Sample records for extremely high density

  1. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)


    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  2. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E


    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  3. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni


    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  4. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon


    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  5. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)


    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  6. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniyappan, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dromey, B [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Henig, A [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Horlein, R [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Kefer, D. [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Tajima, T [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Yan, X [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Habs, D [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN-UNIV MUNCHEN


    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  7. High-voltage microdischarge as a source of extreme density plasma (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.


    The generation of non-equilibrium (cold) plasmas with the densities ˜1019-1020 cm-3 in a fully ionized state has been reported in several recent experimental studies. In this work, we simulate a high-voltage high-pressure nanosecond xenon microdischarge that provides an easily accessible source of such a fully ionized cold plasma. In our studies, we use self-consistent one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. We observe that the generation of a fully ionized plasma can be driven by the secondary electron emission from the cathode. Initially, secondary electrons propagate through the collisional sheath and generate the plasma with a density ˜1018 cm-3. Such a dense plasma generated in the vicinity of the cathode sheath makes sheath collisionless, which allows the acceleration of secondary electrons to keV energies. These energetic electrons are responsible for the generation of fully ionized plasma. We also obtain that accounting for the electron field emission allows faster generation of fully ionized plasma, although the main physical mechanisms remain unchanged.

  8. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.


    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  9. Spectral density regression for bivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Castro Camilo, Daniela


    We introduce a density regression model for the spectral density of a bivariate extreme value distribution, that allows us to assess how extremal dependence can change over a covariate. Inference is performed through a double kernel estimator, which can be seen as an extension of the Nadaraya–Watson estimator where the usual scalar responses are replaced by mean constrained densities on the unit interval. Numerical experiments with the methods illustrate their resilience in a variety of contexts of practical interest. An extreme temperature dataset is used to illustrate our methods. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  10. Extremely scaled high-k/In₀.₅₃Ga₀.₄₇As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)


    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO₂ and ZrO₂ gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 μF/cm₂ at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm⁻²eV⁻¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO₂ and small quantities of In₂O₃, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  11. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U. (United States)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C


    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  12. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas


    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  13. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Quark-gluon plasma; relativistic heavy ion physics; relativistic heavy ion collider ... matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already ...

  14. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.


    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  15. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 7, 2015 ... Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much ...

  16. An Extreme Learning Machine Approach to Density Estimation Problems. (United States)

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo


    In this paper, we discuss how the extreme learning machine (ELM) framework can be effectively employed in the unsupervised context of multivariate density estimation. In particular, two algorithms are introduced, one for the estimation of the cumulative distribution function underlying the observed data, and one for the estimation of the probability density function. The algorithms rely on the concept of F -discrepancy, which is closely related to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion for goodness of fit. Both methods retain the key feature of the ELM of providing the solution through random assignment of the hidden feature map and a very light computational burden. A theoretical analysis is provided, discussing convergence under proper hypotheses on the chosen activation functions. Simulation tests show how ELMs can be successfully employed in the density estimation framework, as a possible alternative to other standard methods.

  17. Extreme Precipitation Frequency Analysis Using a Minimum Density Power Divergence Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwon Seo


    Full Text Available The recently observed hydrologic extremes are unlike what has been experienced so far. Both the magnitude and frequency of extremes are important indicators that determine the flood safety design criteria. Therefore, how are design criteria updated faced with these extremes? Both a sudden increase of design rainfall by the inclusion of these extremes and complete ignorance are inappropriate. In this study, the changes in extremes were examined and an alternative way to estimate the design rainfall amounts was developed using the data from 60 stations in South Korea. The minimum density power divergence estimator (MDPDE with the optimal value of a tuning parameter, α, was suggested as an alternative estimator instead of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE; its performance was evaluated using the Gumbel (GUM and the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution. The results revealed an increase in both the frequency and magnitude of extreme events over the last two decades, which imply that the extremes are already occurring. The performance of the MDPDE was evaluated. The results revealed decreased and adjusted values of the design rainfall compared to MLE. On the other hand, the MDPDE of the GEV distribution with a positive shape parameter, ξ, does not show its advantage conditionally because the GEV distribution has a heavier right tail than the GUM distribution (ξ = 0. In contrast, the results showed the high sensitivity of the MLE to the extremes compared to MDPDE.

  18. High Energy Density Capacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  19. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V


    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  20. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.


    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  1. Models for Experimental High Density Housing (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia


    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  2. High energy density aluminum battery (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan


    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  3. Extremal Density Matrices for the Expectation Value of a Qudit Hamiltonian (United States)

    Castaños, O.; Figueroa, A.; López, J.; López-Peña, R.


    An algebraic procedure to find extremal density matrices for the expectation value of a finite Hamiltonian matrix is established. The extremal density matrices for pure states provide a complete description of the system, that is, its corresponding energy spectrum and projectors. For density matrices representing mixed states, one gets the most probable eigenstates that yield extremal mean values of the energy. The procedure uses mainly the stationary solutions of the von Neumann equation of motion, the orbits of the Hamiltonian, and the positivity conditions of the density matrix. The method is illustrated for matrix Hamiltonians of dimensions d = 2 and d = 3.


    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  5. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan


    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  6. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa


    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  7. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.


    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  8. Securing the Extremely Low-Densities of Low-Mass Planets Characterized by Transit Timing Variations (United States)

    Ford, Eric B.


    Transit timing variations (TTVs) provide an excellent tool to characterize the masses and orbits of dozens of small planets, including many at orbital periods beyond the reach of both Doppler surveys and photoevaporation-induced atmospheric loss. Dynamical modeling of these systems has identified low-mass planets with surprisingly large radii and low densities (e.g., Kepler-79d, Jontof-Hutter et al. 2014; Kepler-51, Masuda 2014; Kepler-87c, Ofir et al. 2014). Additional low-density, low-mass planets will likely become public before ESS III (Jontof-Hutter et al. in prep). Collectively, these results suggest that very low density planets with masses of 2-6 MEarth are not uncommon in compact multiple planet systems. Some astronomers have questioned whether there could be an alternative interpretation of the TTV observations. Indeed, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. While the physics of TTVs is rock solid, the statistical analysis of Kepler observations can be challenging, due to the complex interactions between model parameters and high-dimensional parameter spaces that must be explored. We summarize recent advances in computational statistics that enable robust characterization of planetary systems using TTVs. We present updated analyses of a few particularly interesting systems and discuss the implications for the robustness of extremely low densities for low-mass planets. Such planets pose an interesting challenge for planet formation theory and are motivating detailed theoretical studies (e.g., Lee & Chiang 2015 and associated ESS III abstracts).

  9. The Atmosphere of an Extremely Low Density Super-Earth Mass Planet (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel


    Kepler-79 d provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a low-mass low density planet among compact multi-transiting systems. It has the largest estimated atmospheric scale-height for a planet in a known compact system of four or more transiting exoplanets and has the highest expected atmospheric annulus depth for any exoplanet unobserved by HST. Its extremely low density, and its low mass places it among a small number of exoplanets that challenge atmospheric mass loss models. Other planets of similarly low density are likely young in age and may still be cooling and constracting. With an age of 3.4 Gyr, however, Kepler-79 d is unlikely to be contracting and is the best candidate for atmospheric retrieval among low density planets in compact formation. Whether such compact multi-transiting systems formed in situ or beyond the snow-line before migrating to within 1AU is the subject of a high profile debate in planet formation theory, motivating the search for atmospheric water. Kepler-79 d occupies a unique space in temperature, surface gravity and stellar type which will provide an important constraint on the formation of clouds and hazes, although a cloud-free atmosphere is expected for a wide range of compositions.

  10. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa


    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  11. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Evans, David A.


    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  12. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal


    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  13. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove


    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  14. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  15. High Energy Density Capacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  16. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.


    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  17. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  18. Study of Volumetrically Heated Ultra-High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, Jorge J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Heating dense matter to millions of degrees is important for applications, but requires complex and expensive methods. The major goal of the project was to demonstrate using a compact laser the creation of a new ultra-high energy density plasma regime characterized by simultaneous extremely high temperature and high density, and to study it combining experimental measurements and advanced simulations. We have demonstrated that trapping of intense femtosecond laser pulses deep within ordered nanowire arrays can heat near solid density matter into a new ultra hot plasma regime. Extreme electron densities, and temperatures of several tens of million degrees were achieved using laser pulses of only 0.5 J energy from a compact laser. Our x-ray spectra and simulations showed that extremely highly ionized plasma volumes several micrometers in depth are generated by irradiation of gold and Nickel nanowire arrays with femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities. We obtained extraordinarily high degrees of ionization (e.g. we peeled 52 electrons from gold atoms, and up to 26 electrons from nickel atoms). In the process we generated Gigabar pressures only exceeded in the central hot spot of highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas.. The plasma created after the dissolved wires expand, collide, and thermalize, is computed to have a thermal energy density of 0.3 GJ cm-3 and a pressure of 1-2 Gigabar. These are pressures only exceeded in highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Scaling these results to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures exceeding those in the center of the sun.

  19. Probing Extreme-density Matter with Gravitational-wave Observations of Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, David [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences, University of Parma, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Pozzo, Walter Del [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Pisa I-56127 (Italy); Roberts, Luke F. [NSCL/FRIB and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 640 S Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.

  20. Irradiation test of high density Si material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Lee, Chul Yong; Yang, Seong Woo; Shim, Kyue Taek; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The feasibility of irradiation test for the high-density Si material entrusted by Guju Inc. was reviewed. The high density Si material is used for a sealing of the penetration holes of piping at the nuclear power plants. The irradiation test was performed and the density changes between before and after irradiation test were measured. The irradiation tests were performed 2 times for 1 day and 20 days at IP 4 hole of HANARO. The 3 Si specimens irradiated were without flaws and the density changes after irradiation were successfully measured. The result satisfies the requirement of the design specification.

  1. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant


    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  2. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming


    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points....... First, rather than unions settling for a semi-automatic response to membership decline, the ‘organising model’ was actively imported as a strategic tool for challenging alternative responses to membership decline. Second, the organising model was actively translated into a Danish context and most unions...... cherry-pick some elements while leaving fundamental aspects out. The study nevertheless indicates that a lack of coherency and model-fit to Danish industrial relations might hamper the positive effects of the organising strategy....

  3. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  4. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  5. The high density Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, G.H.


    During the past few years techniques have been developed for producing pinches in solid deuterium. The conditions which exist in these plasmas are quiet different from those produced earlier. The pinch is formed from a fiber of solid deuterium rather than from a low density gas, and the current is driven by a low impedance, high voltage pulse generator. Because of the high initial density, it is not necessary to compress the pinch to reach thermonuclear conditions, and the confinement time required for energy production is much shorter than for a gas. The experimental results, which have been verified by experiments performed at higher current were quite surprising and encouraging. The pinch appeared to be stable for a time much longer than the Alfven radial transit time. In this paper, however, I argue that the pinch is not strictly stable, but it does not appear to disassemble in a catastrophic fashion. It appears that there may be a distinction between stability and confinement in the high density pinch. In the discussion below I will present the status of the high density Z-pinch experiments at laboratories around the world, and I will describe some of the calculational and experimental results. I will confine my remarks to recent work on the high density pinch. 17 refs. 10 figs.

  6. Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sicard-Piet


    Full Text Available Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.

  7. Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis (United States)

    Sicard-Piet, A.; Boscher, D.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Maget, V.


    Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.

  8. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon (United States)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team


    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  9. Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João


    In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... of the magnetization is derived by first considering and solving the Dirac equation of a fermion in interaction with a magnetic field and with a chiral sigma-pion pair. The solution provides the energies of single-particle states. The energy of the system is found by summing up contributions from all particles...

  10. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) (United States)


    resistant communications for high priority military ground, sea, and air assets. The system consists of four satellites in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit that...submarine terminals, and airborne terminals. The mission control segment controls satellites on orbit , monitors satellite health, and provides...Schriever Air Force Base (AFB). Due to the proprietary nature of the AEHF Space Satellite (on- orbit ) Segment, this segment is not considered core and the

  11. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  12. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca


    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, ...

  13. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.


    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  15. Scoping study. High density polyethylene (HDPE) in salstone service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    An evaluation of the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes in Saltstone service has been conducted due to the potential benefits that could be derived from such usage. HDPE is one of the simplest hydrocarbon polymers and one of the most common polymers utilized in the production of geomembranes, which means that its costs are relatively low. Additionally, HDPE geomembranes have an extremely low permeability and an extremely low water vapor diffusional flux, which means that it is a good barrier to contaminant transport. The primary consideration in association with HDPE geomembranes in Saltstone service is the potential impact of Saltstone on the degradation of the HDPE geomembranes. Therefore, the evaluation documented herein has primarily focused upon the potential HDPE degradation in Saltstone service.

  16. Density functional theory (DFT) studies of hydrogen rich solids and boron carbide under extreme conditions (United States)

    Shamp, Andrew James

    Since the first prediction that compressed hydrogen would metallize in 1935 and the further prediction that the metallic allotrope would be a superconductor at high temperatures, metallic hydrogen has been termed the "holy grail" of high-pressure science. A tremendous amount of theoretical and experimental research has been carried out, with the ultimate goal of metallizing hydrogen via the application of external pressure. It has been previously proposed that doping hydrogen with another element can lower the pressure at which metallization occurs. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have investigated doping hydrogen by either a group XIII or XIV element. Experiments in diamond anvil cells have illustrated that it is indeed possible to synthesize hydrogen-rich phases under conditions of extreme pressures, and SiH4 (H2)2, GeH4(H2) n, and Xe(H2)n have been shown to behave as true compounds. The focus herein is on the theoretical exploration of hydrogen-rich phases with novel stoichiometries, which contain a dopant element up to pressures of 350 GPa. In particular, the alkali-metal and alkaline Earth metal polyhydrides (MHn where n > 1) have been considered. Within this thesis the XtalOpt evolutionary algorithm was employed in order to complete this work, and predict the most stable structures of cesium and beryllium polyhydrides under pressure. In addition, we explore the possibility of mixing excess hydrogen with an electronegative element, iodine and phosphorus. The phases found are examined via detailed first principles calculations. In addition, because of its outstanding hardness, thermodynamic stability, low density, electronic properties, thermal stability, and high melting point boron carbide has many uses: i.e. as a refractory material, in abrasive powders and ballistics, as a neutron radiation absorbent, and in electronic applications. However, little is known about the behavior of boron carbide when under the external stress of pressure. The

  17. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat


    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  18. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian


    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  19. Force Field Accelerated Density Functional Theory Molecular Dynamics for Simulation of Reactive Systems at Extreme Conditions (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca; Goldman, Nir; Fried, Laurence


    Atomistic modeling of chemistry at extreme conditions remains a challenge, despite continuing advances in computing resources and simulation tools. While first principles methods provide a powerful predictive tool, the time and length scales associated with chemistry at extreme conditions (ns and μm, respectively) largely preclude extension of such models to molecular dynamics. In this work, we develop a simulation approach that retains the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT) while decreasing computational effort by several orders of magnitude. We generate n-body descriptions for atomic interactions by mapping forces arising from short density functional theory (DFT) trajectories on to simple Chebyshev polynomial series. We examine the importance of including greater than 2-body interactions, model transferability to different state points, and discuss approaches to ensure smooth and reasonable model shape outside of the distance domain sampled by the DFT training set. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying Among High School Students. (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C; Zamboanga, Byron L; Haas, Amie L; Kenney, Shannon R; Ham, Lindsay S; Borsari, Brian

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme consumption games (e.g., Chugging) with those who do not. High school students (N=182) reporting current drinking games participation completed anonymous surveys. Gamers who prepartied frequently (vs. those who did not) were approximately 1.5 times more likely to play extreme consumption games, even after controlling for demographics, typical consumption, and participation in other types of drinking games. Practitioners should target adolescents who participate in extreme consumption games, particularly those who participate in this high-risk activity as a form of prepartying.

  1. High Power Density and High Temperature Converter Design for Transportation Applications


    Wang, Ruxi


    The continual development of high-power-density power electronic converters is driven particularly by modern transportation applications like electrical vehicles and more electric aircraft where the space and carrier capability is limited. However, there are several challenges related to transportation applications such as fault tolerance for safety concern, high temperature operation in extreme environments and more strict electromagnetic compatibility requirement. These challenges will incr...

  2. Numerical implementation of time-dependent density functional theory for extended systems in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.


    In recent years, DFT-MD has been shown to be a useful computational tool for exploring the properties of WDM. These calculations achieve excellent agreement with shock compression experiments, which probe the thermodynamic parameters of the Hugoniot state. New X-ray Thomson Scattering diagnostics promise to deliver independent measurements of electronic density and temperature, as well as structural information in shocked systems. However, they require the development of new levels of theory for computing the associated observables within a DFT framework. The experimentally observable x-ray scattering cross section is related to the electronic density-density response function, which is obtainable using TDDFT - a formally exact extension of conventional DFT that describes electron dynamics and excited states. In order to develop a capability for modeling XRTS data and, more generally, to establish a predictive capability for rst principles simulations of matter in extreme conditions, real-time TDDFT with Ehrenfest dynamics has been implemented in an existing PAW code for DFT-MD calculations. The purpose of this report is to record implementation details and benchmarks as the project advances from software development to delivering novel scienti c results. Results range from tests that establish the accuracy, e ciency, and scalability of our implementation, to calculations that are veri ed against accepted results in the literature. Aside from the primary XRTS goal, we identify other more general areas where this new capability will be useful, including stopping power calculations and electron-ion equilibration.

  3. High density scintillating glass proton imaging detector (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. J.; Goranson, K.; Turney, A.; Xie, Q.; Tillman, I. J.; Thune, Z. L.; Dong, A.; Pritchett, D.; McInally, W.; Potter, A.; Wang, D.; Akgun, U.


    In recent years, proton therapy has achieved remarkable precision in delivering doses to cancerous cells while avoiding healthy tissue. However, in order to utilize this high precision treatment, greater accuracy in patient positioning is needed. An accepted approximate uncertainty of +/-3% exists in the current practice of proton therapy due to conversions between x-ray and proton stopping power. The use of protons in imaging would eliminate this source of error and lessen the radiation exposure of the patient. To this end, this study focuses on developing a novel proton-imaging detector built with high-density glass scintillator. The model described herein contains a compact homogeneous proton calorimeter composed of scintillating, high density glass as the active medium. The unique geometry of this detector allows for the measurement of both the position and residual energy of protons, eliminating the need for a separate set of position trackers in the system. Average position and energy of a pencil beam of 106 protons is used to reconstruct the image rather than by analyzing individual proton data. Simplicity and efficiency were major objectives in this model in order to present an imaging technique that is compact, cost-effective, and precise, as well as practical for a clinical setting with pencil-beam scanning proton therapy equipment. In this work, the development of novel high-density glass scintillator and the unique conceptual design of the imager are discussed; a proof-of-principle Monte Carlo simulation study is performed; preliminary two-dimensional images reconstructed from the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  4. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes (United States)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.


    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  5. Extreme Events: low and high total ozone over Arosa, Switzerland (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.; Peter, T.; Davison, A. C.


    The frequency distribution of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone is analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al.,1998a,b), with new tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007). A heavy-tail focused approach is used through the fitting of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the Arosa time series. Asymptotic arguments (Pickands, 1975) justify the use of the GPD for modeling exceedances over a high (or below a low) enough threshold (Coles, 2001). The analysis shows that the GPD is appropriate for modeling the frequency distribution in total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold. While previous studies focused on so termed ozone mini-holes and mini-highs (e.g. Bojkov and Balis, 2001, Koch et al., 2005), this study is the first to present a mathematical description of extreme events in low and high total ozone for a northern mid-latitudes site (Rieder et al., 2009). The results show (a) an increase in days with extreme low (ELOs) and (b) a decrease in days with extreme high total ozone (EHOs) during the last decades, (c) that the general trend in total ozone is strongly determined by these extreme events and (d) that fitting the GPD is an appropriate method for the estimation of the frequency distribution of so-called ozone mini-holes. Furthermore, this concept allows one to separate the effect of Arctic ozone depletion from that of in situ mid-latitude ozone loss. As shown by this study, ELOs and EHOs have a strong influence on mean values in total ozone and the "extremes concept" could be further used also for validation of Chemistry-Climate-Models (CCMs) within the scientific community. References: Bojkov, R. D., and Balis, D.S.: Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1975-2000, Ann. Geophys., 19, 797-807, 2001. Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of

  6. Genome-wide association study using extreme truncate selection identifies novel genes affecting bone mineral density and fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Duncan


    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS of BMD to date. We report here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age (postmenopausal women, age 55-85 years, with either extreme high or low hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0, n = 1055, or -4.0 to -1.5, n = 900, with replication in cohorts of women drawn from the general population (n = 20,898. The study replicates 21 of 26 known BMD-associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD, this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for quantitative trait association studies.

  7. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya


    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  8. High density circuit technology, part 1 (United States)

    Wade, T. E.

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  9. Beyond the local density approximation : improving density functional theory for high energy density physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Modine, Normand Arthur; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Muller, Richard Partain; Sears, Mark P.; Wright, Alan Francis


    A finite temperature version of 'exact-exchange' density functional theory (EXX) has been implemented in Sandia's Socorro code. The method uses the optimized effective potential (OEP) formalism and an efficient gradient-based iterative minimization of the energy. The derivation of the gradient is based on the density matrix, simplifying the extension to finite temperatures. A stand-alone all-electron exact-exchange capability has been developed for testing exact exchange and compatible correlation functionals on small systems. Calculations of eigenvalues for the helium atom, beryllium atom, and the hydrogen molecule are reported, showing excellent agreement with highly converged quantumMonte Carlo calculations. Several approaches to the generation of pseudopotentials for use in EXX calculations have been examined and are discussed. The difficult problem of finding a correlation functional compatible with EXX has been studied and some initial findings are reported.

  10. Some novel phenomena at high density (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan Scott

    Astrophysical environments probe matter in ways impossible on Earth. In particular, matter in compact objects are extraordinarily dense. In this thesis we discuss two phenomena that may occur at high density. First, we study toroidal topological solitons called vortons, which can occur in the kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked phase of high-density quark matter, a candidate phase for the core of some neutron stars. We show that vortons have a large radius compared to their thickness if their electrical charge is on the order of 104 times the fundamental charge. We show that shielding of electric fields by electrons dramatically reduces the size of a vorton. Second, we study an unusual phase of degenerate electrons and nonrelativistic Bose-condensed helium nuclei that may exist in helium white dwarfs. We show that this phase supports a previously-unknown gapless mode, known as the half-sound, that radically alters the material's specific heat, and can annihilate into neutrinos. We provide evidence that this neutrino radiation is negligible compared to the star's surface photoemission.

  11. High density lipoproteins, 1978 -- an overview. (United States)

    Levy, R I


    High density lipoproteins (HDL) have come of age. For years it has been fashionable to study HDL as an approach to understanding lipoprotein structure and lipid binding. Available in abundant amounts from normal human plasma, readily separable into its individual lipid and soluble apolipoprotein components, HDL has provided much information for lipoprotein model building. Suddenly it has been thrust center stage clinically by a host of convincing epidemiologic studies that clearly establishes an inverse relationship between HDL levels and coronary vascular events. Biochemists, clinicians, cardiologists and epidemiologists are simultaneously focusing attention on HDL. Familial High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency (Tangier Disease) has been well described but is poorly understood as a clinical syndrome complex. We have suddenly become aware of how little we understand about HDL's normal ultracentrifugal and apoprotein heterogeneity, about its functional role(s) or the determinant(s) of its concentration in plasma. The relative contributions of the two sites of HDL origin, the liver and intestine, are yet to be determined as are the site(s) of degradation. Awareness of a problem and its importance is the first step toward the solution(s) of the problem.

  12. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.


    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  13. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa


    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  14. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave


    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  15. The effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on heart tissue iron density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Nergiz


    Full Text Available The aim of this histological study was to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency, low intensity magnetic field on the heart muscle ıron density.Materials and methods: In this study, 45 male Spraque Dawley rats were introduced and were divided into three groups as sham, control and experiment group. The experimental group was exposed to a 0.25 mT to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field (ELF-MF for 14 days, 3h a day in metacrylate boxes. The sham group was treated like the experimental group, except for ELF-MF exposure. For control, nothing applied to rats in this group and they completed their life cycle in the cage during the study period. After exposure period, the rats were sacrificed under ketalar anesthesia (50 mg / kg, intramuscularly. Heart tissues were immediately fixed in 10% neutral formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections from cardiac tissue stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Perls’ Prussian blue for iron pigments. Histological slides were photographed under a Nikon DS-2MV photomicroscope.Results: The architecture and histology of the control, sham and experimental group were observed as normal. No differences were observed between the control, sham and experimental rat groups in the iron stain of heart tissues.Conclusion: As a result of our study, we did not observe differences between the control and ELF-MF (experimental group. In this investigation we demonstrated that the exposure of cardiac tissue of rats to the ELF-MF did not change in the iron stain study. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:144-8

  16. Extremal-point density of scaling processes: From fractional Brownian motion to turbulence in one dimension (United States)

    Huang, Yongxiang; Wang, Lipo; Schmitt, F. G.; Zheng, Xiaobo; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yulu


    In recent years several local extrema-based methodologies have been proposed to investigate either the nonlinear or the nonstationary time series for scaling analysis. In the present work, we study systematically the distribution of the local extrema for both synthesized scaling processes and turbulent velocity data from experiments. The results show that for the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) without intermittency correction the measured extremal-point-density (EPD) agrees well with a theoretical prediction. For a multifractal random walk (MRW) with the lognormal statistics, the measured EPD is independent of the intermittency parameter μ , suggesting that the intermittency correction does not change the distribution of extremal points but changes the amplitude. By introducing a coarse-grained operator, the power-law behavior of these scaling processes is then revealed via the measured EPD for different scales. For fBm the scaling exponent ξ (H ) is found to be ξ (H )=H , where H is Hurst number, while for MRW ξ (μ ) shows a linear relation with the intermittency parameter μ . Such EPD approach is further applied to the turbulent velocity data obtained from a wind tunnel flow experiment with the Taylor scale λ -based Reynolds number Reλ=720 , and a turbulent boundary layer with the momentum thickness θ based Reynolds number Reθ=810 . A scaling exponent ξ ≃0.37 is retrieved for the former case. For the latter one, the measured EPD shows clearly four regimes, which agrees well with the corresponding sublayer structures inside the turbulent boundary layer.

  17. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)


    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  18. A High Density ECRH Plasma Source (United States)

    Simon, M.; Rosenthal, G.; Kidd, P.; Wuerker, R.; Wong, A. Y.; Siciliano, E. R.


    An ECRH plasma source has been constructed within a 10 kG solenoid, using a 10 kW (max) of CW 10.6 GHz klystron amplifier. Vacuum base pressures are on the order of 10-7 torr. One kW of CW ECRH microwave power is sufficient to create a high density (10^12 cm-3) fully ionized pure calcium metal plasma, the maximum theoretically possible at 10.6 GHz. The electron temperature is around 10 eV. Neutral Ca is evaporated through the ECRH resonance zone from a thermal oven. Only ions (not neutrals) trapped by the field enter the main chamber, resulting in a fully ionized plasma. The source is useful for generating fully ionized pure plasmas from low melting point materinals. Work Supported by NSF PHY-94-21693

  19. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad


    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  20. Extremely High Thermal Conductivity of Graphene: Experimental Study


    Balandin, A. A.; Ghosh, S.; Bao, W.; Calizo, I.; Teweldebrhan, D.; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.


    We report on the first measurement of the thermal conductivity of a suspended single layer graphene. The measurements were performed using a non-contact optical technique. The near room-temperature values of the thermal conductivity in the range ~ 4840 to 5300 W/mK were extracted for a single-layer graphene. The extremely high value of the thermal conductivity suggests that graphene can outperform carbon nanotubes in heat conduction.

  1. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang


    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  2. A Topside Equatorial Ionospheric Density and Composition Climatology During and After Extreme Solar Minimum (United States)

    Klenzing, J. H.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Heelis, R. A.; Bilitza, D.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.


    During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age. This extremely low solar activity has accompanied a number of unexpected observations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere when compared to previous solar minima. Among these are the fact that the ionosphere is significantly contracted beyond expectations based on empirical models. Climatological altitude profiles of ion density and composition measurements near the magnetic dip equator are constructed from the C/NOFS satellite to characterize the shape of the top side ionosphere during the recent solar minimum and into the new solar cycle. The variation of the profiles with respect to local time, season, and solar activity are compared to the IRI-2007 model. Building on initial results reported by Heelis et al. [2009], here we describe the extent of the contracted ionosphere, which is found to persist throughout 2009. The shape of the ionosphere during 2010 is found to be consistent with observations from previous solar minima.

  3. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High energy ion acceleration...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 3/15/2017 1 HIGH ENERGY ION ACCELERATION BY

  4. High northern latitude temperature extremes, 1400-1999 (United States)

    Tingley, M. P.; Huybers, P.; Hughen, K. A.


    There is often an interest in determining which interval features the most extreme value of a reconstructed climate field, such as the warmest year or decade in a temperature reconstruction. Previous approaches to this type of question have not fully accounted for the spatial and temporal covariance in the climate field when assessing the significance of extreme values. Here we present results from applying BARSAT, a new, Bayesian approach to reconstructing climate fields, to a 600 year multiproxy temperature data set that covers land areas between 45N and 85N. The end result of the analysis is an ensemble of spatially and temporally complete realizations of the temperature field, each of which is consistent with the observations and the estimated values of the parameters that define the assumed spatial and temporal covariance functions. In terms of the spatial average temperature, 1990-1999 was the warmest decade in the 1400-1999 interval in each of 2000 ensemble members, while 1995 was the warmest year in 98% of the ensemble members. A similar analysis at each node of a regular 5 degree grid gives insight into the spatial distribution of warm temperatures, and reveals that 1995 was anomalously warm in Eurasia, whereas 1998 featured extreme warmth in North America. In 70% of the ensemble members, 1601 featured the coldest spatial average, indicating that the eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru in 1600 (with a volcanic explosivity index of 6) had a major cooling impact on the high northern latitudes. Repeating this analysis at each node reveals the varying impacts of major volcanic eruptions on the distribution of extreme cooling. Finally, we use the ensemble to investigate extremes in the time evolution of centennial temperature trends, and find that in more than half the ensemble members, the greatest rate of change in the spatial mean time series was a cooling centered at 1600. The largest rate of centennial scale warming, however, occurred in the 20th Century in

  5. Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons. (United States)

    Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen


    The possible phases and the nanoscale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma, is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature Tc ≈ 4.8 K, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting condensed dark ground state.

  6. High-power extreme ultraviolet source based on gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.; Krenz, K.


    The authors report on the development of a high power laser plasma Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) source for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. The source is based on the plasma emission of a recycled jet beam of large Xe clusters and produces no particulate debris. The source will be driven by a pulsed laser delivering 1,500 W of focused average power to the cluster jet target. To develop condensers and to optimize source performance, a low power laboratory cluster jet prototype has been used to study the spectroscopy, angular distributions, and EUV source images of the cluster jet plasma emission. In addition, methods to improve the reflectance lifetimes of nearby plasma facing condenser mirrors have been developed. The resulting source yields EUV conversion efficiencies up to 3.8% and mirror lifetimes of 10{sup 9} plasma pulses.

  7. Estimation of Extreme Response and Failure Probability of Wind Turbines under Normal Operation using Probability Density Evolution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Liu, W. F.


    Estimation of extreme response and failure probability of structures subjected to ultimate design loads is essential for structural design of wind turbines according to the new standard IEC61400-1. This task is focused on in the present paper in virtue of probability density evolution method (PDEM...

  8. Extremely high-speed imaging based on tubeless technology (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen


    This contribution focuses on the tubeless imaging, the extreme-high speed imaging. A detail discussion is presented on how and why to make them, which would be the most important in the high speed imaging field in the future. Tubeless extreme-high speed imaging can not only be used to observe the transient processes like collision, detonating, and high voltage discharge, but also to research the processes like disintegration and transfer of phonon and exacton in solid, photosynthesis primitive reaction, and electron dynamics inside atom shell. Its imaging frequency is about 107~1015fps. For this kind of imaging, the mechanism of how forming both high speed and framing would better make fine use of the light speed, the light parallelism, the parameters of light wave such as its amplitude, phase, polarization and wave length, and even quantum characteristics of photons. In the cascade connection system of electromagnetic wave and particle wave, it is able to simultaneously realize high level both the temporal resolution and the spatial resolution, and it would be possible to break through the limit of the Heisenberg uncertainty correlation of the optical frequency band.

  9. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.


    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  10. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  11. High-density electroencephalography developmental neurophysiological trajectories. (United States)

    Dan, Bernard; Pelc, Karine; Cebolla, Ana M; Cheron, Guy


    Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connectivity at the level of fibre tract systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a complementary approach with more direct access to brain electrical activity. Its temporal resolution is excellent, and its spatial resolution can be enhanced to physiologically relevant levels, through the combination of high-density recordings (e.g. by using 64 channels in newborn infants) and mathematical models (e.g. inverse modelling computation), to identify generators of different oscillation bands and synchrony patterns. The integration of functional and structural topography of the neonatal brain provides insights into typical brain organization, and the deviations seen in particular contexts, for example the effect of hypoxic-ischaemic insult in terms of damage, eventual reorganization, and functional changes. Endophenotypes can then be used for pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurements, and allow a longitudinal approach to individual developmental trajectories. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Effect of high-energy neutral particles on extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy in large helical device. (United States)

    Dong, Chunfeng; Morita, Shigeru; Tokitani, Masayuki; Goto, Motoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Wang, Erhui; Zushi, Hideki


    Spectra measured by an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer frequently suffer large spike noise when Large Helical Device is operated in low-density range (≤ 3 × 10(13) cm(-3)) with neutral beam injection (NBI). The spike noise completely disappears in electron cyclotron heating discharges. In order to examine the effect of NBI, a carbon filter with thickness of 150 nm was installed in the EUV spectrometer. As a result, the spike noise was reduced by an order of magnitude. It is experimentally verified that the spike noise is caused by escaping high-energy neutral particles resulting from the circulating high-energy hydrogen ions borne from NBI.

  13. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng


    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  14. Bacterial survival responses to extreme desiccation and high humidity (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    The presence of water is thought to be essential for life and strongly considered in life searching operation on extraterrestrial planets. In this study we show different survival responses of bacterial species to water availability and temperatures (25, 4 and - 70 o C). At these temperatures, E.coli lost viability much faster under extreme desiccation than under high humidity. Deinococcus radiodurans exhibited much higher survival rate under desiccation than under high humidity at 25 o C, while its survivals under desiccation and high humidity increased to the same level at 4 and - 70 o C. Bacillus pumilus spores generally survived well under all tested conditions. Water is favorable for the survival of most microorganisms but not a "safeguard" for all microorganisms. Microbial survival at low temperatures may not be affected by water availability. Water absence should not preclude us from seeking life on other planets.

  15. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.


    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  16. Structure and Dynamics of Low-Density and High-Density Liquid Water at High Pressure. (United States)

    Fanetti, Samuele; Lapini, Andrea; Pagliai, Marco; Citroni, Margherita; Di Donato, Mariangela; Scandolo, Sandro; Righini, Roberto; Bini, Roberto


    Liquid water has a primary role in ruling life on Earth in a wide temperature and pressure range as well as a plethora of chemical, physical, geological, and environmental processes. Nevertheless, a full understanding of its dynamical and structural properties is still lacking. Water molecules are associated through hydrogen bonds, with the resulting extended network characterized by a local tetrahedral arrangement. Two different local structures of the liquid, called low-density (LDW) and high-density (HDW) water, have been identified to potentially affect many different chemical, biological, and physical processes. By combining diamond anvil cell technology, ultrafast pump-probe infrared spectroscopy, and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the liquid structure and orientational dynamics are intimately connected, identifying the P-T range of the LDW and HDW regimes. The latter are defined in terms of the speeding up of the orientational dynamics, caused by the increasing probability of breaking and reforming the hydrogen bonds.

  17. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon


    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  18. Ultra-high cell-density silicon photomultipliers with high detection efficiency (United States)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Regazzoni, Veronica; Paternoster, Giovanni; Borghi, Giacomo; Piemonte, Claudio; Zorzi, Nicola


    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are arrays of many single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), all connected in parallel. Each SPAD is sensitive to single photons and the SiPM gives an output proportional to the number of detected photons. These sensors are becoming more and more popular in different applications, from high-energy physics to spectroscopy, and they have been significantly improved over last years, decreasing the noise, increasing the cell fill-factor (FF) and thus achieving very high photon-detection efficiency (PDE). In FBK (Trento, Italy), we developed new SiPM technologies with high-density (HD) and, more recently, ultra-high-density (UHD) of cells (i.e. density of SPADs). These technologies employ deep-trenches between cells, for electrical and optical isolation. As an extreme case the smallest-cell, SiPM, i.e. with 5μm cell pitch, has about 40000 SPADs per squared millimeter. Such small SPAD dimensions gives a significantly high dynamic range to the SiPM. These small-cells SiPM have a lower correlated noise (including lower afterpulsing probability) and a faster recharge time (in the order of few nanoseconds), and they also preserve a very good detection efficiency (despite the small SPAD dimension).

  19. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H


    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  20. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  1. Parton Distributions in High Density Nuclear Matter (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak


    We investigate the modification of parton distributions in the nuclear medium in the density domain defined by short range multi-nucleon correlations(SRC). Special emphasis is given on the implication of the recently found dominance of proton-neutron SRCs on generation of flavor dependence in the modification of nuclear partonic distributions. Such a flavor dependence can have measurable impact on parity violating lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering and can explain the origin of NuTeV anomaly. The research is supported by US Department of Energy.

  2. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.


    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  3. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W


    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  4. Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts. (United States)

    Rahbar, Kareem; Gubern-Merida, Albert; Patrie, James T; Harvey, Jennifer A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived measurements. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study was performed to calculate percent breast density (PBD) by quantifying fibroglandular volume and total breast volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation and mammograms using two commercially available software programs (Volpara and Quantra). Consecutive screening MRI exams from a 6-month period with negative or benign findings were used. The most recent mammogram within 9 months was used to derive mean density values from "for processing" images at the per breast level. Bland-Altman statistical analyses were performed to determine the mean discrepancy and the limits of agreement. A total of 110 women with 220 breasts met the study criteria. Overall, PBD was not different between MRI (mean 10%, range 1%-41%) and Volpara (mean 10%, range 3%-29%); a small but significant difference was present in the discrepancy between MRI and Quantra (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.9 to 5.0, P breast densities, with Volpara slightly underestimating and Quantra slightly overestimating PBD compared to MRI. The mean discrepancy for both Volpara and Quantra for total breast volume was not significantly different from MRI (p = 0.89, 0.35, respectively). Volpara tended to underestimate, whereas Quantra tended to overestimate fibroglandular volume, with the highest discrepancy at higher breast volumes. Both Volpara and Quantra tend to underestimate PBD, which is most pronounced at higher densities. PBD can be accurately measured using automated volumetric software programs, but values should not be used interchangeably between vendors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. High cell density production of Deinococcus radiodurans under optimized conditions. (United States)

    He, Yi


    Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium being investigated for mechanisms of extreme radiation resistance and for bioremediation of environmental radioactive waste sites. In both fundamental and applied research settings, methods for large-scale production of D. radiodurans are needed. In this study, a systematic investigation was carried out to optimize D. radiodurans production at the 20-L fermentor scale. In defined medium, the phosphate buffer typically used was found to be inhibitory to D. radiodurans growth, and caused cell aggregation. Substitution of HEPES and MOPS buffers for phosphate buffer improved D. radiodurans growth characteristics. Several antifoaming agents were investigated to support large-scale production with submerged aeration, and the defoamer KFO 673 was chosen based on its ability to prevent foaming without affecting D. radiodurans growth. The conventional undefined rich medium tryptone/glucose/yeast extract (TGY) maximally supported D. radiodurans growth to an OD(600) of 10. Using a 'design of experiments' approach, we found glucose, Mg and Mn to be critical in supporting high-density growth of D. radiodurans. The optimal pH and temperature for D. radiodurans growth in large-scale preparations were 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Growth was carried out in a 20-L fermentor using the newly developed media under the optimal conditions. With addition of 10 g/L glucose, 0.5 g/L MgSO(4) . 7H(2)O, 5 microM MnCl(2) into TGY media, an OD(600) of 40 was achieved.

  6. The Atlas High-Energy Density Physics Project (United States)

    Davis, Harold A.


    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. It is optimized for materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. The system is designed to implode heavy liner loads ( ~ 50 g) with a peak current of 30 MA delivered in 4 μs. Atlas will be operational near the end of 2000 and is designed to provide 100 shots per year. The Atlas capacitor bank consists of an array of 240-kV Marx modules storing a total of 23 MJ. The bank is resistively damped to limit fault currents and capacitor voltage reversal and will have 16 nH total initial inductance. The current is propagated radially from the Marx generators to the one-meter radius by 24 vertical, triplate, oil-insulated transmission lines. A combination of flat and conical, radially converging transmission lines will deliver the current to the load from the one-meter radius. A prototype Marx generator has been successfully tested at full charge voltage. For many applications the Atlas liner will be a nominal 50-gram-aluminum cylinder with ~ 5-cm radius and 4-cm length. Implosion velocities exceeding 1.4 cm/μs are predicted. Using composite inner layers and a variety of interior target designs, a wide array of experiments in cm^3 volumes may be performed.---Sponsored by US DOE under contract W-7405-ENG-36

  7. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays. (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong


    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  8. On the Origin of the High Column Density Turnover in the H I Column Density Distribution (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.


    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2, which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 1022 cm-2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I >~ 1022 cm-2. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ~ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  9. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)


    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  10. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.


    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  11. Density functional study of the electric double layer formed by a high density electrolyte. (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas; Lamperski, Stanisław; Jin, Zhehui; Wu, Jianzhong


    We use a classical density functional theory (DFT) to study the electric double layer formed by charged hard spheres near a planar charged surface. The DFT predictions are found to be in good agreement with recent computer simulation results. We study the capacitance of the charged hard-sphere system at a range of densities and surface charges and find that the capacitance exhibits a local minimum at low ionic densities and small electrode charge. Although this charging behavior is typical for an aqueous electrolyte solution, the local minimum gradually turns into a maximum as the density of the hard spheres increases. Charged hard spheres at high density provide a reasonable first approximation for ionic liquids. In agreement with experiment, the capacitance of this model ionic liquid double layer has a maximum at small electrode charge density.

  12. High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions. (United States)

    Yoshioka, K; Homma, T; Murakami, G; Yoshikawa, I


    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF(2), CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF(2) show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013.

  13. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo


    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Extremely High Mutation Rate of HIV-1 In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Cuevas

    Full Text Available Rates of spontaneous mutation critically determine the genetic diversity and evolution of RNA viruses. Although these rates have been characterized in vitro and in cell culture models, they have seldom been determined in vivo for human viruses. Here, we use the intrapatient frequency of premature stop codons to quantify the HIV-1 genome-wide rate of spontaneous mutation in DNA sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This reveals an extremely high mutation rate of (4.1 ± 1.7 × 10-3 per base per cell, the highest reported for any biological entity. Sequencing of plasma-derived sequences yielded a mutation frequency 44 times lower, indicating that a large fraction of viral genomes are lethally mutated and fail to reach plasma. We show that the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase contributes only 2% of mutations, whereas 98% result from editing by host cytidine deaminases of the A3 family. Hypermutated viral sequences are less abundant in patients showing rapid disease progression compared to normal progressors, highlighting the antiviral role of A3 proteins. However, the amount of A3-mediated editing varies broadly, and we find that low-edited sequences are more abundant among rapid progressors, suggesting that suboptimal A3 activity might enhance HIV-1 genetic diversity and pathogenesis.

  15. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)


    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  16. High reflectance ta-C coatings in the extreme ultraviolet. (United States)

    Larruquert, J I; Rodríguez-de Marcos, L V; Méndez, J A; Martin, P J; Bendavid, A


    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance of amorphous tetrahedrally coordinated carbon films (ta-C) prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc was measured in the 30-188-nm range at near normal incidence. The measured reflectance of films grown with average ion energies in the ~70-140-eV range was significantly larger than the reflectance of a C film grown with average ion energy of ~20 eV and of C films deposited by sputtering or evaporation. The difference is attributed to a large proportion of sp3 atom bonding in the ta-C film. This high reflectance is obtained for films deposited onto room-temperature substrates. The reflectance of ta-C films is higher than the standard single-layer coating materials in the EUV spectral range below 130 nm. A self-consistent set of optical constants of ta-C films was obtained with the Kramers-Krönig analysis using ellipsometry measurements in the 190-950 nm range and the EUV reflectance measurements. These optical constants allowed calculating the EUV reflectance of ta-C films at grazing incidence for applications such as free electron laser mirrors.

  17. Viscosity to entropy density ratio for non-extremal Gauss-Bonnet black holes coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Saurav [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Nadia (India); Gangopadhyay, Sunandan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Nadia (India); Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Ghorai, Debabrata [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)


    The ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density (η/s) is calculated for non-extremal black holes in D dimensions with arbitrary forms of the matter Lagrangian for which the space-time metric takes a particular form. The result reduces to the standard expressions in 5 dimensions. The η/s ratio is then computed for Gauss-Bonnet black holes coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics in 5 dimensions. As a result we found corrections as regards the BI parameter and th result is analytically exact up to all orders in this parameter. The computations are then extended to D dimensions. (orig.)

  18. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy


    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids. (United States)

    Luu, T T; Garg, M; Kruchinin, S Yu; Moulet, A; Hassan, M Th; Goulielmakis, E


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) high-harmonic radiation emerging from laser-driven atoms, molecules or plasmas underlies powerful attosecond spectroscopy techniques and provides insight into fundamental structural and dynamic properties of matter. The advancement of these spectroscopy techniques to study strong-field electron dynamics in condensed matter calls for the generation and manipulation of EUV radiation in bulk solids, but this capability has remained beyond the reach of optical sciences. Recent experiments and theoretical predictions paved the way to strong-field physics in solids by demonstrating the generation and optical control of deep ultraviolet radiation in bulk semiconductors, driven by femtosecond mid-infrared fields or the coherent up-conversion of terahertz fields to multi-octave spectra in the mid-infrared and optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate that thin films of SiO2 exposed to intense, few-cycle to sub-cycle pulses give rise to wideband coherent EUV radiation extending in energy to about 40 electronvolts. Our study indicates the association of the emitted EUV radiation with intraband currents of multi-petahertz frequency, induced in the lowest conduction band of SiO2. To demonstrate the applicability of high-harmonic spectroscopy to solids, we exploit the EUV spectra to gain access to fine details of the energy dispersion profile of the conduction band that are as yet inaccessible by photoemission spectroscopy in wide-bandgap dielectrics. In addition, we use the EUV spectra to trace the attosecond control of the intraband electron motion induced by synthesized optical transients. Our work advances lightwave electronics in condensed matter into the realm of multi-petahertz frequencies and their attosecond control, and marks the advent of solid-state EUV photonics.

  20. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  1. Extreme-ultraviolet spectral purity and magnetic ion debris mitigation by use of low-density tin targets. (United States)

    Harilal, S S; Tillack, M S; Tao, Y; O'Shay, B; Paguio, R; Nikroo, A


    We investigate the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission from targets that contain tin as an impurity and the advantages of using these targets for ion debris mitigation by use of a magnetic field. The EUV spectral features were characterized by a transmission grating spectrograph. The in-band EUV emission energy was measured with a calorimeter of absolute calibration. The ion flux coming from the plume was measured with a Faraday cup. Our studies indicate that 0.5% Sn density is necessary to obtain a conversion efficiency very close to that of full-density Sn. The use of Sn-doped low-Z targets provides a narrower unresolved transition array and facilitates better control of energetic ions in the presence of a moderate magnetic field of 0.64 T.

  2. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.


    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  3. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.


    The authors describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, the authors focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: equations of state, turbulent hydrodynamics, and the transport of radiation. They describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  4. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.


    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  5. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao


    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  6. BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca


    The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state, in...

  7. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 9, 2017 ... ... of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effectsof density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due ...

  8. High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling Ensemble Projections of Future Extreme Temperature Distributions for the United States (United States)

    Zobel, Zachary; Wang, Jiali; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kotamarthi, V. Rao


    The aim of this study is to examine projections of extreme temperatures over the continental United States (CONUS) for the 21st century using an ensemble of high spatial resolution dynamically downscaled model simulations with different boundary conditions. The downscaling uses the Weather Research and Forecast model at a spatial resolution of 12 km along with outputs from three different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global climate models that provide boundary conditions under two different future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration trajectories. The results from two decadal-length time slices (2045-2054 and 2085-2094) are compared with a historical decade (1995-2004). Probability density functions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are analyzed over seven climatologically cohesive regions of the CONUS. The impacts of different boundary conditions as well as future GHG concentrations on extreme events such as heat waves and days with temperature higher than 95°F are also investigated. The results show that the intensity of extreme warm temperature in future summer is significantly increased, while the frequency of extreme cold temperature in future winter decreases. The distribution of summer daily maximum temperature experiences a significant warm-side shift and increased variability, while the distribution of winter daily minimum temperature is projected to have a less significant warm-side shift with decreased variability. Using "business-as-usual" scenario, 5-day heat waves are projected to occur at least 5-10 times per year in most CONUS and ≥95°F days will increase by 1-2 months by the end of the century.

  9. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu


    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  10. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  11. 128x128 Ultra-High Density Optical Interconnect Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA programs like Tertiary Planet Finder (TPF) require high-density deformable mirrors with up to 16,000 actuators to enable direct imaging of planets around...

  12. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral signatures of Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.


    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral

  13. 128x128 Ultra-High Density Optical Interconnect Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA programs like Tertiary Planet Finder (TPF) require high density deformable mirrors with upto 16,000 actuators to enable direct imaging of planets around...

  14. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat


    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  15. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications (United States)


    resistor in terms of shock and vibration, mounting requirements, total volume, system reliability, and cost. All of these parameters were from shock and vibration on a deployed system. III. STATE OF THE ART FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITOR AND NEAR TERM PROJECTIONS t tipo ymer m qua y an capac or cons ruc on. Energy Density of 10,000 Shot High Efficiency Pulse Power Capacitors The primary driver was 1 5

  16. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca


    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...... magnetization due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. The implications for the strong magnetic field in compact stars is discussed....

  17. Still rethinking the value of high wood density. (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C


    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  18. Sub- and multi-day precipitation extremes in high resolution Met Office regional climate model simulations (United States)

    Chan, Steven; Kendon, Elizabeth; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel


    As part of the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council-supported CONVEX project, the Met Office has completed two high-resolution (12-km parameterised convection and 1.5-km explicit convection permitting) regional climate model simulations. Extreme value theory is used as a diagnostic tool for the above two simulations. On sub-daily time scales, the 12-km simulation has weaker and more realistic typical JJA extremes than the 1.5-km RCM, yet the 12-km RCM has overly intense extreme extremes. Grid point storms are found to play a role in creating these overly intense extreme extremes. Comparisons with observations indicate that the 1.5-km RCM is more successful than the 12-km RCM in representing (multi-)hourly JJA extremes for long return periods. As accumulation periods increase toward (multi-)daily time scales, the 12-km precipitation extremes become more comparable with observations and the 1.5-km RCM. Both simulations have reasonable DJF sub- and multi-day extremes, but DJF extremes are generally weaker, so they are less interesting than JJA extremes practically. Overall, our results indicate that the usage of higher resolution explicit convection permitting models has led to some improvements in the simulations of high impact precipitation extremes.

  19. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A.; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.


    Abstract. A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists’ breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 (pdensity estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (pdensity estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 (p=0.0076) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists’ BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy. PMID:28042590

  20. High-density scintillating glasses for a proton imaging detector (United States)

    Tillman, I. J.; Dettmann, M. A.; Herrig, V.; Thune, Z. L.; Zieser, A. J.; Michalek, S. F.; Been, M. O.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M. M.; Koster, H. J.; Wilkinson, C. J.; Kielty, M. W.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Akgun, U.


    High-density scintillating glasses are proposed for a novel proton-imaging device that can improve the accuracy of the hadron therapy. High-density scintillating glasses are needed to build a cost effective, compact calorimeter that can be attached to a gantry. This report summarizes the study on Europium, Terbium, and Cerium-doped scintillating glasses that were developed containing heavy elements such as Lanthanum, Gadolinium, and Tungsten. The density of the samples reach up to 5.9 g/cm3, and their 300-600 nm emission overlaps perfectly with the peak cathode sensitivity of the commercial photo detectors. The developed glasses do not require any special quenching and can be poured easily, which makes them a good candidate for production in various geometries. Here, the glass making conditions, preliminary tests on optical and physical properties of these scintillating, high-density, oxide glasses developed for a novel medical imaging application are reported.

  1. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching. (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R


    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  2. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (United States)

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei


    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  3. Beyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J


    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...

  4. A model of high-latitude thermospheric density (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael J.; Sutton, Eric K.


    We present an empirical model of the high-latitude air density at 450 km, derived from accelerometer measurements by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites during 2002-2006, which we call HANDY (High-Latitude Atmospheric Neutral DensitY). HANDY consists of a quiet model and disturbance model. The quiet model represents the background thermospheric density for "zero geomagnetic activity" conditions. The disturbance model represents the response of the thermospheric density to solar wind forcing at high latitudes. The solar wind inputs used are the following: (1) solar wind electric field ESW, (2) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle CSW, and (3) solar wind dynamic pressure PSW. Both quiet and disturbance models are constructed on the basis of spherical harmonic function fitting to the data. Magnetic coordinates are used for the disturbance model, while geographical coordinates are used for the quiet model. HANDY reproduces main features of the solar wind influence on the high-latitude thermospheric density, such as the IMF By effect that produces a hemispheric asymmetry in the density distribution.

  5. The hydrogen equation of state at high densities

    CERN Document Server

    Vorberger, J; Kraeft, W -D


    We use a two-fluid model combining the quantum Green's function technique for the electrons and a classical HNC description for the ions to calculate the high-density equation of state of hydrogen. This approach allows us to describe fully ionized plasmas of any electron degeneracy and any ionic coupling strength which are important for the modeling of a variety of astrophysical objects and inertial confinement fusion targets. We have also performed density functional molecular dynamics simulations (DFT-MD) and show that the data obtained agree with our approach in the high density limit. Good agreement is also found between DFT-MD and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The thermodynamic properties of dense hydrogen can thus be obtained for the entire density range using only calculations in the physical picture.

  6. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects (United States)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.


    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  7. Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells: Degradation at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Hauch, Anne


    The degradation of Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current densities was studied. The degradation was examined at 850°C, at current densities of −1.0, −1.5, and −2.0 A/cm2, with a 50:50 (H2O:H2) gas supplied to the Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrode...

  8. High-Energy-Density Physics at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Herrmann, M. C.


    At modern laser facilities, energy densities ranging from 1 Mbar to many hundreds of gigabars can regularly be achieved. These high-energy states of matter last for mere moments, measured in nanoseconds to tens of picoseconds, but during those times numerous high-precision instruments can be employed, revealing remarkable compressed matter physics, radiation-hydrodynamics physics, laser-matter interaction physics, and nuclear physics processes. We review the current progress of high-energy-density physics at the National Ignition Facility and describe the underlying physical principles.

  9. Co-isolation of extracellular vesicles and high-density lipoproteins using density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana; Levels, Johannes; Grootemaat, Anita; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication by carrying bioactive molecules such as proteins, messenger RNA, and micro (mi)RNAs. Recently, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) isolated from human plasma were also reported to transport miRNA to other cells. HDL, when isolated from

  10. Mendelian Disorders of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldoni, Federico; Sinke, Richard J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert


    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a highly heterogeneous and dynamic group of the smallest and densest lipoproteins present in the circulation. This review provides the current molecular insight into HDL metabolism led by articles describing mutations in genes that have a large affect on HDL

  11. The influence of vegetation cover on debris-flow density during an extreme rainfall in the northern Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Rengers, Francis; McGuire, Luke; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Godt, Jonathan W.


    We explored regional influences on debris-flow initiation throughout the Colorado Front Range (Colorado, USA) by exploiting a unique data set of more than 1100 debris flows that initiated during a 5 day rainstorm in 2013. Using geospatial data, we examined the influence of rain, hillslope angle, hillslope aspect, and vegetation density on debris-flow initiation. In particular we used a greenness index to differentiate areas of high tree density from grass and bare soil. The data demonstrated an overwhelming propensity for debris-flow initiation on south-facing hillslopes. However, when the debris-flow density was analyzed with respect to total rainfall and greenness we found that most debris flows occurred in areas of high rainfall and low tree density, regardless of hillslope aspect. These results indicate that present-day tree density exerts a stronger influence on debris-flow initiation locations than aspect-driven variations in soil and bedrock properties that developed over longer time scales.

  12. Effects of High-Density Impacts on Shielding Capability (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.


    Spacecraft are shielded from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts to meet requirements for crew safety and/or mission success. In the past, orbital debris particles have been considered to be composed entirely of aluminum (medium-density material) for the purposes of MMOD shielding design and verification. Meteoroids have been considered to be low-density porous materials, with an average density of 1 g/cu cm. Recently, NASA released a new orbital debris environment model, referred to as ORDEM 3.0, that indicates orbital debris contains a substantial fraction of high-density material for which steel is used in MMOD risk assessments [Ref.1]. Similarly, an update to the meteoroid environment model is also under consideration to include a high-density component of that environment. This paper provides results of hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations on typical spacecraft MMOD shields using steel projectiles. It was found that previous ballistic limit equations (BLEs) that define the protection capability of the MMOD shields did not predict the results from the steel impact tests and hydrocode simulations (typically, the predictions from these equations were too optimistic). The ballistic limit equations required updates to more accurately represent shield protection capability from the range of densities in the orbital debris environment. Ballistic limit equations were derived from the results of the work and are provided in the paper.

  13. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben


    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  14. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet (United States)


    Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health

  15. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale


    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  16. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet. (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Sarter, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Acocella, Steve


    People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health as well as weight loss. Because our

  17. Motor unit properties of biceps brachii in chronic stroke patients assessed with high-density surface EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    The aim of this study was to investigate motor unit (MU) characteristics of the biceps brachii in post-stroke patients, using high-density surface electromyography (sEMG). Eighteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients took part. The Fugl-Meyer score for the upper extremity was assessed. Subjects

  18. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models


    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.


    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  19. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.


    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  20. High Density Observation of Tids at White Sands, New Mexico (United States)

    Dao, E. V.; Colman, J. J.; McNamara, L. F.; Emmons, D. J., II


    In January, 2014, the IARPA High Frequency Geolocation program ran a week long experiment with high frequency (HF) instruments densely deployed over White Sands, New Mexico. The experiment yielded several observations of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with high spatial and temporal density. We present initial observations of the mid-latitude TIDs to help understand their spatial and temporal properties better.

  1. A safe, high-power-density lithium battery (United States)

    Walsh, F.


    The Li/SOCl2 battery has received attention because of its high theoretical energy/power density. However, practical Li/SOCl2 cells have not provided the desired power density and have suffered from concerns with cell safety on discharge. In previous work, ECO has shown that the use of a TAA-type catalyst significantly improves the safety of the Li/S0Cl2 cell at high rate. The objective of this Phase 1 program was to determine whether a stacked disk electrode configuration with TAA-catalyzed cathodes would meet a high power-density design goal. Under the program, the effects of cathode thickness, preparation pressure, electrolyte gap and solute concentration on stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity were measured. The results of the Phase 1 program included the demonstration of stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity at levels suitable to meet a design goal of 400 W/kg with high energy density. Further work in a Phase 2 program will be required to demonstrate in laser-sealed fully-packaged cells that the results of Phase 1 can be practically applied to provide a safe high-rate, energy-dense power source for military applications.

  2. High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk (United States)

    Song, Weiwei; Gatdula, Robert; Abbaslou, Siamak; Lu, Ming; Stein, Aaron; Lai, Warren Y.-C.; Provine, J.; Pease, R. Fabian W.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Jiang, Wei


    Silicon photonics holds great promise for low-cost large-scale photonic integration. In its future development, integration density will play an ever-increasing role in a way similar to that witnessed in integrated circuits. Waveguides are perhaps the most ubiquitous component in silicon photonics. As such, the density of waveguide elements is expected to have a crucial influence on the integration density of a silicon photonic chip. A solution to high-density waveguide integration with minimal impact on other performance metrics such as crosstalk remains a vital issue in many applications. Here, we propose a waveguide superlattice and demonstrate advanced superlattice design concepts such as interlacing-recombination that enable high-density waveguide integration at a half-wavelength pitch with low crosstalk. Such waveguide superlattices can potentially lead to significant reduction in on-chip estate for waveguide elements and salient enhancement of performance for important applications, opening up possibilities for half-wavelength-pitch optical-phased arrays and ultra-dense space-division multiplexing.

  3. High-Density Nanosharp Microstructures Enable Efficient CO2 Electroreduction. (United States)

    Saberi Safaei, Tina; Mepham, Adam; Zheng, Xueli; Pang, Yuanjie; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Liu, Min; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H


    Conversion of CO2 to CO powered by renewable electricity not only reduces CO2 pollution but also is a means to store renewable energy via chemical production of fuels from CO. However, the kinetics of this reaction are slow due its large energetic barrier. We have recently reported CO2 reduction that is considerably enhanced via local electric field concentration at the tips of sharp gold nanostructures. The high local electric field enhances CO2 concentration at the catalytic active sites, lowering the activation barrier. Here we engineer the nucleation and growth of next-generation Au nanostructures. The electroplating overpotential was manipulated to generate an appreciably increased density of honed nanoneedles. Using this approach, we report the first application of sequential electrodeposition to increase the density of sharp tips in CO2 electroreduction. Selective regions of the primary nanoneedles are passivated using a thiol SAM (self-assembled monolayer), and then growth is concentrated atop the uncovered high-energy planes, providing new nucleation sites that ultimately lead to an increase in the density of the nanosharp structures. The two-step process leads to a new record in CO2 to CO reduction, with a geometric current density of 38 mA/cm2 at -0.4 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), and a 15-fold improvement over the best prior reports of electrochemical surface area (ECSA) normalized current density.

  4. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)


    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  5. Interfacial stick–slip transition in hydroxyapatite filled high density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of filler addition and temperature on the stick–slip transition in high density polyethylene melt was studied. Results showed that shear stresses corresponding to stick–slip transition increases with the addition of filler. Increase in temperature also increases the shear stresses for stick–slip transition. The features of the ...

  6. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, M.A.M.

    This thesis describes the results of a research project in the field of high bit-density data-storage media. More specifically, the material aspects of the novel recording technique using patterned media have been studied. The aim of the work was the design, realization and characterization of such

  7. High density lipoproteins (HDLs) and atherosclerosis; the unanswered questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Kastelein, John; Nunn, Alistair; Hobbs, Richard


    The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been found consistently to be a powerful negative predictor of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in human prospective population studies. There is also circumstantial evidence from human intervention studies and direct

  8. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Cameron

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.

  9. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...

  10. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O A


    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  11. High and low density development in Puerto Rico (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez


    This map shows the distribution of high and low density developed lands in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). The map was created using a mosaic of Landsat ETM+ images that range from the years 2000 to 2003. The developed land cover was classified using the Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classification (ERDAS 2003)....

  12. Sparse deconvolution of high-density super-resolution images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hugelier (Siewert); J.J. de Rooi (Johan); R. Bernex (Romain); S. Duwé (Sam); O. Devos (Olivier); M. Sliwa (Michel); P. Dedecker (Peter); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); C. Ruckebusch (Cyril)


    textabstractIn wide-field super-resolution microscopy, investigating the nanoscale structure of cellular processes, and resolving fast dynamics and morphological changes in cells requires algorithms capable of working with a high-density of emissive fluorophores. Current deconvolution algorithms

  13. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  14. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  15. Host galaxies of high-redshift quasars with extreme outflows (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia


    Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes is now a standard ingredient in galaxy formation models. It has long been speculated that powerful quasars, triggered in major gas-rich mergers, had a profound impact on galaxy formation via quasar-driven winds. This process must have been at its peak during the epoch of most active galaxy formation and quasar activity at z=2-3, yet there is not yet any direct observational support for this long-hypothesized process. We have discovered a population of extremely luminous (L>1e47 erg/s) red quasars with peculiar line properties at z=2-3 which show unprecedented signatures of powerful v>2000 km/s outflows in their [OIII]5007A lines. We propose to image eleven of these objects with the HST in two filters, one probing rest-frame UV and one probing the rest-frame optical. The rest-frame optical observations will directly probe the dynamical state and extent of the hosts of luminous obscured quasars and search for companions and merger signatures. We will determine the masses of the stellar component to determine if the bulges of the quasar hosts have already become apparent in this epoch. Using the rest-frame UV observations, we will probe the distribution of the gas in quasar hosts by observing the morphology of ongoing star formation and scattered light from the central engine. Our targets are the best candidates to probe the long-speculated merger-driven scenario for quasar activity, and our proposed HST observations will definitively determine whether this process drives the evolution of massive galaxies.

  16. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet


    Glaser Dale; Sarter Barbara; Fuhrman Joel; Acocella Steve


    Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrie...

  17. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation. (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M


    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  18. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield


    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  19. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.


    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  20. Enhancing The Extremely High Thermal Conduction of Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqiang eLi


    Full Text Available Graphene and Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are found to have superior high thermal conductivity favorable for high-performance heat dissipation. In this letter, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that constructing specific structure can further enhance high thermal conduction of GNRs. By introducing a small gap at the center, the average heat flux (thermal conductivity can be enhanced by up to 23%, the corresponding increase in total heat current is 16%. This unusual thermal conduction enhancement is achieved by an intriguing physical mechanism of suppress phonon-phonon scattering. Our findings uncover new mechanism to increase thermal conduction of GNRs.

  1. Neural network based feed-forward high density associative memory (United States)

    Daud, T.; Moopenn, A.; Lamb, J. L.; Ramesham, R.; Thakoor, A. P.


    A novel thin film approach to neural-network-based high-density associative memory is described. The information is stored locally in a memory matrix of passive, nonvolatile, binary connection elements with a potential to achieve a storage density of 10 to the 9th bits/sq cm. Microswitches based on memory switching in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and alternatively in manganese oxide, have been used as programmable read-only memory elements. Low-energy switching has been ascertained in both these materials. Fabrication and testing of memory matrix is described. High-speed associative recall approaching 10 to the 7th bits/sec and high storage capacity in such a connection matrix memory system is also described.

  2. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)


    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  3. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  4. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.


    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  5. High-density housing that works for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif


    In an urbanising world, the way people fit into cities is vastly important - socially, economically, environmentally, even psychologically. So density, or the number of people living in a given area, is central to urban design and planning. Both governments and markets tend to get density wrong, leading to overcrowding, urban sprawl or often both. A case in point are the high-rise buildings springing up throughtout urban Asia - perceived as key features of that widely touted concept, the 'world-class city'. While some may offer a viable solution to land pressures and density requirements, many built to house evicted or resettled 'slum' dwellers are a social and economic nightmare - inconveniently sited, overcrowded and costly. New evidence from Karachi, Pakistan, reveals a real alternative. Poor people can create liveable high-density settlements as long as community control, the right technical assistance and flexible designs are in place. A city is surely 'world-class' only when it is cosmopolitan – built to serve all, including the poorest.

  6. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.


    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  7. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David


    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an “oxygen depletion design” whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm−2) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm−3). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells. PMID:23390576

  8. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  9. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  10. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes. (United States)

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J; Harrison, Reid R; Lester, Henry A; Masmanidis, Sotiris C


    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  11. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during

  12. Metronidazole as a protector of cells from electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Malinina, Ulia A.; Popyhova, Era B.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Somov, Alexander U.


    It is well known that weak electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies cause significant modification of the functional status of biological objects of different levels of organization. The aim of the work was to study the combinatory effect of metronidazole - the drug form of 1-(2'hydroxiethil)-2-methil-5-nitroimidazole - and electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (52...75 GHz) on the hemolytic stability of erythrocytes and hemotaxis activity of Infusoria Paramecium caudatum.

  13. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy


    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  14. A Coupled Plasma-Sheath Model for High Density Sources (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.


    High density, low pressure plasmas are used for etching and deposition in microelectronics fabrication processes. The process characteristics are strongly determined by the ion energy distribution (IED) and the ion flux arriving at the substrate that are responsible for desorption of etch products and neutral dissociation at the surface. The ion flux and energy are determined by a self- consistent modeling of the bulk plasma, where the ions and the neutral radicals are produced, and the sheath, where the ions are accelerated. Due to their widely different time scales, it is a formidable task to self-consistently resolve non-collisional sheath in a high density bulk plasma model. In this work, we first describe a coupled plasma-sheath model that attempts to resolve the non-collisional sheath in a reactor scale model. Second, we propose a semianalytical radio frequency (RF) sheath model to improve ion dynamics.

  15. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  16. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Anđelka V.


    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  17. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.


    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project (United States)

    Menz, Christoph


    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  19. High-density quantum sensing with dissipative first order transitions


    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik


    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of $N$ independent particles is proportional to $\\sqrt{N}$. However, interactions invariably occuring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be t...

  20. Bottomside Ionospheric Electron Density Specification using Passive High Frequency Signals (United States)

    Kaeppler, S. R.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Mackay, C.; Varney, R. H.; Kendall, E. A.; Nicolls, M. J.


    The vertical bottomside electron density profile is influenced by a variety of natural sources, most especially traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). These disturbances cause plasma to be moved up or down along the local geomagnetic field and can strongly impact the propagation of high frequency radio waves. While the basic physics of these perturbations has been well studied, practical bottomside models are not well developed. We present initial results from an assimilative bottomside ionosphere model. This model uses empirical orthogonal functions based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to develop a vertical electron density profile, and features a builtin HF ray tracing function. This parameterized model is then perturbed to model electron density perturbations associated with TIDs or ionospheric gradients. Using the ray tracing feature, the model assimilates angle of arrival measurements from passive HF transmitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the model using angle of arrival data. Modeling results of bottomside electron density specification are compared against suitable ancillary observations to quantify accuracy of our model.

  1. Simple, Parallel, High-Performance Virtual Machines for Extreme Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, Bijan Chokoufe; Reuter, Jürgen


    We introduce a high-performance virtual machine (VM) written in a numerically fast language like Fortran or C to evaluate very large expressions. We discuss the general concept of how to perform computations in terms of a VM and present specifically a VM that is able to compute tree-level cross sections for any number of external legs, given the corresponding byte code from the optimal matrix element generator, O'Mega. Furthermore, this approach allows to formulate the parallel computation of a single phase space point in a simple and obvious way. We analyze hereby the scaling behaviour with multiple threads as well as the benefits and drawbacks that are introduced with this method. Our implementation of a VM can run faster than the corresponding native, compiled code for certain processes and compilers, especially for very high multiplicities, and has in general runtimes in the same order of magnitude. By avoiding the tedious compile and link steps, which may fail for source code files of gigabyte sizes, new...

  2. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsam Tayebeh


    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI. Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615. Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415 ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min (P-value=0.002. Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours. Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  3. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations. (United States)

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang


    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  4. Extremely high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bhutan. (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Shiota, Seiji; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Tung, Nguyen Lam; Fujioka, Toshio; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio


    To revealed the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the Bhutanese population. We recruited a total of 372 volunteers (214 females and 158 males; mean age of 39.6 ± 14.9 years) from three Bhutanese cities (Thimphu, Punaka, and Wangdue). The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on five different tests: the rapid urease test (CLO test), culture, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and serum anti H. pylori-antibody. The serological test showed a significantly higher positive rate compared with the CLO test, culture, histology and IHC (P Bhutan was 73.4%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection significantly decreased with age (P Bhutan may be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  5. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail:; Golingo, R. P., E-mail:; Nelson, B. A., E-mail:; Bowers, C. A., E-mail:; Doty, S. A., E-mail:; Forbes, E. G., E-mail:; Hughes, M. C., E-mail:; Kim, B., E-mail:; Knecht, S. D., E-mail:; Lambert, K. K., E-mail:; Lowrie, W., E-mail:; Ross, M. P., E-mail:; Weed, J. R., E-mail: [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)


    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  6. Extremely deep recreational dives: the risk for carbon dioxide (CO(2)) retention and high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS). (United States)

    Kot, Jacek


    Clear differences between professional and recreational deep diving are disappearing, at least when taking into account the types of breathing mixtures (oxygen, nitrox, heliox, and trimix) and range of dive parameters (depth and time). Training of recreational deep divers is conducted at depths of 120-150 metres and some divers dive to 180-200 metres using the same diving techniques. Extremely deep recreational divers go to depths of more than 200 metres, at which depths the physical and chemical properties of breathing gases create some physiological restrictions already known from professional deep diving. One risk is carbon dioxide retention due to limitation of lung ventilation caused by the high density of breathing gas mixture at great depths. This effect can be amplified by the introduction of the additional work of breathing if there is significant external resistance caused by a breathing device. The other risk for deep divers is High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS) caused by a direct compression effect, presumably on the lipid component of cell membranes of the central nervous system. In deep professional diving, divers use a mixture of helium and oxygen to decrease gas density, and nitrogen is used only in some cases for decreasing the signs and symptoms of HPNS. The same approach with decreasing the nitrogen content in the breathing mixture can also be observed nowadays in deep recreational diving. Moreover, in extremely deep professional diving, hydrogen has been used successfully both for decreasing the density of the breathing gas mixture and amelioration of HPNS signs and symptoms. It is fair to assume that the use of hydrogen will be soon "re-invented" by extremely deep recreational divers. So the scope of modern diving medicine for recreational divers should be expanded also to cover these problems, which previously were assigned exclusively to professional and military divers.

  7. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  8. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshani Silwal


    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y 26 + –Y 36 + were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm-20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV–6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty-nine spectral lines corresponding to Δ n = 0 transitions within the n = 2 and n = 3 shells have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0004 nm and 0.0020 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s– 2 p 1 / 2 and 2s–2 p 3 / 2 , and the Na-like D lines, 3s– 3 p 1 / 2 and 3s– 3 p 3 / 2 , have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1 transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and, hence, may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular in fusion devices.

  9. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard


    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  10. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian


    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  11. Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion. (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M


    Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 μg/d with concentrations of 4749 μg/L and 3769 μg/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 μg/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 μg/d with concentrations of 30 μg/L and 21 μg/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy.

  12. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality (United States)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.


    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  13. High-density recording storage system by Collinear holography (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi; Aoki, Yoshio


    Collinear TM Holography, proposed and demonstrated by OPTWARE Corporation, can produce a small, practical holographic versatile disc (HVD TM) drive system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. With Collinear TM technologies' unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media. As servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective in increasing the recording density of the system. A high density data recording of Collinear TM Holography by reducing optical noise is also demonstrated.

  14. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.


    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  15. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.


    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  16. Shape-controlled high cell-density microcapsules by electrodeposition. (United States)

    Liu, Zeyang; Takeuchi, Masaru; Nakajima, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio


    Cell encapsulation within alginate-poly-l-lysine (PLL) microcapsules has been developed to provide a miniaturized three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment with an aqueous core while promoting development of encapsulated cells into high cell-density structures. In this paper, a novel method for fabricating shape-controlled alginate-PLL microcapsules to construct 3D cell structures based on electrodeposition method is provided. Two-dimensional Ca-alginate cell-laden gel membranes were electrodeposited onto a micro-patterned electrode and further detached from the electrode. The PLL was coated onto the gel structures to form alginate-PLL complex as an outer shell and sodium citric solution was utilized to melt the internal alginate to achieve miniaturized 3D microcapsules (sphere, cuboid, and rod shape). By this proposed method, rat liver cells (RLC-18) formed multi-cellular aggregates with high cell-density after cultivation for 2weeks. The use of alginate-poly-l-lysine (PLL) microcapsules has shown great potential in fabricating 3D cell structures with high cell density. Despite their success related to their ability to provide a miniaturized microenvironment with an aqueous core, alginate-PLL microcapsules has drawback such as a limited shape-control ability. Because of the mechanism of Ca-induced alginate gel formation, it is still difficult to precisely control the gelation process to produce alginate-PLL microcapsules with specific shape. The present study provides an electrodeposition-based method to generate shape-controlled microcapsules for 3D cell structures. Sphere, cuboid, and rod shaped microcapsules of RLC-18 cells were produced for long-term culture to obtain desired morphologies of cell aggregates. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice. (United States)

    Loerting, Thomas; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Handle, Philip H; Seidl, Markus; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland


    There has been a long controversy regarding the glass transition in low-density amorphous ice (LDA). The central question is whether or not it transforms to an ultraviscous liquid state above 136 K at ambient pressure prior to crystallization. Currently, the most widespread interpretation of the experimental findings is in terms of a transformation to a superstrong liquid above 136 K. In the last decade some work has also been devoted to the study of the glass transition in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) which is in the focus of the present review. At ambient pressure HDA is metastable against both ice I and LDA, whereas at > 0.2 GPa HDA is no longer metastable against LDA, but merely against high-pressure forms of crystalline ice. The first experimental observation interpreted as the glass transition of HDA was made using in situ methods by Mishima, who reported a glass transition temperature Tg of 160 K at 0.40 GPa. Soon thereafter Andersson and Inaba reported a much lower glass transition temperature of 122 K at 1.0 GPa. Based on the pressure dependence of HDA's Tg measured in Innsbruck, we suggest that they were in fact probing the distinct glass transition of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). Very recently the glass transition in HDA was also observed at ambient pressure at 116 K. That is, LDA and HDA show two distinct glass transitions, clearly separated by about 20 K at ambient pressure. In summary, this suggests that three glass transition lines can be defined in the p-T plane for LDA, HDA, and VHDA.

  18. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins]. (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried


    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghişoiu, Ioan, E-mail: [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Gorda, Tyler, E-mail: [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Kurkela, Aleksi, E-mail: [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Säppi, Matias, E-mail: [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Vuorinen, Aleksi, E-mail: [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)


    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes — a result reminiscent of a previously proposed “naive real-time formalism” for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  20. High-Density Optical Cable For Public Communications (United States)

    Trunk, Jonas; Monteiro, Ricardo


    Optical fiber networks for public communications are moving toward the subscribers and therefore feeder optical cables with relative great amount of fibers are needed. A 120 fibers cable has been designed with ten UV curable acrilate coated fibers accommodate together inside each plastic loose tube, and twelve these tubes are stranded around a central strength member resulting in a high packaging density construction. A cable prototipe has been manufactured and some tests was made under conditions which simulate the situations found during installation and after due to hostile environments.

  1. Variable kernel density estimation in high-dimensional feature spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M


    Full Text Available with the KDE is non-parametric, since no parametric distribution is imposed on the estimate; instead the estimated distribution is defined by the sum of the kernel functions centred on the data points. KDEs thus require the selection of two design parameters... has become feasible – understanding and modelling high- dimensional data has thus become a crucial activity, espe- cially in the field of machine learning. Since non-parametric density estimators are data-driven and do not require or impose a pre...

  2. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad


    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  3. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.


    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  4. The physics of ultra-high-density magnetic recording

    CERN Document Server

    Ek, Johannes; Weller, Dieter


    In this book, 17 experts in magnetic recording focus on the underlying physical mechanisms that play crucial roles in medium and transducer development for high areal density disk drives. In 11 chapters, an examination is made of the fundamental physical concepts and their impact on recording mechanisms, with special emphasis on thin-film longitudinal, perpendicular, patterned and nanoparticle media. Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented which serve to enhance our basic understanding of thin-film dynamics, medium dynamics and thermal effects. Fundamental aspects of magnetotransport are discussed and an overview is given of recording head designs.

  5. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene


    Fillot L.-A.; Ghiringhelli S.; Prebet C.; Rossi S.


    In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6) and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85%...

  6. The Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andreason, Samuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to present the conclusions that can be drawn from the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) formation experiments conducted on the Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD) at the University of Washington. The experiment is ongoing. The experimental goal for this first stage of PHD was to generate a stable, high flux (>10 mWb), high energy (>10 KJ) target FRC. Such results would be adequate as a starting point for several later experiments. This work focuses on experimental implementation and the results of the first four month run. Difficulties were encountered due to the initial on-axis plasma ionization source. Flux trapping with this ionization source acting alone was insufficient to accomplish experimental objectives. Additional ionization methods were utilized to overcome this difficulty. A more ideal plasma source layout is suggested and will be explored during a forthcoming work.

  7. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.


    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface...... of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of similar to 5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High Density DNA Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Podgornik


    Full Text Available Densely packed DNA arrays exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, as well as a weakly first order transition between them. While we have some understanding of the interactions between DNA molecules in aqueous ionic solutions, the structural details of its ordered phases and the mechanism governing the respective phase transitions between them remains less well understood. Since at high DNA densities, i.e., small interaxial spacings, one can neither neglect the atomic details of the interacting macromolecular surfaces nor the atomic details of the intervening ionic solution, the atomistic resolution is a sine qua non to properly describe and analyze the interactions between DNA molecules. In fact, in order to properly understand the details of the observed osmotic equation of state, one needs to implement multiple levels of organization, spanning the range from the molecular order of DNA itself, the possible ordering of counterions, and then all the way to the induced molecular ordering of the aqueous solvent, all coupled together by electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions. Multiscale simulations therefore appear as singularly suited to connect the microscopic details of this system with its macroscopic thermodynamic behavior. We review the details of the simulation of dense atomistically resolved DNA arrays with different packing symmetries and the ensuing osmotic equation of state obtained by enclosing a DNA array in a monovalent salt and multivalent (spermidine counterions within a solvent permeable membrane, mimicking the behavior of DNA arrays subjected to external osmotic stress. By varying the DNA density, the local packing symmetry, and the counterion type, we are able to analyze the osmotic equation of state together with the full structural characterization of the DNA subphase, the counterion distribution and the solvent structural order in terms of its different order parameters and

  9. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  10. How does the South Asian High influence extreme precipitation over eastern China? (United States)

    Ning, Liang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Bin


    Based on the high-resolution observed daily precipitation data, three characteristic regions over eastern China are first defined through the rotated empirical orthogonal function. Then, the relationship between summer (June-July-August) extreme precipitation across the three characteristic regions of eastern China and the South Asian High (SAH) is examined to determine how the northwest-southeast movement and area (magnitude) of SAH influence the summer extreme precipitation across eastern China. When the South Asian High is located anomalously northwest, there is more extreme precipitation over the northern part of eastern China but less extreme precipitation over the Jiang-Huai River Basin. When the SAH intensifies, there is more extreme precipitation over the Jiang-Huai River Basin. The mechanisms are that under the conditions of anomalously northwestward displacements, the positive geopotential anomalies over central Asia induce a deep barotropic Korean High through a Rossby wave train, resulting in more water vapor transportation to eastern China with more convergence over the northern part of eastern China located at the northwestern edge of the Korean High but with a divergence over the Jiang-Huai River Basin. When the SAH intensifies, accompanied by an enhanced and westward extended western Pacific subtropical High, the convergence over the Jiang-Huai River Basin increases with enhanced water vapor transportation due to the confluence of warm and cold advections. These mechanisms are achieved through shifts toward the high tail (low tail) of the daily precipitation cumulative distributions of these two regions and finally increases (decreases) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation.

  11. Development Status of High-Thrust Density Electrostatic Engines (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Foster, John E.; Young, Jason A.; Crofton, Mark W.


    Ion thruster technology offers the highest performance and efficiency of any mature electric propulsion thruster. It has by far the highest demonstrated total impulse of any technology option, demonstrated at input power levels appropriate for primary propulsion. It has also been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments, with excellent ground/in-space correlation of both its performance and life. Based on these attributes there is compelling reasoning to continue the development of this technology: it is a leading candidate for high power applications; and it provides risk reduction for as-yet unproven alternatives. As such it is important that the operational limitations of ion thruster technology be critically examined and in particular for its application to primary propulsion its capabilities relative to thrust the density and thrust-to-power ratio be understood. This publication briefly addresses some of the considerations relative to achieving high thrust density and maximizing thrust-to-power ratio with ion thruster technology, and discusses the status of development work in this area being executed under a collaborative effort among NASA Glenn Research Center, the Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  12. High-Density Lipoprotein Processing and Premature Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.


    High plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) are a well-accepted risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the statin class of hypolipidemic drugs has emerged as an effective means of lowering LDL-C and reducing CVD risk. In contrast, the role of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in protection against atherosclerotic vascular disease is the subject of considerable controversy. Although the inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and CVD is widely acknowledged, reduction of CVD risk by interventions that increase HDL-C have not been uniformly successful. Several studies of large populations have shown that the first step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from the subendothelial space of the arterial wall via the plasma compartment to the liver for disposal, is impaired in patients with CVD. Here we review HDL function, the mechanisms by which HDL supports RCT, and the role of RCT in preventing CVD. PMID:26634027

  13. A Coupled Plasma and Sheath Model for High Density Reactors (United States)

    Deepak, Bose; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)


    We present a coupled plasma and collisionless; sheath model for the simulation of high density plasma processing reactors. Due to inefficiencies in numerical schemes and the resulting computational burden, a coupled multidimensional plasma and sheath simulation has not been possible model for gas mixtures and high density reactors of practical interest. In this work we demonstrate that with a fully implicit algorithm and a refined computational mesh, a self-consistent plasma and sheath simulation is feasible. We discuss the details of the model equations, the importance of ion inertia, and the resulting sheath profiles for argon and chlorine plasmas. We find that at low operating pressures (10-30 mTorr), the charge separation occurs only within a 0.5 mm layer near the surface in a 300 mm inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. A unified model eliminates the use of off-line or loosely coupled sheath models with simplifying assumptions which generally lead to uncertainties in ion flux and sheath electrical properties.

  14. Simulating deposition of high density tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (United States)

    Babaoglu, Yagmur; Simms, Paul H.


    Tailings are a slurry of silt-sized residual material derived from the milling of rock. High density (HD) tailings are tailings that have been sufficiently dewatered to a point where they exhibit a yield stress upon deposition. They form gently sloped stacks on the surface when deposited; this eliminates or minimizes the need for dams or embankments for containment. Understanding the flow behaviour of high density tailings is essential for estimating the final stack geometry and overall slope angle. This paper focuses on modelling the flow behaviour of HD tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporating a `bi-viscosity' model to simulate the non-Newtonian behaviour. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with bench scale experiments simulating single or multi-layer deposits in two-dimensions. The results indicate that the model agreed fairly well with the experimental work, excepting some repulsion of particles away from the bottom boundary closer to the toe of the deposits. Novel aspects of the work, compared to other simulation of Bingham fluids by SPH, are the simulation of multilayer deposits and the use of a stopping criteria to characterize the rest state.

  15. State switching in regions of high modal density (United States)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.


    Performance of piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches has been studied extensively in the past decade. Originally analyzed with single-degree-of-freedom systems, these approaches have been extended to multi-mode vibration reduction. However, the accompanying analysis typically assumes well-separated modes, which is often not the case for plate structures. Because the semi-active approaches induce a shift in the structural resonance frequency (at least temporarily), targeting a specific mode for vibration reduction can actually lead to additional vibration in an adjacent mode. This paper presents an analysis using a simplified model of a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system with lightly-coupled masses to achieve two closely-spaced modes. This investigation is especially applicable to the resonance frequency detuning approach previously proposed to reduce vibrations caused by transient excitation in turbomachinery blades where regions of high modal density exist. More generally, this paper addresses these effects of stiffness state switches in frequency ranges containing regions of high modal density and subject to frequency sweep excitation. Of the approaches analyzed, synchronized switch damping on an inductor offers the greatest vibration reduction performance, whereas resonance frequency detuning and state switching each yield similar performance. Additionally, as the relative distance between resonance peaks decreases, the performance for the vibration reduction methods approaches that of a single-degree-of-freedom system; however, there are distances between these resonant peaks that diminish vibration reduction potential.

  16. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.


    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  17. High velocity proton collision with liquid lithium: a time dependent density functional theory study. (United States)

    Bi, Gang; Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang


    Liquid lithium is often used as a coating material in fusion reaction chambers, where it is under constant bombardment from high speed neutrons and protons. However, numerous fundamental questions are unanswered, for example whether a single proton impact can cause Li atom sputtering, and what is the electron excitation energy profile after a collision particularly for extremely high energy projectiles. Herein, we use a real-time dependent density functional method to study these questions for proton energies in the range of 30 eV to 1 MeV. The calculated stopping power agrees well with experiment, and it is found that the stopping power cannot be described by the single electron exciting spectrum based on the adiabatic eigen energies, and Li atom sputtering is not observed within our simulation time.

  18. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto


    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.


    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  20. Genetic characterization of the hdrRM operon: a novel high-cell-density-responsive regulator in Streptococcus mutans. (United States)

    Merritt, Justin; Zheng, Lanyan; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia


    Many species of bacteria can adhere to surfaces and grow as sessile communities. The continued accumulation of bacteria can eventually lead to the extremely high-cell-density environment characteristic of many biofilms or cell colonies. This is the normal habitat of the cariogenic species Streptococcus mutans, which normally resides in the high-cell-density, multispecies community commonly referred to as dental plaque. Previous work has demonstrated that the transcription of two separate bacteriocins can be activated by the high-cell-density conditions created through the centrifugation and incubation of cell pellets. In this study, we identified an uncharacterized two-gene operon that was induced >10-fold by conditions of high cell density. The genes of the operon encode a putative transcription regulator and a membrane protein, which were renamed as hdrR and hdrM, respectively. A transcription fusion to the hdrRM operon confirmed its induction by high cell density. Mutation of hdrM abolished bacteriocin production, greatly increased natural competence, reduced the growth rate, and severely affected biofilm formation. Interestingly, no obvious phenotypes were observed from a non-polar mutation of hdrR or mutations affecting the entire operon. These data suggest that the hdrRM operon may constitute a novel regulatory system responsible for mediating a cellular response to a high-cell-density environment.

  1. Local likelihood estimation of complex tail dependence structures in high dimensions, applied to US precipitation extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Camilo, Daniela Castro


    In order to model the complex non-stationary dependence structure of precipitation extremes over the entire contiguous U.S., we propose a flexible local approach based on factor copula models. Our sub-asymptotic spatial modeling framework yields non-trivial tail dependence structures, with a weakening dependence strength as events become more extreme, a feature commonly observed with precipitation data but not accounted for in classical asymptotic extreme-value models. To estimate the local extremal behavior, we fit the proposed model in small regional neighborhoods to high threshold exceedances, under the assumption of local stationarity. This allows us to gain in flexibility, while making inference for such a large and complex dataset feasible. Adopting a local censored likelihood approach, inference is made on a fine spatial grid, and local estimation is performed taking advantage of distributed computing resources and of the embarrassingly parallel nature of this estimation procedure. The local model is efficiently fitted at all grid points, and uncertainty is measured using a block bootstrap procedure. An extensive simulation study shows that our approach is able to adequately capture complex, non-stationary dependencies, while our study of U.S. winter precipitation data reveals interesting differences in local tail structures over space, which has important implications on regional risk assessment of extreme precipitation events. A comparison between past and current data suggests that extremes in certain areas might be slightly wider in extent nowadays than during the first half of the twentieth century.

  2. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren


    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  3. Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z ˜ 2-8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input for Establishing Their Volume Density and UV Emissivity (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Atek, H.; Lam, D.; Stefanon, M.


    We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. However, we cannot assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first size constraints with two new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy’s size. Only the most compact galaxies remain detectable in high-shear regions (versus a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 high-magnification (μ =10-100) z˜ 2-8 galaxies seen behind the first four HFF clusters. This can only be the case if faint (˜ -15 mag) galaxies have significantly smaller sizes than more luminous galaxies, i.e., ≲ 30 mas or 160-240 pc. As a second size probe, we rotate and stack 26 faint high-magnification sources along the major shear axis. Less elongation is found even for objects with an intrinsic half-light radius of 10 mas. Together, these results indicate that extremely faint z˜ 2-8 galaxies have near point-source profiles (half-light radii mas and perhaps 5-10 mas). These results suggest smaller completeness corrections and hence shallower faint-end slopes for the z˜ 2-8 LFs than derived in some recent studies (by {{Δ }}α ≳ 0.1-0.3).

  4. High Stocking Density Controls Phillyrea Angustifolia in Mediterranean Grasslands (United States)

    Mesléard, François; Yavercovski, Nicole; Lefebvre, Gaétan; Willm, Loic; Bonis, Anne


    Extensive grazing applied in the form of low instantaneous pressure over a long period is a widespread management practice in protected areas. However this kind of stocking method does not always achieve the expected results, in particular because it fails to limit colonization by woody plants.This is the case in the relict xero-halophytic grasslands of the northern Mediterranean coastal region, subjected to widespread colonization by the shrub Phillyrea angustifolia despite the presence of extensive grazing. In this study, we investigated, for an equal annual stocking rate, the respective impact of high stocking density applied over a short period (mob grazing) and low stocking density applied over a long period on both P. angustifolia and herbaceous cover, using an in situ experimental design run for 7 years. Only mob grazing was effective both in controlling the establishment and increasing the mortality of P. angustifolia individuals. We did not find any difference after the 7 years of experimentation between the two stocking methods with regard to the herbaceous community parameters tested: species richness, diversity, evenness, contribution of annual characteristic species. By contrast, the exclusion of domestic grazing led to a strong reduction of these values.The use of mob grazing may be well suited for meeting conservation goals such as maintaining open habitats in these grasslands.

  5. High density collinear holographic data storage system (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Arai, Ryo; Ikeda, Junichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Ke; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Yong


    Collinear holography has been good candidate for a volumetric recording technology of holographic data storage system (HDSS), because of there are not only large storage capacities, high transfer rates, but also the unique configuration, in which the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same spatial light modulator, as a new read/write method for HDSS are very promising. The optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media (disc). In the disc structure, the preformatted reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and a dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density. As servo technologies are being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. In this paper, we introduced the principle of the collinear holography and its media structure of disc. Some results of experimental and theoretical studies suggest that it is a very effective method. We also discussed some methods to increase the recording density and data transfer rates of collinear holography using phase modulated page data format.

  6. Construction and analysis of high-density linkage map using high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS, which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at

  7. Probability density distribution of velocity differences at high Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Praskovsky, Alexander A.


    Recent understanding of fine-scale turbulence structure in high Reynolds number flows is mostly based on Kolmogorov's original and revised models. The main finding of these models is that intrinsic characteristics of fine-scale fluctuations are universal ones at high Reynolds numbers, i.e., the functional behavior of any small-scale parameter is the same in all flows if the Reynolds number is high enough. The only large-scale quantity that directly affects small-scale fluctuations is the energy flux through a cascade. In dynamical equilibrium between large- and small-scale motions, this flux is equal to the mean rate of energy dissipation epsilon. The pdd of velocity difference is a very important characteristic for both the basic understanding of fully developed turbulence and engineering problems. Hence, it is important to test the findings: (1) the functional behavior of the tails of the probability density distribution (pdd) represented by P(delta(u)) is proportional to exp(-b(r) absolute value of delta(u)/sigma(sub delta(u))) and (2) the logarithmic decrement b(r) scales as b(r) is proportional to r(sup 0.15) when separation r lies in the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number laboratory shear flows.

  8. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence. (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Davey Smith, G; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A


    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  9. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  10. Ultra-High Energy Density Relativistic Plasmas by Ultrafast Laser Irradiation of Aligned Nanowire Arrays (United States)

    Rocca, J. J.; Purvis, M. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Hollinger, R. C.; Bargsten, C.; Pukhov, A.; Keiss, D.; Townsend, A.; Prieto, A.; Wang, Y.; Yin, L.; Wang, S.; Luther, B.; Woolston, M.


    Long-lived plasmas that are simultaneously dense and hot (multi-keV) have been created by spherical compression with the world's largest lasers, and by supersonic heating of volumes with densities on the order of Nec using multi-kJ lasers pulses. We demonstrate volumetric heating of near-solid density plasmas to keV temperatures using ultra-high contrast λ = 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses of only 0.5 J energy to irradiate arrays of vertically aligned nanowires with 12% average solid density. X-ray spectra show that irradiation of Ni and Au nanowires arrays with relativistic intensities ionizes plasma volumes several micrometers in depth to the He-like and Co-like (Au 52 +) stages respectively. He- α line emission greatly exceeds that of the Ni K α line. This volumetric plasma heating approach creates a new laboratory plasma regime in which extreme plasma parameters can be accessed with table-top lasers. The increased hydrodynamic-to-radiative lifetime ratio is responsible for a great increase in the x-ray emission. Work supported by Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079 and by the HEDLP program of the Office of Science of the U.S Department of Energy. Equipment developed under NSF grant MRI-ARRA 09-561. A.P was supported by DFG-funded project TR18.

  11. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO


    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  12. Sodium pentazolate: A nitrogen rich high energy density material (United States)

    Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.


    Sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5, new high energy density materials, are discovered during first principles crystal structure search for the compounds of varying amounts of elemental sodium and nitrogen. The pentazole anion (N5-) is stabilized in the condensed phase by sodium Na+ cations at pressures exceeding 20 GPa, and becomes metastable upon release of pressure. The sodium azide (NaN3) precursor is predicted to undergo a chemical transformation above 50 GPa into sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5. The calculated Raman spectrum of NaN5 is in agreement with the experimental Raman spectrum of a previously unidentified substance appearing upon compression and heating of NaN3.

  13. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.


    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  14. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.


    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  15. Characterization of high density through silicon vias with spectral reflectometry. (United States)

    Ku, Yi-Sha; Huang, Kuo Cheng; Hsu, Weite


    Measurement and control is an important step for production-worthy through silicon vias etch. We demonstrate the use and enhancement of an existing wafer metrology tool, spectral reflectometer by implementing novel theoretical model and measurement algorithm for high density through-silicon via (HDTSV) inspection. It is capable of measuring depth and depth variations of array vias by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis in one shot measurement. Surface roughness of via bottom can also be extracted by scattering model fitting. Our non-destructive solution can measure TSV profile diameters as small as 5 μm and aspect ratios greater than 13:1. The measurement precision is in the range of 0.02 μm. Metrology results from actual 3D interconnect processing wafers are presented.

  16. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.


    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  17. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX


    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  18. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A


    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  19. Jammed Humans in High-Density Crowd Disasters (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David; Silverberg, Jesse

    When people gather in large groups like those found at Black Friday sales events, pilgrimages, heavy metal concerts, and parades, crowd density often becomes exceptionally high. As a consequence, these events can produce tragic outcomes such as stampedes and ''crowd crushes''. While human collective motion has been studied with active particle simulations, the underlying mechanisms for emergent behavior are less well understood. Here, we use techniques developed to study jammed granular materials to analyze an active matter model inspired by large groups of people gathering at a point of common interest. In the model, a single behavioral rule combined with body-contact interactions are sufficient for the emergence of a self-confined steady state, where particles fluctuate around a stable position. Applying mode analysis to this system, we find evidence for Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance, which may be the preferential mechanisms for dangerous emergent collective motions in crowds.

  20. Environmental determinants, liver function, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. (United States)

    Kuller, L H; Hulley, S B; LaPorte, R E; Neaton, J; Dai, W S


    High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) is negatively associated with coronary heart disease. Environmental heart disease risk factors may partially be related to coronary heart disease through alterations in HDL-chol concentrations. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which environmental factors are related to HDL-chol. The authors investigated a possible mechanism: changes in liver function as a mediating link between risk factors and HDL-chol concentrations in marathon runners, alcoholics, and participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Liver function, as measured by liver enzymes, was related to both coronary heart disease risk factors and alcohol consumption, suggesting that the increased levels of HDL-chol associated with alcohol were primarily the result of changes in liver function. The relationship of obesity to HDL-chol could not be explained by the alterations in liver function.

  1. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.


    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  2. Biodegradation of high density polyethylene using Streptomyces species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farzi


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biodegradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE by Streptomyces species isolated from the soil of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: Powders of HDPE samples were prepared by grinding in different particle sizes of 212, 300, 420, and 500 microns. Each time 50 mg of a sample was poured to a liquid medium containing species. Samples were incubated for 18 days at 28 °C in a shaker-incubator and their degradation percentage was measured by weighting method. Produced metabolite at 18th day was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Also a film of HDPE was subjected to biodegradation and after one month was analyzed by scanning electron microscope which showed degradation on the surface of the film. Results: The results showed that Streptomyces species degraded 50 mg of HDPE sample with the size of 212 μm about 18.26%, 300 and 420 μm about 14.4%, and 500 μm about 13%. Kinetic modeling of biodegradation process showed that the reaction rate was first order with respect to concentration of HDPE. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results, no high toxic material was produced during biodegradation of HDPE. Conclusions: The research showed that isolated Streptomyces sp. are capable of degradation of HDPE polymer with high degradation efficiency.

  3. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.


    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  4. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest. (United States)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Pinto, Matheus Daros; Izquierdo, Mikel; Wang, Yuling; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars Louis


    Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospital bed. Using a cross-sectional design, 22 healthy individuals performed three consecutive repetitions of 14 different lower extremity exercises using elastic resistance, with a perceived intensity corresponding to 8 on the Borg CR-10 scale. Surface electromyography was measured on 13 lower extremity muscles and normalized to the maximal EMG (nEMG). Likewise, exercise satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire. All participants were able to perform all exercises without discomfort and generally rated them satisfactory. High levels of muscle activity were observed for all prime movers. For example, the "femoris muscle setting" exercise showed high levels of muscle activity for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis (79, 75, and 79% nEMG, respectively), while biceps femoris and semitendinosus were highly active during the prone knee flexion exercise with (72 and 71% nEMG, respectively) and without Kinesiology Tape (73 and 77% nEMG, respectively). High levels of muscle activity in the lower extremities can be achieved using elastic resistance exercises performed when lying in a hospital bed. Even though performed on healthy individuals, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals.

  5. Fermionic Superfluids: From Cold Atoms To High Density Qcd Gapless (breached Pair) Superfluidity And Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, M M


    In this thesis, we explore aspects of fermionic superfluidity through a mean-field approximation. Our framework is extremely general, includes both pairing and Hartree-Fock contributions, and is derived rigorously from a variational principle. This framework allows us to analyze a wide range of fermionic systems. In this thesis, we shall consider two-species non-relativistic atomic systems with various types of interactions, and relativistic QCD systems with 3 × 3 × 4 = 36 different quark degrees of freedom (3 colours, 3 flavours, and 4 relativistic degrees of freedom). We discuss properties of a new state of matter: gapless (Breached Pair) superfluidity, and include a summary of potential experimental realizations. We also present numerical results for a completely self-consistent approximation to the NJL model of high-density QCD and use these results to demonstrate a microscopic realization of kaon condensation. We describe how to match the mean-field approximation to the low-energy chi...

  6. Generation of neutral and high-density electron-positron pair plasmas in the laboratory. (United States)

    Sarri, G; Poder, K; Cole, J M; Schumaker, W; Di Piazza, A; Reville, B; Dzelzainis, T; Doria, D; Gizzi, L A; Grittani, G; Kar, S; Keitel, C H; Krushelnick, K; Kuschel, S; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Shukla, N; Silva, L O; Symes, D; Thomas, A G R; Vargas, M; Vieira, J; Zepf, M


    Electron-positron pair plasmas represent a unique state of matter, whereby there exists an intrinsic and complete symmetry between negatively charged (matter) and positively charged (antimatter) particles. These plasmas play a fundamental role in the dynamics of ultra-massive astrophysical objects and are believed to be associated with the emission of ultra-bright gamma-ray bursts. Despite extensive theoretical modelling, our knowledge of this state of matter is still speculative, owing to the extreme difficulty in recreating neutral matter-antimatter plasmas in the laboratory. Here we show that, by using a compact laser-driven setup, ion-free electron-positron plasmas with unique characteristics can be produced. Their charge neutrality (same amount of matter and antimatter), high-density and small divergence finally open up the possibility of studying electron-positron plasmas in controlled laboratory experiments.

  7. Generation of neutral and high-density electron–positron pair plasmas in the laboratory (United States)

    Sarri, G.; Poder, K.; Cole, J. M.; Schumaker, W.; Di Piazza, A.; Reville, B.; Dzelzainis, T.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Grittani, G.; Kar, S.; Keitel, C. H.; Krushelnick, K.; Kuschel, S.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Shukla, N.; Silva, L. O.; Symes, D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Vargas, M.; Vieira, J.; Zepf, M.


    Electron–positron pair plasmas represent a unique state of matter, whereby there exists an intrinsic and complete symmetry between negatively charged (matter) and positively charged (antimatter) particles. These plasmas play a fundamental role in the dynamics of ultra-massive astrophysical objects and are believed to be associated with the emission of ultra-bright gamma-ray bursts. Despite extensive theoretical modelling, our knowledge of this state of matter is still speculative, owing to the extreme difficulty in recreating neutral matter–antimatter plasmas in the laboratory. Here we show that, by using a compact laser-driven setup, ion-free electron–positron plasmas with unique characteristics can be produced. Their charge neutrality (same amount of matter and antimatter), high-density and small divergence finally open up the possibility of studying electron–positron plasmas in controlled laboratory experiments. PMID:25903920

  8. High-Density Droplet Microarray of Individually Addressable Electrochemical Cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Oellers, Tobias; Feng, Wenqian; Abdulazim, Tarik; Saw, En Ning; Ludwig, Alfred; Levkin, Pavel A; Plumeré, Nicolas


    Microarray technology has shown great potential for various types of high-throughput screening applications. The main read-out methods of most microarray platforms, however, are based on optical techniques, limiting the scope of potential applications of such powerful screening technology. Electrochemical methods possess numerous complementary advantages over optical detection methods, including its label-free nature, capability of quantitative monitoring of various reporter molecules, and the ability to not only detect but also address compositions of individual compartments. However, application of electrochemical methods for the purpose of high-throughput screening remains very limited. In this work, we develop a high-density individually addressable electrochemical droplet microarray (eDMA). The eDMA allows for the detection of redox-active reporter molecules irrespective of their electrochemical reversibility in individual nanoliter-sized droplets. Orthogonal band microelectrodes are arranged to form at their intersections an array of three-electrode systems for precise control of the applied potential, which enables direct read-out of the current related to analyte detection. The band microelectrode array is covered with a layer of permeable porous polymethacrylate functionalized with a highly hydrophobic-hydrophilic pattern, forming spatially separated nanoliter-sized droplets on top of each electrochemical cell. Electrochemical characterization of single droplets demonstrates that the underlying electrode system is accessible to redox-active molecules through the hydrophilic polymeric pattern and that the nonwettable hydrophobic boundaries can spatially separate neighboring cells effectively. The eDMA technology opens the possibility to combine the high-throughput biochemical or living cell screenings using the droplet microarray platform with the sequential electrochemical read-out of individual droplets.

  9. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes. (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard


    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  10. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Yan; Wu, Chi-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chun-Ling


    Background: Lower extremity bursae are very vulnerable to injury during strenuous physical exercises. Understanding the imaging characteristics of normal bursae is essential for early diagnosis of morphological abnormalities. Therefore, we evaluated the normal range of lower extremity bursae in healthy young men using high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) imaging. Methods: Bursae in the lower extremities were examined by HR-US in 290 Chinese healthy young men with a median age of 18 years (range, 18–23 years). The bilateral suprapatellar bursa (SPB), deep infrapatellar bursa (DIPB), popliteal bursa (PB), and retrocalcaneal bursa (RCB) were imaged and measured for analysis. Results: The HR-US identification rates of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were 89.0% (517/580), 55.0% (319/580), 29.4% (171/580), and 49.5% (287/580), respectively. With the assumption that the bursae were normal in 95% of the study participants, the length and width values at the maximal cross-section of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were ≤18.00 and 6.09 mm, 8.10 and 2.11 mm, 7.67 and 3.93 mm, and 7.82 and 2.04 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity. PMID:26831233

  11. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.


    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a

  12. Tree crown delineation from high resolution airborne LiDAR based on densities of high points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.Z.A.; Gorte, B.G.H.


    Tree detection and tree crown delineation from Airborne LiDAR has been focusing mostly on utilizing the canopy height model (CHM). This paper presents a method for individual tree crown delineation based on densities of high points (DHP) from the high resolution Airborne LiDAR. The DHP method relies

  13. What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities (United States)

    Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.


    The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.

  14. Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study. (United States)

    Murphy, Michael; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Riedner, Brady A; Boveroux, Pierre; Noirhomme, Quentin; Landsness, Eric C; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Phillips, Christophe; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie


    The electrophysiological correlates of anesthetic sedation remain poorly understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) and source modeling to investigate the cortical processes underlying propofol anesthesia and compare them to sleep. 256-channel EEG recordings in humans during propofol anesthesia. Hospital operating room. 8 healthy subjects (4 males). N/A. Initially, propofol induced increases in EEG power from 12-25 Hz. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was accompanied by the appearance of EEG slow waves that resembled the slow waves of NREM sleep. We compared slow waves in propofol to slow waves recorded during natural sleep and found that both populations of waves share similar cortical origins and preferentially propagate along the mesial components of the default network. However, propofol slow waves were spatially blurred compared to sleep slow waves and failed to effectively entrain spindle activity. Propofol also caused an increase in gamma (25-40 Hz) power that persisted throughout LOC. Source modeling analysis showed that this increase in gamma power originated from the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. During LOC, we found increased gamma functional connectivity between these regions compared to the wakefulness. Propofol anesthesia is a sleep-like state and slow waves are associated with diminished consciousness even in the presence of high gamma activity.

  15. High cell density cultivation of probiotics and lactic acid production. (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Adduci, Vincenzo; Valli, Vivien; Maresca, Carmelina; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Lamberti, Monica; Cartenì, Maria; De Rosa, Mario


    The commercial interest in functional foods that contain live microorganisms, also named probiotics, is paralleled by the increasing scientific attention to their functionality in the digestive tract. This is especially true of yogurts that contain strains of lactic-acid bacteria of intestinal origin, among these, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is extensively used in the dairy industry and it has been demonstrated to be a probiotic strain. In this work we describe high cell density cultivations of this microorganism also focusing on the stereospecific production of lactic acid. Key parameters such as medium composition (bactocasitone concentration) and diverse aeration conditions were explored. The results showed that the final concentration of biomass in anaerobic fermentation was lower than the one obtained in microaerophilic conditions, while it gave a very high productivity of lactic acid which was present as a racemic mixture in the permeate. Fermentation experiments carried out with air sparging, even at very low flow-rate, led to the production of the sole L(+) lactic acid giving sevenfold increase in biomass yield in respect to the batch cultivation. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to describe the microfiltration bioprocess applied in this research considering an inhibition kinetic and enucleating a suitable mathematical description for the decrease of the transmembrane flux. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.


    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  17. Altered activation of endothelial anti- and proapoptotic pathways by high-density lipoprotein from patients with coronary artery disease: role of high-density lipoprotein-proteome remodeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riwanto, Meliana; Rohrer, Lucia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Besler, Christian; Mocharla, Pavani; Mueller, Maja; Perisa, Damir; Heinrich, Kathrin; Altwegg, Lukas; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf


    ...). High-density lipoprotein from healthy subjects (HDL(Healthy)) has been proposed to exert endothelial antiapoptotic effects that may represent an important antiatherogenic property of the lipoprotein...

  18. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Ma, Zhaoji; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong


    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  19. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma


    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  20. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Frese


    Full Text Available Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with ≈2–3 μm average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (≈6–9 μm diameter which often coalesced to form nonspherical μm-sized units. Both, low- and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp2-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp3-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp3 connections in their surface network.

  1. High density plasmas and new diagnostics: An overview (invited) (United States)

    Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.


    One of the limiting factors for the full understanding of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) fundamental mechanisms consists of few types of diagnostic tools so far available for such compact machines. Microwave-to-plasma coupling optimisation, new methods of density overboost provided by plasma wave generation, and magnetostatic field tailoring for generating a proper electron energy distribution function, suitable for optimal ion beams formation, require diagnostic tools spanning across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwave interferometry to X-ray spectroscopy; these methods are going to be implemented including high resolution and spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy made by quasi-optical methods (pin-hole cameras). The ion confinement optimisation also requires a complete control of cold electrons displacement, which can be performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Several diagnostic tools have been recently developed at INFN-LNS, including "volume-integrated" X-ray spectroscopy in low energy domain (2-30 keV, by using silicon drift detectors) or high energy regime (>30 keV, by using high purity germanium detectors). For the direct detection of the spatially resolved spectral distribution of X-rays produced by the electronic motion, a "pin-hole camera" has been developed also taking profit from previous experiences in the ECRIS field. The paper will give an overview of INFN-LNS strategy in terms of new microwave-to-plasma coupling schemes and advanced diagnostics supporting the design of new ion sources and for optimizing the performances of the existing ones, with the goal of a microwave-absorption oriented design of future machines.

  2. Oscillating Thermionic Conversion For High-Density Space Power (United States)

    Jacobson, Dean L.; Morris, James F.


    Space nuclear reactors adapt admirably to compact maneuverable multimegawatt power generation. The compactness, maneuverability and productive weight utilization benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperatures. These modular static generators reduce waste-heat-radiator weights which loom large in high-power space systems. But greater space-power levels test even thermionic conversion because of its high current densities at low voltages: Relatively low-temperature power conditioning also contributes to large waste-heat-radiator weights. Therefore electromagnetic-wave outputs from thermionic conversion offer important advantages over its traditional direct-current power. In this advantageous operating mode thermionic-conversion lasing yet occupies a theoretic niche. Pulsing and switching with triode thermionic converters appear ready for development guided by continuing applied research. And power-producing thermionic-diode oscillators are excellent prospects for United States research exploitation. This direct thermal power oscillator continues to receive intense experimental and theoretical attention in the USSR--under the aegis of the State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy. Now the SDIO through AFWAL has funded a three-year program at Arizona State University to investigate high-temperature oscillatory thermionic conversion. Ascending toward its thermal limits enables thermionic conversion to produce more power at higher voltages and lower currents with greater efficiencies. These gains accrue with minimal collisional damping afforded by surface ionization and Knudsen-arc-mode operation. Here at high neutralization ratios p actual ionization JEXP greatly outstrips the equilibrium ion currents JISL predicted by Saha and Langmuir. In fact for large values of p the value of EXP can exceed JSL by 100-150 times" (Babanin, Ender et alii). And here high neutralization ratios with low collisional damping at reduced cesium pressures favor

  3. Extreme climate projections over the transboundary Koshi River Basin using a high resolution regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Rajbhandari


    Full Text Available The high-resolution climate model Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS was used to project the changes in future extreme precipitation and temperature over the Koshi River Basin for use in impact assessments. Three outputs of the Quantifying Uncertainties in Model Prediction (QUMP simulations using the Hadley Centre Couple Model (HadCM3 based on the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario were used to project the future climate. The projections were analysed for three time slices, 2011–2040 (near future, 2041–2070 (mid-century, and 2071–2098 (distant future. The results show an increase in the future frequency and intensity of climate extremes events such as dry days, consecutive dry days, and very wet days (95th percentile, with greater increases over the southern plains than in the mountainous area to the north. A significant decrease in moderate rainfall days (75th percentile is projected over the middle (high mountain and trans-Himalaya areas. Increases are projected in both the extreme maximum and extreme minimum temperature, with a slightly higher rate in minimum temperature. The number of warm days is projected to increase throughout the basin, with more rapid rates in the trans-Himalayan and middle mountain areas than in the plains. Warm nights are also projected to increase, especially in the southern plains. A decrease is projected in cold days and cold nights indicating overall warming throughout the basin.

  4. Links between extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves and their biological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Emil


    Full Text Available In this mini-review, we describe some of the latest facts regarding the generation of condensed base phonons by biological entities, initially described by the renowned contemporary physicist, Nobel laureate, Herbert Fröhlich, who proposed a new biophysical interaction mechanism between extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves and the biological environment. As we will show, this extremely low intensity millimeter therapy crystallizes as an important new method, universal and effective in the management of diseases with different etiologies. Moreover, the existence of internal electromagnetic fields generated by biological entities, as well as external electromagnetic fields, are essential for understanding the electromagnetic-biological effect. In fact, it is estimated that at present millimeter-wave therapy is used for the management of more than 120 diseases in cardiology, neurology, oncology, gynecology, urology, gastroenterology, surgery, pharmacology and pediatrics. However, so far there is still no consensus regarding the interaction between extremely high frequency/extremely low intensity electromagnetic waves and the biological environment at its different levels of organization. Thus, the present paper was intended to contribute to the development for the theory of millimeter-wave interaction with living biological entities.

  5. Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)

  6. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W


    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  7. Changes of dendritic spine density and morphology in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex induced by extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xiong

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure (14 and 28 days to a 0.5 mT 50 Hz extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELM on the dendritic spine density and shape in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC. We performed Golgi staining to reveal the dendritic spines of the principal neurons in rats. The results showed that ELM exposure induced a decrease in the spine density in the dendrites of stellate neurons and the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons at both 14 days and 28 days, which was largely due to the loss of the thin and branched spines. The alteration in the density of mushroom and stubby spines post ELM exposure was cell-type specific. For the stellate neurons, ELM exposure slightly increased the density of stubby spines at 28 days, while it did not affect the density of mushroom spines at the same time. In the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, we observed a significant decrease in the mushroom spine density only at the later time point post ELM exposure, while the stubby spine density was reduced at 14 days and partially restored at 28 days post ELM exposure. ELM exposure-induced reduction in the spine density in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons was only observed at 28 days, reflecting the distinct vulnerability of spines in the apical and basal dendrites. Considering the changes in spine number and shape are involved in synaptic plasticity and the MEC is a part of neural network that is closely related to learning and memory, these findings may be helpful for explaining the ELM exposure-induced impairment in cognitive functions.

  8. Internal frequency conversion extreme ultraviolet interferometer using mutual coherence properties of two high-order-harmonic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobosz, S.; Stabile, H.; Tortora, A.; Monot, P.; Reau, F.; Bougeard, M.; Merdji, H.; Carre, B.; Martin, Ph. [CEA, IRAMIS, Service des Photons Atomes et Molecules, F-91191 Gif- sur-Yvette (France); Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Delmotte, F.; Gautier, J.; Mercier, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS et Universite Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau cedex (France)


    We report on an innovative two-dimensional imaging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer operating at 32 nm based on the mutual coherence of two laser high order harmonics (HOH) sources, separately generated in gas. We give the first evidence that the two mutually coherent HOH sources can be produced in two independent spatially separated gas jets, allowing for probing centimeter-sized objects. A magnification factor of 10 leads to a micron resolution associated with a subpicosecond temporal resolution. Single shot interferograms with a fringe visibility better than 30% are routinely produced. As a test of the XUV interferometer, we measure a maximum electronic density of 3x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} 1.1 ns after the creation of a plasma on aluminum target.

  9. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.


    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  10. Low precipitation aggravates the impact of extreme high temperatures on lizard reproduction. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Li, Shu-Ran; Bi, Jun-Huai; Du, Wei-Guo


    Extreme high temperatures are occurring more frequently with ongoing anthropogenic climate warming, but the experimental tests of the effects of high temperatures on terrestrial vertebrates in natural conditions are rare. In this study, we investigated the effects of extreme high temperatures on female reproduction and offspring traits of multi-ocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) kept in field enclosures in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. Our studies indicate that high temperatures significantly affect the gestation period and reproductive output of females and the offspring sex ratio, but have little impact on offspring body size and mass. More interestingly, we found that the effect of extreme high temperatures on female reproductive output was not consistent between two consecutive years that differed in precipitation. Low precipitation may aggravate the impact of climate warming on lizards and negatively affect the survival of lizards in the desert steppe. Our results provide evidence that temperature interacts with precipitation to determine the life history of lizards, and they suggest that a drier and hotter environment, such as the future climate in arid mid-latitude areas, will likely impose severe pressure on lizard populations, which are an important component of the food web in desert areas around the world.

  11. Properties of recycled high density polyethylene and coffee dregs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Piedade Cestari


    Full Text Available Composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-R and coffee dregs (COFD were elaborated. The blends were made at the proportions of 100-0, 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, 60-40, 50-50 and 40-60% polymer-filler ratio. The materials were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TGA, and compressive resistance test. The compounding was done using a two-stage co-kneader system extruder, and then cylindrical specimens were injection molded. All composites had a fine dispersion of the COFD into the polymeric matrix. The composites degraded in two steps. The first one was in a temperature lower than the neat HDPE, but higher than the average processing temperature of the polymer. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of the composites resulted similar to the neat HDPE ones. The compressive moduli of the composites resulted similar to the neat polymer one. The results show that these composites have interesting properties as a building material.

  12. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A


    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.


    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  14. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol in thyroid disease. (United States)

    Agdeppa, D; Macaron, C; Mallik, T; Schnuda, N D


    The plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were reduced in 16 hyperthyroid female patients compared to 37 euthyroid women (33.5 +/- 8 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl (mean +/- SD); P less than 0.001). When 5 patients were restudied after restoration of the euthyroid state, plasma HDL-C increased from 29 +/- 5 to 43 +/- 11.5 mg/dl (P less than 0.05). In addition, in 22 hypothyroid women, HDL-C levels were also diminished compared to the euthyroid group (43.4 +/- 15.5 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl; P less than 0.05). Nine patients were restudied after L-T4 replacement therapy; their levels of HDL-C increased but not to a statistically significant degree. The daily administration of 0.3 mg L-T4 to eight normal male volunteers for 1 month did not significantly affect HDL-C levels.

  15. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  16. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; hide


    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  17. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets (United States)

    McCallum, R. William


    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  18. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter


    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  19. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females. (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung


    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  20. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano Misra


    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011Ω-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 μCi), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the

  1. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial activation.[5,6] Bacterial infection associated with leukocytosis, malaria, dehydration, extremes of temperatures, stress, and low oxygen tension have all been shown to precipitate sickle cell crises and consequent adverse clinical outcome. Even though, decreased levels ...

  2. Solar cosmic rays during the extremely high ground level enhancement on 23 February 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belov


    Full Text Available The 23 February 1956 ground level enhancement of the solar cosmic ray intensity (GLE05 is the most famous among the proton events observed since 1942. But we do not have a great deal of information on this event due to the absence of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements at that time. Furthermore, there were no X-Ray or gamma observations and the information on the associated flare is limited. Cosmic ray data was obtained exclusively by ground level detectors of small size and in some cases of a non-standard design. In the present work all available data from neutron monitors operating in 1956 were analyzed, in order to develop a model of the solar cosmic ray behavior during the event. The time-dependent characteristics of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, cosmic ray anisotropy, and differential and integral fluxes have been evaluated utilizing different isotropic and anisotropic models. It is shown that the most outstanding features of this proton enhancement were a narrow and extremely intense beam of ultra-relativistic particles arriving at Earth just after the onset and the unusually high maximum solar particle energy. However, the contribution of this beam to the overall solar particle density and fluency was not significant because of its very short duration and small width. Our estimate of the integral flux for particles with energies over 100 MeV places this event above all subsequent. Perhaps the number of accelerated low energy particles was closer to a record value, but these particles passed mainly to the west of Earth. Many features of this GLE are apparently explained by the peculiarity of the particle interplanetary propagation from a remote (near the limb source. The quality of the available neutron monitor data does not allow us to be certain of some details; these may be cleared up by the incorporation into the analysis of data from muonic telescopes and ionization chambers operating at that time. Keywords

  3. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets (United States)

    Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre


    Magnetized high energy density (HED) plasma jets produced by radial foil explosions on pulsed power machines have improved our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving flowing matter under extreme conditions. Experiments and simulations indicate that magnetic fields are crucial in the formation and stability of strongly collimated plasma jets, a property also shared by astrophysical jets originating from black holes and protostars. It is understood that these magnetic fields also generate electric fields, often associated with the dynamo effect. In fact, when the Lundquist number is large enough, the dynamo effect is frequently seen as the dominant electric field driver of flowing plasmas. This is true inside the collimated jet where the density (> 1019 cm-3) , velocity ( 50 eV) are high enough to preclude the dominance of any other type of electric fields. However, the ion flow speed is much lower than the speed of light. As a result, dynamo electric fields do not impact noticeably fluid motion since electric stresses are negligible compared to magnetic stresses. On the other hand, Hall physics dominates the low density plasma surrounding the jet (< 1018 cm-3) . In this region, electron speeds can be orders of magnitude higher than the bulk flow velocity as ion and electron fluids are decoupled. As a result, electric stresses can rival with magnetic stresses and Hall physics does impact the overall plasma dynamics. This talk will discuss how HED plasmas are subjected to Hall physics and how it impacts the particle confinement as well as the MHD stability of plasma jets. After focusing on experimental results and numerical simulations from the PERSEUS code, the talk will extend its conclusions to inertial fusion regimes where Hall physics could also alter plasma confinement and stability. Research supported by NNSA/DOE Grant Cooperative Agreements DE-FC52-06NA 00057, DE-NA 0001836 and NSF Grant PHY-1102471.

  4. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 ? 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed effort...

  5. Very high-density planets: a possible remnant of gas giants. (United States)

    Mocquet, A; Grasset, O; Sotin, C


    Data extracted from the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia (see show the existence of planets that are more massive than iron cores that would have the same size. After meticulous verification of the data, we conclude that the mass of the smallest of these planets is actually not known. However, the three largest planets, Kepler-52b, Kepler-52c and Kepler-57b, which are between 30 and 100 times the mass of the Earth, have indeed density larger than an iron planet of the same size. This observation triggers this study that investigates under which conditions these planets could represent the naked cores of gas giants that would have lost their atmospheres during their migration towards the star. This study shows that for moderate viscosity values (10(25) Pa s or lower), large values of escape rate and associated unloading stress rate during the atmospheric loss process lead to the explosion of extremely massive planets. However, for moderate escape rate, the bulk viscosity and finite-strain incompressibility of the cores of giant planets can be large enough to retain a very high density during geological time scales. This would make those a new kind of planet, which would help in understanding the interior structure of the gas giants. However, this new family of exoplanets adds some degeneracy for characterizing terrestrial exoplanets.

  6. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells


    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David


    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an ?oxygen depletion design? whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we...

  7. Stability Of Rubble Mound Breakwaters Using High Density Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Beck, J. B.


    The present paper discusses the effect of mass density on stability of rubble mound breakwaters. A short literature review of existing knowledge is give to establish a background for the ongoing research. Furthermore, several model tests are described in which the stability of rubble mound...... breakwaters with armour stones of different densities are investigated. The results from the model test are discussed with respect to application and further research....

  8. Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons from Rice Husk for Supercapacitors with High Energy Density in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes. (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hebao; Xie, Kang; Xia, Youyi; Zhao, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoting


    High-performance mesoporous carbons (MCs) for supercapacitors were made from rice husk by one-step microwave-assisted ZnCl2 activation. The microstructures of MCs as-made were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The pore structure parameters of MCs were obtained by N2 adsorption technique. The electrochemical properties of MC electrodes were studied by constant current charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in different electrolytes. The results showed that the specific surface area of MC4 made at the ZnCl2/rice husk mass of 4:1 reached 1737 m2 g(-1). The specific capacitance and energy density of the electrodes fabricated from the mixture of MC4 and microporous carbon increased with the mass percentage of MC4, reaching 157 F g(-1) and 84 Wh kg(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1), and showed good cycle stability in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte. Compared to the often-used aqueous and organic electrolytes, MC4 capacitor exhibited extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolyte, remaining at 28 Wh kg(-1) at 1684 W kg(-1). This work paves a new way to produce cost-effective MCs from biomass for supercapacitors with extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolytes.

  9. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010 (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.


    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  10. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011 (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.


    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  11. Some specific features of subcooled boiling heat transfer and crisis at extremely high heat flux densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotovsky, M.A. [Polzunov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Forced convection boiling is the process used widely in a lot of industry branches including NPP. Heat transfer intensity under forced convection boiling is considered in different way in dependence on conditions. One of main problems for the process considered is an influence of interaction between forced flow and boiling on heat transfer character. For saturated water case a transition from ''pure'' forced convection to nucleate boiling can be realized in smooth form. (author)

  12. High Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Levels Increase Proinflammatory and Cardiovascular Markers in Patients with Extreme Obesity. (United States)

    Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime Héctor; Mendoza-Zubieta, Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Marío Antonio; Valladares-Sálgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; de Jesús Peralta-Romero, Jose; Cruz, Miguel


    Obesity is an important health problem worldwide and many studies have suggested a relationship between obesity and thyroid function, with controversial results. Interestingly, high TSH levels have been involved with the presence of inflammatory state and risk for developing cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid and obese patients. The aim in this work was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity and to determine whether their TSH levels were related to increased serum levels of inflammatory and cardiovascular markers. A cross-sectional study in 101 patients with extreme obesity (BMI ≥40) was performed. Anthropometric (weight, height and waist circumference) and biochemical (fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and insulin) parameters were measured. TSH and FT4 levels as well as clinical exploration for diagnosis of hypothyroidism were carried out. Serum concentration of IL-10, IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, leptin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin were determined. A high prevalence for diabetes (37.6%), prediabetes (50.5%), dyslipidemia (74.3%), hypertension (61.4%) and hypothyroidism (48.5%) was observed in patients with extreme obesity. The presence of hypothyroidism increased serum concentration of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and leptin and decreased the antiinflammatory cytokine adiponectin. In addition, serum TSH levels showed a correlation for waist circumference, weight, BMI, A1c, insulin, IL-6, leptin, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. There is a high prevalence for hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity. High levels of TSH contribute to elevate proinflammatory and cardiovascular risk markers, increasing the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico


    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors......). Overall, this study demonstrated for the first time that acclimation of methanogenic communities to extreme ammonia levels in continuous AD process is possible, by developing a specialised acclimation AD microbiome....

  14. Deployment After Limb Salvage for High-Energy Lower-Extremity Trauma (United States)


    clinical pathway incorporates a custom, carbon fiber energy storage and return ankle foot orthosis, the intrepid dynamic exoskeletal or- thosis...extremity amputation and prosthetics for the combat injured patient. Foot Ankle Clin. 2010;15:151Y174. J Trauma Acute Care Surg Volume 73, Number 2...such as these. It involves an energy storing ankle foot orthosis, the intrepid dynamic exoskeletal orthosis in combination with high-intensity

  15. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.


    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  16. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  17. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.


    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  18. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others


    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  19. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov Philipp


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value -13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 File archive comprising of prototype R code for gSAM implementation including readme and examples. Click here for file

  20. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie


    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  1. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Spirig

    Full Text Available An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC. Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40, IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  2. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes. (United States)

    Spirig, Rolf; Schaub, Alexander; Kropf, Alain; Miescher, Sylvia; Spycher, Martin O; Rieben, Robert


    An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.


    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  4. Solving Component Structural Dynamic Failures Due to Extremely High Frequency Structural Response on the Space Shuttle Program (United States)

    Frady, Greg; Nesman, Thomas; Zoladz, Thomas; Szabo, Roland


    For many years, the capabilities to determine the root-cause failure of component failures have been limited to the analytical tools and the state of the art data acquisition systems. With this limited capability, many anomalies have been resolved by adding material to the design to increase robustness without the ability to determine if the design solution was satisfactory until after a series of expensive test programs were complete. The risk of failure and multiple design, test, and redesign cycles were high. During the Space Shuttle Program, many crack investigations in high energy density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps and high energy flows in the main propulsion system, have led to the discovery of numerous root-cause failures and anomalies due to the coexistences of acoustic forcing functions, structural natural modes, and a high energy excitation, such as an edge tone or shedding flow, leading the technical community to understand many of the primary contributors to extremely high frequency high cycle fatique fluid-structure interaction anomalies. These contributors have been identified using advanced analysis tools and verified using component and system tests during component ground tests, systems tests, and flight. The structural dynamics and fluid dynamics communities have developed a special sensitivity to the fluid-structure interaction problems and have been able to adjust and solve these problems in a time effective manner to meet budget and schedule deadlines of operational vehicle programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program over the years.

  5. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)


    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  6. Effects of acute exercise on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein subfractions in moderately trained females. (United States)

    Gordon, P M; Fowler, S; Warty, V; Danduran, M; Visich, P; Keteyian, S


    Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL-C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24-48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post-exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women.

  7. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Kakuda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs, which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp, this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs.

  8. Adiponectin Is a Candidate Biomarker of Lower Extremity Bone Density in Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury


    Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A.; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R.


    Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating ad...

  9. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team


    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  10. Impact of the extreme 2009 wildfire Victoria the wettability of naturally highly water repellent soils (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Lane, Patrick Nj; Smith, Hugh G.; Bell, Tina; Blake, William H.


    The recent catastrophic wildfires near Melbourne, which peaked on Feb. 7 2009, burned ca 400,000 ha and caused the tragic loss of 173 people. They occurred during unprecedented extreme fire weather where dry northerly winds gusting up to 100 km/h coincided with the highest temperatures ever recorded in this region. These conditions, combined with the very high biomass of mature eucalypt forests, very low fuel moisture conditions and steep slopes, generated extreme burning conditions. A rapid response project was launched under the NERC Urgency Scheme aimed at determining the effects of this extreme event on soil properties. Three replicate sites each were sampled for extremely high burn severity, high burn severity and unburnt control terrain, within mature mixed-species eucalypt forests near Marysville in April 2009. Ash and surface soil (0-2.5 cm and 2.5-5 cm) were collected at 20 sample grid points at each site. Here we report on outcomes from Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) tests carried out on soil samples to determine the impact of this extreme event on the wettability of a naturally highly water repellent soil. Field assessment suggested that the impact of this extreme wildfire on the soil was less than might be supposed given the extreme burn severity (indicated by the complete elimination of the ground vegetation). This was confirmed by the laboratory results. No major difference in WDPT was detected between (i) burned and control samples, and (ii) between surface and subsurface WDPT patterns, indicating that soil temperatures in the top 0-2.5 cm did not exceed ~200° C. Seedling germination in burned soil was reduced by at least 2/3 compared to the control samples, however, this reduction is indicative an only modest heat input into the soil. The limited heat input into the soil stands in stark contrast to the extreme burn severity (based on vegetation destruction parameters). We speculate that limited soil heating resulted perhaps from the unusually

  11. Urban renewal based wind environment at pedestrian level in high-density and high-rise urban areas in Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong (United States)

    Yao, J. W.; Zheng, J. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Shao, Y. H.; Yuan, F.


    In high-density and high-rise urban areas, pedestrian level winds contribute to improve comfort, safety and diffusion of heat in urban areas. Outdoor wind study is extremely vital and a prerequisite in high-density cities considering that the immediate pedestrian level wind environment is fundamentally impacted by the presence of a series of high-rise buildings. In this paper, the research site of Sai Ying Pun in Hong Kong will be analysed in terms of geography, climate and urban morphology, while the surrounding natural ventilation has also been simulated by the wind tunnel experiment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has found that, the existing problems in this district are the contradiction between planning control and commercial interests, which means some areas around tall buildings are not benefit to the residents because of the unhealthy wind environment. Therefore, some recommendation of urban renewal strategy has been provided.

  12. Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritomi, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Strathmann, H.


    The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from

  13. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.


    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  14. Test of high density UC targets development at Gatchina for neutron rich radioactive beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Lhersonneau, G; Lanchais, A; Rizzi, V; Tecchio, L.B; Bajeat, O; Essabaa, S; Lau, C; Cheikh Mhamed, M; Roussière, B; Barzakh, A.E; Fedorov, D.V; lonan, A.M; lvanov, V.S; Mezilev, K.A; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.YU; Panteleevc, V.N; Volkovc, YU.M; Dubois, M; Eléon, C; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Leroy, R; Saint Laurent, M.G; Villari, A.C.C; Stroe, L; 10.1016/j.nimb.2008.05.033


    Production of on-line mass separator neutron rich isotopes using fission induced by 1 GeV protons on high density uranium carbide has been investigate and results compared with the low density targets yields.

  15. Estimates of high absolute densities and emergence rates of demersal zooplankton from the Agatti Atoll, laccadives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Direct sampling of the sandy substratus of the Agatti Lagoon with a corer showed the presence of vary high densities of epibenthic forms. On average, densities were about 25 times higher than previously estimated with emergence traps. About 80...

  16. Warmer and wetter winters: characteristics and implications of an extreme weather event in the High Arctic (United States)

    Hansen, Brage B.; Isaksen, Ketil; Benestad, Rasmus E.; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Loe, Leif E.; Coulson, Stephen J.; Larsen, Jan Otto; Varpe, Øystein


    One predicted consequence of global warming is an increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, or heavy rainfalls. In parts of the Arctic, extreme warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) events in winter are already more frequent. How these weather events impact snow-pack and permafrost characteristics is rarely documented empirically, and the implications for wildlife and society are hence far from understood. Here we characterize and document the effects of an extreme warm spell and ROS event that occurred in High Arctic Svalbard in January-February 2012, during the polar night. In this normally cold semi-desert environment, we recorded above-zero temperatures (up to 7 °C) across the entire archipelago and record-breaking precipitation, with up to 98 mm rainfall in one day (return period of >500 years prior to this event) and 272 mm over the two-week long warm spell. These precipitation amounts are equivalent to 25 and 70% respectively of the mean annual total precipitation. The extreme event caused significant increase in permafrost temperatures down to at least 5 m depth, induced slush avalanches with resultant damage to infrastructure, and left a significant ground-ice cover (˜5-20 cm thick basal ice). The ground-ice not only affected inhabitants by closing roads and airports as well as reducing mobility and thereby tourism income, but it also led to high starvation-induced mortality in all monitored populations of the wild reindeer by blocking access to the winter food source. Based on empirical-statistical downscaling of global climate models run under the moderate RCP4.5 emission scenario, we predict strong future warming with average mid-winter temperatures even approaching 0 °C, suggesting increased frequency of ROS. This will have far-reaching implications for Arctic ecosystems and societies through the changes in snow-pack and permafrost properties.

  17. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  18. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillot L.-A.


    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6 and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85% of ethanol (E85 in the biofuel, permeability of PA6 being 100 times lower than that of HDPE for low ethanol content fuels (E5, E0. The time-lags were also compared, and on the whole range of ethanol contents, HDPE permeation kinetics appears to be much faster than that of PA6, the time lag for a 1 mm thick specimens in presence of E10 being 50 days for PA6 and 0.5 days for HDPE. The compositions of the solvent fluxes were analyzed by FID gas chromatography, and it turned out that the solvent flux was mainly made up of ethanol (minimum 95% in the case of PA6, whereas in the case of HDPE, solvent flux was mainly made up of hydrocarbons. The implication of this difference in the solvent flux composition is discussed in the present article, and a side effect called the “fuel exhaustion process” is presented. The influence of the sample thickness was then studied, and for the different biofuels compositions, the pervaporation kinetics of polyamide 6 appeared to evolve with the square of the thickness, a long transitory regime being highlighted in the case of PA6. This result implies that the time needed to characterize the steady state permeability of thick PA6 parts such as fuel tanks can be very long (one year or more, this duration being far superior to the Euros 5 or Euro 6 standard emission measurements time scale. The influence of temperature on the permeability was finally assessed, and the activation energy that is the signature of the temperature

  19. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.


    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing

  20. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.; Haast, M.A.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hadjipanayis, G.C.


    The areal bit density of magnetic disk recording has increased since 1990 60% per year and even in the last years 100%. Extrapolation of these rates leads to recording parameters not likely to be achieved without changes in the present way of storing hard disk data. One of the possible solutions is

  1. Methods for preparing patterned media for high-density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.


    The areal bit density of magnetic disk recording has made a colossal increase over the last decades. Extrapolation leads to recording parameters not likely to be achieved without changes in the present way of storing magnetic data. One of the potential solutions is the use of patterned media, which

  2. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    assessments of these specific VSCs so that their power densities and reliabilities are quantitatively determined, which requires extensive utilization of the electro-thermal models of the VSCs under investigation. In this thesis, the three-level neutral-point-clamped VSCs (3L-NPC-VSCs), which are classified...

  3. Light-induced catalyst and solvent-free high pressure synthesis of high density polyethylene at ambient temperature. (United States)

    Ceppatelli, Matteo; Bini, Roberto


    The combined effect of high pressure and electronic photo-excitation has been proven to be very efficient in activating extremely selective polymerisations of small unsaturated hydrocarbons in diamond anvil cells (DAC). Here we report an ambient temperature, large volume synthesis of high density polyethylene based only on high pressure (0.4-0.5 GPa) and photo-excitation (~350 nm), without any solvent, catalyst or radical initiator. The reaction conditions are accessible to the current industrial technology and the laboratory scale pilot reactor can be scaled up to much larger dimensions for practical applications. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, indicate that the synthesised material is of comparable quality with respect to the outstanding crystalline material obtained in the DAC. The polydispersity index is comparable to that of IV generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Moreover the crystalline quality of the synthesised material can be further enhanced by a thermal annealing at 373 K and ambient pressure. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High-energy-density electron beam from interaction of two successive laser pulses with subcritical-density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Wang


    Full Text Available It is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that a narrow electron beam with high energy and charge density can be generated in a subcritical-density plasma by two consecutive laser pulses. Although the first laser pulse dissipates rapidly, the second pulse can propagate for a long distance in the thin wake channel created by the first pulse and can further accelerate the preaccelerated electrons therein. Given that the second pulse also self-focuses, the resulting electron beam has a narrow waist and high charge and energy densities. Such beams are useful for enhancing the target-back space-charge field in target normal sheath acceleration of ions and bremsstrahlung sources, among others.

  5. Hydroclimatology of Extreme Drought and Flood Events in the Northern High Plains, U.S. (United States)

    Smith, K.; Morton, M.; Rico, D.; Mohamad Abadi, A.; Luna, I.; Livneh, B.; Munoz-Arriola, F.


    The goal is to illustrate the hydroclimatology of extreme droughts and floods, in the Northern High Plains (NHP). The state of Nebraska has the largest number of irrigated acres in the US by state; thus is exceedingly dependent on the availability of groundwater. Regions along the great Ogallala aquifer have already experienced a dramatic reduction of groundwater with most areas seeing water table drops of 10-50 feet in depth, with several recorded drops of over 100 feet. Finite groundwater resources availability challenges agroecosystems and ecosystem sustainability, leaving productive areas subject to the availability of surface water. However, our understanding on the predictability of extreme events is still limited. Thus our question is: What is the sensitivity of the NHP to extreme droughts and floods? Duration, frequency, and the area of influence of floods and droughts vary but can occur at the same time in different regions or at different times in the same region. Our objective is to (a) identify spatiotemporal patterns of variability of floods and droughts in NHP's land surface hydrology (LSH); and (b) account for the spatiotemporal impacts of deficits and surpluses of water at the basin-scale. The hypothesis is that areas of influence and the associated duration of droughts and floods will be more sensitive to different LSH variables and state variables than to the statistical approaches used to analyze them. To test the present hypothesis we will use gridded observed (precipitation) and simulated LSH variables (runoff, baseflow, and soil moisture) on the Platte River Basin. Precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures, and wind speed force the Variable infiltration Capacity model at 1/16th degree resolution from 1950 to 2013. Drought indices based on percentiles estimated from Gamma, General Extreme Value, and Gumble distribution functions are estimated using daily observed and simulated variables for the domains and timespans mentioned above

  6. How Much Can Density Functional Approximations (DFA) Fail? The Extreme Case of the FeO4 Species. (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xing, Deng-Hui; Lu, Jun-Bo; Long, Bo; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Li, Jun


    A thorough theoretical study of the relative energies of various molecular Fe·4O isomers with different oxidation states of both Fe and O atoms is presented, comparing simple Hartree-Fock through many Kohn-Sham approximations up to extended coupled cluster and DMRG multiconfiguration benchmark methods. The ground state of Fe·4O is a singlet, hexavalent iron(VI) complex (1)C2v-[Fe(VI)O2](2+)(O2)(2-), with isomers of oxidation states Fe(II), Fe(III), Fe(IV), Fe(V), and Fe(VIII) all lying slightly higher within the range of 1 eV. The disputed existence of oxidation state Fe(VIII) is discussed for isolated FeO4 molecules. Density functional theory (DFT) at various DF approximation (DFA) levels of local and gradient approaches, Hartree-Fock exchange and meta hybrids, range dependent, DFT-D and DFT+U models do not perform better for the relative stabilities of the geometric and electronic Fe·4O isomers than within 1-5 eV. The Fe·4O isomeric species are an excellent testing and validation ground for the development of density functional and wave function methods for strongly correlated multireference states, which do not seem to always follow chemical intuition.

  7. Volume-translated cubic EoS and PC-SAFT density models and a free volume-based viscosity model for hydrocarbons at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh, Mark A.


    This research focuses on providing the petroleum reservoir engineering community with robust models of hydrocarbon density and viscosity at the extreme temperature and pressure conditions (up to 533 K and 276 MPa, respectively) characteristic of ultra-deep reservoirs, such as those associated with the deepwater wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Our strategy is to base the volume-translated (VT) Peng–Robinson (PR) and Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) cubic equations of state (EoSs) and perturbed-chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) on an extensive data base of high temperature (278–533 K), high pressure (6.9–276 MPa) density rather than fitting the models to low pressure saturated liquid density data. This high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) data base consists of literature data for hydrocarbons ranging from methane to C{sub 40}. The three new models developed in this work, HTHP VT-PR EoS, HTHP VT-SRK EoS, and hybrid PC-SAFT, yield mean absolute percent deviation values (MAPD) for HTHP hydrocarbon density of ~2.0%, ~1.5%, and <1.0%, respectively. An effort was also made to provide accurate hydrocarbon viscosity models based on literature data. Viscosity values are estimated with the frictional theory (f-theory) and free volume (FV) theory of viscosity. The best results were obtained when the PC-SAFT equation was used to obtain both the attractive and repulsive pressure inputs to f-theory, and the density input to FV theory. Both viscosity models provide accurate results at pressures to 100 MPa but experimental and model results can deviate by more than 25% at pressures above 200 MPa.

  8. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A


    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density.

  9. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  10. Pressure-induced stable BeN4 as a high-energy density material (United States)

    Zhang, Shoutao; Zhao, Ziyuan; Liu, Lulu; Yang, Guochun


    Polynitrogens are the ideal rocket fuels or propellants. Due to strong triple N≡N bond in N2, the direct polymerization of nitrogen is rather difficult (i.e. extreme high temperature and high pressure). However, the use of nitrides as precursors or the reaction of N2 with other elements has been proved to be an effective way to obtain polynitrogens. Here, with assistance of the advanced first-principles swarm-intelligence structure searches, we found that P 1 bar -BeN4, containing infinite zigzag-like polymeric nitrogen chains, can be synthesized by compressing the mixture of Be3N2 and N2 at 25.4 GPa, which is greatly lower than 110 GPa for synthesizing cubic gauche nitrogen and other polynitrogen compounds (e.g. bulk CNO at 52 GPa and SN4 at 49 GPa). Its structural stability can be attributed to the coexistence of ionic Be-N and covalent N-N bonds. Intriguingly, this phase has high kinetic stability and remains metastable at ambient pressure. The exceptional properties, including high energy density (3.60 kJ g-1), high nitrogen content (86.1%), high dynamical stability, and low polymerization pressure, make P 1 bar -structured BeN4 a promising high energy material. Infinite nitrogen chains in P 1 bar -BeN4 transform to N10 rings network in P21/c phase at 115.1 GPa. P 1 bar -BeN4 is metallic, while P21/c-BeN4 is an insulator.

  11. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls. (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung


    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  12. Low total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with complex congenital heart disease after Fontan palliation. (United States)

    Whiteside, Wendy; Tan, Meng; Yu, Sunkyung; Rocchini, Albert


    To test the hypothesis that patients with complex congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan palliation have low total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the random serum lipid profiles obtained at cardiology clinic visits between May 2010 and November 2011 in patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure. We compared these serum lipid levels against age- and sex-matched established normal data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure also had laboratory test data obtained during their visits. Median total cholesterol level in the Fontan group was 127 mg/dL (IQR, 116-144 mg/dL), median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 33-45 mg/dL), median non-HDL-C was 86 mg/dL (IQR, 76-109 mg/dL), and median LDL-C was 66 mg/dL (IQR, 57-83 mg/dL). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure compared with age- and sex-matched normal individuals (mean z-score, -1.4, -1.2, -1.0, and -1.0 respectively; all P<.0001). Cholesterol levels were below the 25th percentile for age and sex for total cholesterol in 82% of patients, for LDL-C in 76%, for non-HDL-C in 67%, and for HDL-C in 57%. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure have significantly lower serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels than age- and sex-matched normal individuals. Although the implications of this finding are unknown, it raises the possibility of abnormalities in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or catabolism in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining Spatio-Temporal Intensity-Frequency Variations in Extreme Monsoon Rainfall using High Resolution Data (United States)

    Devak, M.; Rajendran, V.; C T, D.


    The study of extreme events has gained the attention of hydrologists in recent times. Though these events are rare, the effects are catastrophic. It is reported that the frequency of the occurrence of these events has increased in recent decades, and is attributed to the recent revelation of climate change. Numerous studies have pointed out significant changes in extremely heavy precipitation over India, using coarse resolution data. Though there are disagreements in the results and its spatial uniformity, all these studies emphasize the need of fine resolution analysis. Fine resolution analysis is necessary mainly due to the highly heterogeneous characteristics of Indian monsoon, and for the proper employment in flood hazard preparedness and water resources management. The present study aims to analyse the spatio-temporal variation and trends in the intensity and frequency of heavy precipitation during Indian monsoon using 0.25°×0.25° resolution gridded data for a period of 113 years (1901-2013). The exceedance threshold is fixed at 90th percentile of rainfall over 113 years and parameters are defined accordingly. The maximum intensity of each extreme rainfall episode of 30 year moving window has been modelled using Peak Over Threshold based Extreme Value Theory to compute return level (considered for intensity). In addition, the number of such episodes in a particular year has been termed as frequency. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall test has been carried out for both intensity and frequency, to compute the statistical trend. In addition, moving block bootstrap approach has been used to incorporate the serial correlation. The significance of the trend has been evaluated at different significance levels and finally, change in trend over last century has been examined.

  14. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal


    Elshenawy, Tamer; Soliman, Salah; Hawass, Ahmed


    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  15. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays


    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.


    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every...

  16. The 3D Stacking Bipolar RRAM for High Density (United States)


    schemes for STT- MRAM in 0.13µm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), 2010, pp. 256– 257. [5] I...Conventionally, multiple bipolar RRAM layers are piled up vertically separated with isolation material to prevent signal interference between the...array density. Conventionally, multiple bipolar RRAM layers are piled up vertically separated with isolation material to prevent signal interference

  17. Capped bit patterned media for high density magnetic recording (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Livshitz, Boris; Bertram, H. Neal; Inomata, Akihiro; Fullerton, Eric E.; Lomakin, Vitaliy


    A capped composite patterned medium design is described which comprises an array of hard elements exchange coupled to a continuous cap layer. The role of the cap layer is to lower the write field of the individual hard element and introduce ferromagnetic exchange interactions between hard elements to compensate the magnetostatic interactions. Modeling results show significant reduction in the reversal field distributions caused by the magnetization states in the array which is important to prevent bit errors and increase achievable recording densities.

  18. Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Cored Sn Solder Joints Under High Temperature and High Current Density (United States)

    Sa, Xianzhang; Wu, Ping


    This work investigated the microstructure evolution of Cu-cored Sn solder joints under high temperature and high current density. The Cu6Sn5 phase formed at both the Cu core/Sn interface and Cu wire/Sn interface right after reflow and grew with increasing annealing time, while the Cu3Sn phase formed and grew at the Cu/Cu6Sn5 interfaces. Intermetallic compound (IMC) growth followed a linear relationship with the square root of annealing time due to a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Under high current density, the thickness of the interfacial IMCs of the Cu core/Sn interface at the cathode side increased and the Cu core/Sn interface at the anode side exhibited an irregular and serrated morphology with prolonged current stressing time. Finite-element simulation was carried out to obtain the distribution of current density in the solder joint. Since Cu has lower resistivity, the electrical current primarily selected the Cu core as its electrical path, resulting in current crowding at the Cu core and the region between the Cu core and Cu wire. Compared with the conventional solder joint, the electromigration (EM) lifetime of the Cu-cored solder joint was much longer.

  19. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel


    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale. Copyright

  20. Fabrication and characterization of a new high density Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Pershin, Yuri; Ponomarenko, Alexander; Kondratenko, Valeriy


    State of the art soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques like Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) require diffraction gratings which can provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106. This problem may be addressed with a sliced multilayer grating with an ultra-high groove density (up to 50,000 mm-1) proposed in the recent publication [Voronov, D. L., Cambie, R., Feshchenko, R. M., Gullikson, E., Padmore, H. A., Vinogradov, A. V., Yashchuk, V. V., Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007)]. It has been suggested to fabricate such a grating by deposition of a soft x-ray multilayer on a substrate which is a blazed saw-tooth grating (echellette) with low groove density. Subsequent polishing applied to the coated grating removes part of the coating and forms an oblique-cut multiline structure that is a sliced multilayer grating. The resulting grating has a short-scale periodicity of lines (bilayers), which is defined by the multilayer period and the oblique-cut angle. We fabricated and tested a Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating suitable for EUV applications, which is a first prototype based on the suggested technique. In order to fabricate an echellette substrate, we used anisotropic KOH etching of a Si wafer. The etching regime was optimized to obtain smooth and flat echellette facets. A Sc/Si multilayer was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering, and after that it was mechanically polished using a number of diamond pastes. The resulting sliced grating prototype with ~;;270 nm line period has demonstrated a dispersive ability in the 41-49 nm photon wavelength range with a diffraction efficiency of ~;;7percent for the optimized 38th order assigned to the echellette grating of 10 mu m period.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a new high density Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating (United States)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Gullikson, Eric M.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.; Pershin, Yuri P.; Ponomarenko, Alexander G.; Kondratenko, Valeriy V.


    State of the art soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques like Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) require diffraction gratings which can provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106. This problem may be addressed with a sliced multilayer grating with an ultra-high groove density (up to 50,000 mm-1) proposed in the recent publication [Voronov, D. L., et al., Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007)]. It has been suggested to fabricate such a grating by deposition of a soft x-ray multilayer on a substrate which is a blazed saw-tooth grating (echellette) with low groove density. Subsequent polishing applied to the coated grating removes part of the coating and forms an oblique-cut multiline structure that is a sliced multilayer grating. The resulting grating has a short-scale periodicity of lines (bilayers), which is defined by the multilayer period and the oblique-cut angle. We fabricated and tested a Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating suitable for EUV applications, which is a first prototype based on the suggested technique. In order to fabricate an echellette substrate, we used anisotropic KOH etching of a Si wafer. The etching regime was optimized to obtain smooth and flat echellette facets. A Sc/Si multilayer was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering, and after that it was mechanically polished using a number of diamond pastes. The resulting sliced grating prototype with ~270 nm line period has demonstrated a dispersive ability in the 41-49 nm photon wavelength range with a diffraction efficiency of ~7% for the optimized 38th order assigned to the echellette grating of 10 μm period.

  2. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.


    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs.

  3. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  4. Ultrastrong steel via minimal lattice misfit and high-density nanoprecipitation. (United States)

    Jiang, Suihe; Wang, Hui; Wu, Yuan; Liu, Xiongjun; Chen, Honghong; Yao, Mengji; Gault, Baptiste; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Mingwei; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping


    Next-generation high-performance structural materials are required for lightweight design strategies and advanced energy applications. Maraging steels, combining a martensite matrix with nanoprecipitates, are a class of high-strength materials with the potential for matching these demands. Their outstanding strength originates from semi-coherent precipitates, which unavoidably exhibit a heterogeneous distribution that creates large coherency strains, which in turn may promote crack initiation under load. Here we report a counterintuitive strategy for the design of ultrastrong steel alloys by high-density nanoprecipitation with minimal lattice misfit. We found that these highly dispersed, fully coherent precipitates (that is, the crystal lattice of the precipitates is almost the same as that of the surrounding matrix), showing very low lattice misfit with the matrix and high anti-phase boundary energy, strengthen alloys without sacrificing ductility. Such low lattice misfit (0.03 ± 0.04 per cent) decreases the nucleation barrier for precipitation, thus enabling and stabilizing nanoprecipitates with an extremely high number density (more than 1024 per cubic metre) and small size (about 2.7 ± 0.2 nanometres). The minimized elastic misfit strain around the particles does not contribute much to the dislocation interaction, which is typically needed for strength increase. Instead, our strengthening mechanism exploits the chemical ordering effect that creates backstresses (the forces opposing deformation) when precipitates are cut by dislocations. We create a class of steels, strengthened by Ni(Al,Fe) precipitates, with a strength of up to 2.2 gigapascals and good ductility (about 8.2 per cent). The chemical composition of the precipitates enables a substantial reduction in cost compared to conventional maraging steels owing to the replacement of the essential but high-cost alloying elements cobalt and titanium with inexpensive and lightweight aluminium

  5. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue


    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  6. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.


    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  7. From ozone mini-holes and mini-highs towards extreme value theory: New insights from extreme events and non-stationarity (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.; Peter, T.; Davison, A. C.


    Over the last few decades negative trends in stratospheric ozone have been studied because of the direct link between decreasing stratospheric ozone and increasing surface UV-radiation. Recently a discussion on ozone recovery has begun. Long-term measurements of total ozone extending back earlier than 1958 are limited and only available from a few stations in the northern hemisphere. The world's longest total ozone record is available from Arosa, Switzerland (Staehelin et al., 1998a,b). At this site total ozone measurements have been made since late 1926 through the present day. Within this study (Rieder et al., 2009) new tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007) are applied to select mathematically well-defined thresholds for extreme low and extreme high total ozone. A heavy-tail focused approach is used by fitting the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the Arosa time series. Asymptotic arguments (Pickands, 1975) justify the use of the GPD for modeling exceedances over a sufficiently high (or below a sufficiently low) threshold (Coles, 2001). More precisely, the GPD is the limiting distribution of normalized excesses over a threshold, as the threshold approaches the endpoint of the distribution. In practice, GPD parameters are fitted, to exceedances by maximum likelihood or other methods - such as the probability weighted moments. A preliminary step consists in defining an appropriate threshold for which the asymptotic GPD approximation holds. Suitable tools for threshold selection as the MRL-plot (mean residual life plot) and TC-plot (stability plot) from the POT-package (Ribatet, 2007) are presented. The frequency distribution of extremes in low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone and their influence on the long-term changes in total ozone are analyzed. Further it is shown that from the GPD-model the distribution of so-called ozone mini holes (e.g. Bojkov and Balis, 2001) can be precisely estimated and that the

  8. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis


    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  9. Composite Conducting Polymer Cathodes For High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require secondary (rechargeable) batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures (-60oC to 60oC) yet deliver high...

  10. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  11. High Temperature Extremes - Will They Transform Structure of Avian Assemblages in the Desert Southwest? (United States)

    Mutiibwa, D.; Albright, T. P.; Wolf, B. O.; Mckechnie, A. E.; Gerson, A. R.; Talbot, W. A.; Sadoti, G.; O'Neill, J.; Smith, E.


    Extreme weather events can alter ecosystem structure and function and have caused mass mortality events in animals. With climate change, high temperature extremes are increasing in frequency and magnitude. To better understand the consequences of climate change, scientists have frequently employed correlative models based on species occurrence records. However, these approaches may be of limited utility in the context of extremes, as these are often outside historical ranges and may involve strong non-linear responses. Here we describe work linking physiological response informed by experimental data to geospatial climate datasets in order to mechanistically model the dynamics of dehydration risk to dessert passerine birds. Specifically, we modeled and mapped the occurrence of current (1980-2013) high temperature extremes and evaporative water loss rates for eight species of passerine birds ranging in size from 6.5-75g in the US Southwest portion of their range. We then explored the implications of a 4° C warming scenario. Evaporative water loss (EWL) across a range of high temperatures was measured in heat-acclimated birds captured in the field. We used the North American Land Data Assimilation System 2 dataset to obtain hourly estimates of EWL with a 14-km spatial grain. Assuming lethal dehydration occurs when water loss reaches 15% of body weight, we then produced maps of total daily EWL and time to lethal dehydration based on both current data and future scenarios. We found that milder events capable of producing dehydration in passerine birds over four or more hours were not uncommon over the Southwest, but rapid dehydration conditions (<3 hours) were rare. Under the warming scenario, the frequency and extent of dehydration events expanded greatly, often affecting areas several times larger than in present-day climate. Dehydration risk was especially high among smaller bodied passerines due to their higher mass-specific rates of water loss. Even after

  12. Dual-core fiber based strain sensor for application in extremely high temperatures (United States)

    Ziolowicz, Anna; Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Kolakowska, Agnieszka; Bienkowska, Beata; Budnicki, Dawid; Ostrowski, Lukasz; Wysokinski, Karol; Stanczyk, Tomasz; Fidelus, Janusz; Nasilowski, Piotr; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Napierala, Marek; Mergo, Pawel; Nasilowski, Tomasz


    This paper focuses on the utilization of crosstalk phenomenon to construct an innovative strain sensor. In our experiments, we take advantage of special fiber design and technology of fiber post-processing in order to receive strain sensing areas. We present results, which indicate possibility of achieving strain sensitivity at level of several mɛ/nm with negligible temperature cross-sensitivity at the same time. Furthermore after coating the sensor with the developed copper and gold coatings, it can be easily applied in extremely high temperature (e.g. 500 - 800 °C) and/or aggressive media applications.

  13. Mitigation of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from electrical installations in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, John; Duyaping, Patrick [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Dept. of Building Services Engineering, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    The health impacts on people exposed to power line generated magnetic fields remains somewhat controversial. Under certain circumstances, such extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields also arise in high-rise buildings in Hong Kong, causing interference with sensitive equipment, and with it concerns about the potential health impacts on affected persons. Due to a general lack of awareness electrical design and installation engineers rarely consider the issue. This paper discusses the problem of ELF fields generated by a building's electrical distribution system, and provides simplified analytical techniques that lead to practical solutions for eliminating interference problems as well as reducing concerns about health impacts. (Author)

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α predicts recurrence in high-grade soft tissue sarcoma of extremities and trunk wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyström, Harriet; Jönsson, M; Werner-Hartman, L


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcomas are of mesenchymal origin and typically show abundant tumour stroma and presence of necrosis. In search for novel biomarkers for personalised therapy, we determined the prognostic impact of stromal markers, hypoxia and neovascularity in high-grade soft tissue leiomyos......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcomas are of mesenchymal origin and typically show abundant tumour stroma and presence of necrosis. In search for novel biomarkers for personalised therapy, we determined the prognostic impact of stromal markers, hypoxia and neovascularity in high-grade soft tissue...... leiomyosarcoma and pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma. METHOD: We evaluated CD163, colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, CD16 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)α using immunohistochemical staining and assessed microvessel density using CD31 in 73 high-grade leiomyosarcomas and undifferentiated pleomorphic...... sarcomas of the extremities and the trunk wall. The results were correlated to metastasis-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Expression of HIF-1α was associated with the presence of necrosis and independently predicted shorter metastasis-free survival (HR 3.2, CI 1.4 to 7.0, p=0.004), whereas neither...

  15. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards. (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego


    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems ("Arbequina," Arbequina IRTA-i·18, "Arbosana," "Fs-17," and "Koroneiki") and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha(-1) for the cultivar "Arbequina." Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha(-1). Only "Fs-17" did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha(-1)) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for "Arbequina," both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha(-1) for the lowest density (780 trees ha(-1)) to 29.9 t ha(-1) for the highest (2254 trees ha(-1)). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  16. Cultivar and tree density as key factors in the long-term performance of super high-density olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion M. Diez


    Full Text Available Super high-density (SHD olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems (‘Arbequina’, Arbequina IRTA-i·18R, ‘Arbosana’, ‘Fs-17’, and ‘Koroneiki’ and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha-1 for the cultivar ‘Arbequina’. Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha-1. Only ‘Fs-17’ did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha-1 of the other cultivars. In the density trial for ‘Arbequina’, both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha-1 for the lowest density (780 trees ha-1 to 29.9 t ha-1 for the highest (2254 trees ha-1. In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production seven or eight years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  17. High-density digital data recording/reproducing system (United States)

    Leighou, R. O.


    Problems associated with reliably recording and reproducing digital data at densities of 10 to 30 kilobits per inch and the solutions to these problems are discussed. The three problems are skew, dc offset, and tape imperfections. The solutions are to use a 14-track, wideband II tape recorder; record NRZ-L; use a 24-bit sync word, 504-bit frame length, and odd parity in every 8-bit byte; and to employ circuit design techniques that minimize the effects of the remaining dc offset and tape imperfections.

  18. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array (United States)

    Freitas, Barry L.


    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  19. High-Throughput Phase-Field Design of High-Energy-Density Polymer Nanocomposites. (United States)

    Shen, Zhong-Hui; Wang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Chen, Long-Qing; Shen, Yang


    Understanding the dielectric breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites is crucial to the design of high-energy-density dielectric materials with reliable performances. It is however challenging to predict the breakdown behavior due to the complicated factors involved in this highly nonequilibrium process. In this work, a comprehensive phase-field model is developed to investigate the breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites under electrostatic stimuli. It is found that the breakdown strength and path significantly depend on the microstructure of the nanocomposite. The predicted breakdown strengths for polymer nanocomposites with specific microstructures agree with existing experimental measurements. Using this phase-field model, a high throughput calculation is performed to seek the optimal microstructure. Based on the high-throughput calculation, a sandwich microstructure for PVDF-BaTiO3 nanocomposite is designed, where the upper and lower layers are filled with parallel nanosheets and the middle layer is filled with vertical nanofibers. It has an enhanced energy density of 2.44 times that of the pure PVDF polymer. The present work provides a computational approach for understanding the electrostatic breakdown, and it is expected to stimulate future experimental efforts on synthesizing polymer nanocomposites with novel microstructures to achieve high performances. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. INLA goes extreme: Bayesian tail regression for the estimation of high spatio-temporal quantiles

    KAUST Repository

    Opitz, Thomas


    This work has been motivated by the challenge of the 2017 conference on Extreme-Value Analysis (EVA2017), with the goal of predicting daily precipitation quantiles at the $99.8\\\\%$ level for each month at observed and unobserved locations. We here develop a Bayesian generalized additive modeling framework tailored to estimate complex trends in marginal extremes observed over space and time. Our approach is based on a set of regression equations linked to the exceedance probability above a high threshold and to the size of the excess, the latter being modeled using the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution suggested by Extreme-Value Theory. Latent random effects are modeled additively and semi-parametrically using Gaussian process priors, which provides high flexibility and interpretability. Fast and accurate estimation of posterior distributions may be performed thanks to the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation (INLA), efficiently implemented in the R-INLA software, which we also use for determining a nonstationary threshold based on a model for the body of the distribution. We show that the GP distribution meets the theoretical requirements of INLA, and we then develop a penalized complexity prior specification for the tail index, which is a crucial parameter for extrapolating tail event probabilities. This prior concentrates mass close to a light exponential tail while allowing heavier tails by penalizing the distance to the exponential distribution. We illustrate this methodology through the modeling of spatial and seasonal trends in daily precipitation data provided by the EVA2017 challenge. Capitalizing on R-INLA\\'s fast computation capacities and large distributed computing resources, we conduct an extensive cross-validation study to select model parameters governing the smoothness of trends. Our results outperform simple benchmarks and are comparable to the best-scoring approach.

  1. Quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Springer, R.P.


    This report briefly discusses the following topics: quark-gluon plasma and high-energy collisions; hadron structure and chiral dynamics; nonperturbative studies and nonabelian gauge theories; and studies in quantum field theory.

  2. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan


    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  3. Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Cyclopentadiene and C60 at the Extreme High Pressure. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Cammi, Roberto; Ehara, Masahiro


    High-pressure Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of fullerenes is an important synthetic method for the thermally stable cycloadducts. The effects of high pressure on the potential energy surfaces of Diels-Alder cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene and C60 were studied with a recently developed approach, the polarizable continuum model for extreme pressure (XP-PCM). It is revealed that the high pressure reduces the activation energies and increases reaction energies drastically, making the DA reaction more favorable. The pressure effects on the reaction energetics can be divided into the cavitation and electronic contributions. For the activation energy, the cavitation contribution is significant in comparison with the electronic contribution. To assist future experiments, the activation volume and reaction volume were computed on the basis of the relationship between activation energy or reaction energy with the pressure as a consequence of the fitting linear correlation between activation energy or reaction energy with the pressure.

  4. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei


    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  6. A web-based study of bipolarity and impulsivity in athletes engaging in extreme and high-risk sports. (United States)

    Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Jaeschke, Rafał; Drozdowicz, Katarzyna; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Chrobak, Adrian A; Rybakowski, Janusz K


    We hypothesised that men and women who engage in extreme or high-risk sports would score higher on standardised measures of bipolarity and impulsivity compared to age and gender matched controls. Four-hundred and eighty extreme or high-risk athletes (255 males and 225 females) and 235 age-matched control persons (107 males and 128 females) were enrolled into the web-based case-control study. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to screen for bipolarity and impulsive behaviours, respectively. Results indicated that extreme or high-risk athletes had significantly higher scores of bipolarity and impulsivity, and lower scores on cognitive complexity of the BIS-11, compared to controls. Further, there were positive correlations between the MDQ and BIS-11 scores. These results showed greater rates of bipolarity and impulsivity, in the extreme or high-risk athletes, suggesting these measures are sensitive to high-risk behaviours.

  7. Responsive Stabilization of Nanoparticles for Extreme Salinity and High-Temperature Reservoir Applications. (United States)

    Ranka, Mikhil; Brown, Paul; Hatton, T Alan


    Colloidal stabilization of nanoparticles under extreme salinity and high temperature conditions is a key challenge in the development of next generation technologies for subsurface reservoir characterization and oil recovery. Polyelectrolytes have been investigated as nanoparticle stabilizers, but typically fail at high ionic strengths and elevated temperatures due to excessive charge screening and dehydration. We report an approach to nanoparticle stabilization that overcomes these limitations, and exploits the antipolyelectrolyte phenomenon, in which screening of intrachain electrostatic interactions causes a polyzwitterion chain to undergo a structural transition from a collapsed globule to a more open coil-like regime with increases in ionic strength and temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering on a model zwitterionic polymer in solution indicated an increase in both radius of gyration and excluded volume parameter of the polymer with increases in ionic strength and temperature. The model zwitterion was subsequently incorporated within a polymeric stabilizer for nanoparticles under harsh reservoir conditions, and used to functionalize hydrophilic (silica) as well as hydrophobic (polystyrene) nanoparticles. Long-term colloidal stability was achieved at salt concentrations up to 120,000 mg/dm3 at 90 °C, approximately twice the stability limit previously reported in the literature. The approach can be broadly generalized to a large class of synthetic polyzwitterions, and can be adapted to a wide variety of other colloidal systems in which demands placed by extreme salinity and temperature conditions must be met.

  8. High density lipoproteins, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). These familial disorders include lipoprotein(a) excess, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL), combined hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol and high triglycerides often with low HDL), hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low HDL), and hypercholesterolemia. We discuss the management of these disorders. W...

  9. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications (United States)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak


    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  10. Experimental evidence that ecological effects of an invasive fish are reduced at high densities. (United States)

    Kornis, Matthew S; Carlson, Jedchada; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Vander Zanden, M Jake


    Understanding the relationship between invasive species density and ecological impact is a pressing topic in ecology, with implications for environmental management and policy. Although it is widely assumed that invasive species impact will increase with density, theory suggests interspecific competition may diminish at high densities due to increased intraspecific interactions. To test this theory, we experimentally examined intra- and interspecific interactions between a globally invasive fish, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), and three native species at different round goby densities in a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Eighteen 2.25 m(2) enclosures were stocked with native fish species at natural abundances, while round gobies were stocked at three different densities: 0 m(-2), 2.7 m(-2), and 10.7 m(-2). After 52 days, native fish growth rate was significantly reduced in the low density goby treatment, while growth in the high density goby treatment mirrored the goby-free treatment for two of three native species. Invertebrate density and gut content weight of native fishes did not differ among treatments. Conversely, gut content weight and growth of round gobies were lower in the high goby density treatment, suggesting interactions between round gobies and native fishes are mediated by interference competition amongst gobies. Our experiment provides evidence that invasive species effects may diminish at high densities, possibly due to increased intraspecific interactions. This is consistent with some ecological theory, and cautions against the assumption that invasive species at moderate densities have low impact.

  11. P3: An installation for high-energy density plasma physics and ultra-high intensity laser–matter interaction at ELI-Beamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weber


    Full Text Available ELI-Beamlines (ELI-BL, one of the three pillars of the Extreme Light Infrastructure endeavour, will be in a unique position to perform research in high-energy-density-physics (HEDP, plasma physics and ultra-high intensity (UHI (>1022W/cm2 laser–plasma interaction. Recently the need for HED laboratory physics was identified and the P3 (plasma physics platform installation under construction in ELI-BL will be an answer. The ELI-BL 10 PW laser makes possible fundamental research topics from high-field physics to new extreme states of matter such as radiation-dominated ones, high-pressure quantum ones, warm dense matter (WDM and ultra-relativistic plasmas. HEDP is of fundamental importance for research in the field of laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF. Reaching such extreme states of matter now and in the future will depend on the use of plasma optics for amplifying and focusing laser pulses. This article will present the relevant technological infrastructure being built in ELI-BL for HEDP and UHI, and gives a brief overview of some research under way in the field of UHI, laboratory astrophysics, ICF, WDM, and plasma optics.

  12. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays (United States)

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.


    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every gene in a complex organism such as a mouse or human. We tested carryover during array printing with dye solution, labeled DNA, and hybridized DNA, and we found it to be indistinguishable from background. Hybridization also showed good sequence specificity to printed oligonucleotides. In addition to improved slide capacity, the microfabrication process offers the possibility of low-cost mass-produced pens and the flexibility to include novel pen features that cannot be machined with conventional techniques. PMID:12975313

  13. Shift-Peristrophic Multiplexing for High Density Holographic Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenta Ushiyama


    Full Text Available Holographic data storage is a promising technology that provides very large data storage capacity, and the multiplexing method plays a significant role in increasing this capacity. Various multiplexing methods have been previously researched. In the present study, we propose a shift-peristrophic multiplexing technique that uses spherical reference waves, and experimentally verify that this method efficiently increases the data capacity. In the proposed method, a series of holograms is recorded with shift multiplexing, in which the recording material is rotated with its axis perpendicular to the material’s surface. By iterating this procedure, multiplicity is shown to improve. This method achieves more than 1 Tbits/inch2 data density recording. Furthermore, a capacity increase of several TB per disk is expected by maximizing the recording medium performance.

  14. Ultra-high field upper extremity peripheral nerve and non-contrast enhanced vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh B Raval

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of Ultra-high field [UHF] 7 Tesla [T] MRI as compared to 3T MRI in non-contrast enhanced [nCE] imaging of structural anatomy in the elbow, forearm, and hand [upper extremity].A wide range of sequences including T1 weighted [T1] volumetric interpolate breath-hold exam [VIBE], T2 weighted [T2] double-echo steady state [DESS], susceptibility weighted imaging [SWI], time-of-flight [TOF], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI], and diffusion spectrum imaging [DSI] were optimized and incorporated with a radiofrequency [RF] coil system composed of a transverse electromagnetic [TEM] transmit coil combined with an 8-channel receive-only array for 7T upper extremity [UE] imaging. In addition, Siemens optimized protocol/sequences were used on a 3T scanner and the resulting images from T1 VIBE and T2 DESS were compared to that obtained at 7T qualitatively and quantitatively [SWI was only qualitatively compared]. DSI studio was utilized to identify nerves based on analysis of diffusion weighted derived fractional anisotropy images. Images of forearm vasculature were extracted using a paint grow manual segmentation method based on MIPAV [Medical Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization].High resolution and high quality signal-to-noise ratio [SNR] and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]-images of the hand, forearm, and elbow were acquired with nearly homogeneous 7T excitation. Measured [performed on the T1 VIBE and T2 DESS sequences] SNR and CNR values were almost doubled at 7T vs. 3T. Cartilage, synovial fluid and tendon structures could be seen with higher clarity in the 7T T1 and T2 weighted images. SWI allowed high resolution and better quality imaging of large and medium sized arteries and veins, capillary networks and arteriovenous anastomoses at 7T when compared to 3T. 7T diffusion weighted sequence [not performed at 3T] demonstrates that the forearm nerves are clearly delineated by fiber tractography. The

  15. Enhancement of lateral growth of the GaN crystal with extremely low dislocation density during the Na-flux growth on a point seed (United States)

    Hayashi, Masatoshi; Imanishi, Masayuki; Yamada, Takumi; Matsuo, Daisuke; Murakami, Kosuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke


    Recently, we developed a Na-flux point seed technique for fabrication of large-diameter gallium nitride (GaN) crystals with low dislocation density. It may be possible to further reduce the dislocation density of crystals fabricated by this technique by reducing the point-seed (PS) density, because one dislocation remains on the c face of each grain grown on each point seed. Therefore, in order to realize coalescence growth by using a Multi-PS-GaN substrate with a low PS density, namely a long interval between neighboring point seeds, the lateral growth of each grain grown on a point seed must be enhanced. We attempted to promote the lateral growth of GaN crystals grown on a point seed by decreasing the flux thickness. As a result, we realized a high growth rate of 80 μm/h along the a direction and a low aspect ratio by the Na-flux point seed technique. Moreover, almost no dislocations could be found in the lateral growth sector. Consequently, growth in a thin flux is applicable for the coalescence growth technique with low PS density and may be an outstanding approach for reducing the dislocation density in GaN crystals grown by the Na-flux coalescence growth technique.

  16. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George


    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  17. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Chul Koo


    Conclusions: PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos


    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or “structured attosecond light springs”- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  19. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badalà, A; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Coccia, E; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D’Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Williams, C; Zuyeuski, R


    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.

  20. [Extremly high frequency of infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Brass, K


    Among 5 875 children with a lifetime between 24 hours to 14 years, autopsiated during period 1951-1970, were found 115 cases of naked eye pulmonary thrombo-embolism. 96 cases occurred in children with a lifetime between 24 hours and 4 years. This extremly high frequency is caused by an unusually high number of thrombosis in renal veins and craneal sinuses, following severe diarrhetic diseases with deshydratation and haemoconcentration. Severity and frequency of this enterocolitis of different aetiology, affecting especially children of poor people, are favoured by the climatic, sanitarious and socio-economical conditions of Valencia. Surprisingly, literature do not mention comparables observations about infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism, observed in territories of similar structure.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation. (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos


    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device (United States)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.


    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  3. Daily temperature variation and extreme high temperatures drive performance and biotic interactions in a warming world. (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Verheyen, Julie; Van Dievel, Marie; Tüzün, Nedim


    We review the major patterns on the effects of daily temperature variation (DTV) and extreme high temperatures (EXT) on performance traits and the resulting outcome of biotic interactions in insects. EXT profoundly affects the outcome of all types of biotic interactions: competitive, predator-prey, herbivore-plant, host-pathogen/parasitoid and symbiotic interactions. Studies investigating effects of DTV on biotic interactions are few but also show strong effects on competitive and host-pathogen/parasitoid interactions. EXT typically reduces predation, and is expected to reduce parasitoid success. The effects of EXT and DTV on the outcome of the other interaction types are highly variable, yet can be predicted based on comparisons of the TPCs of the interacting species, and challenges the formulation of general predictions about the change in biotic interactions in a warming world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extreme Learning Machines on High Dimensional and Large Data Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuwen Cao


    Full Text Available Extreme learning machine (ELM has been developed for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs. In ELM algorithm, the connections between the input layer and the hidden neurons are randomly assigned and remain unchanged during the learning process. The output connections are then tuned via minimizing the cost function through a linear system. The computational burden of ELM has been significantly reduced as the only cost is solving a linear system. The low computational complexity attracted a great deal of attention from the research community, especially for high dimensional and large data applications. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the recent developments of ELM and its applications in high dimensional and large data. Comprehensive reviews on image processing, video processing, medical signal processing, and other popular large data applications with ELM are presented in the paper.

  5. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition (United States)

    Gu, Claire


    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  6. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits. (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen


    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. High-quality stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in high density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rao


    Full Text Available High-quality, stable electron beams are produced from self-injected laser wakefield acceleration using the interaction of moderate 3 TW, 45 fs duration Ti:sapphire laser pulses with high density (>5×10^{19}   cm^{−3} helium gas jet plasma. The electron beam has virtually background-free quasimonoenergetic distribution with energy 35.6_{−2.5}^{+3.9}  MeV, charge 3.8_{−1.2}^{+2.8}  pC, divergence and pointing variation ∼10  mrad. The stable and high quality of the electron beam opens an easy way for applications of the laser wakefield accelerator in the future, particularly due to the widespread availability of sub-10 TW class lasers with a number of laser plasma laboratories around the world.

  8. Extremely high exposures in an obese patient receiving high-dose cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Milly E.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; van Dam, Selma M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd


    An obese 53-year-old woman (height 167 cm, weight 130 kg) with metastatic breast cancer received high-dose chemotherapy comprising cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin (CTC). The cyclophosphamide (1 g/m(2) per day) and thiotepa (80 mg/m(2) per day) doses were based on body surface area (BSA)

  9. High-density lipoprotein particles, coronary heart disease, and niacin (United States)

    In clinical trials, the use of statins in patients with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has resulted in a 25% to 40% decrease in major clinical events. However, despite a marked reduction (up to 60%) in LDL-C, approximately 50% (or more) of patients continue to have CVD events. This high ...

  10. Electronic states of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers: Extreme-ultra violet excited photoelectron spectroscopy observations and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Sasaki, Fumio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Tomie, Toshihisa [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ootsuka, Teruhisa [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Watanabe, Shuji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shimoi, Yukihiro [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)


    We have investigated electronic states in the valence electron bands for the thin films of three thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) compounds, 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5), and 1,4-bis{l_brace}5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiophen-2-yl{r_brace}benzene (AC5-CF{sub 3}), by using extreme-UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). By comparing both EUPS spectra and secondary electron spectra between AC5 and AC5-CF{sub 3}, we confirm that CF{sub 3} substitution to AC5 deepens valence states by 2 eV, and increases the ionization energy by 3 eV. From the cut-off positions of secondary electron spectra, the work functions of AC5, AC5-CF{sub 3}, and BP1T are evaluated to be 3.8 eV, 4.8 eV, and 4.0 eV, respectively. We calculate molecular orbital (MO) energy levels by the density functional theory and compare results of calculations with those of experiments. Densities of states obtained by broadening MO levels well explain the overall features of experimental EUPS spectra of three TPCOs.

  11. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert


    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  12. On The Use Of High-Density Rock In Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.


    Natural rock with high density is widely used in the Scandinavian countries. However, the use of natural rock with density higher than 2:9t=m3 is ordinarily associated with some kind of problem solving, e.g. where normal density stones have to be replaced with heavier stones without increasing...... the construction volume or layer thickness. Most common design formulae do not give a clear conclusion on the in°uence of the rock density on the stability. The present paper presents results of small and large scale model tests in which is used rock with different densities. It is shown that the positive effect...

  13. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Kana, E-mail: [Research and Development Center for Ultra High Efficiency Nano-crystalline Soft Magnetic Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki [Research and Development Center for Ultra High Efficiency Nano-crystalline Soft Magnetic Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Makino, Akihiro [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)


    Nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (B{sub s}) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe{sub 85.7}Si{sub 0.5}B{sub 9.5}P{sub 3.5}Cu{sub 0.8}){sub 99}C{sub 1} ribbons exhibit low coercivity (H{sub c})~4.5 A/m, high B{sub s}~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60–100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors - Highlights: • Minor addition of C in FeSiBPCu alloy increases amorphous-forming ability. • The FeSiBPCuC alloy exhibits B{sub s} close to Si-steel and Core loss lower than it. • Excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained for 120 mm wide ribbons. • Nanocrystalline FeSiBPCuC alloy can be produced at industrial scale with low cost. • The alloy is suitable for making low energy loss power transformers and motors.

  14. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Mussack, Katie; Orban, Chris; Colgan, James; Ducret, Jean-Eric; Fontes, Christopher J.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Heeter, Robert F.; Kilcrease, Dave; Le Pennec, Maelle; Mancini, Roberto; Perry, Ted; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Trantham, Matt


    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. This discrepancy has led to an investigation of opacities through laboratory experiments and improved opacity models for many of the larger contributors to the sun’s opacity, including iron and oxygen. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al, 2015]. Although these results are still controversial, repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for C, O and Fe to address the solar abundance issue [Colgan, 2013]. Armstrong et al [2014] have also implemented changes in the ATOMIC code for low-Z elements. However, no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions.This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDPLP, grant No. DE-NA0001840, and the NLUF Program, grant No. DE-NA0000850, and through LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  15. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator† (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.


    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  16. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator. (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A


    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change.

  17. High Energy Density Physics and Applications with a State-of-the-Art Compact X-Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat N [University of California San Diego


    Recent advances in technology has made possible to create matter with extremely high energy density (energy densities and pressure exceeding 1011 J/m3 and 1 Mbar respectively). The field is new and complex. The basic question for high energy density physics (HEDP) is how does matter behave under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic radiation? The conditions for studying HEDP are normally produced using high intensity short pulse laser, x-rays, particle beams and pulsed power z-pinches. Most of these installations occupy a large laboratory floor space and require a team consisting of a large number of scientists and engineers. This limits the number of experiments that can be performed to explore and understand the complex physics. A novel way of studying HEDP is with a compact x-pinch in university scale laboratory. The x-pinch is a configuration in which a pulsed current is passed through two or more wires placed between the electrodes making the shape of the letter ‘X’. Extreme conditions of magnetic field (> 200 MGauss for less than 1 ns), temperature (1 keV) and density (~ 1022 cm-3) are produced at the cross-point, where two wires make contact. Further, supersonic jets are produced on either side of the cross-point. The physics of the formation of the plasma at the cross-point is complex. It is not clear what role radiation plays in the formation of high energy density plasma (>> 1011 J/m3) at the cross-point. Nor it is understood how the supersonic jets are formed. Present numerical codes do not contain complex physics that can take into account some of these aspects. Indeed, a comprehensive experimental study could answer some of the questions, which are relevant to wide-ranging fields such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasmas, high intensity laser plasma interactions and radiation physics. The main aim of the proposal was to increase the fundamental understanding of high energy density physics and

  18. High Density Arrayed Ni/NiO Core-shell Nanospheres Evenly Distributed on Graphene for Ultrahigh Performance Supercapacitor. (United States)

    Liu, Fanggang; Wang, Xiaobing; Hao, Jin; Han, Shuang; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing


    A novel NiO/Ni/RGO three-dimensional core-shell architecture consisting of Ni nanoparticles as core, NiO as shell and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as conductivity layer, has been constructed by redox reactions with hydrothermal method and heat treatment. High density arrayed nickel nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) semi-coated by a 3 nm thick layer of NiO are evenly distributed on the surface of graphene. This elaborate design not only uses abundant NiO surfaces to provide a wealth of active sites, but also bridges electrochemical active NiO shell and graphene by Ni core to construct an interconnected 3D conductive network. Since both electrochemical activity and excellent conductivity are reserved in this Ni/NiO core-shell/graphene layer 3D structure, the as-prepared electrode material exhibits an extremely high specific capacitance (2048.3 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1) and excellent cycle stability (77.8% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles at current density of 50 A g-1). The novel method presented here is easy and effective and would provide reference for the preparation of other high performance supercapacitor electrodes.

  19. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish. (United States)

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E


    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions.

  20. Density-based retrieval from high-similarity image databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael


    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...... a method for HSID retrieval using a similarity measure based on a linear combination of Jeffreys-Matusita distances between distributions of local (pixelwise) features estimated from a set of automatically and consistently defined image regions. The weight coefficients are estimated based on optimal...... retrieval performance. Experimental results on the difficult task of visually identifying clones of fungal colonies grown in a petri dish and categorization of pelts show a high retrieval accuracy of the method when combined with standardized sample preparation and image acquisition....

  1. Drift waves in a high-density cylindrical helicon discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.


    of the background plasma parameters. All experimentally observed features of the instability are found to be consistent with drift waves. A linear nonlocal numerical model for drift modes, based on the two-fluid description of a plasma, is used for comparison between the experimental observations and theory....... Comparing numerical and experimental frequencies, it is found that the experimentally observed frequencies are consistent with drift waves. The numerical results show that the high electron collision frequencies provide the strongest destabilization mechanism in the helicon plasma. (c) 2005 American......A low-frequency instability. is investigated in a helicon plasma, which is characterized by comparably high plasma-beta and high collision frequencies. Single movable Langmuir probes and a poloidal probe. array are used for studies of spatiotemporal dynamics and for characterization...

  2. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams (United States)

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu


    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  3. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  4. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  5. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications. (United States)

    Subramaniam, E T; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R K; Tripon, Michel


    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2(")x0.51(")) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (< or = +/-2 mV or +/-0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (< or = +/-1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  6. Boosting photoelectrochemical performance of hematite photoanode with TiO2 underlayer by extremely rapid high temperature annealing (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xintong; Suzuki, Norihiro; Terashima, Chiaki


    Extremely rapid high temperature annealing (ER-HTA) was used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite thin film deposited on a TiO2 nanosheet-modified SnO2:F substrate (FTO-TN-HM). The PEC performance of FTO-TN-HM photoanodes were strongly enhanced with increasing ER-HTA temperatures from 700 to 820 °C with a holding time as short as 30 s. The photocurrent density of FTO-TN-HM photoanode treated by ER-HTA at 800 °C was 0.49 mA cm-2 and interfacial hole transfer efficiency of 32% was achieved at 1.23 V vs. RHE, which were 18.8 and 16 times as great as FTO-TN-HM photoanodes annealed at 500 °C for 30 min, respectively. The effect of ER-HTA on the PEC performance of FTO-TN-HM photoanodes were studied comparatively, which suggested that the improved crystallinity, decreased recombination through surface states, and enhanced interfacial Ti4+ diffusion all contributed to their advanced PEC performance. Our studies confirm that the ER-HTA treatment is an effective method to improve the PEC properties of hematite photoanodes with TiO2 underlayer and might be applicable for other semiconducting photoelectrodes to get better PEC performance.

  7. Nano-materials for adhesive-free adsorbers for bakable extreme high vacuum cryopump surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzman, Marcy; Jordan, Kevin; Whitney, Roy R.


    A cryosorber panel having nanomaterials used for the cryosorption material, with nanomaterial either grown directly on the cryopanel or freestanding nanomaterials attached to the cryopanel mechanically without the use of adhesives. Such nanomaterial cryosorber materials can be used in place of conventional charcoals that are attached to cryosorber panels with special low outgassing, low temperature capable adhesives. Carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials could serve the same purpose as conventional charcoal cryosorbers, providing a large surface area for cryosorption without the need for adhesive since the nanomaterials can be grown directly on a metallic substrate or mechanically attached. The nanomaterials would be capable of being fully baked by heating above C., thereby eliminating water vapor from the system, eliminating adhesives from the system, and allowing a full bake of the system to reduce hydrogen outgassing, with the goal of obtaining extreme high vacuum where the pump can produce pressures below 1.times.10.sup.-12 Torr.

  8. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials (United States)

    Affinito, J. D.

    A new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films) is highlighted. This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 microns; they have extinction coefficients of k is approximately 10(exp -7). Application of electric field during crosslinking can polarize ('pole') the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. 'Poling' films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications.

  9. Processor for high-density digital tape-recorded signals (United States)

    Ashlock, J. C.


    Linear filter and detection theory can bear on problem of reconstructing recorded bit stream. Problem can be taken from realm of nonlinear problems even though basic record process is still recognized as highly nonlinear. Digital tape recorder can be modeled as particular type of linear communication channel with intersymbol interference.

  10. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes (United States)


    mL of ethanol by heating to 50 °C, and evaporating to dryness. The resulting powder is then ground in an agate mortar and pestle for 30 min. In...Batteries," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, pp. 15862-15867, 2010/09/23 2010. [3] J. Alvarenga, et al., "High conductivity carbon nanotube

  11. Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Lewis, Matthew; Wadey, Matthew; Haigh, Ivan


    Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk In this research we assess the temporal variability in the time-series of extreme water levels at 44 A- Class tide gauges around the UK. Extreme (> 99th percentile) storm tide events, sampled from water level measurements taken every 15 minutes between 1993 and 2012, were analysed at each site, and the variability in elevation relative to a given event storm tide peak was quantified. The magnitude of the variability in the time-series was found to be both spatially variable across the UK, and temporally variable relative to the time of the high water. Boundary water levels associated with a range of event magnitudes at case study locations around the UK were used to force two-dimensional hydrodynamic models to examine the importance of storm tide time-series uncertainty to flood risk predictions. The comparison of inundation extent, depth, and number of buildings affected demonstrated the importance of accurately defining the duration and magnitude of defence exceedance. For example, given a current 1 in 200 year event magnitude at Portsmouth (UK), the predicted number of buildings inundated differed by more than 30% when contrasting simulations forced with the 5th percentile time-series relative to those forced with the 95th percentile time-series. The results clearly indicate that variability in the time-series of the storm tide can have considerable influence upon the duration and magnitude by which defences are exceeded, hence with implications for coastal flood risk assessments. Therefore, further evaluating and representing this uncertainty in future flood risk assessments is vital, while the 5th and 95th percentile time-series defined in this research provide a tool for coastal flood modellers. Only defence overflow-induced inundation was examined in this research. However, it is expected that variability in storm tide time-series will also have important

  12. Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Rana, Jamal S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Shah, Prediman K.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee


    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C are still associated with

  13. Multiresolution iterative reconstruction in high-resolution extremity cone-beam CT (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Sisniega, Alejandro; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.


    Application of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to high resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) is computationally challenging because of the very fine discretization (voxel size  reconstructed volume. Moreover, standard MBIR techniques require that the complete transaxial support for the acquired projections is reconstructed, thus precluding acceleration by restricting the reconstruction to a region-of-interest. To reduce the computational burden of high resolution MBIR, we propose a multiresolution penalized-weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm, where the volume is parameterized as a union of fine and coarse voxel grids as well as selective binning of detector pixels. We introduce a penalty function designed to regularize across the boundaries between the two grids. The algorithm was evaluated in simulation studies emulating an extremity CBCT system and in a physical study on a test-bench. Artifacts arising from the mismatched discretization of the fine and coarse sub-volumes were investigated. The fine grid region was parameterized using 0.15 mm voxels and the voxel size in the coarse grid region was varied by changing a downsampling factor. No significant artifacts were found in either of the regions for downsampling factors of up to 4×. For a typical extremities CBCT volume size, this downsampling corresponds to an acceleration of the reconstruction that is more than five times faster than a brute force solution that applies fine voxel parameterization to the entire volume. For certain configurations of the coarse and fine grid regions, in particular when the boundary between the regions does not cross high attenuation gradients, downsampling factors as high as 10×  can be used without introducing artifacts, yielding a ~50×  speedup in PWLS. The proposed multiresolution algorithm significantly reduces the computational burden of high resolution iterative CBCT reconstruction and can be extended to other applications of MBIR where

  14. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.


    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  15. The formation of high-mass stars and stellar clusters in the extreme environment of the Central Molecular Zone (United States)

    Walker, Daniel Lewis


    The process of converting gas into stars underpins much of astrophysics, yet many fundamental questions surrounding this process remain unanswered. For example - how sensitive is star formation to the local environmental conditions? How do massive and dense stellar clusters form, and how does this crowded environment influence the stars that form within it? How do the most massive stars form and is there an upper limit to the stellar initial mass function (IMF)? Answering questions such as these is crucial if we are to construct an end-to-end model of how stars form across the full range of conditions found throughout the Universe. The research described in this thesis presents a study that utilises a multi-scale approach to identifying and characterising the early precursors to young massive clusters and high-mass proto-stars, with a specific focus on the extreme environment in the inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way - the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). The primary sources of interest that are studied in detail belong to the Galactic centre dust ridge - a group of six high-mass (M 10^(4-5) Msun), dense (R 1-3 pc, n > 10^(4) cm^(-3)), and quiescent molecular clouds. These properties make these clouds ideal candidates for representing the earliest stages of high-mass star and cluster formation. The research presented makes use of single-dish and interferometric far-infrared and (sub-)millimetre observations to study their global and small-scale properties. A comparison of the known young massive clusters (YMCs) and their likely progenitors (the dust ridge clouds) in the CMZ shows that the stellar content of YMCs is much more dense and centrally concentrated than the gas in the clouds. If these clouds are truly precursors to massive clusters, the resultant stellar population would have to undergo significant dynamical evolution to reach central densities that are typical of YMCs. This suggests that YMCs in the CMZ are unlikely to form monolithically. Extending

  16. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E


    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  17. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie


    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  18. A carbon nanotube field emission cathode with high current density and long-term stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Zhou, Otto [Curriculum in Applied Science and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Geng Huaizhi; Gao Bo [Xintek, Incorporated, 7020 Kit Creek Road, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); An Lei; Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters are now being evaluated for a wide range of vacuum electronic applications. However, problems including short lifetime at high current density, instability under high voltage, poor emission uniformity, and pixel-to-pixel inconsistency are still major obstacles for device applications. We developed an electrophoretic process to fabricate composite CNT films with controlled nanotube orientation and surface density, and enhanced adhesion. The cathodes have significantly enhanced macroscopic field emission current density and long-term stability under high operating voltages. The application of this CNT electron source for high-resolution x-ray imaging is demonstrated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Recent summer heat waves (2003, 2010 had a strong socio-economic impact in different parts of the continent by means of crop shortfalls and forest fires. Sustained hot days became more frequent in the recent decades in many European regions, affecting human health and leading to additional deaths. This signal has been outlined in many studies conducted in Romania, suggesting that the southern region of Romania is particularly subject to large temperature increase. This work investigates the changing annual and seasonal heat waves at regional scale of the Romanian Plain, over period 1961-2014. Daily maximum temperature recorded at six weather stations available from the ECA&D project (European Climate Assessment and Datasets were analyzed. The changes in the seasonal frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves were studied using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, as recommended by the scientific expert team on climate change detection. The likelyhood of higher maximum temperatures rise, particularly after the mid 1980s, and the changes in the upper tail of the probability density functions of these temperatures, within the extreme domain (beyond the 95% percentile level, explain the persistence and intensity of heat waves. The upward trends are dominant most of the year, and many of the calculated decadal slopes were found statistically significant (relative to the 5% level, proving an ongoing and strong warming all over the region. Our findings are in good agreement with several recent studies carried out at European and national scale and pledge for further scientific analyses i.e. heat stress impact on public health and agriculture.

  20. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying imaging performance bounds of extreme dipole illumination in high NA optical lithography (United States)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John; Graves, Trey; Levy, Ady


    We present a framework to analyze the performance of optical imaging in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography scanner. We investigate the method to quantify imaging performance by computing upperand lower-bounds on the threshold normalized image log-slope (NILS) and the depth of focus (DOF) in conjunction with the traditional image quality metrics such as the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and the linearity for various different pitches and line to space (LS) duty cycles. The effects of the interaction between the light illumination and the feature size are extensively characterized based on the aerial image (AI) behavior in particular for the extreme dipole illumination that is one of the commonly used off-axis illuminations for sub-100nm logic and memory devices, providing resolution near the physical limit of an optical single patterning step. The proposed aerial imaging-based DOF bounds are compared to the results obtained from an experimentally calibrated resist model, and we observed good agreement. In general, the extreme dipole illumination is only optimal for a single particular pitch, therefore understanding the through-pitch imaging performance bound, which depends on the illumination shape, pattern size, and process conditions, is critically important. We find that overall imaging performance varies depending upon the number of diffracted beams passing through the scanner optics. An even number of beams provides very different trends compared to the results from an odd-number of beams. This significant non-linear behavior occurs in certain pitch regions corresponding to 3 beam interference imaging. In this region the imaging performance and the pattern printability become extremely sensitive to the LS duty cycle. In addition, there is a notable tradeoff between the DOF and the NILS that is observed in the problematic 3-beam region and this tradeoff eventually affects the achievable process window (PW). Given the practical real

  2. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza


    shows that our isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  3. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis. (United States)

    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana


    isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  4. Impacts of extremely high temperature and heatwave on heatstroke in Chongqing, China. (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Li, Chengcheng; Luo, Shuquan; He, Jinyu; Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong


    Few studies have reported the quantitative association between heat and heatstroke (HS) occurrence, particularly in China. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the association between high temperature/heatwave and HS occurrence in Chongqing. The daily HS data from 2009 to 2013 of Chongqing were extracted from Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A Zero-inflated Poisson regression model (ZIP) with a logistic distribution was used to quantitatively analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature (Tmax) over the threshold on HS occurrence by gender, age, and severity of HS, after controlling for covariates including day of the week (DOW), relative humidity, and daily temperature range. Lag effects up to 10 days were analyzed. Heatwave intensity, which was classified into four levels according to the quartile of its values, was calculated by Tmax multiplied the duration of a heatwave. The excess risk of HS during heatwave with different intensity was analyzed. The Tmax threshold for HS was 34 °C in Chongqing. After adjusting for potential confounders, strong associations and age-specific lag effects between Tmax and daily HS occurrence were observed. The impacts of Tmax on total HS lasted for 7 days (lag0-6), with the highest excess risk (ER) value of 30.5% (95% CI 23.6 and 37.8%) on lag0 with each 1 °C increment in Tmax over the threshold. A slightly stronger temperature-HS association was detected in male compared to female. The population over 65 years had the highest ER and the younger adults aged 19-35 and 35-55 years also showed significant heat-HS associations. The number of daily cases increased with the increasing of duration of heatwave and the peak value occurred on the eleventh day of the heatwave. The excess risk of HS during the heatwave with 1 to 4 level of intensity increased by 2.54, 2.97, 5.61, and 11.3 times, respectively, as compared with that of non-heatwave. Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to

  5. High-temperature operating 894.6nm-VCSELs with extremely low threshold for Cs-based chip scale atomic clocks. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Jian; Ning, Yongqiang; Qin, Li; Wang, Lijun


    We report on the design and fabrication of 894.6nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with extremely low threshold at high temperatures, for use in chip-scale Cs atomic clocks. A new design method based on the analysis of the threshold gain and the desired carrier density for different active region structures was proposed to gain the low transparent current density. The increase of the threshold current at higher temperatures was successfully suppressed by introducing the large gain-cavity detuning of VCSEL. By detuning the gain-cavity mode to be -11nm, the minimum threshold current of only 0.23mA at 70 °C was achieved. The operating temperature for emitting the wavelength of 894.6nm was 110 °C, with the single mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of more than 25dB and the threshold current of only 0.32mA.

  6. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.


    The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product....... The transvinylene response in air to gamma radiation is linear with dose and has relatively low yield compared with the response to electrons, whereas the response in deaerated polyethylene samples is also linear, but is more sensitive, and has negligible dose-rate dependence in its response to gamma rays...

  7. Extremely high intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(H) in Deinococcus radiodurans. (United States)

    Yamashiro, Takumi; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki


    Deinococcus radiodurans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation and UV radiation, and oxidative stress caused by such radiations. NADP(H) seems to be important for this resistance (Slade and Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191; Slade, Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191, 2011), but the mechanism underlying the generation of NADP(H) or NAD(H) in D. radiodurans has not fully been addressed. Intracellular concentrations of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH in D. radiodurans are also not determined yet. We found that cell extracts of D. radiodurans catalyzed reduction of NAD(P)(+) in vitro, indicating that D. radiodurans cells contain both enzymes and a high concentration of substrates for this activity. The enzyme and the substrate were attributed to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate of which intracellular concentration was extremely high. Unexpectedly, the intracellular concentration of NAD(H) was also much greater than that of NADP(H), suggesting some significant roles of NADH. These unusual features of this bacterium would shed light on a new aspect of physiology of this bacterium.

  8. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.


    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  9. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezah Balal


    Full Text Available The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide “chirped” Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  10. Extremely high velocity gas from the massive young stellar objects in IRAS 17233-3606 (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Codella, C.; Zapata, L. A.; Belloche, A.; Stanke, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M.; Güsten, R.


    Context: Molecular outflows from high-mass young stellar objects provide an excellent way to study the star formation process, and investigate if they are scaled-up versions of their low-mass counterparts. Aims: We selected the nearby massive star forming region IRAS 17233-3606 in order to study the kinematics and physics along the molecular outflow(s) originating from this source. Methods: We observed IRAS 17233-3606 in CO, a typical tracer of gas associated with molecular outflow, with the Submillimeter Array in the (2-1) transition, and with the APEX telescope in the higher excitation (6-5) line. Additional infrared H2 observations were performed with the UKIRT telescope. The CO data were analysed using a LVG approach. Results: Our data resolve the previously detected molecular outflow into at least three different components, one of them with a high collimation factor (~4), and characterised by emission at extremely high velocities (|v-vLSR| > 120 km s-1). The estimate of the kinematical outflow parameters are typical of massive YSOs, and in agreement with the measured bolometric luminosity of the source. The kinematic ages of the flows are in the range 10^2-103 yr, and therefore point to young objects that still have not reached the main sequence.

  11. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations (United States)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou


    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  12. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine". (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing


    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  13. Effects of Using High-Density Rain Gauge Networks and Weather Radar Data on Urban Hydrological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Sim Yoon


    Full Text Available Flood prediction is difficult in urban areas because only sparse gauge data and radar data of low accuracy are usually used to analyze flooding and inundation. Sub-basins of urban areas are extremely small, so rainfall data of high spatial resolution are required for analyzing complex drainage systems with high spatial variability. This study aimed to produce three types of quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE products using rainfall data that was derived from 190 gauges, including the new high-density rain-gauge network operated by the SK Planet company, and the automated weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration, along with weather radar data. This study also simulated urban runoff for the Gangnam District of Seoul, South Korea, using the obtained QPE products to evaluate hydraulic and hydrologic impacts according to three rainfall fields. The accuracy of this approach was assessed in terms of the amount and spatial distribution of rainfall in an urban area. The QPE products provided highly accurate results and simulations of peak runoff and overflow phenomena. They also accurately described the spatial variability of the rainfall fields. Overall, the integration of high-density gauge data with radar data proved beneficial for quantitative rainfall estimation.

  14. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast) (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.


    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  15. The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang


    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved.

  16. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012 (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.


    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  17. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel


    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  18. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: A replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.; Marazita, M.L.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly Mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents. 25 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: a replication. (United States)

    Yuan, H; Marazita, M L; Hill, S Y


    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents.

  20. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica


    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  1. Fundamental Study of Interactions Between Pulsed High-Density Plasmas and Materials for Space Propulsion (United States)


    interaction phenomena. The high density thermal plasma source was also used to produce surface tracking high density non-thermal plasma discharges...state. A set of high speed image sequences were used to determine the dielectric tracking path and propagation velocity of the non- thermal streamer...represented by a slab of atoms supported by a frozen layer held in the position of the bulk. A thermostat above this frozen layer is used to remove

  2. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches and gravitational waves (United States)

    Srivastava, A. M.; Bagchi, P.; Das, A.; Layek, B.


    We discuss physics of exotic high baryon density QCD phases which are believed to exist in the core of a neutron star. This can provide a laboratory for exploring exotic physics such as axion emission, KK graviton production etc. Much of the physics of these high-density phases is model-dependent and not very well understood, especially the densities expected to occur inside neutron stars. We follow a different approach and use primarily universal aspects of the physics of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effects of density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing quadrupole moment of the star due to these fluctuations.

  3. High energy density plasma science with an ultrarelativistic electron beam (United States)

    Joshi, C.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Dodd, E.; Huang, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Wang, S.; Hogan, M. J.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.; Watz, D.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.


    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful laser beams. For example, the 5 ps (full-width, half-maximum), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of >1020 W/cm-2 at a repetition rate of >10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse which interacts with the surface of a solid target, the particle beam can readily tunnel through tens of cm of steel. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite effectively by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly observable phenomena. The beam paraticles can be: (1) Deflected leading to focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or decelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron beam from the SLAC linac a series of experiments have been carried out that demonstrate clearly many of the above mentioned effects. The results can be compared with theoretical predictions and with two-dimensional and three-dimensional, one-to-one, particle-in-cell code simulations. These phenomena may have practical applications in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultrahigh gradient accelerators.

  4. Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in High-Resolution Climate Change Simulations (United States)

    Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Lüthi, Daniel; Schär, Christoph


    Climate change projections of extreme precipitation are of great interest due to hydrological impacts such as droughts, floods, erosion, landslides and debris flows. Despite the trend towards dryer conditions over Europe, many climate simulations project increases of heavy precipitation events, while some theoretical studies have raised the possibility of dramatic increases in hourly events (by up to 14% per degree warming). However, conventional climate models are not suited to assess short-term heavy events due to the need to parameterize deep convection. High-resolution climate models with kilometer-scale grid spacing at which parameterization of convection can be switched off, significantly improve the simulation of heavy precipitation and can alter the climate change signal (e.g., Ban et al., 2015). Here we present decade-long high-resolution climate change simulations at horizontal resolution of 2.2 km over Europe on a computational domain with 1536x1536x60 grid points. These simulations have become feasible with a new version of the COSMO model that runs entirely on Graphics Processing Units. We compare a present-day climate simulation, driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis (Leutwyler at al., 2016), with a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation The PGW simulation is driven by the slowly evolving mean seasonal cycle of the climate changes (derived from the CMIP5 model), superimposed on the ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this approach, the resulting changes are due to large scale warming of the atmosphere and due to slow-varying circulation changes. We will present the differences in climate change signal between conventional and high-resolution climate models, and discuss the thermodynamic effects on intensification of extreme precipitation. Ban N., J. Schmidli and C. Schär, 2015: Heavy precipitation in a changing climate: Does short-term summer precipitation increase faster? Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 (4), 1165-1172 Leutwyler, D., D. Lüthi, N. Ban, O. Fuhrer and C

  5. Extremely high UV-C radiation resistant microorganisms from desert environments with different manganese concentrations. (United States)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Glaucio; Fujishima, Kosuke; Navarrete, Jesica Urbina; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Azua-Bustos, Armando; Rothschild, Lynn Justine


    Desiccation resistance and a high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio contribute to ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. We hypothesized that this was a general phenomenon and thus developed a strategy to search for highly radiation-resistant organisms based on their natural environment. While desiccation is a typical feature of deserts, the correlation between radiation resistance and the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio of indigenous microorganisms or the Mn/Fe ratio of the environment, has not yet been described. UV-C radiation is highly damaging to biomolecules including DNA. It was used in this study as a selective tool because of its relevance to early life on earth, high altitude aerobiology and the search for life beyond Earth. Surface soil samples were collected from the Sonoran Desert, Arizona (USA), from the Atacama Desert in Chile and from a manganese mine in northern Argentina. Microbial isolates were selected after exposure to UV-C irradiation and growth. The isolates comprised 28 genera grouped within six phyla, which we ranked according to their resistance to UV-C irradiation. Survival curves were performed for the most resistant isolates and correlated with their intracellular Mn/Fe ratio, which was determined by ICP-MS. Five percent of the isolates were highly resistant, including one more resistant than D. radiodurans, a bacterium generally considered the most radiation-resistant organism, thus used as a model for radiation resistance studies. No correlation was observed between the occurrence of resistant microorganisms and the Mn/Fe ratio in the soil samples. However, all resistant isolates showed an intracellular Mn/Fe ratio much higher than the sensitive isolates. Our findings could represent a new front in efforts to harness mechanisms of UV-C radiation resistance from extreme environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri


    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming to evaluate the effects of board density and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin onthe properties of particleboard for semi-structural applications. The boards were manufactured with nominal density of 0.65 g/cm³and 0.90 g/cm³ using urea-formaldehyde resin as control and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The results showed a better dimensionallystability and mechanical properties of the boards manufactured with higher density and MUF resin content. The fine furnish usedfor external layer of particleboard in the industrial process, could be used for high density homogeneous board to semi-strucuturaluses, such as flooring applications.

  7. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery St., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic and Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)


    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  8. Extremely high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Murmansk, Russia: a population-based study. (United States)

    Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H


    Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk.

  9. High-density marker imputation accuracy in sixteen French cattle breeds. (United States)

    Hozé, Chris; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Venot, Eric; Guillaume, François; Dassonneville, Romain; Fritz, Sébastien; Ducrocq, Vincent; Phocas, Florence; Boichard, Didier; Croiseau, Pascal


    Genotyping with the medium-density Bovine SNP50 BeadChip® (50K) is now standard in cattle. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip®, which contains 777,609 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was developed in 2010. Increasing marker density increases the level of linkage disequilibrium between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNPs and the accuracy of QTL localization and genomic selection. However, re-genotyping all animals with the high-density chip is not economically feasible. An alternative strategy is to genotype part of the animals with the high-density chip and to impute high-density genotypes for animals already genotyped with the 50K chip. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the error rate when imputing from the 50K to the high-density chip. Five thousand one hundred and fifty three animals from 16 breeds (89 to 788 per breed) were genotyped with the high-density chip. Imputation error rates from the 50K to the high-density chip were computed for each breed with a validation set that included the 20% youngest animals. Marker genotypes were masked for animals in the validation population in order to mimic 50K genotypes. Imputation was carried out using the Beagle 3.3.0 software. Mean allele imputation error rates ranged from 0.31% to 2.41% depending on the breed. In total, 1980 SNPs had high imputation error rates in several breeds, which is probably due to genome assembly errors, and we recommend to discard these in future studies. Differences in imputation accuracy between breeds were related to the high-density-genotyped sample size and to the genetic relationship between reference and validation populations, whereas differences in effective population size and level of linkage disequilibrium showed limited effects. Accordingly, imputation accuracy was higher in breeds with large populations and in dairy breeds than in beef breeds. More than 99% of the alleles were correctly imputed if more than 300 animals were genotyped at high-density. No

  10. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David T. J.; Silverberg, Jesse L.


    Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

  11. Catalyst design by cyclic deposition: Nanoparticle formation and growth of high-density nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esconjauregui, Santiago; Fouquet, Martin; Xie, Rongsie; Cartwright, Richard; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Newcomb, Simon B. [Glebe Scientific Ltd., Newport, County Tipperary (Ireland)


    The areal density of carbon nanotube forests can be increased up to the order of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} using cycles of deposition and annealing of ultra-thin metal films, followed by nanoparticle immobilization. Herein, we show how the density of the catalyst nanoparticles increases after each cycle by using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The layers of metal catalyst - subsequently deposited after previous annealing - sit on the uncovered areas of the support and, after annealing, restructure into nanoparticles cumulatively increasing the catalyst density. These nanoparticles lead to close-packed, high-density nanotube forests with nanotube areal densities of {proportional_to}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. The height of these high-density forests shortens as the density of the catalyst nanoparticle increases, which is observed using several synthesis conditions. This high nanotube density is required for using carbon nanotubes as interconnects in integrated circuits and in thermal interface materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)


    Chen, Sike; Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.


    Columns containing immobilized lipoproteins were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with these particles by high-performance affinity chromatography. This approach was evaluated by using it to examine the binding of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to the drugs propranolol or verapamil. HDL was immobilized by the Schiff base method onto silica and gave HPLC columns with reproducible binding to propranolol over four to five days of continuous operation at pH 7.4. Frontal analysis experiments indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R/S-propranolol and HDL at 37°C: saturable binding with an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 1.1–1.9 × 105 M−1, and non-saturable binding with an overall affinity constant (n Ka) of 3.7–4.1 × 104 M−1. Similar results were found at 4 and 27°C. Verapamil also gave similar behavior, with a Ka of 6.0 × 104 M−1 at 37°C for the saturable sites and a n Ka value for the non-saturable sites of 2.5 × 104 M−1. These measured affinities gave good agreement with solution-phase values. The results indicated HPAC can be used to study drug interactions with HDL, providing information that should be valuable in obtaining a better description of how drugs are transported within the body. PMID:19833090

  13. High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd


    Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

  14. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)


    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  15. A Decentralized Control Strategy for High Density Material Flow Systems with Automated Guided Vehicles


    Schwab, Melanie


    This work presents a universal decentralized control strategy for grid-based high-density material flow systems with automated guided vehicles and gives insights into the system behavior as well as the solution quality.

  16. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors with High Actuator Density and Large Stroke Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors with high actuator density, fine pitch, large stroke and no floating wires will be developed for future NASA science...

  17. High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low...

  18. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.


    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  19. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas


    Behringer, K.


    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  20. High-density lipoproteins and adrenal steroidogenesis : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    BACKGROUND: Cholesterol trafficked within plasma lipoproteins, in particular high-density lipoproteins (HDL), may represent an important source of cholesterol that is required for adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on a urinary gas chromatography method, compromised adrenal function has been suggested

  1. High-energy-density physics foundation of inertial fusion and experimental astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, R Paul


    The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This title surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course, an introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-energy-density systems. This second edition includes pedagogic improvements to the presentation ...

  2. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E


    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  3. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye


    ... has inspired several urban road network development trends, including increased use of the high-density grid road network (HGRN). The structure of the HGRN is the orthogonal checkerboard pattern,...

  4. Future Projection of Summer Extreme Precipitation from High Resolution Multi-RCMs over East Asia (United States)

    Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Min, Seung-Ki; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk


    Recently, the frequency and intensity of natural hazards have been increasing due to human-induced climate change. Because most damages of natural hazards over East Asia have been related to extreme precipitation events, it is important to estimate future change in extreme precipitation characteristics caused by climate change. We investigate future changes in extremal values of summer precipitation simulated by five regional climate models participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (i.e., HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, MM5, WRF, and GRIMs) over East Asia. 100-year return value calculated from the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameters is analysed as an indicator of extreme intensity. In the future climate, the mean values as well as the extreme values of daily precipitation tend to increase over land region. The increase of 100-year return value can be significantly associated with the changes in the location (intensity) and scale (variability) GEV parameters for extreme precipitation. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as fruitful references when making the policy of disaster management. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government and Development program under grant MPSS-NH-2013-63 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  5. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  6. Short period, high field cryogenic undulator for extreme performance x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. O’Shea


    Full Text Available Short period, high field undulators can enable short wavelength free electron lasers (FELs at low beam energy, with decreased gain length, thus allowing much more compact and less costly FEL systems. We describe an ongoing initiative to develop such an undulator based on an approach that utilizes novel cryogenic materials. While this effort was begun in the context of extending the photon energy regime of a laser-plasma accelerator based electron source, we consider here implications of its application to sub-fs scenarios in which more conventional injectors are employed. The use of such low-charge, ultrashort beams, which has recently been proposed as a method of obtaining single-spike performance in x-ray FELs, is seen in simulation to give unprecedented beam brightness. This brightness, when considered in tandem with short wavelength, high field undulators, enables extremely high performance FELs. Two examples discussed in this paper illustrate this point well. The first is the use of the SPARX injector at 2.1 GeV with 1 pC of charge to give 8 GW peak power in a single spike at 6.5 Å with a photon beam peak brightness greater than 10^{35}  photons/(s mm^{2} mrad^{2}  0.1%  BW, which will also reach LCLS wavelengths on the 5th harmonic. The second is the exploitation of the LCLS injector with 0.25 pC, 150 as pulses to lase at 1.5 Å using only 4.5 GeV energy; beyond this possibility, we present start-to-end simulations of lasing at unprecedented short wavelength, 0.15 Å, using 13.65 GeV LCLS design energy.

  7. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  8. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth. (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark


    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  11. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes


    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; FRANCIS, KIMBERLY; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda


    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Game...

  12. Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels. (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young


    Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  14. Extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation enhances neutrophil response to particulate agonists. (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Gusev, Alexandr A; Balabushevich, Nadezhda G; Gusev, Sergey A; Kazarinov, Konstantin D


    The growing use of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in information and communication technology and in biomedical applications has raised concerns regarding the potential biological impact of millimeter waves (MMWs). Here, we elucidated the effects of MMW radiation on neutrophil activation induced by opsonized zymosan or E. coli in whole blood ex vivo. After agonist addition to blood, two samples were prepared. A control sample was incubated at ambient conditions without any treatment, and a test sample was exposed to EHF EMR (32.9-39.6 GHz, 100 W/m 2 ). We used methods that allowed us to assess the functional status of neutrophils immediately after exposure: oxidant production levels were measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and morphofunctional changes to neutrophils were observed in blood smears. Results revealed that the response of neutrophils to both agonists was intensified if blood was exposed to MMW radiation for 15 min. Neutrophils were intact in both the control and irradiated samples if no agonist was added to blood before incubation. Similarly, exposing suspensions of isolated neutrophils in plasma to MMW radiation enhanced cell response to both zymosan and E. coli. Heating blood samples was shown to be the primary mechanism underlying enhanced EHF EMR-induced oxidant production by neutrophils in response to particulate agonists. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:144-155, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Estimating uncertainties from high resolution simulations of extreme wind storms and consequences for impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pardowitz


    Full Text Available A simple method is presented designed to assess uncertainties from dynamical downscaling of regional high impact weather. The approach makes use of the fact that the choice of the simulation domain for the regional model is to a certain degree arbitrary. Thus, a small ensemble of equally valid simulations can be produced from the same driving model output by shifting the domain by a few of grid cells. Applying the approach to extra-tropical storm systems the regional simulations differ with respect to the exact location and severity of extreme wind speeds. Based on an integrated storm severity measure, the individual ensemble members are found to vary by more than 25 % from the ensemble mean in the majority of episodes considered. Estimates of insured losses based on individual regional simulations and integrated over Germany even differ by more than 50 % from the ensemble mean in most cases. Based on a set of intense storm episodes, a quantification of winter storm losses under recent and future climate is made. Using this domain shift ensemble approach, uncertainty ranges are derived representing the uncertainty inherent to the used downscaling method.

  16. Effect of apolipoprotein M on high density lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Moser, Markus


    To investigate the role of apoM in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and atherogenesis, we generated human apoM transgenic (apoM-Tg) and apoM-deficient (apoM(-/-)) mice. Plasma apoM was predominantly associated with 10-12-nm alpha-migrating HDL particles. Human apoM overexpression (11-fold...... of alpha- to pre-alpha-migrating HDL was delayed in apoM-Tg mice. Moreover, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-independent generation of pre-beta-migrating apoA-I-containing particles in plasma was increased in apoM-Tg mice (4.2 +/- 1.1%, p = 0.06) and decreased in apoM(-/-) mice (0.5 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.......03) versus controls (1.8 +/- 0.05%). In the setting of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency, apoM-Tg mice with approximately 2-fold increased plasma apoM concentrations developed smaller atherosclerotic lesions than controls. The effect of apoM on atherosclerosis may be facilitated by enzymatic...

  17. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia


    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  18. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display. (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile


    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  19. Optimization of tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte's negative charge density: A high-performing mercury adsorbent from drinking water. (United States)

    Kokkinos, E; Simeonidis, K; Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Mitrakas, M


    This study demonstrates an optimization procedure for the development of an Hg-specified adsorbent able to comply with the regulation limit for drinking water of 1μg/L. On this purpose, the synthesis of Mn(IV)-feroxyhyte was modified to achieve high negative charge density by combining alkaline and extreme oxidizing conditions. In particular, precipitation of FeSO4 at pH9 and excess of KMnO4 follows a very fast nucleation step providing a product with very small nanocrystal size (1-2nm), high specific surface area (300m(2)/g) and maximum negative charge density (1.8mmol H(+)/g). The adsorbent was validated for Hg removal in batch experiments and column tests using natural-like water indicating an adsorption capacity as high as 2.5μg/mg at equilibrium concentration 1μg/L under reliable conditions of application. Importantly, the adsorption is an exothermic spontaneous process, resulting in the formation of inner sphere complexes by sharing both A-type and B-type oxygen atoms with the metal surface octahedral as revealed by the X-ray absorption fine structure results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elastic Behavior and Platelet Retraction in Low- and High-Density Fibrin Gels (United States)

    Wufsus, Adam R.; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Brown, Andrea; Dorgan, John R.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Neeves, Keith B.


    Fibrin is a biopolymer that gives thrombi the mechanical strength to withstand the forces imparted on them by blood flow. Importantly, fibrin is highly extensible, but strain hardens at low deformation rates. The density of fibrin in clots, especially arterial clots, is higher than that in gels made at plasma concentrations of fibrinogen (3–10 mg/mL), where most rheology studies have been conducted. Our objective in this study was to measure and characterize the elastic regimes of low (3–10 mg/mL) and high (30–100 mg/mL) density fibrin gels using shear and extensional rheology. Confocal microscopy of the gels shows that fiber density increases with fibrinogen concentration. At low strains, fibrin gels act as thermal networks independent of fibrinogen concentration. Within the low-strain regime, one can predict the mesh size of fibrin gels by the elastic modulus using semiflexible polymer theory. Significantly, this provides a link between gel mechanics and interstitial fluid flow. At moderate strains, we find that low-density fibrin gels act as nonaffine mechanical networks and transition to affine mechanical networks with increasing strains within the moderate regime, whereas high-density fibrin gels only act as affine mechanical networks. At high strains, the backbone of individual fibrin fibers stretches for all fibrin gels. Platelets can retract low-density gels by >80% of their initial volumes, but retraction is attenuated in high-density fibrin gels and with decreasing platelet density. Taken together, these results show that the nature of fibrin deformation is a strong function of fibrin fiber density, which has ramifications for the growth, embolization, and lysis of thrombi. PMID:25564864