar analogs. The atomic linelist employed in the derivation of chemical abundances is also given. This linelist includes hyperfine structure parameters for some species. The stars' isochrone masses and ages are also reported, along with estimates of chromospheric activity. (5 data files).

  3. High-precision gravity network to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-12-31

    Repeatable high-precision gravity surveys provide a method of monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. Fluctuations in the gravity field may indicate water table changes, crustal deformation, or precursors to volcanism and earthquakes. This report describes a high-precision gravity loop which has been established across Yucca Mountain, Nevada in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program. The purpose of this gravity loop is to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain in an effort to interpret and predict the stability of the tectonic framework and changes in the subsurface density field. Studies of the tectonic framework which include volcanic hazard seismicity, and faulting studies are in progress. Repeat high-precision gravity surveys are less expensive and can be made more rapidly than a corresponding leveling survey. High-precision gravity surveys are capable of detecting elevation changes of 3 to 5 cm, and thus can be employed as an efficient tool for monitoring vertical crustal movements while supplementing or partially replacing leveling data. The Yucca Mountain gravity network has been tied to absolute gravity measurements established in southern Nevada. These ties provide an absolute datum for comparing repeat occupations of the gravity network, and provide a method of monitoring broad-scale changes in gravity. Absolute gravity measurements were also made at the bottom and top of the Charleston Peak calibration loop in southern Nevada. These absolute gravity measurements provide local control of calibrating gravity meters over the gravity ranges observed at Yucca Mountain. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High Precision Measurements of $\\theta_{\\odot}$ in Solar and Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, A; Goswami, S; Petcov, S T; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya; Goswami, Srubabati

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibilities of high precision measurement of the solar neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_\\odot \\equiv \\theta_{12}$ in solar and reactor neutrino experiments. The improvements in the determination of $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}$, which can be achieved with the expected increase of statistics and reduction of systematic errors in the currently operating solar and KamLAND experiments, are summarised. The potential of LowNu $\

  5. Development of a monoenergetic ultraslow antiproton beam source for high-precision investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuroda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ASACUSA collaboration developed an ultraslow antiproton beam source, monoenergetic ultraslow antiproton source for high-precision investigation (MUSASHI, consisting of an electromagnetic trap with a liquid He free superconducting solenoid and a low energy antiproton beam transport line. The MUSASHI was capable of trapping and cooling more than 1×10^{7} antiprotons and extracting them as an ultraslow antiproton beam with energy of 150–250 eV.

  6. Computer Vision Approach for Low Cost, High Precision Measurement of Grapevine Trunk Diameter in Outdoor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego Sebastián; Bromberg, Facundo; Antivilo, Francisco Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Trunk diameter is a variable of agricultural interest, used mainly in the prediction of fruit trees production. It is correlated with leaf area and biomass of trees, and consequently gives a good estimate of the potential production of the plants. This work presents a low cost, high precision method for the measurement of trunk diameter of grapevines based on Computer Vision techniques. Several methods based on Computer Vision and other techniques are introduced in the literature. These metho...

  7. High Precision Topographic Mapping at Chang'E-3 Landing Site with Multi-Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, B.; Xu, B.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Zhou, J.

    2014-04-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) is the first lander and rover of China following the success of Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) orbiters. High precision topographic mapping can provide detailed terrain information to ensure the safety of the rover as well as to support scientific investigations. In this research, multi-source data are co-registered into a uniform geographic framework for high precision topographic mapping at the CE-3 landing site. CE-2 CCD images with 7 m- and 1.5 m- resolutions are registered using selfcalibration bundle adjustment method with ground control points (GCPs) selected from LRO WAC mosaic map and LOLA DTM. The trajectory of CE-3 descent images are recovered using self-calibration free net bundle adjustment, and then the topographic data is rectified by absolute orientation with GCPs selected from the adjusted CE-2 DEM and DOM. Finally, these topographic data are integrated into the same geographic framework for unified, multi-scale, high precision mapping of the CE-3 landing site. Key technologies and the mapping products of this research have been used to support the surface operations of CE-3 mission.

  8. Design and Characterization of a High-Precision Digital Electromagnetic Actuator with Four Discrete Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Petit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision planar digital electromagnetic actuator with two displacement directions and four discrete positions is presented in this paper. The four discrete positions are located at each corner of a square cavity where a mobile permanent magnet moves thanks to Lorentz forces generated when a driving current passes through two orthogonal wires placed below the cavity. Four fixed permanent magnets are placed around the cavity in order to ensure high-precision magnetic holding of the mobile magnet at each discrete position. An analytical model of the actuator is presented and used to characterize its properties (switching time, energy consumption, and displaceable mass. Based on this model, an experimental prototype has been developed and then characterized. Comparisons between experimental and simulated results are carried out and show good agreement. The positioning repeatability errors have also been characterized according to the input signal in order to qualify the digital behavior of this high-precision actuator. Finally, an application of this digital actuator as a linear conveyor is presented and experimentally tested.

  9. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, S; Mooser, A; Franke, K; Nagahama, H; Schneider, G; Higuchi, T; Van Gorp, S; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-01-01

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation$^{1}$ is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry—that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime—although it is model dependent$^{2}$. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests—using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others—have been performed$^{3}$, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available$^{4, 5, 6, 7, 8}$. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H$^−$) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare th...

  10. The honeycomb strip chamber: A two coordinate and high precision muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolsma, H.P.T.

    1996-04-19

    This thesis describes the construction and performance of the Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC). The HSC offers several advantages with respect to classical drift chambers and drift tubes. The main features of the HSC are: -The detector offers the possibility of simultaneous readout of two orthogonal coordinates with approximately the same precision. - The HSC technology is optimised for mass production. This means that the design is modular (monolayers) and automisation of most of the production steps is possible (folding and welding machines). - The technology is flexible. The cell diameter can easily be changed from a few millimetres to at least 20 mm by changing the parameters in the computer programme of the folding machine. The number of monolayers per station can be chosen freely to the demands of the experiment. -The honeycomb structure gives the detector stiffness and makes it self supporting. This makes the technology a very transparent one in terms of radiation length which is important to prevent multiple scattering of high energetic muons. - The dimensions of the detector are defined by high precision templates. Those templates constrain for example the overall tolerance on the wire positions to 20 {mu}m rms. Reproduction of the high precision assembly of the detector is thus guaranteed. (orig.).

  11. Next generation KATRIN high precision voltage divider for voltages up to 65kV

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, S; Hochschulz, F; Ortjohann, H -W; Rosendahl, S; Thümmler, T; Schmidt, M; Weinheimer, C

    2013-01-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment aims to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino with a sensitivity of 200meV by precisely measuring the electron spectrum of the tritium beta decay. This will be done by the use of a retarding spectrometer of the MAC-E-Filter type. To achieve the desired sensitivity the stability of the retarding potential of -18.6kV has to be monitored with a precision of 3ppm over at least two months. Since this is not feasible with commercial devices, two ppm-class high voltage dividers were developed, following the concept of the standard divider for DC voltages of up to 100kV of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In order to reach such high accuracies different effects have to be considered. The two most important ones are the temperature dependence of resistance and leakage currents, caused by insulators or corona discharges. For the second divider improvements were made concerning the high-precision resistors and the thermal design of the divider....

  12. Concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms for ultra-high precision robot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Richard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms to design industrial ultra-high precision robots, which aims at significantly reducing both the complexity of their design and their development time. This modular concept can be considered as a robotic Lego, where a finite number of building bricks is used to quickly build a high-precision robot. The core of the concept is the transformation of a 3-D design problem into several 2-D ones, which are simpler and well-mastered. This paper will first briefly present the theoretical bases of this methodology and the requirements of both types of building bricks: the active and the passive bricks. The section dedicated to the design of the active bricks will detail the current research directions, mainly the maximisation of the strokes and the development of an actuation sub-brick. As for the passive bricks, some examples will be presented, and a discussion regarding the establishment of a mechanical solution catalogue will conclude the section. Last, this modular concept will be illustrated with a practical example, consisting in the design of a 5-degree of freedom ultra-high precision robot.

  13. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  14. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  15. Precision of high-resolution multibeam echo sounding coupled with high-accuracy positioning in a shallow water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Verner B.; Noormets, Riko; Hebbeln, Dierk; Bartholomä, Alex; Flemming, Burg W.

    2006-09-01

    Over 4 years, repetitive bathymetric measurements of a shipwreck in the Grådyb tidal inlet channel in the Danish Wadden Sea were carried out using a state-of-the-art high-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES) coupled with a real-time long range kinematic (LRK™) global positioning system. Seven measurements during a single survey in 2003 ( n=7) revealed a horizontal and vertical precision of the MBES system of ±20 and ±2 cm, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. By contrast, four annual surveys from 2002 to 2005 ( n=4) yielded a horizontal and vertical precision (at 95% confidence level) of only ±30 and ±8 cm, respectively. This difference in precision can be explained by three main factors: (1) the dismounting of the system between the annual surveys, (2) rougher sea conditions during the survey in 2004 and (3) the limited number of annual surveys. In general, the precision achieved here did not correspond to the full potential of the MBES system, as this could certainly have been improved by an increase in coverage density (soundings/m2), achievable by reducing the survey speed of the vessel. Nevertheless, precision was higher than that reported to date for earlier offshore test surveys using comparable equipment.

  16. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  17. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, S.; Smorra, C.; Mooser, A.; Franke, K.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Higuchi, T.; van Gorp, S.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry--that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime--although it is model dependent. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests--using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others--have been performed, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H-) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare the charge-to-mass ratio for the antiproton to that for the proton and obtain . The measurements were performed at cyclotron frequencies of 29.6 megahertz, so our result shows that the CPT theorem holds at the atto-electronvolt scale. Our precision of 69 parts per trillion exceeds the energy resolution of previous antiproton-to-proton mass comparisons as well as the respective figure of merit of the standard model extension by a factor of four. In addition, we give a limit on sidereal variations in the measured ratio of <720 parts per trillion. By following the arguments of ref. 11, our result can be interpreted as a stringent test of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity using baryonic antimatter, and it sets a new limit on the gravitational anomaly parameter of < 8.7 × 10-7.

  18. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    was used instead. This code makes the assumption that the background ion and electron behaviour can be approximated with a fluid model whilst...electron behaviour occurring from this aperture was also published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering [4]. A significant breakthrough was also...acceleration to transparency. This was published in Physics of Plasmas [12]. Through one- dimensional modelling of the interaction, it was also

  19. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Anđelka V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  20. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  1. A Flexile and High Precision Calibration Method for Binocular Structured Light Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D (three-dimensional structured light scanning system is widely used in the field of reverse engineering, quality inspection, and so forth. Camera calibration is the key for scanning precision. Currently, 2D (two-dimensional or 3D fine processed calibration reference object is usually applied for high calibration precision, which is difficult to operate and the cost is high. In this paper, a novel calibration method is proposed with a scale bar and some artificial coded targets placed randomly in the measuring volume. The principle of the proposed method is based on hierarchical self-calibration and bundle adjustment. We get initial intrinsic parameters from images. Initial extrinsic parameters in projective space are estimated with the method of factorization and then upgraded to Euclidean space with orthogonality of rotation matrix and rank 3 of the absolute quadric as constraint. Last, all camera parameters are refined through bundle adjustment. Real experiments show that the proposed method is robust, and has the same precision level as the result using delicate artificial reference object, but the hardware cost is very low compared with the current calibration method used in 3D structured light scanning system.

  2. The high-precision videometrics methods to determining absolute vertical benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    The mobile measurement equipment plays an important role in engineering measurement tasks and its measuring device is fixed with the vehicle platform. Therefore, how to correct the measured error in time that caused by swayed platform is a basic problem. Videometrics has its inherent advantages in solving this problem. First of all, videometrics technology is non-contact measurement, which has no effect on the target's structural characteristics and motion characteristics. Secondly, videometrics technology has high precision especially for surface targets and linear targets in the field of view. Thirdly, videometrics technology has the advantages of automatic, real-time and dynamic. This paper is mainly for mobile theodolite.etc that works under the environment of absolute vertical benchmark and proposed two high-precision methods to determine vertical benchmark: Direct-Extracting, which is based on the intersection of plats under the help of two cameras; Benchmark-Transformation, which gets the vertical benchmark by reconstructing the level-plat. Two methods both have the precision of under 10 seconds by digital simulation and physical experiments. The methods proposed by this paper have significance both on the theory and application.

  3. Ultra high vacuum high precision low background setup with temperature control for thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDA-MS) of hydrogen in metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, Sergiy V; Borodin, S; Vogel, D; Rohwerder, M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly developed UHV-based high precision low background setup for hydrogen thermal desorption analysis (TDA) of metallic samples is presented. Using an infrared heating with a low thermal capacity enables a precise control of the temperature and rapid cool down of the measurement chamber. This novel TDA-set up is superior in sensitivity to almost every standard hydrogen analyzer available commercially due to the special design of the measurement chamber, resulting in a very low hydrogen background. No effects of background drift characteristic as for carrier gas based TDA instruments were observed, ensuring linearity and reproducibility of the analysis. This setup will prove to be valuable for detailed investigations of hydrogen trapping sites in steels and other alloys. With a determined limit of detection of 5.9×10(-3)µg g(-1) hydrogen the developed instrument is able to determine extremely low hydrogen amounts even at very low hydrogen desorption rates. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of ultra-high vacuum thermal desorption mass spectroscopy instrumentation.

  4. High precision beam momentum determination in a synchrotron using a spin resonance method

    CERN Document Server

    Goslawski, P; Gebel, R; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Mielke, M; Papenbrock, M; Prasuhn, D; Stassen, R; Stein, H J; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Wilkin, C

    2009-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of the eta meson with high accuracy using the d+p -> 3He+eta reaction, the momentum of the circulating deuteron beam in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich has to be determined with unprecedented precision. This has been achieved by studying the spin dynamics of the polarized deuteron beam. By depolarizing the beam through the use of an artificially induced spin resonance, it was possible to evaluate its momentum p with a precision of dp/p < 10-4 for a momentum of roughly 3 GeV/c. Different possible sources of error in the application of the spin resonance method are discussed in detail and its possible use during a standard experiment is considered.

  5. High-Precision Measurements of the Bound Electron’s Magnetic Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sturm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly charged ions represent environments that allow to study precisely one or more bound electrons subjected to unsurpassed electromagnetic fields. Under such conditions, the magnetic moment (g-factor of a bound electron changes significantly, to a large extent due to contributions from quantum electrodynamics. We present three Penning-trap experiments, which allow to measure magnetic moments with ppb precision and better, serving as stringent tests of corresponding calculations, and also yielding access to fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant α and the atomic mass of the electron. Additionally, the bound electrons can be used as sensitive probes for properties of the ionic nuclei. We summarize the measurements performed so far, discuss their significance, and give a detailed account of the experimental setups, procedures and the foreseen measurements.

  6. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  7. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-03-08

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic-equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high-precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early-time T cell signaling. Using exact analytical calculations and numerical simulations, I show that limiting dissipation qualitatively changes the kinetics in single cells marked by emergence of slow kinetics, large cell-to-cell variations of copy numbers, temporally correlated stochastic events (dynamic facilitation), and ergodicity breaking. Thus, constraints in energy dissipation, in addition to negatively affecting ligand discrimination in T cells, can create a fundamental difficulty in determining single-cell kinetics from cell-population results. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Manufacturing of a High-Precision Sun Tracking System Based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration solar arrays require greater solar tracking precision than conventional photovoltaic arrays. This paper presents a high precision low cost dual axis sun tracking system based on image processing for concentration photovoltaic applications. An imaging device is designed according to the principle of pinhole imaging, making sun rays to be received on a screen through pinhole and to be a sun spot. The location of the spot is used to adjust the orientation of the solar panel. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to achieve this goal. A prototype was built, and experimental results have proven the good performance of the proposed system and low error of tracking. The operation of this system is independent of geographical location, initial calibration, and periodical regulations.

  9. Fast, high-precision optical polarization synthesizer for ultracold-atom experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Zopes, Jonathan; Alberti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to precisely synthesize arbitrary polarization states of light with a high modulation bandwidth. Our approach consists in superposing two laser light fields with the same wavelength, but with opposite circular polarizations, where the phase and amplitude of each light field are individually controlled. To assess the precision of the synthesized polarization states, we characterize static spatial variations of the polarization over the wavefront, as well as the noise spectral density of temporal fluctuations. We find that static polarization distortions limit the extinction ratio to $2\\times 10^{-5}$, corresponding to a 0.01% reduction of the degree of polarization (DOP). We also obtain that temporal fluctuations give rise to a $0.2^\\circ$ uncertainty in the state of polarization (SOP). We recently demonstrated an application of the polarization synthesizer (Robens et al., arXiv:1608.02410) to create two fully independent, controllable optical lattices, which trap atoms depending on...

  10. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  11. What can we learn from high precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-12-01

    Many experiments are being planned to measure the neutrino mixing angles more precisely. In this note, the theoretical significance of a high precision measurement of these parameters is discussed. It is emphasized that they can provide crucial information about different ways to understand the origin of large atmospheric neutrino mixing and move us closer towards determining the neutrino mass matrix. They may also be able to throw light on the question of lepton–quark unification as well as the existence of any leptonic symmetries. For instance if exact ↔ symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix is assumed to be the reason for maximal - mixing, one gets 13 = 0 and 13 ≃ $\\sqrt{ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ or 13 ≃ $ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ can provide information about the way the ↔ symmetry breaking manifests in the case of normal hierarchy.

  12. High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology and Correlation: An example Using the Neoproterozic-Cambrian Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Amthor, J.; Martin, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    The precise, global correlation of Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks can be achieved using temporally calibrated chemostratigraphic records. This approach is essential for determining rates and causes of environmental and faunal change, including mass extinctions. For example, The Neoproterozoic is marked by major environmental change, including periods of global glaciation, large fluctuations in the sequestration of carbon and major tectonic reorganization followed by the explosive diversification of animals in the earliest Cambrian. The extreme climatic change associated with these glaciations have been implicated as a possible trigger for the Cambrian explosion. The recognition of thin zircon-bearing air-fall ash in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian rocks has allowed the establishment of a high-precision temporal framework for animal evolution and is helping to untangle the history of glaciations. In some cases analytical uncertainties translate to age uncertainties of less than 1 Ma and when integrated with chemostratigraphy, the potential for global correlations at even higher resolution. Progress in the global correlation of Neoproterozoic strata has been achieved through the use of C and Sr isotope chemostratigraphy although it has been hampered by a lack of precise geochronological and faunal control. For example, the period from ca 800-580 Ma is characterized by at least two and perhaps as many as four glacial events that are interpreted by many to be global glaciations on a "Snowball Earth". A lack of precise chronological constraints on the number and duration of glaciations, multiple large excursions in the carbon isotopic record, and an absence of detailed biostratigraphy have complicated global correlation and hindered our understanding of this important period of Earth history. However, the ongoing integration of chemostratigraphic and geochronological data are improving temporal resolution and detailed correlations. These data are critical for

  13. Computational Calorimetry: High-Precision Calculation of Host-Guest Binding Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Niel M; Fenley, Andrew T; Gilson, Michael K

    2015-09-08

    We present a strategy for carrying out high-precision calculations of binding free energy and binding enthalpy values from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The approach is used to calculate the thermodynamic profiles for binding of nine small molecule guests to either the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) or β-cyclodextrin (βCD) host. For these systems, calculations using commodity hardware can yield binding free energy and binding enthalpy values with a precision of ∼0.5 kcal/mol (95% CI) in a matter of days. Crucially, the self-consistency of the approach is established by calculating the binding enthalpy directly, via end point potential energy calculations, and indirectly, via the temperature dependence of the binding free energy, i.e., by the van't Hoff equation. Excellent agreement between the direct and van't Hoff methods is demonstrated for both host-guest systems and an ion-pair model system for which particularly well-converged results are attainable. Additionally, we find that hydrogen mass repartitioning allows marked acceleration of the calculations with no discernible cost in precision or accuracy. Finally, we provide guidance for accurately assessing numerical uncertainty of the results in settings where complex correlations in the time series can pose challenges to statistical analysis. The routine nature and high precision of these binding calculations opens the possibility of including measured binding thermodynamics as target data in force field optimization so that simulations may be used to reliably interpret experimental data and guide molecular design.

  14. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  15. Precision mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kittell, David

    1989-01-01

    David Kittell, the father of the discipline, Precision Mechanics, shares the foundation of this science with you in his highly practical and fun to read book, Precision Mechanics. Based on his highly acclaimed course by the same name, first taught at the Perkin-Elmer Technical institute in Norwalk, Connecticut, and later as a short course offered in such places as Bell Labs, SPIE, IEEE, NASA, and several national labs, you will find this book relevant and immediately useful.

  16. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, I.; Carlberg, C.; Fritioff, T.; Douysset, G.; Schoenfelder, J.; Schuch, R. E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2002-07-21

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a time. In this paper we demonstrate that mass precision of a few parts in 10{sup 10} also can be obtained in a warm trap at a pressure of about 5x10{sup -12} mbar by stabilizing the pressure in the He-dewar, the trap temperature and the frequency synthesizer. In order to reduce the influence of changes of the magnetic field to a level below 10{sup -10}, the scanning of the frequencies close to the resonances of both the ion of interest and the reference ion is done in a total time <2 min. Trapping of ions is a statistical procedure, allowing more than one ion to be trapped in each measurement cycle. However, after completing the measurements it is possible to reject all information except for events based on 1 and 2 trapped ions. The procedures of producing, transporting, catching, exciting and measuring the cyclotron resonance frequencies of highly charged ions and the mass reference ions with the time-of-flight method are described. In routine measurements with

  17. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorb, Martin [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Briggs, John A.G., E-mail: john.briggs@embl.de [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals. - Highlights: • Workflow for correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. • Cryo-fluorescence microscopy setup incorporating a high numerical aperture objective. • Fluorescent signals located in cryo-electron micrographs with 50 nm spatial precision.

  18. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  19. High-numerical-aperture cryogenic light microscopy for increased precision of superresolution reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, Marc; Lanahan, Conor; DeRosier, David; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2017-04-11

    Superresolution microscopy has fundamentally altered our ability to resolve subcellular proteins, but improving on these techniques to study dense structures composed of single-molecule-sized elements has been a challenge. One possible approach to enhance superresolution precision is to use cryogenic fluorescent imaging, reported to reduce fluorescent protein bleaching rates, thereby increasing the precision of superresolution imaging. Here, we describe an approach to cryogenic photoactivated localization microscopy (cPALM) that permits the use of a room-temperature high-numerical-aperture objective lens to image frozen samples in their native state. We find that cPALM increases photon yields and show that this approach can be used to enhance the effective resolution of two photoactivatable/switchable fluorophore-labeled structures in the same frozen sample. This higher resolution, two-color extension of the cPALM technique will expand the accessibility of this approach to a range of laboratories interested in more precise reconstructions of complex subcellular targets.

  20. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Pascale [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Kaufmann, Rainer [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Wodrich, Harald [Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, MFP CNRS UMR 5234, University of Bordeaux SEGALEN, 146 rue Leo Seignat, 33076 Bordeaux (France); Grünewald, Kay, E-mail: kay@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. - Highlights: • Vitrified mammalian cell were imaged by fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy. • TetraSpeck fluorescence markers were added to correct shifts between cryo fluorescence channels. • FluoSpheres fiducials were used as reference points to assign new coordinates to cryoEM images. • Adenovirus particles were localised with an average correlation precision of 63 nm.

  1. A High-Precision NIR Survey for RV Variable Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Gao, Peter; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Furlan, Elise; Davison, Cassy; Tanner, Angelle; Henry, Todd J; Riedel, Adric R; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Latham, David; Bottom, Michael; White, Russel; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John A; Ciardi, David R; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen R; Mamajek, Eric E; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Timothy J; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire S; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a precise near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) survey of 32 low-mass stars with spectral types K2-M4 using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF in the $K$-band with an isotopologue methane gas cell to achieve wavelength calibration and a novel iterative RV extraction method. We surveyed 14 members of young ($\\approx$ 25-150 Myr) moving groups, the young field star $\\varepsilon$ Eridani as well as 18 nearby ($<$ 25 pc) low-mass stars and achieved typical single-measurement precisions of 8-15 m s$^{-1}$ with a long-term stability of 15-50 m s$^{-1}$. We obtain the best NIR RV constraints to date on 27 targets in our sample, 19 of which were never followed by high-precision RV surveys. Our results indicate that very active stars can display long-term RV variations as low as $\\sim$ 25-50 m s$^{-1}$ at $\\approx$ 2.3125 $\\mu$m, thus constraining the effect of jitter at these wavelengths. We provide the first multi-wavelength confirmation of GJ 876 bc and independently retrieve orbital parameters...

  2. High-precision mass measurements of {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canete, L.; Kankainen, A.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Koponen, J.; Moore, I.D.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaskylae (Finland)

    2016-05-15

    The masses of the astrophysically relevant nuclei {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P have been measured with a Penning trap for the first time. The mass-excess values for {sup 25}Al (Δ=-8915.962(63) keV) and {sup 30}P (Δ=-20200.854(64) keV) obtained with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer are in good agreement with the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 values but ∼5-10 times more precise. A high precision is required for calculating resonant proton-capture rates of astrophysically important reactions {sup 25}Al(p,γ){sup 26}Si and {sup 30}P(p,γ){sup 31}S. In this work, Q{sub (p,γ)}=5513.99(13) keV and Q{sub (p,γ)}=6130.64(24) keV were obtained for {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P, respectively. The effect of the more precise values on the resonant proton-capture rates has been studied. In addition to nuclear astrophysics, the measured Q{sub EC} value of {sup 25}Al, 4276.805(45) keV, is relevant for studies of T=1/2 mirror beta decays which have a potential to be used to test the Conserved Vector Current hypothesis. (orig.)

  3. High-precision astrometry with VVV. I. An independent reduction pipeline for VIRCAM@VISTA

    CERN Document Server

    Libralato, M; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Piotto, G; Nascimbeni, V; Platais, I; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new reduction pipeline for the VIRCAM@VISTA detector and describe the method developed to obtain high-precision astrometry with the VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) data set. We derive an accurate geometric-distortion correction using as calibration field the globular cluster NGC 5139, and showed that we are able to reach a relative astrometric precision of about 8 mas per coordinate per exposure for well-measured stars over a field of view of more than 1 square degree. This geometric-distortion correction is made available to the community. As a test bed, we chose a field centered around the globular cluster NGC 6656 from the VVV archive and computed proper motions for the stars within. With 45 epochs spread over four years, we show that we are able to achieve a precision of 1.4 mas/yr and to isolate each population observed in the field (cluster, Bulge and Disk) using proper motions. We used proper-motion-selected field stars to measure the motion difference between Galactic disk and...

  4. A high precision visual localization sensor and its working methodology for an indoor mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-yu ZHOU; Xian-feng YUAN; Yang YANG; Zhi-fei JIANG; Chen-lei ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of existing robot localization sensors, such as low accuracy and poor robustness, a high precision visual localization system based on infrared-reflective artificial markers is designed and illustrated in detail in this paper. First, the hardware system of the localization sensor is developed. Secondly, we design a novel kind of infrared-reflective artificial marker whose characteristics can be extracted by the acquisition and processing of the infrared image. In addition, a confidence calculation method for marker identification is proposed to obtain the probabilistic localization results. Finally, the autonomous localization of the robot is achieved by calculating the relative pose relation between the robot and the artificial marker based on the perspective-3-point (P3P) visual localization algorithm. Numerous experiments and practical applications show that the designed localization sensor system is immune to the interferences of the illumination and observation angle changes. The precision of the sensor is ±1.94 cm for position localization and ±1.64◦ for angle localization. Therefore, it satisfies perfectly the requirements of localization precision for an indoor mobile robot.

  5. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  6. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  7. A high precision method for quantitative measurements of reactive oxygen species in frozen biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Berg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP• with known spin concentration. RESULTS: The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k = 1. The spin concentration of samples stored at -80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. CONCLUSION: The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  8. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  9. A Study of the Merits of Precision Time Protocol (IEEE-1588) Across High-Speed Data Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, David; Otto, Adam Jedrzej; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    By using Precision Time Protocol across high-speed data networks, it is possible to achieve good time synchronisation using only commercial, off-the-shelve equipment. Even under heavy network loads, the attainable precision far exceeds that which is possible with Network Time Protocol, and is sufficient for many applications. This note explores the time precision possible with PTP under various conditions and attempts to provide a measurement of its performance.

  10. A Study of the Merits of Precision Time Protocol (IEEE-1588) Across High-Speed Data Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, David; Neufeld, Niko

    2015-01-01

    By using Precision Time Protocol across high-speed data networks, it is possible to achieve good time synchronisation without requiring the use of custom switches. Even under heavy network loads, the attainable precision far exceeds that which is possible with Network Time Protocol, and is sufficient for many applications. This note explores the attainable precision possible with PTP under various conditions and attempts to provide a measurement of its performance.

  11. High-precision Distribution of Highly-stable Optical Pulse Trains with Sub-10-fs Timing Jitter

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, B; Hou, D; Wu, J T; Li, Z B; Zhao, J Y

    2014-01-01

    High-precision optical pulse trains distribution via fibre links has made huge impacts in many fields. In most published works, the accuracies are still fundamentally limited by some unavoidable noises, such as thermal and shot noise from conventional photodiodes, thermal noise from mixers. Here, we demonstrate a new high-precision timing distribution system by using highly-precision phase detector to overcome the limitations. Instead of using photodiodes and microwave mixers, we use several fibre Sagnac-loop-based optical-microwave phase detectors to realize optical-electrical conversion and phase measurements, for suppressing the noises and achieving ultra-high accuracy. A 10-km fibre link distribution experiment shows our system provides a residual instability at the level of 4.6*10-15@1-s and 6.1*10-18@10000-s, with an integrated timing jitter as low as 3.8 fs in a bandwidth of 1 Hz to 100 KHz. This low instability and timing jitter makes it possible that our system can be used in the optical clock distri...

  12. An optical fan for light beams for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high precision optical measurements and high capacity and high speed optical communications. Here we show, a totally new method, based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals, the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam like a fan. Using a computer-based digital image processing technique, we determine the temperature and the thermal dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science and optical communication networks.

  13. An efficient, compact, and versatile fiber double scrambler for high precision radial velocity instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Levi, Eric; Schwab, Christian; Hearty, Fred; MacDonald, Nick

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and test results of a compact optical fiber double-scrambler for high-resolution Doppler radial velocity instruments. This device consists of a single optic: a high-index $n$$\\sim$2 ball lens that exchanges the near and far fields between two fibers. When used in conjunction with octagonal fibers, this device yields very high scrambling gains and greatly desensitizes the fiber output from any input illumination variations, thereby stabilizing the instrument profile of the spectrograph and improving the Doppler measurement precision. The system is also highly insensitive to input pupil variations, isolating the spectrograph from telescope illumination variations and seeing changes. By selecting the appropriate glass and lens diameter the highest efficiency is achieved when the fibers are practically in contact with the lens surface, greatly simplifying the alignment process when compared to classical double-scrambler systems. This prototype double-scrambler has demonstrated significant pe...

  14. Devices for high precision x-ray beam intensity monitoring on BSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Hua-Peng, LI; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-Hu; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Zhao, Ya-Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation with the characteristic of high brilliance, high level of polarization, high collimation, low emittance and wide tunability in energy has been used as a standard source in metrology(1, 2). For a decade, lots of calibration work have been done on 4B7A in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) (3, 4). For the calibration process, a high-precision online monitor is indispensable. To control the uncertainty under 0.1%, we studied different sizes parallel ion chambers with rare-gas and used different collecting methods to monitor the x-ray intensity of the beamline. Two methods to collect the signal of the ion chambers: reading the current directly with electrometer or signal amplification to collect the counts were compared.

  15. Resolving high precision U-Pb ages from Tertiary plutons with complex zircon systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, William C.; Mattinson, James M.

    1996-10-01

    Success in establishing high precision crystallization ages with the U/Pb zircon method is highly dependent on the ability to isolate or remove the effects of inherited xenocrystic components or secondary lead-loss, or the combined effects of both. Current "conventional" single crystal and ion probe (SHRIMP) methods are successfully applied to Paleozoic and older samples but typically suffer from imprecision when applied to younger (Mesozoic-Cenozoic) samples due to generally reduced radiogenic lead concentrations. Here we apply a series of intense partial dissolution steps to multigrain zircon fractions from a series of Paleocene tonalitic to granodioritic intrusive rocks from southeastern Alaska. The zircon systematics are complicated by both minor inheritance and postcrystallization lead-loss. Physical and isotopic evidence demonstrate that the partial dissolution steps preferentially remove outer layers susceptible to lead loss, as well as core regions containing inherited components. The final residues are often hollow shells of low-U primary igneous zircon that yield highly precise, reproducible, and concordant ages. The resulting age determinations commonly statistically differ at the 95% confidence level from ages based on apparently concordant, but less precise conventional isotope dilution analyses, the uncertainties of which masked minor, subtle isotopic complexities. This observation strongly cautions against basing age assignments of samples yielding slightly discordant data on (1) single "concordant" analyses accompanied by an array of discordant data or (2) the mean of several 206Pb/ 238U or 207Pb/ 206Pb ages. The step-wise dissolution technique allows age determinations on young, relatively low U and Pb zircons at a resolution not currently possible with techniques such as single-grain conventional or spot ion probe analyses. Widespread application of the technique will likely prove instrumental in resolving detailed magmatic histories of igneous

  16. High-Precision Dispensing of Nanoliter Biofluids on Glass Pedestal Arrays for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yang; Xu, QianFeng; Zhu, Jing; Poget, Sébastien F; Lyons, Alan M

    2016-05-04

    Precise dispensing of nanoliter droplets is necessary for the development of sensitive and accurate assays, especially when the availability of the source solution is limited. Conventional approaches are limited by imprecise positioning, large shear forces, surface tension effects, and high costs. To address the need for precise and economical dispensing of nanoliter volumes, we developed a new approach where the dispensed volume is dependent on the size and shape of defined surface features, thus freeing the dispensing process from pumps and fine-gauge needles requiring accurate positioning. The surface we fabricated, called a nanoliter droplet virtual well microplate (nVWP), achieves high-precision dispensing (better than ±0.5 nL or ±1.6% at 32 nL) of 20-40 nL droplets using a small source drop (3-10 μL) on isolated hydrophilic glass pedestals (500 μm on a side) bonded to arrays of polydimethylsiloxane conical posts. The sharp 90° edge of the glass pedestal pins the solid-liquid-vapor triple contact line (TCL), averting the wetting of the glass sidewalls while the fluid is prevented from receding from the edge. This edge creates a sufficiently large energy barrier such that microliter water droplets can be poised on the glass pedestals, exhibiting contact angles greater >150°. This approach relieves the stringent mechanical alignment tolerances required for conventional dispensing techniques, shifting the control of dispensed volume to the area circumscribed by the glass edge. The effects of glass surface chemistry and dispense velocity on droplet volume were studied using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Functionalization of the glass pedestal surface enabled the selective adsorption of specific peptides and proteins from synthetic and natural biomolecule mixtures, such as venom. We further demonstrate how the nVWP dispensing platform can be used for a variety of assays, including sensitive detection of proteins and peptides by fluorescence

  17. Overview of the JYFLTRAP mass measurements and high-precision -values for weak interaction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Eronen; Jyfltrap

    2010-08-01

    The JYFLTRAP Penning trap set-up at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, is a Penning trap facility that has provided high-precision atomic mass values for short-lived nuclides since 2003. Until now, masses of more than 250 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Since JYFLTRAP is coupled to the chemically insensitive IGISOL mass separator, any element can be accessed. So far, a huge mass surface extending from magnesium ( = 12) to lead ( = 82) has been covered.

  18. [Physiological and hygienic characteristic of high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, V F; Mironov, A I; Gadakchan, K A; Mekhova, M M; Spiridonova, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that workers performing high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronic industry undergo severe visual, nervous and emotional stress combined with significant locomotor load, air deionization and deozonation, bacterial contamination, and UV deficit at their workplaces. These working conditions promote development of negative changes in the visual analyzer, nervous and emotional disorders, disturbances of systemic and regional hemodynamics. Also impaired is the functional state of the upper limb neuromuscular apparatus, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. The proposed certified complex of organizational, sanitary, hygienic, physiological, ergonomic, therapeutic and preventive measures has positive influence on the working capacity of employees in microelectronic industry.

  19. Precise Access to the Molecular-Frame Complex Recombination Dipole through High-Harmonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoun, S. B.; Camper, A.; Salières, P.; Lucchese, R. R.; Agostini, P.; DiMauro, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    We report on spectral intensity and group delay measurements of the highest-occupied molecular-orbital (HOMO) recombination dipole moment of N2 in the molecular-frame using high harmonic spectroscopy. We take advantage of the long-wavelength 1.3 μ m driving laser to isolate the HOMO in the near threshold region, 19-67 eV. The precision of our group delay measurements reveals previously unseen angle-resolved spectral features associated with autoionizing resonances, and allows quantitative comparison with cutting-edge correlated 8-channel photoionization dipole moment calculations.

  20. On the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelgemann, D.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data is derived which consists of small correction terms to the inverse Stokes' formula. The influence of unknown sea surface topography in the case of meandering currents such as the Gulf Stream is discussed. A formula was derived in order to estimate the accuracy of the gravity anomalies from the known accuracy of the altimeter data. It is shown that for the case of known harmonic coefficients of lower order the range of integration in Stokes inverse formula can be reduced very much.

  1. High-precision gas gain and energy transfer measurements in Ar–CO{sub 2} mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahin, Özkan, E-mail: osahin@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Uludağ University, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Kowalski, Tadeusz Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków (Poland); Veenhof, Rob [Department of Physics, Uludağ University, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); RD51 collaboration, CERN, Genève (Switzerland)

    2014-12-21

    Ar–CO{sub 2} is a Penning mixture since a fraction of the energy stored in Ar 3p{sup 5}3d and higher excited states can be transferred to ionize CO{sub 2} molecules. In the present work, concentration and pressure dependence of Penning transfer rate and photon feedback parameter in Ar–CO{sub 2} mixtures have been investigated with recent systematic high-precision gas gain measurements which cover the range 1–50% CO{sub 2} at 400, 800, 1200, 1800 hPa and gas gain from 1 to 5×10{sup 5}.

  2. High precision measurement of the associated strangeness production in proton proton interactions

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Borodina, E; Clement, H; Doroshkevich, E; Dzhygadlo, R; Ehrhardt, K; Eyrich, W; Gast, W; Gillitzer, A; Grzonka, D; Hauenstein, F; Klaja, P; Kober, L; Kilian, K; Krapp, M; Mertens, M; Moskal, P; Ritman, J; Roderburg, E; Röder, M; Schroeder, W; Sefzick, T; Smyrski, J; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P

    2016-01-01

    A new high precision measurement of the reaction pp -> pK+Lambda at a beam momentum of 2.95 GeV/c with more than 200,000 analyzed events allows a detailed analysis of differential observables and their inter-dependencies. Correlations of the angular distributions with momenta are examined. The invariant mass distributions are compared for different regions in the Dalitz plots. The cusp structure at the N Sigma threshold is described with the Flatt\\'e formalism and its variation in the Dalitz plot is analyzed.

  3. High-precision measurement of the associated strangeness production in proton-proton interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jowzaee, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Borodina, E.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gast, W.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Mertens, M.; Roderburg, E.; Roeder, M.; Sefzick, T.; Wintz, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Clement, H. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Doroshkevich, E.; Ehrhardt, K. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Kober, L.; Krapp, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Hauenstein, F.; Klaja, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Moskal, P.; Smyrski, J. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Ritman, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forces and Matter Experiments (JARA-FAME), Juelich Aachen Research Allianz, Juelich (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (Germany); Schroeder, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Corporate Development, Juelich (Germany); Wuestner, P. [Elektronik und Analytik, Zentralinstitut fuer Engineering, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: The COSY-TOF Collaboration

    2016-01-15

    A new high-precision measurement of the reaction pp → pK{sup +}Λ at a beam momentum of 2.95 GeV/c with more than 200 000 analyzed events allows a detailed analysis of differential observables and their inter-dependencies. Correlations of the angular distributions with momenta are examined. The invariant mass distributions are compared for different regions in the Dalitz plots. The cusp structure at the NΣ threshold is described with the Flatte formalism and its variation in the Dalitz plot is analyzed. (orig.)

  4. High-precision measurement of the associated strangeness production in proton-proton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowzaee, S.; Borodina, E.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehrhardt, K.; Eyrich, W.; Gast, W.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Hauenstein, F.; Klaja, P.; Kober, L.; Kilian, K.; Krapp, M.; Mertens, M.; Moskal, P.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Röder, M.; Schroeder, W.; Sefzick, T.; Smyrski, J.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.

    2016-01-01

    A new high-precision measurement of the reaction pp→ pK+Λ at a beam momentum of 2.95 GeV/ c with more than 200 000 analyzed events allows a detailed analysis of differential observables and their inter-dependencies. Correlations of the angular distributions with momenta are examined. The invariant mass distributions are compared for different regions in the Dalitz plots. The cusp structure at the NΣ threshold is described with the Flatté formalism and its variation in the Dalitz plot is analyzed.

  5. Mechanical optimisation of a high-precision fast wire scanner at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, Sebastian; Veness, Raymond

    Wire scanners are instruments used to measure the transverse beam prole in particle accelerators by passing a thin wire through the particle beam. To avoid the issues of vacuum leakage through the bellows and wire failure related to current designs of wire scanners, a new concept for a wire scanner has been developed at CERN. This design has all moving parts inside the beam vacuum and has a nominal wire scanning speed of 20 m/s. The demands on the design associated with this together with the high precision requirements create a need for\

  6. High-precision gas gain and energy transfer measurements in Ar–CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Şahin, Özkan; Veenhof, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Ar–CO2 is a Penning mixture since a fraction of the energy stored in Ar 3p53d3p53d and higher excited states can be transferred to ionize CO2 molecules. In the present work, concentration and pressure dependence of Penning transfer rate and photon feedback parameter in Ar–CO2 mixtures have been investigated with recent systematic high-precision gas gain measurements which cover the range 1–50% CO2 at 400, 800, 1200, 1800 hPa and gas gain from 1 to 5×105.

  7. High Precision Temperature Control and Analysis of RF Deionized Cooling Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Zong-Da; Chen June Rong; Liu, Chen-Yao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) has proven the good beam quality mainly depends on the utility system stability. A serial of efforts were devoted to these studies. Further, a high precision temperature control of the RF deionized cooling water system will be achieved to meet the more critical stability requirement. The paper investigates the mixing mechanism through thermal and flow analysis and verifies the practical influences. A flow mixing mechanism and control philosophy is studied and processed to optimize temperature variation which has been reduced from ±0.1? to ±0.01?. Also, the improvement of correlation between RF performance and water cooling stability will be presented.

  8. Practical analysis of high purity chemicals--V. Precision silver chloride gravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K

    1971-09-01

    A reasonably simple gravimetric silver chloride procedure with fairly wide tolerance in conditions is presented in full detail with all critical steps and precautions delineated. The procedure allows the precision determination of chloride by analysts having limited expertise with exacting gravimetric methods, and can be performed with equipment common to nearly all laboratories and without dependence on a standard substance. The elapsed and actual working times for the assessment of a solid sample in triplicate are 65 and 10-12 hr respectively. The application of the procedure to the assay of some high-purity chloride salts and to the standardization of hydrochloric acid solutions is described.

  9. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VII. The ultra-short period planet WASP-103

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Ciceri, S; Budaj, J; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Haugbolle, T; Jorgensen, U G; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; von Essen, C; Schmidt, R W; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Novati, S Calchi; D'Ago, G; Hinse, T C; Henning, Th; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Starkey, D; Surdej, J

    2014-01-01

    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultra-short period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit midpoint is now measured to an accuracy of 4.8s, versus 67.4s in the discovery paper, aiding future searches for orbital decay. With the help of published spectroscopic measurements and theoretical stellar models, we determine the physical properties of the system to high precision and present a detailed error budget for these calculations. The planet has a Roche lobe filling factor of 0.58, leading to a significant asphericity; we correct its measured mass and mean density for this phenomenon. A high-resolution Lucky Imaging observation shows no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate the point spread function of WASP-103. Our data were obtained in the Bessell $RI$ and the SDSS $griz$ passbands and yield a larger planet ...

  10. High precise control method for a new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve system was proposed. And then multilayer piezoelectric actuator based on new piezoelectric ceramic material was used as the electricity-machine converter of the proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve. The proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve has ascendant performance compared with conventional ones. But the system is of high nonlinearity and uncertainty, it cannot achieve favorable control performance by conventional control method. To develop an efficient way to control piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve system, a high-precise fuzzy control method with hysteresis nonlinear model in feedforward loop was proposed. The control method is separated into two parts: a feedforward loop with Preisach hysteresis nonlinear model and a feedback loop with high-precise fuzzy control. Experimental results show that the hysteresis loop and the maximum output hysteresis by the PID control method are 4.22%and 2.11 μm, respectively; the hysteresis loop and the maximum output hysteresis by the proposed control method respectively are 0.74% and 0.37 μm, respectively; the maximum tracking error by the PID control method for sine wave reference signal is about 5.02%, the maximum tracking error by the proposed control method for sine wave reference signal is about 0.85%.

  11. An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-09-23

    For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS.

  12. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinali, M., E-mail: cardinal@kph.uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzyhgadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent particle identification detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected hit rates. A Barrel DIRC will be used in the central region of the Target Spectrometer of the planned PANDA experiment at FAIR. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is required by the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created on the image plane. R and D studies have been performed to provide a design based on the TRB3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom frontend electronics with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. The discriminators also provide time-over-threshold information thus enabling walk corrections to improve the timing resolution. Two types of frontend electronics cards optimised for reading out 64-channel PHOTONIS Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC and the other, called PADIWA, on FPGA discriminators. Promising results were obtained in a full characterisation using a fast laser setup and in a test experiment at MAMI, Mainz, with a small scale DIRC prototype. - Highlights: • Frontend electronics for Cherenkov detectors have been developed. • FPGA-TDCs have been used for high precision timing. • Time over threshold has been utilised for walk correction. • Single photo-electron timing resolution less than 100 ps has been achieved.

  13. Optimization design about gimbal structure of high-precision autonomous celestial navigation tracking mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Mei-lin; Yue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High precision tracking platform of celestial navigation with control mirror servo structure form, to solve the disadvantages of big volume and rotational inertia, slow response speed, and so on. It improved the stability and tracking accuracy of platform. Due to optical sensor and mirror are installed on the middle-gimbal, stiffness and resonant frequency requirement for high. Based on the application of finite element modality analysis theory, doing Research on dynamic characteristics of the middle-gimbal, and ANSYS was used for the finite element dynamic emulator analysis. According to the result of the computer to find out the weak links of the structure, and Put forward improvement suggestions and reanalysis. The lowest resonant frequency of optimization middle-gimbal avoid the bandwidth of the platform servo mechanism, and much higher than the disturbance frequency of carrier aircraft, and reduces mechanical resonance of the framework. Reaching provides a theoretical basis for the whole machine structure optimization design of high-precision of autonomous Celestial navigation tracking mirror system.

  14. [High-precision 3D morphology measurement by digital gatling method based on structured light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yin; Tang, Yu-Guo; Qiao, Pei-Yu; Wang, Bi-Dou; Jia, Zan-Dong; Xu, Zhong

    2012-09-01

    In order to measure the microscopic 3D morphology of the objects with high-precision, a 3D texture measurement system of digital gatling based on structured light was designed, which can calculate the 3D height information with the analytic phase method. First, the authors collected sixteen equal step phase images by the four-step equal step method, and calculated their main value by dividing them into four groups. Then, the authors found the average as the final phase main value. The pretreatment on the fringe was done by the adaptive Wiener filter and wavelet multi-threshold method to eliminate the various effects of noise, projector distortion and CCD camera distortion. Besides, gradient-oriented phase unwrapping algorithm based on multifrequency was introduced to avoid phase discontinuity point in the course phase unwrapping, and it was proven to be effective and stable. Experiments showed that the system's 3D resolution was 2.75 microm, and the high degree accuracy was better than 0.5 microm, when the system was running with the fringe parameter p0 = 22.7 mm(-1). In addition, the system has many advantages such as fast measuring, simple operation and non-contact, which can meet the need of the high precision measurement requirements for the microscopic 3D morphology.

  15. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Workshop on High-precision $\\alpha_s$ measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    S. Alekhin; d'Enterria, David; A. Banfi; S. Bethke; J. Blümlein; K.G. Chetyrkin; D. d’Enterria; G. Dissertori; X. Garcia i Tormo; A. H. Hoang; M. Klasen; T. Klijnsma; S. Kluth; J.-L. Kneur; B.A. Kniehl; D. W. Kolodrubetz; J. Kühn; P. Mackenzie; B. Malaescu; V. Mateu; L. Mihaila; S. Moch; K. Mönig; R. Pérez-Ramos; A. Pich; J. Pires; K. Rabbertz; G. P. Salam; F. Sannino; J. Soto i Riera; M. Srebre; I. W. Stewart

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experiment...

  17. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  18. Spectrophotometric high-precision seawater pH determination for use in underway measuring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aßmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH – a key variable of the seawater carbon system – is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-free measurements. However, available spectrophotometric instruments are not suitable for integration into automated measurement systems (e.g. FerryBox since they do not meet the major requirements of reliability, stability, robustness and moderate cost. Here we report on the development and testing of a~new indicator-based pH sensor that meets all of these requirements. This sensor can withstand the rough conditions during long-term deployments on ships of opportunity and is applicable to the open ocean as well as to coastal waters with a complex matrix and highly variable conditions. The sensor uses a high resolution CCD spectrometer as detector connected via optical fibers to a custom-made cuvette designed to reduce the impact of air bubbles. The sample temperature can be precisely adjusted (25 °C ± 0.006 °C using computer-controlled power supplies and Peltier elements thus avoiding the widely used water bath. The overall setup achieves a measurement frequency of 1 min−1 with a precision of ±0.0007 pH units, an average offset of +0.0005 pH units to a reference system, and an offset of +0.0081 pH units to a certified standard buffer. Application of this sensor allows monitoring of seawater pH in autonomous underway systems, providing a key variable for characterization and understanding of the marine carbon system.

  19. Spectrophotometric high-precision seawater pH determination for use in underway measuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßmann, S.; Frank, C.; Körtzinger, A.

    2011-10-01

    Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH - a key variable of the seawater carbon system - is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-free measurements. However, available spectrophotometric instruments are not suitable for integration into automated measurement systems (e.g. FerryBox) since they do not meet the major requirements of reliability, stability, robustness and moderate cost. Here we report on the development and testing of a~new indicator-based pH sensor that meets all of these requirements. This sensor can withstand the rough conditions during long-term deployments on ships of opportunity and is applicable to the open ocean as well as to coastal waters with a complex matrix and highly variable conditions. The sensor uses a high resolution CCD spectrometer as detector connected via optical fibers to a custom-made cuvette designed to reduce the impact of air bubbles. The sample temperature can be precisely adjusted (25 °C ± 0.006 °C) using computer-controlled power supplies and Peltier elements thus avoiding the widely used water bath. The overall setup achieves a measurement frequency of 1 min-1 with a precision of ±0.0007 pH units, an average offset of +0.0005 pH units to a reference system, and an offset of +0.0081 pH units to a certified standard buffer. Application of this sensor allows monitoring of seawater pH in autonomous underway systems, providing a key variable for characterization and understanding of the marine carbon system.

  20. A low noise and high precision linear power supply with thermal foldback protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-05-01

    A low noise and high precision linear power supply was designed for use in rare event search experiments with macrobolometers. The circuit accepts at the input a "noisy" dual supply voltage up to ±15 V and gives at the output precise, low noise, and stable voltages that can be set between ±3.75 V and ±12.5 V in eight 1.25 V steps. Particular care in circuit design, component selection, and proper filtering results in a noise spectral density of 50 nV / √{ Hz } at 1 Hz and 20 nV / √{ Hz } white when the output is set to ±5 V. This corresponds to 125 nV RMS (0.8 μV peak to peak) between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, and 240 nV RMS (1.6 μV peak to peak) between 0.1 Hz and 100 Hz. The power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of the circuit is 100 dB at low frequency, and larger than 40 dB up to high frequency, thanks to a proper compensation design. Calibration allows to reach a precision in the absolute value of the output voltage of ±70 ppm, or ±350 μV at ±5 V, and to reduce thermal drifts below ±1 ppm/∘C in the expected operating range. The maximum peak output current is about 6 A from each output. An original foldback protection scheme was developed that dynamically limits the maximum output current to keep the temperature of the output transistors within their safe operating range. An add-on card based on an ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is devoted to the monitoring and control of all circuit functionalities and provides remote communication via CAN bus.

  1. Spectrophotometric high-precision seawater pH determination for use in underway measuring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aßmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH – a key variable of the seawater carbon system – is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-free measurements. However, available spectrophotometric instruments are not suitable for integration into automated measurement systems (e.g. FerryBox since they do not meet the major requirements of reliability, stability, robustness and moderate cost. Here we report on the development and testing of a new indicator-based pH sensor that meets all of these requirements. This sensor can withstand the rough conditions during long-term deployments on ships of opportunities and is applicable on the open ocean as well as in coastal waters with complex background and highly variable conditions. The sensor uses a high resolution CCD spectrometer as detector connected via optical fibers to a custom-made cuvette designed to reduce the impact of air bubbles. The sample temperature can be precisely adjusted (25 °C ± 0.006 °C using computer-controlled power supplies and Peltier elements thus avoiding the widely used water bath. The overall setup achieves a measurement frequency of 1 min−1 with a precision of ± 0.0007 pH units and an average offset of +0.0018 pH units to a pH reference during shipboard operation. Application of this sensor allows monitoring of seawater pH in autonomous underway systems, providing a key variable for characterization and understanding the marine carbon system.

  2. The research of the high precision universal stable reconnaissance platform in near space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-tao; Cao, Jian-zhong; Fan, Zhe-yuan; Chen, Wei-ning

    2011-08-01

    The appliance of military was recognized more and more ,It is important that pod can bear the weight of the availability payload achieve the observation to the earth in 20km-100km area and work in the all-weather. The stable platform can load high imaging spectrometer, the thermal infrared imager, the infrared radiometer, the millimeter waves radar, the laser weapon and so on,in order to realize reconnaissance and attacking integrative and warning the long-distant missile. The stabilization accuracy of platform is prior to 20μrad and burden heavy load to the best of one's abilities. It used high precision velocity and acceleration gyroscope to fulfill the stabilization of the platform. Light-weight design by using new composite material and optimizing design. It was adapt to the near space environment better by structure design and simulation analysis.Enhance its basic frequency and sure the rigid of the frame platform .In addition, the structure of platform apply the two-axis and four-frame and use the method of FEA to fulfill the optimum design in order to attain the object of light-weight.In consider to the precision of the platform I establish the math model and make use of the monte carlo method to appraise and analysis the error that affect the precision of the platform. After emulating by the software of the Matlab to verify the results. It is apply the method that link the platform and aerocraft by mounting the no angular displacement shock absorbers on the elevator mechanism. This kind of design insulate the angular vibration and minish the linear vibration to ensure the image quality.

  3. High Precision Momentum Calibration of the Magnetic Spectrometers at MAMI for Hypernuclear Binding Energy Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Margaryan, A; Achenbach, P; Ajvazyan, R; Elbakyan, H; Montgomery, R; Nakamura, S N; Pochodzalla, J; Schulz, F; Toyama, Y; Zhamkochyan, S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for absolute momentum calibration of magnetic spectrometers used in nuclear physics, using the time-of-flight (TOF), differences of pairs of particles with different masses. In cases where the flight path is not known, a calibration can be determined by using the TOF differences of two pair combinations of three particles. A Cherenkov detector, read out by a radio frequency photomultiplier tube, is considered as the high-resolution and highly stable TOF detector. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is demonstrated that the magnetic spectrometers at the MAMI electron-scattering facility can be calibrated absolutely with an accuracy $\\delta p/p\\leq 10^{-4}$, which will be crucial for high precision determination of hypernuclear masses.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography on glass chips using precisely defined porous polymer monoliths as particle retaining elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmann, Sebastian; Mauritz, Laura; Heck, Christian; Belder, Detlev

    2014-11-28

    A stable and permanent integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic systems is a major issue in nano liquid chromatography. Various approaches like differently shaped retaining elements or the use of key stone effect have been investigated. We show a flexible integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic chips utilising common HPLC material achieved by laser-assisted generation of narrow, photopolymerised frits. The generated retaining elements serve as an in- and outlet frits for the columns. An optimised pre-polymeric solution, consisting of butyl acrylates and a porogen, allows a precise fabrication of frit-type structures with lengths of less than 100 m and the capability to withstand common slurry packing pressures of more than 250 bar. The separation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by pressure-driven, reversed-phase chromatography proves the high quality of the created chromatographic column inside a glass chip. Plate heights down to 2.9 were achieved and extremely fast separations with sub-second peak widths were performed in isocratic and gradient elution modes on very short columns (≤ 25 mm). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel approach for pulse width measurements with a high precision (8 ps RMS) TDC in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, C.; Linev, S.; Michel, J.; Schweitzer, T.; Traxler, M.

    2016-01-01

    High precision time measurements are a crucial element in particle identification experiments, which likewise require pulse width information for Time-over-Threshold (ToT) measurements and charge measurements (correlated with pulse width). In almost all of the FPGA-based TDC applications, pulse width measurements are implemented using two of the TDC channels for leading and trailing edge time measurements individually. This method however, requires twice the number of resources. In this paper we present the latest precision improvements in the high precision TDC (8 ps RMS) developed before [1], as well as the novel way of measuring ToT using a single TDC channel, while still achieving high precision (as low as 11.7 ps RMS). The effect of voltage, generated by a DC-DC converter, over the precision is also discussed. Finally, the outcome of the temperature change over the pulse width measurement is shown and a correction method is suggested to limit the degradation.

  6. Shandong Hengyuan 200,000 tonnes of High-Precision Copper Product Project is Making Smooth Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Shandong Hengyuan Copper Co., Ltd is an emerging copper product processing enterprise in China, the company plans to invest 1 billion yuan to construct 200,000 t/a high precision copper product, which includes: 20,000 tones of precision copper tube and copper alloy tube, 10,000 tonnes of railway electrification copper

  7. An investigation of highly accurate and precise robotic hole measurements using non-contact devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots arms are widely used in manufacturing industry because of their support for automation. However, in metrology, robots have had limited application due to their insufficient accuracy. Even using error compensation and calibration methods, robots are not effective for micrometre (μm level metrology. Non-contact measurement devices can potentially enable the use of robots for highly accurate metrology. However, the use of such devices on robots has not been investigated. The research work reported in this paper explores the use of different non-contact measurement devices on an industrial robot. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of robot movements on the accuracy and precision of measurements. The focus has been on assessing the ability to accurately measure various geometric and surface parameters of holes despite the inherent inaccuracies of industrial robot. This involves the measurement of diameter, roundness and surface roughness. The study also includes scanning of holes for measuring internal features such as start and end point of a taper. Two different non-contact measurement devices based on different technologies are investigated. Furthermore, effects of eccentricity, vibrations and thermal variations are also assessed. The research contributes towards the use of robots for highly accurate and precise robotic metrology.

  8. Velocity and abundance precisions for future high-resolution spectroscopic surveys: a study for 4MOST

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Sbordone, L; Sartoretti, P; Hansen, C J; Royer, F; Leclerc, N; Bonifacio, P; Christlieb, N; Ludwig, H G; Grebel, E K; de Jong, R S; Chiappini, C; Walcher, J; Mignot, S; Feltzing, S; Cohen, M; Minchev, I; Helmi, A; Piffl, T; Depagne, E; Schnurr, O

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for future, large-scale, multi-object, high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy, we present a series of tests of the precision in radial velocity and chemical abundances that any such project can achieve at a 4m class telescope. We briefly discuss a number of science cases that aim at studying the chemo-dynamical history of the major Galactic components (bulge, thin and thick disks, and halo) - either as a follow-up to the Gaia mission or on their own merits. Based on a large grid of synthetic spectra that cover the full range in stellar parameters of typical survey targets, we devise an optimal wavelength range and argue for a moderately high-resolution spectrograph. As a result, the kinematic precision is not limited by any of these factors, but will practically only suffer from systematic effects, easily reaching uncertainties <1 km/s. Under realistic survey conditions (namely, considering stars brighter than r=16 mag with reasonable exposure times) we prefer an ideal resolving...

  9. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  10. FPGA-based High-precision Measurement Algorithm for the Ultrasonic Echo Time of Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-xiong WANG; Jin ZHANG

    2010-01-01

    Based on the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of high-precision digital time interval measuring algorithms, and combined with the principle of the typical time-difference ultrasonic flow measurement,the requirements far the measurement of echo time of flight put forward by the ultrasonic flow measurement are an-alyzed.A new high-precision time interval measurement algorithm is presented, which combines the pulse counting method with the phase delay interpolation. The pulse counting method is used to ensure a large dynamic measuring range, and a double-edge triggering counter is designed to improve the accuracy and reduce the counting quantiza-tion error.The phase delay interpolation is used to reduce the quanti-zation error of pulse counting for further improving the time measure-ment resolution.Test data show that the system for the measurement of the ultrasonic echo time of flight based on this algorithm and im-plemented on an Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) needs a rel-atively short time for measurement,and has a measurement error of less than 105 ps.

  11. Precision isotope shift measurements in Ca$^+$ using highly sensitive detection schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Gebert, Florian; Wolf, Fabian; Angstmann, Christopher N; Berengut, Julian C; Schmidt, Piet O

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficient high-precision optical spectroscopy technique for single trapped ions with non-closed transitions. In a double-shelving technique, the absorption of a single photon is first amplified to several phonons of a normal motional mode shared with a co-trapped cooling ion of a different species, before being further amplified to thousands of fluorescence photons emitted by the cooling ion using the standard electron shelving technique. We employ this extension of the photon recoil spectroscopy technique to perform the first high precision absolute frequency measurement of the $^{2}$D$_{3/2}$ $\\rightarrow$ $^{2}$P$_{1/2}$ transition in $^{40}$Ca$^{+}$, resulting in a transition frequency of $f=346\\, 000\\, 234\\, 867(96)$ kHz. Furthermore, we determine the isotope shift of this transition and the $^{2}$S$_{1/2}$ $\\rightarrow$ $^{2}$P$_{1/2}$ transition for $^{42}$Ca$^{+}$, $^{44}$Ca$^{+}$ and $^{48}$Ca$^{+}$ ions relative to $^{40}$Ca$^{+}$ with an accuracy below 100 kHz. Improved field and ...

  12. A High Precision Position Sensor Design and Its Signal Processing Algorithm for a Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensen Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run.

  13. A high precision position sensor design and its signal processing algorithm for a maglev train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen

    2012-01-01

    High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run.

  14. Towards high-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich fission products at TRIGA-SPEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    TRIGA-TRAP, the only Penning trap mass spectrometer worldwide at a nuclear research reactor, is installed at TRIGA Mainz as part of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. The scientific goal is to perform high-precision mass measurements on lanthanoids, actinoids and neutron-rich fission products produced by thermal neutron induced fission of a target inside the reactor. High-precision mass data are scarce in this region of the nuclear chart, and further experimental data are needed for nuclear structure studies of heavy elements, to test the predictive power of nuclear mass models, or as input to nucleosynthesis calculations of the astrophysical r-process. Ions of certain lanthanoids and most actinoids as well as carbon clusters for calibration purposes can be routinely produced by a newly developed non-resonant laser ablation ion source, allowing off-line mass measurements. Besides fundamental research, TRIGA-TRAP serves as a test bench for the development of efficient ion detection techniques, which will enable mass measurements ultimately on a single ion with a half-life of the order of one second. To this end, a unique combination of the commonly used time-of-flight technique and the non-destructive image current detection method is realized in an on-line mass spectrometer. The first mass measurement results are reported.

  15. High precision locations of long-period events at La Fossa Crater (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rapisarda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last eruption in 1888-90, the volcanic activity on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy has been limited to fumarolic degassing. Fumaroles are mainly concentred at the active cone of La Fossa in the northern sector of the island and are periodically characterized by increases in temperature as well as in the amount of both CO2 and He. Seismic background activity at Vulcano is dominated by micro-seismicity originating at shallow depth (<1-1.5 km under La Fossa cone. This seismicity is related to geothermal system processes and comprises long period (LP events. LPs are generally considered as the resonance of a fluid-filled volume in response to a trigger. We analyzed LP events recorded during an anomalous degassing period (August-October 2006 applying a high precision technique to define the shape of the trigger source. Absolute and high precision locations suggest that LP events recorded at Vulcano during 2006 were produced by a shallow focal zone ca. 200 m long, 40 m wide and N30-40E oriented. Their occurrence is linked to magmatic fluid inputs that by modifying the hydrothermal system cause excitation of a fluid-filled cavity.

  16. Study of highly precise outdoor characterization technique for photovoltaic modules in terms of reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukabori, Akihiro; Takenouchi, Takakazu; Matsuda, Youji; Tsuno, Yuki; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In this study, novel outdoor measurements were conducted for highly precise characterization of photovoltaic (PV) modules by measuring current-voltage (I-V) curves with fast sweep speeds and module’s temperature, and with a PV sensor for reference. Fast sweep speeds suppressed the irradiance variation. As a result, smooth I-V curves were obtained and the PV parameter deviation was suppressed. The module’s temperature was measured by attaching resistive temperature detector sensors on the module’s backsheet. The PV sensor was measured synchronously with the PV module. The PV parameters including Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF were estimated after correcting the I-V curves using the IEC standards. The reproducibility of Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF relative to the outdoor fits was evaluated as 0.43, 0.58, 0.24, and 0.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that highly precise measurements are possible using a PV measurement system with the three above-mentioned features.

  17. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Rzehak, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realised in the Standard Model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M{sub h}, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for M{sub h} in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FeynHiggs.

  18. Detailed seismotectonic analysis of Sumatra subduction zone revealed by high precision earthquake location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagala, Ricardo Alfencius; Harjadi, P. J. Prih; Heryandoko, Nova; Sianipar, Dimas

    2017-07-01

    Sumatra was one of the most high seismicity regions in Indonesia. The subduction of Indo-Australian plate beneath Eurasian plate in western Sumatra contributes for many significant earthquakes that occur in this area. These earthquake events can be used to analyze the seismotectonic of Sumatra subduction zone and its system. In this study we use teleseismic double-difference method to obtain more high precision earthquake distribution in Sumatra subduction zone. We use a 3D nested regional-global velocity model. We use a combination of data from both of ISC (International Seismological Center) and BMKG (Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Indonesia). We successfully relocate about 6886 earthquakes that occur on period of 1981-2015. We consider that this new location is more precise than the regular bulletin. The relocation results show greatly reduced of RMS residual of travel time. Using this data, we can construct a new seismotectonic map of Sumatra. A well-built geometry of subduction slab, faults and volcano arc can be obtained from the new bulletin. It is also showed that at a depth of 140-170 km, there is many events occur as moderate-to-deep earthquakes, and we consider about the relation of the slab's events with volcanic arc and inland fault system. A reliable slab model is also built from regression equation using new relocated data. We also analyze the spatial-temporal of seismotectonic using b-value mapping that inspected in detail horizontally and vertically cross-section.

  19. Fully stabilized mid-infrared frequency comb for high-precision molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Markku; Karhu, Juho

    2017-02-20

    A fully stabilized mid-infrared optical frequency comb spanning from 2.9 to 3.4 µm is described in this article. The comb is based on half-harmonic generation in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, which transfers the high phase coherence of a fully stabilized near-infrared Er-doped fiber laser comb to the mid-infrared region. The method is simple, as no phase-locked loops or reference lasers are needed. Precise locking of optical frequencies of the mid-infrared comb to the pump comb is experimentally verified at sub-20 mHz level, which corresponds to a fractional statistical uncertainty of 2 × 10-16 at the center frequency of the mid-infrared comb. The fully stabilized mid-infrared comb is an ideal tool for high-precision molecular spectroscopy, as well as for optical frequency metrology in the mid-infrared region, which is difficult to access with other stabilized frequency comb techniques.

  20. A design of High-precision High-Voltage Fiber-Optic Analog Signal Isolation Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建伟; 许留伟; 刘小宁; 杨雷

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a design of high-prectison high-voltage fiber-optic analog sig-nal isoaltion converter based on the technology of Voltage-to-Fequency (V/F)and Frequency -to Voltage(F/V) conversion It describes the principle ,system configuration and hardware design

  1. High-precision temporal constraints on intrusive magmatism of the Siberian Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Seth; Bowring, Sam; Pavlov, Volodia E.; Veselovsky, Roman V.

    2014-05-01

    The broad temporal coincidence between large igneous province magmatism and some of the most severe biotic/environmental crises in Earth history has led many to infer a causal connection between the two. Notable examples include the end-Permian mass extinction and eruption/emplacement of the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP) and the end-Triassic mass extinction and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. In models proposing a causal connection between LIP magmatism and the environmental changes that lead to mass extinction, gases and particulates injected into the atmosphere are thought to cause abrupt changes in climate and ocean chemistry sufficient to drive mass extinction of marine and terrestrial biota. Magmatism has been proposed to cause voluminous volatile release via contact metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks. In the case of the Siberian Traps LIP, the compositions of sedimentary rocks (carbonates, evaporates, organic-rich shales) that host sills and dikes are ideal for greenhouse gas generation. When coupled with the enormous volume of Siberian LIP intrusive rocks, there is the potential for volatile generation on a scale necessary to drive environmental changes and mass extinction. This model must be tested by comparing the timing of intrusive magmatism with that of the mass extinction. Coupled high-precision geochronology and astrochronology have constrained the timing of biotic crisis and associated environmental perturbations from the deca-millennial to sub-millennial timescale, suggesting that the biotic crisis was abrupt, occurring over < 100 ka. Published geochronology on sills and dikes from the LIP are sparse and lack the necessary precision to resolve the relative timing of the two events outside of age uncertainty. We present new high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology on seventeen gabbroic sills from throughout the magmatic province. This includes samples from the mineralized and differentiated intrusions in the Noril'sk region

  2. Development of a High Precision and Stability Ambient N2O and CO Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingang; Hoffnagle, John; Tan, Sze; Dong, Feng; Fleck, Derek; Yiu, John; Huang, Kuan; Leggett, Graham; He, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    With a global warming potential of nearly 300, N2O is a critically important greenhouse gas, contributing about 5 % of the US total GHG emissions. Agriculture soil management practices are the dominant source of anthropogenic N2O emissions, contributing nearly 75 % of US N2O emissions. In urban areas, vehicle tailpipe emissions and waste water treatment plants are significant sources of N2O. We report here a new mid-infrared laser-based cavity ring-down spectrometer (Picarro G5310) that was recently developed to simultaneously measure sub-ppb ambient concentrations of two key greenhouse gas species, N2O and CO, while measuring H2O as well. It combines a quantum cascade laser with a proprietary 3-mirror optical cavity. The ambient N2O and CO measurement precisions are 0.1ppb (10sec), 0.014ppb (600sec), and 0.006ppb (3000sec); and the measurements could even be averaged down over 3 hours, giving measurement precisions of 0.003ppb. The measurable N2O and CO ranges have been tested up to 2.5ppm. With the high precision and unparalleled stability, G5310 is believed a promising tool for long-term monitoring in atmospheric sciences. The new optical analyzer was set up to monitor N2O and CO (G5310), along with CO2 and CH4(G4301), in ambient air obtained from a 10 meter tower in Santa Clara, California. Evidence of contributions from traffic and a nearby sewage treatment facility were expected in the measurement data.

  3. A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a Swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls. The sensitivity was higher for girls (41% than for boys (21%. The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4 for girls and 120.3 (95% CI 24.5 to 589.9 for boys. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sensitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in child health centre settings are warranted.

  4. Highly precise and developmentally programmed genome assembly in Paramecium requires ligase IV-dependent end joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Kapusta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the sexual cycle of the ciliate Paramecium, assembly of the somatic genome includes the precise excision of tens of thousands of short, non-coding germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences or IESs, each one flanked by two TA dinucleotides. It has been reported previously that these genome rearrangements are initiated by the introduction of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which depend on the domesticated transposase PiggyMac. These DSBs all exhibit a characteristic geometry, with 4-base 5' overhangs centered on the conserved TA, and may readily align and undergo ligation with minimal processing. However, the molecular steps and actors involved in the final and precise assembly of somatic genes have remained unknown. We demonstrate here that Ligase IV and Xrcc4p, core components of the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ, are required both for the repair of IES excision sites and for the circularization of excised IESs. The transcription of LIG4 and XRCC4 is induced early during the sexual cycle and a Lig4p-GFP fusion protein accumulates in the developing somatic nucleus by the time IES excision takes place. RNAi-mediated silencing of either gene results in the persistence of free broken DNA ends, apparently protected against extensive resection. At the nucleotide level, controlled removal of the 5'-terminal nucleotide occurs normally in LIG4-silenced cells, while nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of the breaks is blocked, together with the final joining step, indicative of a coupling between NHEJ polymerase and ligase activities. Taken together, our data indicate that IES excision is a "cut-and-close" mechanism, which involves the introduction of initiating double-strand cleavages at both ends of each IES, followed by DSB repair via highly precise end joining. This work broadens our current view on how the cellular NHEJ pathway has cooperated with domesticated transposases for the emergence of new

  5. Depth Impact Control of an Electromagnetic Actuator for High Precision Engraving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo–Castañeda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This document presents both the mechanical elements and the motion control of a novel three–axis metal engraving machine. The aim of this work is to improve the conventional high resolution engraving techniques that commonly use expensive piezoelectric actuators with reduced impact depth. Also, it is presented the depth impact control in open loop for an electromagnetic actuator (solenoid. A conical tool is fixed on the mobile part of the solenoid that moves toward the work piece when the solenoid is energized. This novel machine performs micro–impacts of controlled depth on metallic flat surfaces and it can be also applied to high precision machining processes. The machine was experimentally tested on steel work pieces using scanned pictures.

  6. High precision mapping of kidney stones using μ-IR spectroscopy to determine urinary lithogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz-Alías, Pilar; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Evolution of urinary lithiasis is determined by the metabolism and life-style of the related patient. The appropriate classification of the stone is mandatory for the identification of the lithogenic process. In this study, cros-sections from a single stone of each of the most frequent urolithiasis types (calcium oxalate mono and dihydrate and carbonate apatite) have been selected and imaged using IR microspectroscopy. Moreover, the use of high definition sFTIR (synchrotron source) has revealed hidden information to the conventional FTIR. This work has demonstrated that minor components become key factors on the description of the stages of stone formation. Intensity map for COM (1630 cm(-1) peak). The high spatial definition achieved is key for the precise description of the kidney stone history.

  7. A high-precision cryogenically-cooled crystal monochromator for the APS diagnostics beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotela, E.; Yang, B.; Sharma, s.; Barcikowski, A.

    2000-07-24

    A high-precision cryogenically-cooled crystal monochromator has been developed for the APS diagnostics beamline. The design permits simultaneous measurements of the particle beam size and divergence. It provides for a large rotation angle, {minus}15{degree} to 180{degree}, with a resolution of 0.0005{degree}. The roll angle of the crystal can be adjusted by up to {+-}3{degree} with a resolution of 0.0001{degree}. A vertical translational stage, with a stroke of {+-}25 mm and resolution of 8 {micro}m, is provided to enable using different parts of the same crystal or to retract the crystal from the beam path. The modular design will allow optimization of cooling schemes to minimize thermal distortions of the crystal under high heat loads.

  8. High accuracy and precision micro injection moulding of thermoplastic elastomers micro ring production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Elsborg, René

    2016-01-01

    of using tool geometries as reference calibrated artefacts to establish effective process technology development and control. The results allow identifying the correct process windows for optimal part quality reducing product dimensional variation in the micrometer dimensional range. The proposed......The mass-replication nature of the process calls for fast monitoring of process parameters and product geometrical characteristics. In this direction, the present study addresses the possibility to develop a micro manufacturing platform for micro assembly injection moulding with real-time process/product...... monitoring and metrology. The study represent a new concept yet to be developed with great potential for high precision mass-manufacturing of highly functional 3D multi-material (i.e. including metal/soft polymer) micro components. The activities related to HINMICO project objectives proves the importance...

  9. Note: High precision angle generator using multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan; Bong Eom, Tae

    2011-11-01

    We present an angle generator with high resolution and accuracy, which uses multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder. A cylindrical air bearing guides a rotational motion, and the ultrasonic motors achieve high resolution over the full circle range with a simple configuration. The self-calibratable encoder can compensate the scale error of a divided circle (signal period: 20″) effectively by applying the equal-division-averaged method. The angle generator configures a position feedback control loop using the readout of the encoder. By combining the ac and dc operation mode, the angle generator produced stepwise angular motion with 0.005″ resolution. We also evaluated the performance of the angle generator using a precision angle encoder and an autocollimator. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in the angle generation was estimated less than 0.03″, which included the calibrated scale error and the nonlinearity error.

  10. Flow-Based Systems for Rapid and High-Precision Enzyme Kinetics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme kinetics studies normally focus on the initial rate of enzymatic reaction. However, the manual operation of steps of the conventional enzyme kinetics method has some drawbacks. Errors can result from the imprecise time control and time necessary for manual changing the reaction cuvettes into and out of the detector. By using the automatic flow-based analytical systems, enzyme kinetics studies can be carried out at real-time initial rate avoiding the potential errors inherent in manual operation. Flow-based systems have been developed to provide rapid, low-volume, and high-precision analyses that effectively replace the many tedious and high volume requirements of conventional wet chemistry analyses. This article presents various arrangements of flow-based techniques and their potential use in future enzyme kinetics applications.

  11. High precision Cross-correlated imaging in Few-mode fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Kristensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    ) in a few-mode fiber (FMF) are used as multiple spatial communication channels, comes in this context as a viable approach to enable the optimization of high-capacity links. From this perspective, it becomes highly necessary to possess a diagnostic tool for the precise modal characterization of FMFs. Among...... us to distinguishing differential time delays between HOMs in the picosecond timescale. Broad wavelength scanning in combination with spectral shaping, allows us to estimate the modal behavior of FMF without prior knowledge of the fiber parameters. We performed our demonstration at wavelengths from...... 850nm to 1100nm which can be easily extended to other wavelengths of interest just by replacing components with the appropriate coating. The method presented here aims to serve as flexible diagnostic tool that can be implemented in MDM systems for judicious evaluation of modal dispersion in FMFs...

  12. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Dhesi, S S; Maccherozzi, F; Cavill, S; Shepherd, E; Yuan, F; Deshmukh, R; Scott, S; van der Laan, G; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B(4)C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  13. High-precision optomechanical lens system for space applications assembled by a local soldering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelo, Pol Ribes; Koechlin, Charlie; Hornaff, Marcel; Kamm, Andreas; Beckert, Erik; Fiault, Guillaume; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Soldering using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, and optical crystals. This is due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. Solderjet bumping technology has been used to assemble a lens mount breadboard using specifications and requirements found for the optical beam expander for the European Space Agency EarthCare Mission. The silica lens and a titanium barrel have been designed and assembled with this technology in order to withstand the stringent mission demands of handling high mechanical and thermal loads without losing the optical performance. Finally, a high-precision optomechanical lens mount has been assembled with minimal localized stress (<1 MPa) showing outstanding performance in terms of wave-front error and beam depolarization ratio before and after environmental tests.

  14. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Cavill, S.; Shepherd, E.; Yuan, F.; Deshmukh, R.; Scott, S.; van der Laan, G.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  15. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Galianni, P; Gerner, T; Giannini, E; Gu, S -H; Hundertmark, M; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Mancini, L; Rabus, M; Ricci, D; Schaefer, S; Skottfelt, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dodds, P; Elyiv, A; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Jaimes, R Figuera; Hardis, S; Harpsoe, K; Jessen-Hansen, J; Kains, N; Kjeldsen, H; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Popovas, A; Proft, S; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Schoenebeck, F; Snodgrass, C; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Tsapras, Y; Vilela, C

    2014-01-01

    We present time-series photometric observations of thirteen transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves were obtained using the telescope-defocussing method and have scatters of 0.5 to 1.2 mmag relative to their best-fitting geometric models. We used these data to measure the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the systems to high precision, finding that our improved measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. High-resolution Lucky Imaging observations of all three targets show no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate our photometry. We confirm the eclipsing nature of the star closest to WASP-24 and present the detection of a detached eclipsing binary within 4.25 arcmin of WASP-26.

  16. High precision measurement of formaldehyde in air with differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The formaldehyde (HCHO) measurement is described by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and the data processing method is discussed in detail, including the selection of retrieval wavelength band, the removing of interfering structures, the steps of data processing and the spectrum dealing with nonlinear method. The HCHO concentration retrieved in different wavelength bands were compared, including relative error, repeatability and detection limit. As a result, the band from 314 to 332 nm was most suitable for the retrieval of HCHO. With these methods, high measurement precision of 1.9% was obtained and the detection limit of HCHO is less than 1.5 ppb. In addition, high linear relativity 0.9999 is achieved by measuring five different concentrations of HCHO with this system.

  17. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  18. New high precision data on the differential cross sections of the pion-proton elastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev I. G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The EPECUR collaboration presents new high precision data on the pion-proton elastic scattering in the second resonance region. The experiment EPECUR is placed on the universal beam channel of the accelerator ITEP. The setup features 0.1% beam pion momentum tagging system, 25 cm long liquid hydrogen target, placed in mylar container and beryllium outer shell, low material wire drift chambers and high performance DAQ. More than 3 billions of triggers have been collected. The data cover pion beam momentum range 0.8 - 1.3 GeV/c and 40-120 degrees center-of-mass scattering angle range for both positive and negative pions. The measured differential cross section has 2% statistical accuracy in 2 degrees angle and 5 MeV/c momentum intervals.

  19. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-03-26

    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  20. A sub-1 V high-precision CMOS bandgap voltage reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖峻; 赵毅强; 耿俊峰

    2012-01-01

    A third-order,sub-1 V bandgap voltage reference design for low-power supply,high-precision applications is presented.This design uses a current-mode compensation technique and temperature-dependent resistor ratio to obtain high-order curvature compensation.The circuit was designed and fabricated by SMIC 0.18μm CMOS technology.It produces an output reference of 713.6 mV.The temperature coefficient is 3.235 pprn/℃ in the temperature range of-40 to 120 ℃,with a line regulation of 0.199 mV/V when the supply voltage varies from 0.95 to 3 V.The average current consumption of the whole circuit is 49 μA at the supply voltage of 1 V.

  1. HIGH-PRECISION DETERMINATION OF THE ANGULAR POSITION FOR POINT LIGHT SOURCE WITH CCD-ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Lebedko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. A method of angular position measuring for point light source in the system with CCD arrays is proposed by converting of angle – time – code in low light conditions and at high signal / noise ratio. Assessment of the method potential accuracy is given. It is determined by instrumental irremovable random errors of measurement in terms of optimal processing of incoming information with a single reading it with CCD – arrays. Method. This work introduces an optoelectronic system circuit with CCD arrays with stretched sensing elements and a point of reference for angular position measuring. In this case the arrays have images projections of both the reference point source and the target point source, which angular position is measured with high precision. From the CCD array output the signals arrive at an optimal (or apt linear filter, and then to the signal peak position detection circuit. The scheme provides minimum error due to the influence of noise. Pulse edges, corresponding to the signals maximum, make a time interval filled with high-frequency counting pulses. The number of pulses in this interval will correspond to the measured angular position of the target point source. Main results. Analysis of random errors has been carried out in terms of statistical decision theory. Analysis takes into account the spectral function of the signals defined by transfer functions of the optical system and a CCD array as an image analyzer. Research of measurement accuracy is carried out depending on the clock frequency of reading information from CCD arrays for different values of signal-to-noise ratio. It has been shown that even with a single readout with CCD array by the proposed opto-electronic circuit measuring error does not exceed 0.01 of the sensing element size. Practical significance. The results are usable in high-precision measuring opto-electronic systems of star sensors for determining the angular position of the low

  2. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  3. New Progress in High-Precision and High-Resolution Seismic Exploration Technique in Coal Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the proportion of coal in primary-energy consumption in China is generally between 71.3% and 76.5%. The output of coal was 1.374 billion tons in 1996, and 1.21 tons in 1998, which ranked first in the world. Now coal is mined mainly with mechanization in China, which is planned to reach 80% in major State-owned coal mines in 2000 according to the planning of the government (Li et al., 1998; Tang Dejin, 1998).Compared with the USA and Australia, China has more complex coal geological structures. Based on high-resolution seismic technique in coal exploration, a new seismic technique with high-precision and high-resolution (2-D and 3-D) has been developed for the purpose of detecting small geological structures in coal mine construction and production to meet the needs of large-scale popularization of mechanized coal mining in China. The technique is low in cost and requires a relatively short period of exploration, with high precision and wide-range applications. In the middle of the 1980s, it began to be used in pre-mining coal exploration on a trial basis, and entered the peak of exploration in the 1990s, which has made significant progress in providing high-precision geological results for the construction and production of coal industry in China, and is still in the ascendant.This paper discusses some new progress and the exploration capability and application range of the technique.

  4. Development of a facility for high-precision irradiation of cells with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713AV Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713AV Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Compared to photons, using particle radiation in radiotherapy reduces the dose and irradiated volume of normal tissues, potentially reducing side effects. The biological effect of dose deposited by particles such as carbon ions, however, differs from that of dose deposited by photons. The inaccuracy in models to estimate the biological effects of particle radiation remains the most important source of uncertainties in particle therapy. Improving this requires high-precision studies on biological effects of particle radiation. Therefore, the authors aimed to develop a facility for reproducible and high-precision carbon-ion irradiation of cells in culture. The combined dose nonuniformity in the lateral and longitudinal direction should not exceed {+-}1.5%. Dose to the cells from particles than other carbon ions should not exceed 5%. Methods: A uniform lateral dose distribution was realized using a single scatter foil and quadrupole magnets. A modulator wheel was used to create a uniform longitudinal dose distribution. The choice of beam energy and the optimal design of these components was determined using GEANT4 and SRIM Monte Carlo simulations. Verification of the uniformity of the dose distribution was performed using a scintillating screen (lateral) and a water phantom (longitudinal). The reproducibility of dose delivery between experiments was assessed by repeated measurements of the spatial dose distribution. Moreover, the reproducibility of dose-response measurements was tested by measuring the survival of irradiated HEK293 cells in three independent experiments. Results: The relative contribution of dose from nuclear reaction fragments to the sample was found to be <5% when using 90 MeV/u carbon ions. This energy still allows accurate dosimetry conforming to the IAEA Report TRS-398, facilitating comparison to dose-effect data obtained with other radiation qualities. A 1.3 mm long spread-out Bragg peak with a diameter of 30 mm was created, allowing

  5. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  6. High-Precision Multi-Wave Rectifier Circuit Operating in Low Voltage + 1.5 Volt Current Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Burapattanasiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is present high-precision multi-wave rectifier circuit operating in low voltage +/- 1.5 Volt current modes by CMOS technology 0.5 μm, receive input and give output in current mode, respond at high frequency period. The structure compound with high-speed current comparator circuit, current mirror circuit, and CMOS inverter circuit. PSpice program used for confirmation the performance of testing. The PSpice program shows operating of circuit is able to working at maximum input current 400 μAp-p, maximum frequency responding 200 MHz, high precision and low power losses, and non-precision zero crossing output signal.Keywords-component; rectifier circuit; high-precision; low voltage; current mode;

  7. High precision measurement of the {eta} meson mass at COSY-ANKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goslawski, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Previous measurements of the {eta} meson mass performed at different experimental facilities resulted in very precise data but differ by up to more than eight standard deviations, i.e., 0.5 MeV/c. Interestingly, the difference seems to be dependent on the measuring method: two missing mass experiments, which produce the {eta} meson in the {sup 3}He{eta} final state, deviate from the recent invariant mass ones. In order to clarify this ambiguous situation a high precision mass measurement was realised at the COSY-ANKE facility. Therefore, a set of deuteron laboratory beam momenta and their associated {sup 3}He centre-of-mass momenta was measured in the dp{yields}{sup 3}HeX reaction near the {eta} production threshold. The {eta} meson was identified by the missing mass peak, whereas its mass was extracted by fixing the production threshold. The individual beam momenta were determined with a relative precision of 3 x 10{sup -5} for values just above 3 GeV/c by using a polarised deuteron beam and inducing an artificial depolarising spin resonance occurring at a well-defined frequency. The final state momenta in the two-body reaction dp{yields}{sup 3}He{eta} were investigated in detail by studying the size of the {sup 3}He momentum sphere with the forward detection system of the ANKE spectrometer. Final alignment and momentum calibration of the spectrometer was achieved by a comprehensive study of the {sup 3}He final state momenta as a function of the centre-of-mass angles, taking advantage of the full geometrical acceptance. The value obtained for the mass at COSY-ANKE m{sub {eta}}=(547.873{+-}0.005{sub stat.}{+-}0.027{sub syst.}) MeV/c{sup 2} is therefore worldwide the most precise one. This mass value is contrary to earlier missing mass experiments but it is consistent and competitive with recent invariant mass measurements, in which the meson was detected through its decay products.

  8. High-precision percolation thresholds and Potts-model critical manifolds from graph polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Jesper Lykke Jacobsen,

    2014-04-01

    The critical curves of the q-state Potts model can be determined exactly for regular two-dimensional lattices G that are of the three-terminal type. This comprises the square, triangular, hexagonal and bow-tie lattices. Jacobsen and Scullard have defined a graph polynomial PB(q, v) that gives access to the critical manifold for general lattices. It depends on a finite repeating part of the lattice, called the basis B, and its real roots in the temperature variable v = eK - 1 provide increasingly accurate approximations to the critical manifolds upon increasing the size of B. Using transfer matrix techniques, these authors computed PB(q, v) for large bases (up to 243 edges), obtaining determinations of the ferromagnetic critical point vc > 0 for the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices to a precision (of the order 10-8) slightly superior to that of the best available Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we describe a more efficient transfer matrix approach to the computation of PB(q, v) that relies on a formulation within the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra. This makes possible computations for substantially larger bases (up to 882 edges), and the precision on vc is hence taken to the range 10-13. We further show that a large variety of regular lattices can be cast in a form suitable for this approach. This includes all Archimedean lattices, their duals and their medials. For all these lattices we tabulate high-precision estimates of the bond percolation thresholds pc and Potts critical points vc. We also trace and discuss the full Potts critical manifold in the (q, v) plane, paying special attention to the antiferromagnetic region v < 0. Finally, we adapt the technique to site percolation as well, and compute the polynomials PB(p) for certain Archimedean and dual lattices (those having only cubic and quartic vertices), using very large bases (up to 243 vertices). This produces the site percolation thresholds pc to a precision of the order of 10-9.

  9. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  10. High precision wavelength measurements of QED-sensitive forbidden transitions in highly charged argon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganić, I; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; DuBois, R; Fritzsche, S; Shabaev, V M; Orts, R Soria; Tupitsyn, I I; Zou, Y; Ullrich, J

    2003-10-31

    We present the results of an experimental study of magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged argon ions (Ar X, Ar XI, Ar XIV, Ar XV) in the visible spectral range using an electron beam ion trap. Their wavelengths were determined with, for highly charged ions, unprecedented accuracy up to the sub-ppm level and compared with theoretical calculations. The QED contributions, calculated in this Letter, are found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than the experimental error and are absolutely indispensable to bring theory and experiment to a good agreement. This method shows great potential for the study of QED effects in relativistic few-electron systems.

  11. A High Precision Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Flood Disaster Loss Based on Improved Genetic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuliang; LU Guihua; JIN Juliang; TONG Fang; ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    Precise comprehensive evaluation of flood disaster loss is significant for the prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Here, one of the difficulties involved is how to establish a model capable of describing the complex relation between the input and output data of the system of flood disaster loss. Genetic programming (GP) solves problems by using ideas from genetic algorithm and generates computer programs automatically. In this study a new method named the evaluation of the grade of flood disaster loss (EGFD) on the basis of improved genetic programming (IGP) is presented (IGPEGFD). The flood disaster area and the direct economic loss are taken as the evaluation indexes of flood disaster loss. Obviously that the larger the evaluation index value, the larger the corresponding value of the grade of flood disaster loss is. Consequently the IGP code is designed to make the value of the grade of flood disaster be an increasing function of the index value. The result of the application of the IGP-EGFD model to Henan Province shows that a good function expression can be obtained within a bigger searched function space; and the model is of high precision and considerable practical significance.Thus, IGP-EGFD can be widely used in automatic modeling and other evaluation systems.

  12. Development of high precision digital driver of acoustic-optical frequency shifter for ROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    We develop a high precision digital driver of the acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) based on the parallel direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology. We use an atomic clock as the phase-locked loop (PLL) reference clock, and the PLL is realized by a dual digital phase-locked loop. A DDS sampling clock up to 320 MHz with a frequency stability as low as 10-12 Hz is obtained. By constructing the RF signal measurement system, it is measured that the frequency output range of the AOFS-driver is 52-58 MHz, the center frequency of the band-pass filter is 55 MHz, the ripple in the band is less than 1 dB@3MHz, the single channel output power is up to 0.3 W, the frequency stability is 1 ppb (1 hour duration), and the frequency-shift precision is 0.1 Hz. The obtained frequency stability has two orders of improvement compared to that of the analog AOFS-drivers. For the designed binary frequency shift keying (2-FSK) and binary phase shift keying (2-PSK) modulation system, the demodulating frequency of the input TTL synchronous level signal is up to 10 kHz. The designed digital-bus coding/decoding system is compatible with many conventional digital bus protocols. It can interface with the ROG signal detecting software through the integrated drive electronics (IDE) and exchange data with the two DDS frequency-shift channels through the signal detecting software.

  13. Microsurgery robots: addressing the needs of high-precision surgical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G; Peretti, Giorgio; Mora, Francesco; Guastini, Luca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has a significant potential to enhance the overall capacity and efficiency of healthcare systems. Robots can help surgeons perform better quality operations, leading to reductions in the hospitalisation time of patients and in the impact of surgery on their postoperative quality of life. In particular, robotics can have a significant impact on microsurgery, which presents stringent requirements for superhuman precision and control of the surgical tools. Microsurgery is, in fact, expected to gain importance in a growing range of surgical specialties as novel technologies progressively enable the detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases at earlier stages. Within such scenarios, robotic microsurgery emerges as one of the key components of future surgical interventions, and will be a vital technology for addressing major surgical challenges. Nonetheless, several issues have yet to be overcome in terms of mechatronics, perception and surgeon-robot interfaces before microsurgical robots can achieve their full potential in operating rooms. Research in this direction is progressing quickly and microsurgery robot prototypes are gradually demonstrating significant clinical benefits in challenging applications such as reconstructive plastic surgery, ophthalmology, otology and laryngology. These are reassuring results offering confidence in a brighter future for high-precision surgical interventions.

  14. MEASURING HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively.

  15. High Precision CTE-Measurement of SiC-100 for Cryogenic Space-Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Enya, K; Onaka, T; Nakagawa, T; Kaneda, H; Hirabayashi, M; Toulemont, Y; Castel, D; Kanai, Y; Fujishiro, N

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of high precision measurements of the thermal expansion of the sintered SiC, SiC-100, intended for use in cryogenic space-telescopes, in which minimization of thermal deformation of the mirror is critical and precise information of the thermal expansion is needed for the telescope design. The temperature range of the measurements extends from room temperature down to $\\sim$ 10 K. Three samples, #1, #2, and #3 were manufactured from blocks of SiC produced in different lots. The thermal expansion of the samples was measured with a cryogenic dilatometer, consisting of a laser interferometer, a cryostat, and a mechanical cooler. The typical thermal expansion curve is presented using the 8th order polynomial of the temperature. For the three samples, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#1}$, $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#2}$, and $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#3}$ were derived for temperatures between 293 K and 10 K. The average and the dispersion (1 $\\sigma$ rms) of these three CTEs are 0.816 an...

  16. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. High-Precision Isotope Ratio Measurements of Sub-Picogram Actinide Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollington, A. D.; Kinman, W.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most exciting trends in analytical geochemistry over the past decade is the push towards smaller and smaller sample sizes while simultaneously achieving high precision isotope ratio measurements. This trend has been driven by advances in clean chemistry protocols, and by significant breakthroughs in mass spectrometer ionization efficiency and detector quality (stability and noise for low signals). In this presentation I will focus on new techniques currently being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the characterization of ultra-small samples (pg, fg, ag), with particular focus on actinide measurements by MC-ICP-MS. Analyses of U, Pu, Th and Am are routinely carried out in our facility using multi-ion counting techniques. I will describe some of the challenges associated with using exclusively ion counting methods (e.g., stability, detector cross calibration, etc.), and how we work to mitigate them. While the focus of much of the work currently being carried out is in the broad field of nuclear forensics and safeguards, the techniques that are being developed are directly applicable to many geologic questions that require analyses of small samples of U and Th, for example. In addition to the description of the technique development, I will present case studies demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the method as applied to real-world samples.

  18. High-precision satellite relative-trajectory simulating servosystem for inter-satellite laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Liren; Luan, Zhu; Liu, Hongzhan; Xu, Rongwei

    2004-10-01

    Because PAT (pointing-acquisition-tracking) parameters and integrated technical specifications of laser communication terminals for inter-satellite link must be pre-verified and assessed thoroughly on a ground-based test-bed before launched into the space, it is necessary to develop a system as a primary part of the test bed to simulate the relative trajectory between the satellites. In this paper, an original high-precision satellite relative-trajectory simulating servosystem is introduced in detail as well as its structures and characteristics. The system is used to simulate the motion of relative-trajectory between satellites in different orbits. The principle of the system is to import the data of two satellites" orbits into a computer-based control system in advance. After processed and analyzed, the data is transformed into the angular displacement of the servomotor which drives the gimbal directly. The angular displacement of the two axes of the gimbal can simulate precisely the relative-trajectory, namely elevation angle and azimuth angle of the two satellites in communication. A laser communication terminal mounted on the gimbal then performs the PAT mechanisms to evaluate the system"s capacity.

  19. Tracking Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Delivery by 19F MRI for Precise High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Hyun; Park, Eun-Joo; Min, Changki; Choi, Sun Il; Jeon, Soyeon; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Daehong

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCNEs) have recently been undergoing rigorous study to investigate their ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of tumor ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). For precise control of PFCNE delivery and thermal ablation, their accumulation and distribution in a tumor should be quantitatively analyzed. Here, we used fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively track PFCNE accumulation in a tumor, and analyzed how intra-tumoral PFCNE quantities affect the therapeutic efficacy of HIFU treatment. Ablation outcomes were assessed by intra-voxel incoherent motion analysis and bioluminescent imaging up to 14 days after the procedure. Assessment of PFCNE delivery and treatment outcomes showed that 2-3 mg/mL of PFCNE in a tumor produces the largest ablation volume under the same HIFU insonation conditions. Histology showed varying degrees of necrosis depending on the amount of PFCNE delivered. 19F MRI promises to be a valuable platform for precisely guiding PFCNE-enhanced HIFU ablation of tumors. PMID:28255351

  20. Development of a High-Precision Touch-Trigger Probe Using a Single Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To measure various components with nano-scale precision, a new high-precision touch-trigger probe using a single low-cost sensor for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM is presented in this paper. The sensor is composed of a laser diode, a plane mirror, a focusing lens, and a quadrant photo detector (QPD. The laser beam from the laser diode with an incident angle is reflected by the plane mirror and then projected onto the quadrant photo detector (QPD via the focusing lens. The plane mirror is adhered to the upper surface of the floating plate supported by an elastic mechanism, which can transfer the displacement of the stylus’s ball tip in 3D to the plane mirror’s vertical and tilt movement. Both motions of the plane mirror can be detected by respective QPDs. The probe mechanism was analyzed, and its structural parameters that conform to the principle of uniform sensitivity and uniform stiffness were obtained. The simulation result showed that the stiffness was equal in 3D and less than 1 mN/µm. Some experiments were performed to investigate the probe’s characteristics. It was found that the probe could detect the trigger point with uniform sensitivity, a resolution of less than 5 nm, and a repeatability of less than 4 nm. It can be used as a touch-trigger probe on a micro/nano-CMM.