WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely high accuracy

  1. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  2. High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.

  3. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  4. High current high accuracy IGBT pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.V.; Donaldson, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current triangular or trapezoidal pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in a capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The circuit can then recover the remaining energy and transfer it back to the capacitor bank without reversing the capacitor voltage. A third IGBT device is employed to control the initial charge to the capacitor bank, a command charging technique, and to compensate for pulse to pulse power losses. The rack mounted pulse generator contains a 525 μF capacitor bank. It can deliver 500 A at 900V into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled to 0.02% accuracy by a precision controller through the SLAC central computer system. This pulse generator drives a series pair of extraction dipoles

  5. Soft Tissue Masses in the Extremities: The Accuracy of an Ultrasonographic Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Young; Park, So Young; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to retrospectively determine the accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis of superficial soft tissue masses in the extremities by using the histologic results as the reference standard. From January 2005 to June 2010, 154 patients with soft tissue masses in the extremities and who underwent ultrasonographic evaluation followed by biopsy or resection were retrospectively evaluated. The ultrasonographic and histologic diagnoses of the soft tissue masses were lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, neurogenic tumor, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, epidermoid cyst, fibroma, glomus tumor, Baker's cyst and neurofibromatosis. Out of 154 patients, 114 (74%) patients showed concordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, and the remaining 40 (26%) patients did not. The diagnostic accuracy of each soft tissue mass was 95% for lipoma, 83% for ganglion cyst, 75% for hemangioma, 72% for neurogenic tumor, 50% for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, 43% for epidermoid cyst, 33% for fibroma and 100% each for glomus tumor, fibromatosis and Baker's cyst. Aside from these tumors, there were also sarcoma, malignant melanoma, elastofibroma, Kimura disease and pilomatricoma. Among the cases that showed discordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, three of them were notable; pilomatricoma being misdiagnosed as dermatofibroma protuberans, angiolipoma being misdiagnosed as vascular leiomyoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma being misdiagnosed as a malignant soft tissue mass. The accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis for soft tissue masses in the extremities varies greatly according to each type of mass. Lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, glomus tumor, neurogenic tumor and Baker's cyst showed a relatively high rate of concordance between the ultrasonographic diagnosis and the histologic diagnosis, but epidermoid cyst and fibroma showed a relatively lower rate of concordance

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in upper and lower extremity long bone fractures of emergency department trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Delirroyfard, Ali; Mazdaie, Behnaz; Bagherzadegan, Elnaz

    2017-08-01

    Long bone fractures are common injuries caused by trauma. Some studies have demonstrated that ultrasound has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures in traumatic patients. This cross-sectional study assessed 100 patients admitted to the emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran with trauma to the upper and lower extremities, from September 2014 through October 2015. In all patients, first ultrasound and then standard plain radiography for the upper and lower limb was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 to determine the specificity and sensitivity. The mean age of patients with upper and lower limb trauma were 31.43±12.32 years and 29.63±5.89 years, respectively. Radius fracture was the most frequent compared to other fractures (27%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value, and negative predicted value of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bones were 95.3%, 87.7%, 87.2% and 96.2%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in left arm fractures (100%). Tibia and fibula fractures were the most frequent types compared to other fractures (89.2%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bone fractures were 98.6%, 83%, 65.4% and 87.1%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in men, lower ages and femoral fractures. The results of this study showed that ultrasound compared with plain radiography has a high accuracy in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures.

  7. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronczek, D.N.; Quammen, C.; Wang, H.; Kisker, C.; Superfine, R.; Taylor, R.; Erie, D.A.; Tessmer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8 nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10 nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes. -- Research highlights: → Integration of fluorescent signals in AFM topography with high (<10 nm) accuracy. → Investigation of limitations and quantitative analysis of fluorescence-AFM image registration using quantum dots. → Fluorescence center tracking and display as localization probability distributions in AFM topography (FIONA-AFM). → Application of FIONA-AFM to a biological sample containing damaged DNA and the DNA repair proteins UvrA and UvrB conjugated to quantum dots.

  8. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...

  9. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  10. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  11. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  12. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  13. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  14. Electron ray tracing with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Okubo, T.; Takamoto, K.; Uno, Y.; Kondo, M.

    1986-01-01

    An electron ray tracing program is developed to investigate the overall geometrical and chromatic aberrations in electron optical systems. The program also computes aberrations due to manufacturing errors in lenses and deflectors. Computation accuracy is improved by (1) calculating electrostatic and magnetic scalar potentials using the finite element method with third-order isoparametric elements, and (2) solving the modified ray equation which the aberrations satisfy. Computation accuracy of 4 nm is achieved for calculating optical properties of the system with an electrostatic lens

  15. Production processes at extremely high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gastmans, R; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2013-01-01

    The production processes are identified that contribute to the rise of the total cross section in proton-proton scattering at extremely high energies, s->~. At such energies, the scattering can be described by a black disk (completely absorptive) with a radius expanding logarithmically with energy surrounded by a gray fringe (partially absorptive). For the leading term of (lns)^2 in the increasing total cross section, the gray fringe is neglected, and geometrical optics is generalized to production processes. It is known that half of the rise in the total cross section is due to elastic scattering. The other half is found to originate from the production of jets with relatively small momenta in the center-of-mass system.

  16. Spatial and temporal accuracy of asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations at extreme scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Komal; Donzis, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Highly resolved computational simulations on massively parallel machines are critical in understanding the physics of a vast number of complex phenomena in nature governed by partial differential equations. Simulations at extreme levels of parallelism present many challenges with communication between processing elements (PEs) being a major bottleneck. In order to fully exploit the computational power of exascale machines one needs to devise numerical schemes that relax global synchronizations across PEs. This asynchronous computations, however, have a degrading effect on the accuracy of standard numerical schemes.We have developed asynchrony-tolerant (AT) schemes that maintain order of accuracy despite relaxed communications. We show, analytically and numerically, that these schemes retain their numerical properties with multi-step higher order temporal Runge-Kutta schemes. We also show that for a range of optimized parameters,the computation time and error for AT schemes is less than their synchronous counterpart. Stability of the AT schemes which depends upon history and random nature of delays, are also discussed. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Accuracy and consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy in upper and lower extremity fracture treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerekamp, M. S. H. Suzan; Sulkers, George S. I.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Maas, Mario; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy, subjective image quality and clinical consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy with standard imaging modalities (2D-fluoroscopy, X-ray or CT) during reduction and fixation of intra-articular upper and lower extremity

  18. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  19. High accuracy in silico sulfotransferase models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Falany, Charles N; Leyh, Thomas S

    2013-11-29

    Predicting enzymatic behavior in silico is an integral part of our efforts to understand biology. Hundreds of millions of compounds lie in targeted in silico libraries waiting for their metabolic potential to be discovered. In silico "enzymes" capable of accurately determining whether compounds can inhibit or react is often the missing piece in this endeavor. This problem has now been solved for the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). SULTs regulate the bioactivities of thousands of compounds--endogenous metabolites, drugs and other xenobiotics--by transferring the sulfuryl moiety (SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to the hydroxyls and primary amines of these acceptors. SULT1A1 and 2A1 catalyze the majority of sulfation that occurs during human Phase II metabolism. Here, recent insights into the structure and dynamics of SULT binding and reactivity are incorporated into in silico models of 1A1 and 2A1 that are used to identify substrates and inhibitors in a structurally diverse set of 1,455 high value compounds: the FDA-approved small molecule drugs. The SULT1A1 models predict 76 substrates. Of these, 53 were known substrates. Of the remaining 23, 21 were tested, and all were sulfated. The SULT2A1 models predict 22 substrates, 14 of which are known substrates. Of the remaining 8, 4 were tested, and all are substrates. The models proved to be 100% accurate in identifying substrates and made no false predictions at Kd thresholds of 100 μM. In total, 23 "new" drug substrates were identified, and new linkages to drug inhibitors are predicted. It now appears to be possible to accurately predict Phase II sulfonation in silico.

  20. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  1. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  2. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.

  3. Accuracy and consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy in upper and lower extremity fracture treatment: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerekamp, M.S.H.; Sulkers, George S.I.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Maas, Mario; Schep, Niels W.L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy, subjective image quality and clinical consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy with standard imaging modalities (2D-fluoroscopy, X-ray or CT) during reduction and fixation of intra-articular upper and lower extremity fractures. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. In total 673 articles were identified (up to March 2012). The 19 included studies described patients/cadavers with intra-articular upper/lower extremity fractures and compared 3D-fluoroscopy to standard imaging. The study was performed in accordance with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) guidelines. Diagnostic accuracy was defined by the quality of fracture reduction or implant position and, if possible, expressed as sensitivity and specificity; subjective image quality was determined by the quality of depiction of bone or implants; clinical consequences were defined as corrections in reduction or implant position following 3D-fluoroscopy. Results: Ten cadaver- and nine clinical studies were included. A meta-analysis was not possible, because studies used different scoring protocols to express diagnostic accuracy and reported incomplete data. Based on the individual studies, diagnostic accuracy of 3D-fluoroscopy was better than 2D-fluoroscopy and X-ray, but similar to CT-scanning. Subjective image quality of 3D-fluoroscopy was inferior compared to all other imaging modalities. In 11–40% of the operations additional corrections were performed after 3D-fluoroscopy, while the necessity for these corrections were not recognized based on 2D-fluoroscopic images. Conclusions: Although subjective image quality is rated inferior compared to other imaging modalities, intra-operative use of 3D-fluoroscopy is a helpful diagnostic tool for improving the quality of reduction and implant position in intra-articular fractures.

  4. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  5. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  6. A High-Throughput, High-Accuracy System-Level Simulation Framework for System on Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's System-on-Chips (SoCs design is extremely challenging because it involves complicated design tradeoffs and heterogeneous design expertise. To explore the large solution space, system architects have to rely on system-level simulators to identify an optimized SoC architecture. In this paper, we propose a system-level simulation framework, System Performance Simulation Implementation Mechanism, or SPSIM. Based on SystemC TLM2.0, the framework consists of an executable SoC model, a simulation tool chain, and a modeling methodology. Compared with the large body of existing research in this area, this work is aimed at delivering a high simulation throughput and, at the same time, guaranteeing a high accuracy on real industrial applications. Integrating the leading TLM techniques, our simulator can attain a simulation speed that is not slower than that of the hardware execution by a factor of 35 on a set of real-world applications. SPSIM incorporates effective timing models, which can achieve a high accuracy after hardware-based calibration. Experimental results on a set of mobile applications proved that the difference between the simulated and measured results of timing performance is within 10%, which in the past can only be attained by cycle-accurate models.

  7. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies {<=}0.2 A. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of {approx}0.25 A has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision ({approx}0.005 A) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within {approx}0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  8. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  9. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  10. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  11. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. An MRI-based technique for assessment of lower extremity deformities - reproducibility, accuracy, and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Graichen, Heiko; Vogl, Thomas J.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that length, torsion, and axis of a leg phantom can be measured accurately and reproducibly by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and that this can be applied to patients with leg deformities. Two phantoms and 30 patients (genu varum, n=15; genu valgum, n=15) were investigated using an optimized MRI technique. Reference measurements were performed with a micrometer screw and a goniometer. Patient leg length and axis were compared with long radiographs in bipedal stance. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility and accuracy were calculated using the mean absolute difference (MAD) and the 95% confidence interval. In patients, comparisons were done using a paired Student's t-test. MAD, intraobserver MAD, and interobserver MAD were 0.03, 0.03, 0.04 mm (length); 0.98, 1.2, 0.98 (torsion); and 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 (axis), respectively. In patients, leg length was underestimated by MRI (-2.4 ± 0.7%; 1.9±0.7 cm; P 0.05), while it was significantly underestimated in valgus knees (-3.6 ± 2.8 ; P<0.05). The phantom study revealed that leg length, torsion, and axis can be measured accurately and reproducibly by MRI. Although underestimation of leg length and HKA in valgus knees occurred, this optimized MRI technique can be applied to patients with leg deformities. (orig.)

  13. The use of low density high accuracy (LDHA) data for correction of high density low accuracy (HDLA) point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Michal Bartosz; Wozniak, Adam; Mayer, J. R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Coordinate measuring techniques rely on computer processing of coordinate values of points gathered from physical surfaces using contact or non-contact methods. Contact measurements are characterized by low density and high accuracy. On the other hand optical methods gather high density data of the whole object in a short time but with accuracy at least one order of magnitude lower than for contact measurements. Thus the drawback of contact methods is low density of data, while for non-contact methods it is low accuracy. In this paper a method for fusion of data from two measurements of fundamentally different nature: high density low accuracy (HDLA) and low density high accuracy (LDHA) is presented to overcome the limitations of both measuring methods. In the proposed method the concept of virtual markers is used to find a representation of pairs of corresponding characteristic points in both sets of data. In each pair the coordinates of the point from contact measurements is treated as a reference for the corresponding point from non-contact measurement. Transformation enabling displacement of characteristic points from optical measurement to their match from contact measurements is determined and applied to the whole point cloud. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by comparison with data from a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Three surfaces were used for this evaluation: plane, turbine blade and engine cover. For the planar surface the achieved improvement was of around 200 μm. Similar results were obtained for the turbine blade but for the engine cover the improvement was smaller. For both freeform surfaces the improvement was higher for raw data than for data after creation of mesh of triangles.

  14. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-01-01

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 μm. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity

  15. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  16. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Eric M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  17. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of γ and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control

  18. Gene masking - a technique to improve accuracy for cancer classification with high dimensionality in microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Harsh; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Naidu, Vimal Vikash; Pickering, Vincel Wince; Singh, Gurmeet; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2016-12-05

    High dimensional feature space generally degrades classification in several applications. In this paper, we propose a strategy called gene masking, in which non-contributing dimensions are heuristically removed from the data to improve classification accuracy. Gene masking is implemented via a binary encoded genetic algorithm that can be integrated seamlessly with classifiers during the training phase of classification to perform feature selection. It can also be used to discriminate between features that contribute most to the classification, thereby, allowing researchers to isolate features that may have special significance. This technique was applied on publicly available datasets whereby it substantially reduced the number of features used for classification while maintaining high accuracies. The proposed technique can be extremely useful in feature selection as it heuristically removes non-contributing features to improve the performance of classifiers.

  19. Achieving High Accuracy in Calculations of NMR Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Rasmus

    quantum chemical methods have been developed, the calculation of NMR parameters with quantitative accuracy is far from trivial. In this thesis I address some of the issues that makes accurate calculation of NMR parameters so challenging, with the main focus on SSCCs. High accuracy quantum chemical......, but no programs were available to perform such calculations. As part of this thesis the CFOUR program has therefore been extended to allow the calculation of SSCCs using the CC3 method. CC3 calculations of SSCCs have then been performed for several molecules, including some difficult cases. These results show...... vibrations must be included. The calculation of vibrational corrections to NMR parameters has been reviewed as part of this thesis. A study of the basis set convergence of vibrational corrections to nuclear shielding constants has also been performed. The basis set error in vibrational correction...

  20. Is Extremely High Life Satisfaction during Adolescence Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether extremely high life satisfaction was associated with adaptive functioning or maladaptive functioning. Six hundred ninety-eight secondary level students completed the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale [Huebner, 1991a, School Psychology International, 12, pp. 231-240], Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  1. Automatic residue removal for high-NA extreme illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James; Nam, Byong-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Kong, Dong-Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-10-01

    An epidemic for smaller node has been that, as the device architecture shrinks, lithography process requires high Numerical Aperture (NA), and extreme illumination system. This, in turn, creates many lithography problems such as low lithography process margin (Depth of Focus, Exposure Latitude), unstable Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity and restricted guideline for device design rule and so on. Especially for high NA, extreme illumination such as immersion illumination systems, above all the related problems, restricted design rule due to forbidden pitch is critical and crucial issue. This forbidden pitch is composed of numerous optical effects but majority of these forbidden pitch compose of photo resist residue and these residue must be removed to relieve some room for already tight design rule. In this study, we propose automated algorithm to remove photo resist residue due to high NA and extreme illumination condition. This algorithm automatically self assembles assist patterns based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated assist pattern to the original design and removes any resist residue created by extreme illumination condition. Also we tested our automated algorithm on full chip FLASH memory device and showed the residue removal effect by using commercial verification tools as well as on actual test wafer.

  2. A high accuracy land use/cover retrieval system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hefnawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spatial resolution on the accuracy of mapping land use/cover types have received increasing attention as a large number of multi-scale earth observation data become available. Although many methods of semi automated image classification of remotely sensed data have been established for improving the accuracy of land use/cover classification during the past 40 years, most of them were employed in single-resolution image classification, which led to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution fast adaptive content-based retrieval system of satellite images. Through our proposed system, we apply a Super Resolution technique for the Landsat-TM images to have a high resolution dataset. The human–computer interactive system is based on modified radial basis function for retrieval of satellite database images. We apply the backpropagation supervised artificial neural network classifier for both the multi and single resolution datasets. The results show significant improved land use/cover classification accuracy for the multi-resolution approach compared with those from single-resolution approach.

  3. Two high accuracy digital integrators for Rogowski current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan-dian; Li, Hong-bin; Li, Zhen-hua

    2014-01-01

    The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions. The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset. This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators. Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.

  4. High Accuracy Piezoelectric Kinemometer; Cinemometro piezoelectrico de alta exactitud (VUAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Martinez, F. J.; Frutos, J. de; Pastor, C.; Vazquez Rodriguez, M.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a portable computerized and low consumption, our system is called High Accuracy Piezoelectric Kinemometer measurement, herein VUAE. By the high accuracy obtained by VUAE it make able to use the VUAE to obtain references measurements of system for measuring Speeds in Vehicles. Therefore VUAE could be used how reference equipment to estimate the error of installed kinemometers. The VUAE was created with n (n=2) pairs of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, herein E-Rult. The transmitters used in the n couples E-Rult generate n ultrasonic barriers and receivers receive the echoes when the vehicle crosses the barriers. Digital processing of the echoes signals let us to obtain acceptable signals. Later, by mean of cross correlation technics is possible make a highly exact estimation of speed of the vehicle. The log of the moments of interception and the distance between each of the n ultrasounds allows for a highly exact estimation of speed of the vehicle. VUAE speed measurements were compared to a speed reference system based on piezoelectric cables. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  6. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  8. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    published in the internationally leading journal Physical Review Letters. We continued to progress this pionee 15.  SUBJECT TERMS ion therapy, heavy ion ...Thomson parabola spectrometer: To separate and provide a measurement of the charge -to-mass ratio and energy spectrum of the different ion species...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE

  9. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  10. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  11. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  12. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. (paper)

  13. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  14. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  15. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  16. PHASE QUANTIZATION STUDY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR FOR EXTREME HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing, E-mail: jpdou@niaot.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangpeidou@gmail.com [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10{sup -10}. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10{sup -10} in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  17. Extremely-high vacuum pressure measurement by laser ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    Laser ionization method has the very high sensitivity for detecting atoms and molecules. Hurst et al. successfully detected a single Cs atom by means of resonance ionization spectroscopy developed by them. Noting this high sensitivity, the authors have attempted to apply the laser ionization method to measure gas pressure, particularly in the range down to extremely high vacuum. At present, hot cathode ionization gauges are used for measuring gas pressure down to ultrahigh vacuum, however, those have a number of disadvantages. The pressure measurement using lasers does not have such disadvantages. The pressure measurement utilizing the laser ionization method is based on the principle that when laser beam is focused through a lens, the amount of atom or molecule ions generated in the focused space region is proportional to gas pressure. In this paper, the experimental results are presented on the nonresonant multiphoton ionization characteristics of various kinds of gases, the ion detection system with high sensitivity and an extremely high vacuum system prepared for the laser ionization experiment. (K.I.)

  18. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kronbichler, Martin

    2012-08-21

    Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth\\'s mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth\\'s core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related to the numerical methods that can accurately represent these processes at relevant scales. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in algorithms for high-Rayleigh number flows such as those in the Earth\\'s mantle, and discusses their implementation in the Open Source code Aspect (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth\\'s ConvecTion). Specifically, we show how an interconnected set of methods for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), higher order spatial and temporal discretizations, advection stabilization and efficient linear solvers can provide high accuracy at a numerical cost unachievable with traditional methods, and how these methods can be designed in a way so that they scale to large numbers of processors on compute clusters. Aspect relies on the numerical software packages deal.II and Trilinos, enabling us to focus on high level code and keeping our implementation compact. We present results from validation tests using widely used benchmarks for our code, as well as scaling results from parallel runs. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

  19. A Smart High Accuracy Silicon Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Temperature Compensation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanwu Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis in this paper indicates that the accuracy of a silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is mainly affected by thermal drift, and varies nonlinearly with the temperature. Here, a smart temperature compensation system to reduce its effect on accuracy is proposed. Firstly, an effective conditioning circuit for signal processing and data acquisition is designed. The hardware to implement the system is fabricated. Then, a program is developed on LabVIEW which incorporates an extreme learning machine (ELM as the calibration algorithm for the pressure drift. The implementation of the algorithm was ported to a micro-control unit (MCU after calibration in the computer. Practical pressure measurement experiments are carried out to verify the system’s performance. The temperature compensation is solved in the interval from −40 to 85 °C. The compensated sensor is aimed at providing pressure measurement in oil-gas pipelines. Compared with other algorithms, ELM acquires higher accuracy and is more suitable for batch compensation because of its higher generalization and faster learning speed. The accuracy, linearity, zero temperature coefficient and sensitivity temperature coefficient of the tested sensor are 2.57% FS, 2.49% FS, 8.1 × 10−5/°C and 29.5 × 10−5/°C before compensation, and are improved to 0.13%FS, 0.15%FS, 1.17 × 10−5/°C and 2.1 × 10−5/°C respectively, after compensation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is valid for the temperature compensation and high accuracy requirement of the sensor.

  20. High accuracy magnetic field mapping of the LEP spectrometer magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F

    2000-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron accelerator (LEP) is a storage ring which has been operated since 1989 at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), located in the Geneva area. It is intended to experimentally verify the Standard Model theory and in particular to detect with high accuracy the mass of the electro-weak force bosons. Electrons and positrons are accelerated inside the LEP ring in opposite directions and forced to collide at four locations, once they reach an energy high enough for the experimental purposes. During head-to-head collisions the leptons loose all their energy and a huge amount of energy is concentrated in a small region. In this condition the energy is quickly converted in other particles which tend to go away from the interaction point. The higher the energy of the leptons before the collisions, the higher the mass of the particles that can escape. At LEP four large experimental detectors are accommodated. All detectors are multi purpose detectors covering a solid angle of alm...

  1. Laser waveform control of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics from solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong Sing; Wu, Mengxi; Yin, Yanchun; Chew, Andrew; Ren, Xiaoming; Gholam-Mirzaei, Shima; Browne, Dana A; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B; Ghimire, Shambhu

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state high-harmonic sources offer the possibility of compact, high-repetition-rate attosecond light emitters. However, the time structure of high harmonics must be characterized at the sub-cycle level. We use strong two-cycle laser pulses to directly control the time-dependent nonlinear current in single-crystal MgO, leading to the generation of extreme ultraviolet harmonics. We find that harmonics are delayed with respect to each other, yielding an atto-chirp, the value of which depends on the laser field strength. Our results provide the foundation for attosecond pulse metrology based on solid-state harmonics and a new approach to studying sub-cycle dynamics in solids.

  2. Accuracy assessment of high-rate GPS measurements for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Ekström, G.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of GPS measurements with a controlled laboratory system, built to simulate the ground motions caused by tectonic earthquakes and other transient geophysical signals such as glacial earthquakes, enables us to assess the technique of high-rate GPS. The root-mean-square (rms) position error of this system when undergoing realistic simulated seismic motions is 0.05~mm, with maximum position errors of 0.1~mm, thus providing "ground truth" GPS displacements. We have acquired an extensive set of high-rate GPS measurements while inducing seismic motions on a GPS antenna mounted on this system with a temporal spectrum similar to real seismic events. We found that, for a particular 15-min-long test event, the rms error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates was 2.5~mm, with maximum position errors of 10~mm, and the error spectrum of the GPS estimates was approximately flicker noise. These results may however represent a best-case scenario since they were obtained over a short (~10~m) baseline, thereby greatly mitigating baseline-dependent errors, and when the number and distribution of satellites on the sky was good. For example, we have determined that the rms error can increase by a factor of 2--3 as the GPS constellation changes throughout the day, with an average value of 3.5~mm for eight identical, hourly-spaced, consecutive test events. The rms error also increases with increasing baseline, as one would expect, with an average rms error for a ~1400~km baseline of 9~mm. We will present an assessment of the accuracy of high-rate GPS based on these measurements, discuss the implications of this study for seismology, and describe new applications in glaciology.

  3. Accuracy assessment of cadastral maps using high resolution aerial photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadastral map is a map that shows the boundaries and ownership of land parcels. Some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas, adjoining and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. In Iraq / Baghdad Governorate, the main problem is that the cadastral maps are georeferenced to a local geodetic datum known as Clark 1880 while the widely used reference system for navigation purpose (GPS and GNSS and uses Word Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84 as a base reference datum. The objective of this paper is to produce a cadastral map with scale 1:500 (metric scale by using aerial photographs 2009 with high ground spatial resolution 10 cm reference WGS84 system. The accuracy assessment for the cadastral maps updating approach to urban large scale cadastral maps (1:500-1:1000 was ± 0.115 meters; which complies with the American Social for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Standards (ASPRS.

  4. Determination of UAV position using high accuracy navigation platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Kubicki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The choice of navigation system for mini UAV is very important because of its application and exploitation, particularly when the installed on it a synthetic aperture radar requires highly precise information about an object’s position. The presented exemplary solution of such a system draws attention to the possible problems associated with the use of appropriate technology, sensors, and devices or with a complete navigation system. The position and spatial orientation errors of the measurement platform influence on the obtained SAR imaging. Both, turbulences and maneuvers performed during flight cause the changes in the position of the airborne object resulting in deterioration or lack of images from SAR. Consequently, it is necessary to perform operations for reducing or eliminating the impact of the sensors’ errors on the UAV position accuracy. You need to look for compromise solutions between newer better technologies and in the field of software. Keywords: navigation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, sensors integration

  5. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  6. A new ultra-high-accuracy angle generator: current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Christian F.; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2017-09-01

    Lack of an extreme high-accuracy angular positioning device available in the United States has left a gap in industrial and scientific efforts conducted there, requiring certain user groups to undertake time-consuming work with overseas laboratories. Specifically, in x-ray mirror metrology the global research community is advancing the state-of-the-art to unprecedented levels. We aim to fill this U.S. gap by developing a versatile high-accuracy angle generator as a part of the national metrology tool set for x-ray mirror metrology and other important industries. Using an established calibration technique to measure the errors of the encoder scale graduations for full-rotation rotary encoders, we implemented an optimized arrangement of sensors positioned to minimize propagation of calibration errors. Our initial feasibility research shows that upon scaling to a full prototype and including additional calibration techniques we can expect to achieve uncertainties at the level of 0.01 arcsec (50 nrad) or better and offer the immense advantage of a highly automatable and customizable product to the commercial market.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination, and bedside ultrasound for diagnosis of extremity fractures in the emergency department: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikita; Lira, Alena; Mehta, Ninfa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Sinert, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Understanding history, physical examination, and ultrasonography (US) to diagnose extremity fractures compared with radiography has potential benefits of decreasing radiation exposure, costs, and pain and improving emergency department (ED) resource management and triage time. The authors performed two electronic searches using PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies published between 1965 to 2012 using a strategy based on the inclusion of any patient presenting with extremity injuries suspicious for fracture who had history and physical examination and a separate search for US performed by an emergency physician (EP) with subsequent radiography. The primary outcome was operating characteristics of ED history, physical examination, and US in diagnosing radiologically proven extremity fractures. The methodologic quality of the studies was assessed using the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy tool (QUADAS-2). Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for history and physical examination, while eight studies met the inclusion criteria for US. There was significant heterogeneity in the studies that prevented data pooling. Data were organized into subgroups based on anatomic fracture locations, but heterogeneity within the subgroups also prevented data pooling. The prevalence of fracture varied among the studies from 22% to 70%. Upper extremity physical examination tests have positive likelihood ratios (LRs) ranging from 1.2 to infinity and negative LRs ranging from 0 to 0.8. US sensitivities varied between 85% and 100%, specificities varied between 73% and 100%, positive LRs varied between 3.2 and 56.1, and negative LRs varied between 0 and 0.2. Compared with radiography, EP US is an accurate diagnostic test to rule in or rule out extremity fractures. The diagnostic accuracy for history and physical examination are inconclusive. Future research is needed to understand the accuracy of ED US when combined with history and physical examination for upper

  8. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of high-definition CT coronary angiography in high-risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, S.S.; Morgan-Hughes, G.; Ukoumunne, O.; Clayton, B.; Davies, E.J.; Nikolaou, V.; Hyde, C.J.; Shore, A.C.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) using a combination of high-definition CT (HD-CTCA) and high level of reader experience, with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference standard, in high-risk patients for the investigation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: Three hundred high-risk patients underwent HD-CTCA and ICA. Independent experts evaluated the images for the presence of significant CAD, defined primarily as the presence of moderate (≥50%) stenosis and secondarily as the presence of severe (≥70%) stenosis in at least one coronary segment, in a blinded fashion. HD-CTCA was compared to ICA as the reference standard. Results: No patients were excluded. Two hundred and six patients (69%) had moderate and 178 (59%) had severe stenosis in at least one vessel at ICA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 97.1%, 97.9%, 99% and 93.9% for moderate stenosis, and 98.9%, 93.4%, 95.7% and 98.3%, for severe stenosis, on a per-patient basis. Conclusion: The combination of HD-CTCA and experienced readers applied to a high-risk population, results in high diagnostic accuracy comparable to ICA. Modern generation CT systems in experienced hands might be considered for an expanded role. - Highlights: • Diagnostic accuracy of High-Definition CT Angiography (HD-CTCA) has been assessed. • Invasive Coronary angiography (ICA) is the reference standard. • Diagnostic accuracy of HD-CTCA is comparable to ICA. • Diagnostic accuracy is not affected by coronary calcium or stents. • HD-CTCA provides a non-invasive alternative in high-risk patients.

  10. High-accuracy user identification using EEG biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Mahajan, Ruhi; Marks, Tim K; Ye Wang; Watanabe, Shinji; Tuzel, Oncel; Orlik, Philip

    2016-08-01

    We analyze brain waves acquired through a consumer-grade EEG device to investigate its capabilities for user identification and authentication. First, we show the statistical significance of the P300 component in event-related potential (ERP) data from 14-channel EEGs across 25 subjects. We then apply a variety of machine learning techniques, comparing the user identification performance of various different combinations of a dimensionality reduction technique followed by a classification algorithm. Experimental results show that an identification accuracy of 72% can be achieved using only a single 800 ms ERP epoch. In addition, we demonstrate that the user identification accuracy can be significantly improved to more than 96.7% by joint classification of multiple epochs.

  11. High Accuracy Nonlinear Control and Estimation for Machine Tool Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios

    Component mass production has been the backbone of industry since the second industrial revolution, and machine tools are producing parts of widely varying size and design complexity. The ever-increasing level of automation in modern manufacturing processes necessitates the use of more...... sophisticated machine tool systems that are adaptable to different workspace conditions, while at the same time being able to maintain very narrow workpiece tolerances. The main topic of this thesis is to suggest control methods that can maintain required manufacturing tolerances, despite moderate wear and tear....... The purpose is to ensure that full accuracy is maintained between service intervals and to advice when overhaul is needed. The thesis argues that quality of manufactured components is directly related to the positioning accuracy of the machine tool axes, and it shows which low level control architectures...

  12. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zan; Braun Torsten; Dimitrova Desislava

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper we are particularly interested in GPS based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. Ou...

  13. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zan; Braun, Torsten; Dimitrova, Desislava Cvetanova

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time-based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper, we are particularly interested in GPS-based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. O...

  14. Adjuvant radiotherapy in high-grade extremity sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Carlos Antonio da Silva; Penna, Antonio Belmiro Rodrigues Campbell; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Vieira, Sergio Lannes

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the therapies utilized in the authors' institution for management of high-grade extremity sarcomas, analyzing the overall survival rates following multidisciplinary treatment. Materials and methods: retrospective study developed in the period from 1993 to 2007 with 36 patients diagnosed with stages IIb/III, submitted to postoperative external beam radiotherapy, with or without boost dose, utilizing high-dose brachytherapy. Results: thirty-six patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant external beam radiation therapy. Four patients (11%) received boost dose with brachytherapy, and seven (19%) received chemotherapy. The average dose for radiotherapy was 50 Gy (CI 95%: 47-53 Gy), and the four patients with brachytherapy boost received doses ranging from 16.2 to 35 Gy. Chemotherapy was indicated for seven patients (19%) with positive margins. Fifteen patients (42%) presented local or distant recurrence, and all of them progressed to death. Twenty-one patients (58%) remain with no clinical/radiological evidence of local/distant recurrence. The mean follow-up time was 88 months (IC 95%: 74-102). The overall seven years survival rate was 80%. Conclusion: combined surgery and radiotherapy is an effective treatment with excellent outcomes in cases where brachytherapy is associated, with improved overall survival rates. (author)

  15. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. High-energy roller injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, G; Finley, R; Parenti, J; Bush, D; Brotman, S

    1986-12-01

    Eleven cases of high-energy industrial roller injuries treated between 1980 and 1984 were retrospectively reviewed. The dominant extremity was affected in nine. Six patients sustained fractures and/or dislocations, and three of these patients required fasciotomies for clinical signs of impending compartment syndromes. All fracture/dislocations, with the exception of a scapula fracture, anterior dislocation of a thumb interphalangeal joint, and a fractured coronoid process of the ulna, required open reduction with internal fixation. Three patients required split-thickness skin grafting for extensive skin degloving. Two patients required immediate amputation. Late sequelae included prolonged edema, nutritional depletion, neuroma formation of the superficial branch of the radial nerve, late carpal tunnel syndrome, and partial brachial plexus palsy. Industrial roller injuries continue to be an occupational hazard associated with more severe crushing trauma than the low-energy wringer washer injuries first described by MacCollum (11). Attention must be paid to the treatment of crushed skin, muscle, and nerves, fracture stabilization, nutritional support, and occupational therapy. Concurrent monitoring for signs of a developing compartment syndrome and complications of rhabdomyolysis is essential.

  17. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Funari, S.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  19. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  20. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  1. Research on Horizontal Accuracy Method of High Spatial Resolution Remotely Sensed Orthophoto Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. M.; Zhang, J. X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.

    2018-04-01

    At present, in the inspection and acceptance of high spatial resolution remotly sensed orthophoto image, the horizontal accuracy detection is testing and evaluating the accuracy of images, which mostly based on a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability. However, it is difficult to get a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability in the areas where the field measurement is difficult and the reference data with high accuracy is not enough. So it is difficult to test and evaluate the horizontal accuracy of the orthophoto image. The uncertainty of the horizontal accuracy has become a bottleneck for the application of satellite borne high-resolution remote sensing image and the scope of service expansion. Therefore, this paper proposes a new method to test the horizontal accuracy of orthophoto image. This method using the testing points with different accuracy and reliability. These points' source is high accuracy reference data and field measurement. The new method solves the horizontal accuracy detection of the orthophoto image in the difficult areas and provides the basis for providing reliable orthophoto images to the users.

  2. Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future science and exploratory missions will require much lighter, smaller, and longer life rate sensors that can provide high accuracy navigational...

  3. High Accuracy Positioning using Jet Thrusters for Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi ChenHuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadcopter is equipped with four additional jet thrusters on its horizontal plane and vertical to each other in order to improve the maneuverability and positioning accuracy of quadcopter. A dynamic model of the quadcopter with jet thrusters is derived and two controllers are implemented in simulation, one is a dual loop state feedback controller for pose control and another is an auxiliary jet thruster controller for accurate positioning. Step response simulations showed that the jet thruster can control the quadcopter with less overshoot compared to the conventional one. Over 10s loiter simulation with disturbance, the quadcopter with jet thruster decrease 85% of RMS error of horizontal disturbance compared to a conventional quadcopter with only a dual loop state feedback controller. The jet thruster controller shows the possibility for further accurate in the field of quadcopter positioning.

  4. High-accuracy contouring using projection moiré

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano; Sciammarella, Federico M.

    2005-09-01

    Shadow and projection moiré are the oldest forms of moiré to be used in actual technical applications. In spite of this fact and the extensive number of papers that have been published on this topic, the use of shadow moiré as an accurate tool that can compete with alternative devices poses very many problems that go to the very essence of the mathematical models used to obtain contour information from fringe pattern data. In this paper some recent developments on the projection moiré method are presented. Comparisons between the results obtained with the projection method and the results obtained by mechanical devices that operate with contact probes are presented. These results show that the use of projection moiré makes it possible to achieve the same accuracy that current mechanical touch probe devices can provide.

  5. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  6. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  7. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  8. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  9. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  10. High-accuracy Subdaily ERPs from the IGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Griffiths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Since November 2000 the International GNSS Service (IGS) has published Ultra-rapid (IGU) products for near real-time (RT) and true real-time applications. They include satellite orbits and clocks, as well as Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) for a sliding 48-hr period. The first day of each update is based on the most recent GPS and GLONASS observational data from the IGS hourly tracking network. At the time of release, these observed products have an initial latency of 3 hr. The second day of each update consists of predictions. So the predictions between about 3 and 9 hr into the second half are relevant for true RT uses. Originally updated twice daily, the IGU products since April 2004 have been issued every 6 hr, at 3, 9, 15, and 21 UTC. Up to seven Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute to the IGU combinations. Two sets of ERPs are published with each IGU update, observed values at the middle epoch of the first half and predicted values at the middle epoch of the second half. The latency of the near RT ERPs is 15 hr while the predicted ERPs, based on projections of each AC's most recent determinations, are issued 9 hr ahead of their reference epoch. While IGU ERPs are issued every 6 hr, each set represents an integrated estimate over the surrounding 24 hr. So successive values are temporally correlated with about 75% of the data being common; this fact should be taken into account in user assimilations. To evaluate the accuracy of these near RT and predicted ERPs, they have been compared to the IGS Final ERPs, available about 11 to 17 d after data collection. The IGU products improved dramatically in the earlier years but since about 2008.0 the performance has been stable and excellent. During the last three years, RMS differences for the observed IGU ERPs have been about 0.036 mas and 0.0101 ms for each polar motion component and LOD respectively. (The internal precision of the reference IGS ERPs over the same period is about 0.016 mas for polar motion and 0

  11. Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to develop a compact, highly innovative Inertial Reference/Measurement Unit (IRU/IMU) that pushes the state-of-the-art in high accuracy performance...

  12. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremity Runoff: Impact of Noise-Optimized Virtual Monochromatic Imaging on Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Julian L; Gillott, Matthew R; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Yamada, Ricardo; Otani, Katharina; Canstein, Christian; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Todoran, Thomas M; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging algorithm (VMI+) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy at dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the lower extremity runoff. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was approved by the local institutional review board. We evaluated dual-energy CTA studies of the lower extremity runoff in 48 patients (16 women; mean age, 63.3 ± 13.8 years) performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system. Images were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monochromatic (VMI) algorithms at 40 to 120 keV in 10-keV intervals. Vascular attenuation and image noise in 18 artery segments were measured; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used to subjectively evaluate vascular attenuation and image noise. In a subgroup of 21 patients who underwent additional invasive catheter angiography, diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50% lumen restriction) of F_0.5, 50-keV VMI+, and 60-keV VMI data sets were assessed. Objective image quality metrics were highest in the 40- and 50-keV VMI+ series (SNR: 20.2 ± 10.7 and 19.0 ± 9.5, respectively; CNR: 18.5 ± 10.3 and 16.8 ± 9.1, respectively) and were significantly (all P traditional VMI technique and standard linear blending for evaluation of the lower extremity runoff using dual-energy CTA.

  13. Impact of a highly detailed emission inventory on modeling accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, M.; Cautenet, S.; Arteta, J.

    2005-03-01

    During Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign (June 10 to July 14, 2001), two pollution events observed during an intensive measurement period (IOP2a and IOP2b) have been simulated. The comprehensive Regional Atmospheric Modeling Systems (RAMS) model, version 4.3, coupled online with a chemical module including 29 species is used to follow the chemistry of a polluted zone over Southern France. This online method takes advantage of a parallel code and use of the powerful computer SGI 3800. Runs are performed with two emission inventories: the Emission Pre Inventory (EPI) and the Main Emission Inventory (MEI). The latter is more recent and has a high resolution. The redistribution of simulated chemical species (ozone and nitrogen oxides) is compared with aircraft and surface station measurements for both runs at regional scale. We show that the MEI inventory is more efficient than the EPI in retrieving the redistribution of chemical species in space (three-dimensional) and time. In surface stations, MEI is superior especially for primary species, like nitrogen oxides. The ozone pollution peaks obtained from an inventory, such as EPI, have a large uncertainty. To understand the realistic geographical distribution of pollutants and to obtain a good order of magnitude in ozone concentration (in space and time), a high-resolution inventory like MEI is necessary. Coupling RAMS-Chemistry with MEI provides a very efficient tool able to simulate pollution plumes even in a region with complex circulations, such as the ESCOMPTE zone.

  14. Switched-capacitor techniques for high-accuracy filter and ADC design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, P.J.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Switched capacitor (SC) techniques are well proven to be excellent candidates for implementing critical analogue functions with high accuracy, surpassing other analogue techniques when embedded in mixed-signal CMOS VLSI. Conventional SC circuits are primarily limited in accuracy by a) capacitor

  15. High accuracy laboratory spectroscopy to support active greenhouse gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. A.; Bielska, K.; Cygan, A.; Havey, D. K.; Okumura, M.; Miller, C. E.; Lisak, D.; Hodges, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent carbon dioxide (CO2) remote sensing missions have set precision targets as demanding as 0.25% (1 ppm) in order to elucidate carbon sources and sinks [1]. These ambitious measurement targets will require the most precise body of spectroscopic reference data ever assembled. Active sensing missions will be especially susceptible to subtle line shape effects as the narrow bandwidth of these measurements will greatly limit the number of spectral transitions which are employed in retrievals. In order to assist these remote sensing missions we have employed frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) [2], a high-resolution, ultrasensitive laboratory technique, to measure precise line shape parameters for transitions of O2, CO2, and other atmospherically-relevant species within the near-infrared. These measurements have led to new HITRAN-style line lists for both 16O2 [3] and rare isotopologue [4] transitions in the A-band. In addition, we have performed detailed line shape studies of CO2 transitions near 1.6 μm under a variety of broadening conditions [5]. We will address recent measurements in these bands as well as highlight recent instrumental improvements to the FS-CRDS spectrometer. These improvements include the use of the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, a high bandwidth servo which enables measurements to be made at rates greater than 10 kHz [6]. In addition, an optical frequency comb will be utilized as a frequency reference, which should allow for transition frequencies to be measured with uncertainties below 10 kHz (3×10-7 cm-1). [1] C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007). [2] J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, G. E. Scace, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849-863 (2004). [3] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021-2036 (2010). [4] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, S. S. Yu, M. Okumura, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc

  16. The accuracy of QCD perturbation theory at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling $\\alpha_\\mathrm{\\overline{MS}}^{}(m_\\mathrm{Z})$ or equivalently the QCD $\\Lambda$-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in $\\alpha_s(\\mu)$ in some scheme, $s$, and at some energy scale $\\mu$. The higher the scale $\\mu$ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the $\\Lambda$-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to $\\alpha_s = 0.1$ and below. We find that perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the $\\Lambda$-parameter, while data around $\\alpha_s \\approx 0.2$ is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  17. Accuracy and role of contrast-enhanced CT in diagnosis and surgical planning in 88 soft tissue tumours of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verga, Lucia; Robiati, Sara; De Marchi, Armanda; Martorano, Domenico; Faletti, Carlo; Brach del Prever, Elena Maria; Linari, Alessandra; Boffano, Michele; Piana, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue tumours (STT) require accurate diagnosis in order to identify potential malignancies. Preoperative planning is fundamental to avoid inadequate treatments. The role of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for local staging remains incompletely assessed. Aims of the study were to evaluate CT accuracy in discriminating active from aggressive tumours compared to histology and evaluate the role of CT angiography (CTA) in surgical planning. This retrospective cohort series of 88 cases from 1200 patients (7 %) was locally studied by contrast-enhanced CT and CTA in a referral centre: 74 malignant tumours, 14 benign lesions. Contrast-enhancement patterns and relationship of the mass with major vessels and bone were compared with histology on surgically excised samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were evaluated in discriminating active from aggressive tumours. Sensitivity in differentiating aggressive tumours from active lesions was 89 %, specificity 84 %, PPV 90 %, NPV 82 %. The relationship between mass and major vessels/bone was fundamental for surgical strategy respectively in 40 % and in 58 % of malignant tumours. Contrast-enhanced CT and CTA are effective in differentiating aggressive masses from active lesions in soft tissue and in depicting the relationship between tumour and adjacent bones and major vessels. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, Nezah; Pinhasi, Gad A; Pinhasi, Yosef

    2016-05-23

    The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF) above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide "chirped" Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex) refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  19. Asthma in Patients Climbing to High and Extreme Altitudes in the Tibetan Everest Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huismans, Henrike K.; Douma, W. Rob; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Renkema, Tineke E. J.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of asthma in patients traveling to high and extreme altitudes. Methods: Twenty-four Dutch patients with mild asthma did a trekking at high and extreme altitudes (up to 6410 m = 21030 ft) in the Tibetan Everest region. Asthma symptoms,

  20. A New Three-Dimensional High-Accuracy Automatic Alignment System For Single-Mode Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun-jiang, Rao; Shang-lian, Huang; Ping, Li; Yu-mei, Wen; Jun, Tang

    1990-02-01

    In order to achieve the low-loss splices of single-mode fibers, a new three-dimension high-accuracy automatic alignment system for single -mode fibers has been developed, which includes a new-type three-dimension high-resolution microdisplacement servo stage driven by piezoelectric elements, a new high-accuracy measurement system for the misalignment error of the fiber core-axis, and a special single chip microcomputer processing system. The experimental results show that alignment accuracy of ±0.1 pin with a movable stroke of -±20μm has been obtained. This new system has more advantages than that reported.

  1. Accuracy Assessment for the Three-Dimensional Coordinates by High-Speed Videogrammetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed CMOS camera is a new kind of transducer to make the videogrammetric measurement for monitoring the displacement of high-speed shaking table structure. The purpose of this paper is to validate the three-dimensional coordinate accuracy of the shaking table structure acquired from the presented high-speed videogrammetric measuring system. In the paper, all of the key intermediate links are discussed, including the high-speed CMOS videogrammetric measurement system, the layout of the control network, the elliptical target detection, and the accuracy validation of final 3D spatial results. Through the accuracy analysis, the submillimeter accuracy can be made for the final the three-dimensional spatial coordinates which certify that the proposed high-speed videogrammetric technique is a better alternative technique which can replace the traditional transducer technique for monitoring the dynamic response for the shaking table structure.

  2. High-accuracy determination for optical indicatrix rotation in ferroelectric DTGS

    OpenAIRE

    O.S.Kushnir; O.A.Bevz; O.G.Vlokh

    2000-01-01

    Optical indicatrix rotation in deuterated ferroelectric triglycine sulphate is studied with the high-accuracy null-polarimetric technique. The behaviour of the effect in ferroelectric phase is referred to quadratic spontaneous electrooptics.

  3. A low cost, high precision extreme/harsh cold environment, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    SWIMS III, is a low cost, autonomous sensor data gathering platform developed specifically for extreme/harsh cold environments. Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally inert materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enabling the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. SWIMS III's sophisticated autonomous sensors are designed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. This platform uses low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless solution. The system also incorporates tilt sensors and sonar based ice thickness sensors. The system is light weight and can be deployed by hand by a single person. This presentation covers the technical, and design challenges in developing and deploying these platforms.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of low back pain with non-specific lower extremity symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2015-02-01

    Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  6. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the accuracy of two prediction scores for the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Tudor Radu; Vesa, Ştefan Cristian; Trifa, Adrian Pavel; Crişan, Sorin; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of two scores in predicting the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. The study included 170 patients [85 (50%) women and 85 (50%) men] who were diagnosed with acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with duplex ultrasonography. Median age was 62 (52.75; 72) years. The control group consisted of 166 subjects [96 (57.8%) women and 70 (42.2%) men], without DVT, matched for age (± one year) to those in the group with DVT. The patients and controls were selected from those admitted to the internal medicine, cardiology and geriatrics wards within the Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between October 2009 and June 2011. Clinical, demographic and lab data were recorded for each patient. For each patient we calculated the prior risk of DVT using two prediction scores: Caprini and Padua. According to the Padua score only 93 (54.7%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 48 (28.9%) of controls were at high risk of developing DVT. When Padua score included PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, the sensitivity increased at 71.7%. Using the Caprini score, we determined that 147 (86.4%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 103 (62%) controls were at high risk of developing DVT. A Caprini score higher than 5 was the strongest predictor of acute lower extremity DVT risk. The Caprini prediction score was more sensitive than the Padua score in assessing the high risk of DVT in medical patients. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the sensitivity of Padua score.

  7. The effect of pattern overlap on the accuracy of high resolution electron backscatter diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Vivian, E-mail: v.tong13@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Britton, T. Ben [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    High resolution, cross-correlation-based, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measures the variation of elastic strains and lattice rotations from a reference state. Regions near grain boundaries are often of interest but overlap of patterns from the two grains could reduce accuracy of the cross-correlation analysis. To explore this concern, patterns from the interior of two grains have been mixed to simulate the interaction volume crossing a grain boundary so that the effect on the accuracy of the cross correlation results can be tested. It was found that the accuracy of HR-EBSD strain measurements performed in a FEG-SEM on zirconium remains good until the incident beam is less than 18 nm from a grain boundary. A simulated microstructure was used to measure how often pattern overlap occurs at any given EBSD step size, and a simple relation was found linking the probability of overlap with step size. - Highlights: • Pattern overlap occurs at grain boundaries and reduces HR-EBSD accuracy. • A test is devised to measure the accuracy of HR-EBSD in the presence of overlap. • High pass filters can sometimes, but not generally, improve HR-EBSD measurements. • Accuracy of HR-EBSD remains high until the reference pattern intensity is <72%. • 9% of points near a grain boundary will have significant error for 200nm step size in Zircaloy-4.

  8. INLA goes extreme: Bayesian tail regression for the estimation of high spatio-temporal quantiles

    KAUST Repository

    Opitz, Thomas; Huser, Raphaë l; Bakka, Haakon; Rue, Haavard

    2018-01-01

    approach is based on a Bayesian generalized additive modeling framework that is designed to estimate complex trends in marginal extremes over space and time. First, we estimate a high non-stationary threshold using a gamma distribution for precipitation

  9. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  10. Wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier for extremely high sensitivity continuous measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier based on the series of an integrator and a differentiator stage, having an additional feedback loop to discharge the standing current from the device under test (DUT) to ensure an unlimited measuring time opportunity when compared to switched discharge configurations while maintaining a large signal amplification over the full bandwidth. The amplifier shows a flat response from 0.6 Hz to 1.4 MHz, the capability to operate with leakage currents from the DUT as high as tens of nanoamperes, and rail-to-rail dynamic range for sinusoidal current signals independent of the DUT leakage current. Also available is a monitor output of the stationary current to track experimental slow drifts. The circuit is ideal for noise spectral and impedance measurements of nanodevices and biomolecules when in the presence of a physiological medium and in all cases where high sensitivity current measurements are requested such as in scanning probe microscopy systems.

  11. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  12. High-accuracy drilling with an image guided light weight robot: autonomous versus intuitive feed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Sebastian; Fuchs, Alexander; Baier, Fabian; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Assistance of robotic systems in the operating room promises higher accuracy and, hence, demanding surgical interventions become realisable (e.g. the direct cochlear access). Additionally, an intuitive user interface is crucial for the use of robots in surgery. Torque sensors in the joints can be employed for intuitive interaction concepts. Regarding the accuracy, they lead to a lower structural stiffness and, thus, to an additional error source. The aim of this contribution is to examine, if an accuracy needed for demanding interventions can be achieved by such a system or not. Feasible accuracy results of the robot-assisted process depend on each work-flow step. This work focuses on the determination of the tool coordinate frame. A method for drill axis definition is implemented and analysed. Furthermore, a concept of admittance feed control is developed. This allows the user to control feeding along the planned path by applying a force to the robots structure. The accuracy is researched by drilling experiments with a PMMA phantom and artificial bone blocks. The described drill axis estimation process results in a high angular repeatability ([Formula: see text]). In the first set of drilling results, an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at entrance and [Formula: see text] at target point excluding imaging was achieved. With admittance feed control an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at target point was realised. In a third set twelve holes were drilled in artificial temporal bone phantoms including imaging. In this set-up an error of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was achieved. The results of conducted experiments show that accuracy requirements for demanding procedures such as the direct cochlear access can be fulfilled with compliant systems. Furthermore, it was shown that with the presented admittance feed control an accuracy of less then [Formula: see text] is achievable.

  13. Simple, parallel, high-performance virtual machines for extreme computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Jurgen

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a high-performance virtual machine (VM) written in a numerically fast language like Fortran or C to evaluate very large expressions. We discuss the general concept of how to perform computations in terms of a VM and present specifically a VM that is able to compute tree-level cross sections for any number of external legs, given the corresponding byte code from the optimal matrix element generator, O'Mega. Furthermore, this approach allows to formulate the parallel computation of a single phase space point in a simple and obvious way. We analyze hereby the scaling behaviour with multiple threads as well as the benefits and drawbacks that are introduced with this method. Our implementation of a VM can run faster than the corresponding native, compiled code for certain processes and compilers, especially for very high multiplicities, and has in general runtimes in the same order of magnitude. By avoiding the tedious compile and link steps, which may fail for source code files of gigabyte sizes, new processes or complex higher order corrections that are currently out of reach could be evaluated with a VM given enough computing power.

  14. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  15. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system

  16. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  17. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  18. Regional-Scale High-Latitude Extreme Geoelectric Fields Pertaining to Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

  19. Accuracy of hiatal hernia detection with esophageal high-resolution manometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; van Hoeij, F. B.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of a sliding hiatal hernia is classically made with endoscopy or barium esophagogram. Spatial separation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and diaphragm, the hallmark of hiatal hernia, can also be observed on high-resolution manometry (HRM), but the diagnostic accuracy of this

  20. High-accuracy identification and bioinformatic analysis of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; de Godoy, Lyris M F; Cox, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism that affects many cell signaling processes. Using high-accuracy MS and stable isotope labeling in cell culture-labeling, we provide a global view of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoproteome, containing 3620 phosphorylation sites ma...

  1. High accuracy positioning using carrier-phases with the opensource GPSTK software

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Hernández, Dagoberto José; Hernández Pajares, Manuel; Juan Zornoza, José Miguel; Sanz Subirana, Jaume

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to show how using a proper GNSS data management strategy, combined with the flexibility provided by the open source "GPS Toolkit" (GPSTk), it is possible to easily develop both simple code-based processing strategies as well as basic high accuracy carrier-phase positioning techniques like Precise Point Positioning (PPP

  2. Very high-accuracy calibration of radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission of the Europ...

  3. From journal to headline: the accuracy of climate science news in Danish high quality newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Gunver Lystbæk

    2011-01-01

    analysis to examine the accuracy of Danish high quality newspapers in quoting scientific publications from 1997 to 2009. Out of 88 articles, 46 contained inaccuracies though the majority was found to be insignificant and random. The study concludes that Danish broadsheet newspapers are ‘moderately...

  4. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  5. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971

  6. High accuracy interface characterization of three phase material systems in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Hansen, Karin Vels; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of interface properties such as two phase boundary area and triple phase boundary length is important in the characterization ofmanymaterial microstructures, in particular for solid oxide fuel cell electrodes. Three-dimensional images of these microstructures can be obtained...... by tomography schemes such as focused ion beam serial sectioning or micro-computed tomography. We present a high accuracy method of calculating two phase surface areas and triple phase length of triple phase systems from subvoxel accuracy segmentations of constituent phases. The method performs a three phase...... polygonization of the interface boundaries which results in a non-manifold mesh of connected faces. We show how the triple phase boundaries can be extracted as connected curve loops without branches. The accuracy of the method is analyzed by calculations on geometrical primitives...

  7. Automated novel high-accuracy miniaturized positioning system for use in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstadinos; Kaliakatsos, John; Apostolakis, Manolis; Lianakis, John; Duenow, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional automotive devices (micro-robots) for applications in analytical instrumentation, clinical chemical diagnostics and advanced laser optics, depends strongly on the ability of such a device: firstly to be positioned with high accuracy, reliability, and automatically, by means of user friendly interface techniques; secondly to be compact; and thirdly to operate under vacuum conditions, free of most of the problems connected with conventional micropositioners using stepping-motor gear techniques. The objective of this paper is to develop and construct a mechanically compact computer-based micropositioning system for coordinated motion in the X-Y-Z directions with: (1) a positioning accuracy of less than 1 micrometer, (the accuracy of the end-position of the system is controlled by a hard/software assembly using a self-constructed optical encoder); (2) a heat-free propulsion mechanism for vacuum operation; and (3) synchronized X-Y motion.

  8. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  9. High-resolution stochastic generation of extreme rainfall intensity for urban drainage modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Blumensaat, Frank; Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage response is highly dependent on the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall. Therefore, measuring and simulating rainfall at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a fundamental step to fully assess urban drainage system reliability and related uncertainties. This is even more relevant when considering extreme rainfall events. However, the current space-time rainfall models have limitations in capturing extreme rainfall intensity statistics for short durations. Here, we use the STREAP (Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation) model, which is a novel stochastic rainfall generator for simulating high-resolution rainfall fields that preserve the spatio-temporal structure of rainfall and its statistical characteristics. The model enables a generation of rain fields at 102 m and minute scales in a fast and computer-efficient way matching the requirements for hydrological analysis of urban drainage systems. The STREAP model was applied successfully in the past to generate high-resolution extreme rainfall intensities over a small domain. A sub-catchment in the city of Luzern (Switzerland) was chosen as a case study to: (i) evaluate the ability of STREAP to disaggregate extreme rainfall intensities for urban drainage applications; (ii) assessing the role of stochastic climate variability of rainfall in flow response and (iii) evaluate the degree of non-linearity between extreme rainfall intensity and system response (i.e. flow) for a small urban catchment. The channel flow at the catchment outlet is simulated by means of a calibrated hydrodynamic sewer model.

  10. An Extreme Degree of Difficulty: The Educational Demographics of Urban Neighborhood High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Ruth Curran; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Despite the growth of a variety of alternatives to the neighborhood high school, most students in big-city school systems still attend large comprehensive high schools that serve a particular residential area. The authors contend that the extreme concentration of educational need at these schools is often overlooked by policymakers, school reform…

  11. Local likelihood estimation of complex tail dependence structures in high dimensions, applied to US precipitation extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Camilo, Daniela Castro

    2017-10-02

    In order to model the complex non-stationary dependence structure of precipitation extremes over the entire contiguous U.S., we propose a flexible local approach based on factor copula models. Our sub-asymptotic spatial modeling framework yields non-trivial tail dependence structures, with a weakening dependence strength as events become more extreme, a feature commonly observed with precipitation data but not accounted for in classical asymptotic extreme-value models. To estimate the local extremal behavior, we fit the proposed model in small regional neighborhoods to high threshold exceedances, under the assumption of local stationarity. This allows us to gain in flexibility, while making inference for such a large and complex dataset feasible. Adopting a local censored likelihood approach, inference is made on a fine spatial grid, and local estimation is performed taking advantage of distributed computing resources and of the embarrassingly parallel nature of this estimation procedure. The local model is efficiently fitted at all grid points, and uncertainty is measured using a block bootstrap procedure. An extensive simulation study shows that our approach is able to adequately capture complex, non-stationary dependencies, while our study of U.S. winter precipitation data reveals interesting differences in local tail structures over space, which has important implications on regional risk assessment of extreme precipitation events. A comparison between past and current data suggests that extremes in certain areas might be slightly wider in extent nowadays than during the first half of the twentieth century.

  12. Local likelihood estimation of complex tail dependence structures in high dimensions, applied to US precipitation extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Camilo, Daniela Castro; Huser, Raphaë l

    2017-01-01

    In order to model the complex non-stationary dependence structure of precipitation extremes over the entire contiguous U.S., we propose a flexible local approach based on factor copula models. Our sub-asymptotic spatial modeling framework yields non-trivial tail dependence structures, with a weakening dependence strength as events become more extreme, a feature commonly observed with precipitation data but not accounted for in classical asymptotic extreme-value models. To estimate the local extremal behavior, we fit the proposed model in small regional neighborhoods to high threshold exceedances, under the assumption of local stationarity. This allows us to gain in flexibility, while making inference for such a large and complex dataset feasible. Adopting a local censored likelihood approach, inference is made on a fine spatial grid, and local estimation is performed taking advantage of distributed computing resources and of the embarrassingly parallel nature of this estimation procedure. The local model is efficiently fitted at all grid points, and uncertainty is measured using a block bootstrap procedure. An extensive simulation study shows that our approach is able to adequately capture complex, non-stationary dependencies, while our study of U.S. winter precipitation data reveals interesting differences in local tail structures over space, which has important implications on regional risk assessment of extreme precipitation events. A comparison between past and current data suggests that extremes in certain areas might be slightly wider in extent nowadays than during the first half of the twentieth century.

  13. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process

  14. High Accuracy Acoustic Relative Humidity Measurement inDuct Flow with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees van der Geld

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0–12 m/s with an error of ±0.13 m/s, temperature 0–100 °C with an error of ±0.07 °C and relative humidity 0–100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

  15. High accuracy digital aging monitor based on PLL-VCO circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejun; Jiang Zhidi; Wang Pengjun; Zhang Xuelong

    2015-01-01

    As the manufacturing process is scaled down to the nanoscale, the aging phenomenon significantly affects the reliability and lifetime of integrated circuits. Consequently, the precise measurement of digital CMOS aging is a key aspect of nanoscale aging tolerant circuit design. This paper proposes a high accuracy digital aging monitor using phase-locked loop and voltage-controlled oscillator (PLL-VCO) circuit. The proposed monitor eliminates the circuit self-aging effect for the characteristic of PLL, whose frequency has no relationship with circuit aging phenomenon. The PLL-VCO monitor is implemented in TSMC low power 65 nm CMOS technology, and its area occupies 303.28 × 298.94 μm 2 . After accelerating aging tests, the experimental results show that PLL-VCO monitor improves accuracy about high temperature by 2.4% and high voltage by 18.7%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Wilhelm; Grooten, Mart; Wernaart, Twan; van der Geld, Cees

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0-12 m/s with an error of ± 0.13 m/s, temperature 0-100 °C with an error of ± 0.07 °C and relative humidity 0-100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

  17. A proposal for limited criminal liability in high-accuracy endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsos, P; Casini, M; Ricci, G; Tambone, V; Midolo, E; Spagnolo, A G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose legal reform limiting surgeons' criminal liability in high-accuracy and high-risk surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The study includes a review of the medical literature, focusing on identifying and examining reasons why ESS carries a very high risk of serious complications related to inaccurate surgical manoeuvers and reviewing British and Italian legal theory and case-law on medical negligence, especially with regard to Italian Law 189/2012 (so called "Balduzzi" Law). It was found that serious complications due to inaccurate surgical manoeuvers may occur in ESS regardless of the skill, experience and prudence/diligence of the surgeon. Subjectivity should be essential to medical negligence, especially regarding high-accuracy surgery. Italian Law 189/2012 represents a good basis for the limitation of criminal liability resulting from inaccurate manoeuvres in high-accuracy surgery such as ESS. It is concluded that ESS surgeons should be relieved of criminal liability in cases of simple/ordinary negligence where guidelines have been observed. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  18. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  19. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Davey Smith, G; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-08-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  20. High Accuracy Evaluation of the Finite Fourier Transform Using Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    Many system identification and signal processing procedures can be done advantageously in the frequency domain. A required preliminary step for this approach is the transformation of sampled time domain data into the frequency domain. The analytical tool used for this transformation is the finite Fourier transform. Inaccuracy in the transformation can degrade system identification and signal processing results. This work presents a method for evaluating the finite Fourier transform using cubic interpolation of sampled time domain data for high accuracy, and the chirp Zeta-transform for arbitrary frequency resolution. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated in example cases where the transformation can be evaluated analytically. Arbitrary frequency resolution is shown to be important for capturing details of the data in the frequency domain. The technique is demonstrated using flight test data from a longitudinal maneuver of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  1. High-Accuracy Spherical Near-Field Measurements for Satellite Antenna Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is unique in combining several distinct advantages and it generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. From the outset in 1970, spherical near-field antenna measurements have...... matured into a well-established technique that is widely used for testing antennas for many wireless applications. In particular, for high-accuracy applications, such as remote sensing satellite missions in ESA's Earth Observation Programme with uncertainty requirements at the level of 0.05dB - 0.10d......B, the spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is generally superior. This paper addresses the means to achieving high measurement accuracy; these include the measurement technique per se, its implementation in terms of proper measurement procedures, the use of uncertainty estimates, as well as facility...

  2. A New Approach to High-accuracy Road Orthophoto Mapping Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing orthophoto map based on satellite photography and aerial photography is not precise enough for road marking. This paper proposes a new approach to high-accuracy orthophoto mapping. The approach uses inverse perspective transformation to process the image information and generates the orthophoto fragment. The offline interpolation algorithm is used to process the location information. It processes the dead reckoning and the EKF location information, and uses the result to transform the fragments to the global coordinate system. At last it uses wavelet transform to divides the image to two frequency bands and uses weighted median algorithm to deal with them separately. The result of experiment shows that the map produced with this method has high accuracy.

  3. The Effect of Sport Specialization on Lower Extremity Injury Rates in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...

  4. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Identification and delineation of areas flood hazard using high accuracy of DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadi, B.; Barus, B.; Widiatmaka; Yanuar, M. J. P.; Pramudya, B.

    2018-05-01

    Flood incidents that often occur in Karawang regency need to be mitigated. These expectations exist on technologies that can predict, anticipate and reduce disaster risks. Flood modeling techniques using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can be applied in mitigation activities. High accuracy DEM data used in modeling, will result in better flooding flood models. The result of high accuracy DEM data processing will yield information about surface morphology which can be used to identify indication of flood hazard area. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe flood hazard areas by identifying wetland areas using DEM data and Landsat-8 images. TerraSAR-X high-resolution data is used to detect wetlands from landscapes, while land cover is identified by Landsat image data. The Topography Wetness Index (TWI) method is used to detect and identify wetland areas with basic DEM data, while for land cover analysis using Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) method. The result of TWI modeling yields information about potential land of flood. Overlay TWI map with land cover map that produces information that in Karawang regency the most vulnerable areas occur flooding in rice fields. The spatial accuracy of the flood hazard area in this study was 87%.

  6. Accuracy of Estimating Highly Eccentric Binary Black Hole Parameters with Gravitational-wave Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondán, László; Kocsis, Bence; Raffai, Péter; Frei, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes on highly eccentric orbits are among the targets for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, including LIGO, VIRGO, and KAGRA. These sources may commonly form through gravitational-wave emission in high-velocity dispersion systems or through the secular Kozai–Lidov mechanism in triple systems. Gravitational waves carry information about the binaries’ orbital parameters and source location. Using the Fisher matrix technique, we determine the measurement accuracy with which the LIGO–VIRGO–KAGRA network could measure the source parameters of eccentric binaries using a matched filtering search of the repeated burst and eccentric inspiral phases of the waveform. We account for general relativistic precession and the evolution of the orbital eccentricity and frequency during the inspiral. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio and the parameter measurement accuracy may be significantly higher for eccentric sources than for circular sources. This increase is sensitive to the initial pericenter distance, the initial eccentricity, and the component masses. For instance, compared to a 30 {M}ȯ –30 {M}ȯ non-spinning circular binary, the chirp mass and sky-localization accuracy can improve by a factor of ∼129 (38) and ∼2 (11) for an initially highly eccentric binary assuming an initial pericenter distance of 20 M tot (10 M tot).

  7. Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2004-02-19

    As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such example is the diffuser often implemented with ordinary ground glass in the visible light regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of reflective EUV diffusers with high efficiency within a controllable bandwidth. Using these techniques we have fabricated diffusers with efficiencies exceeding 10% within a moderate angular single-sided bandwidth of approximately 0.06 radians.

  8. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng You

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.

  9. Optical system error analysis and calibration method of high-accuracy star trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-04-08

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.

  10. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilu; Li, Xinghua; Li, Haopeng; Su, Zhikun; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-10-12

    In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter's pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA). In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  11. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  12. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  13. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux at n{sub T}OF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Variale, V. [Sezione di Bari, INFN, Bari (Italy); Guerrero, C.; Andriamonje, S.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Losito, R.; Versaci, R.; Vlachoudis, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tsinganis, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Tarrio, D.; Duran, I.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago (Spain); Altstadt, S.; Goebel, K.; Langer, C.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Weigand, M. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Perkowski, J. [Uniwersytet Lodzki, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L.; Leong, L.S.; Tassan-Got, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IPN, Orsay (France); Becares, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Garcia, A.R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J.; Valenta, S. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Belloni, F.; Fraval, K.; Gunsing, F.; Lampoudis, C.; Papaevangelou, T. [Commissariata l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berthoumieux, E.; Chiaveri, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Commissariata l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Billowes, J.; Ware, T.; Wright, T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bosnar, D.; Zugec, P. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Riego, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Sarmento, R.; Vaz, P. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Sabate-Gilarte, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Giubrone, G.; Tain, J.L. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Dressler, R.; Kivel, N.; Schumann, D.; Steinegger, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dzysiuk, N.; Mastinu, P.F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Rome (Italy); Eleftheriadis, C.; Manousos, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Ganesan, S.; Gurusamy, P.; Saxena, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (IN); Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wien (AT); Hernandez-Prieto, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Jenkins, D.G.; Vermeulen, M.J. [University of York, Heslington, York (GB); Kaeppeler, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, Karlsruhe (DE); Koehler, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge (US); Lederer, C. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (DE); University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Massimi, C.; Mingrone, F.; Vannini, G. [Universita di Bologna (IT); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna (IT); Mengoni, A.; Ventura, A. [Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l' energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA), Bologna (IT); Milazzo, P.M. [Sezione di Trieste, INFN, Trieste (IT); Mirea, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest - Magurele (RO); Mondalaers, W.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission JRC, Geel (BE); Pavlik, A.; Wallner, A. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Rauscher, T. [University of Basel, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Basel (CH); Roman, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest - Magurele (RO); Rubbia, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell' INFN, Assergi (AQ) (IT); Weiss, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (DE)

    2013-12-15

    The neutron flux of the n{sub T}OF facility at CERN was measured, after installation of the new spallation target, with four different systems based on three neutron-converting reactions, which represent accepted cross sections standards in different energy regions. A careful comparison and combination of the different measurements allowed us to reach an unprecedented accuracy on the energy dependence of the neutron flux in the very wide range (thermal to 1 GeV) that characterizes the n{sub T}OF neutron beam. This is a pre-requisite for the high accuracy of cross section measurements at n{sub T}OF. An unexpected anomaly in the neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 235}U is observed in the energy region between 10 and 30keV, hinting at a possible overestimation of this important cross section, well above currently assigned uncertainties. (orig.)

  14. Fission product model for BWR analysis with improved accuracy in high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Munenari; Ando, Yoshihira

    1998-01-01

    A new fission product (FP) chain model has been studied to be used in a BWR lattice calculation. In attempting to establish the model, two requirements, i.e. the accuracy in predicting burnup reactivity and the easiness in practical application, are simultaneously considered. The resultant FP model consists of 81 explicit FP nuclides and two lumped pseudo nuclides having the absorption cross sections independent of burnup history and fuel composition. For the verification, extensive numerical tests covering over a wide range of operational conditions and fuel compositions have been carried out. The results indicate that the estimated errors in burnup reactivity are within 0.1%Δk for exposures up to 100GWd/t. It is concluded that the present model can offer a high degree of accuracy for FP representation in BWR lattice calculation. (author)

  15. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  16. High-accuracy numerical integration of charged particle motion – with application to ponderomotive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masaru; Ohkawa, Yushiro; Matsuyama, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy numerical integration algorithm for a charged particle motion is developed. The algorithm is based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and the operator decomposition. The algorithm is made to be time-reversal symmetric, and its order of accuracy can be increased to any order by using a recurrence formula. One of the advantages is that it is an explicit method. An effective way to decompose the time evolution operator is examined; the Poisson tensor is decomposed and non-canonical variables are adopted. The algorithm is extended to a time dependent fields' case by introducing the extended phase space. Numerical tests showing the performance of the algorithm are presented. One is the pure cyclotron motion for a long time period, and the other is a charged particle motion in a rapidly oscillating field. (author)

  17. High-accuracy defect sizing for CRDM penetration adapters using the ultrasonic TOFD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is the preferred technique for critical sizing of throughwall orientated defects in a wide range of components, primarily because it is intrinsically more accurate than amplitude-based techniques. For the same reason, TOFD is the preferred technique for sizing the cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration adapters, which have been the subject of much recent attention. Once the considerable problem of restricted access for the UT probes has been overcome, this inspection lends itself to very high accuracy defect sizing using TOFD. In qualification trials under industrial conditions, depth sizing to an accuracy of ≤ 0.5 mm has been routinely achieved throughout the full wall thickness (16 mm) of the penetration adapters, using only a single probe pair and without recourse to signal processing. (author)

  18. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...

  19. Automation, Operation, and Data Analysis in the Cryogenic, High Accuracy, Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    The Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been enhanced in a number of ways in the last year to allow the system to accurately collect refracted beam deviation readings automatically over a range of temperatures from 15 K to well beyond room temperature with high sampling density in both wavelength and temperature. The engineering details which make this possible are presented. The methods by which the most accurate angular measurements are made and the corresponding data reduction methods used to reduce thousands of observed angles to a handful of refractive index values are also discussed.

  20. High-Accuracy Elevation Data at Large Scales from Airborne Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jean-Pierre Schumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs are essential data sets for disaster risk management and humanitarian relief services as well as many environmental process models. At present, on the hand, globally available DEMs only meet the basic requirements and for many services and modeling studies are not of high enough spatial resolution and lack accuracy in the vertical. On the other hand, LiDAR-DEMs are of very high spatial resolution and great vertical accuracy but acquisition operations can be very costly for spatial scales larger than a couple of hundred square km and also have severe limitations in wetland areas and under cloudy and rainy conditions. The ideal situation would thus be to have a DEM technology that allows larger spatial coverage than LiDAR but without compromising resolution and vertical accuracy and still performing under some adverse weather conditions and at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we present a novel single pass In-SAR technology for airborne vehicles that is cost-effective and can generate DEMs with a vertical error of around 0.3 m for an average spatial resolution of 3 m. To demonstrate this capability, we compare a sample single-pass In-SAR Ka-band DEM of the California Central Valley from the NASA/JPL airborne GLISTIN-A to a high-resolution LiDAR DEM. We also perform a simple sensitivity analysis to floodplain inundation. Based on the findings of our analysis, we argue that this type of technology can and should be used to replace large regions of globally available lower resolution DEMs, particularly in coastal, delta and floodplain areas where a high number of assets, habitats and lives are at risk from natural disasters. We conclude with a discussion on requirements, advantages and caveats in terms of instrument and data processing.

  1. Accuracy of cell calculation methods used for analysis of high conversion light water reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang-Joon; Okumura, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Validation tests were made for the accuracy of cell calculation methods used in analyses of tight lattices of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel core in a high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR). A series of cell calculations was carried out for the lattices referred from an international HCLWR benchmark comparison, with emphasis placed on the resonance calculation methods; the NR, IR approximations, the collision probability method with ultra-fine energy group. Verification was also performed for the geometrical modelling; a hexagonal/cylindrical cell, and the boundary condition; mirror/white reflection. In the calculations, important reactor physics parameters, such as the neutron multiplication factor, the conversion ratio and the void coefficient, were evaluated using the above methods for various HCLWR lattices with different moderator to fuel volume ratios, fuel materials and fissile plutonium enrichments. The calculated results were compared with each other, and the accuracy and applicability of each method were clarified by comparison with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was verified that the accuracy of the IR approximation became worse when the neutron spectrum became harder. It was also concluded that the cylindrical cell model with the white boundary condition was not so suitable for MOX fuelled lattices, as for UO 2 fuelled lattices. (author)

  2. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  3. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  4. Technical accuracy of a neuronavigation system measured with a high-precision mechanical micromanipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, M; Steinmeier, R; Sporer, T; Ganslandt, O; Fahlbusch, R

    1997-12-01

    This study was designed to determine and evaluate the different system-inherent sources of erroneous target localization of a light-emitting diode (LED)-based neuronavigation system (StealthStation, Stealth Technologies, Boulder, CO). The localization accuracy was estimated by applying a high-precision mechanical micromanipulator to move and exactly locate (+/- 0.1 micron) the pointer at multiple positions in the physical three-dimensional space. The localization error was evaluated by calculating the spatial distance between the (known) LED positions and the LED coordinates measured by the neuronavigator. The results are based on a study of approximately 280,000 independent coordinate measurements. The maximum localization error detected was 0.55 +/- 0.29 mm, with the z direction (distance to the camera array) being the most erroneous coordinate. Minimum localization error was found at a distance of 1400 mm from the central camera (optimal measurement position). Additional error due to 1) mechanical vibrations of the camera tripod (+/- 0.15 mm) and the reference frame (+/- 0.08 mm) and 2) extrapolation of the pointer tip position from the LED coordinates of at least +/- 0.12 mm were detected, leading to a total technical error of 0.55 +/- 0.64 mm. Based on this technical accuracy analysis, a set of handling recommendations is proposed, leading to an improved localization accuracy. The localization error could be reduced by 0.3 +/- 0.15 mm by correct camera positioning (1400 mm distance) plus 0.15 mm by vibration-eliminating fixation of the camera. Correct handling of the probe during the operation may improve the accuracy by up to 0.1 mm.

  5. Broadband EIT borehole measurements with high phase accuracy using numerical corrections of electromagnetic coupling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Zimmermann, E; Wolters, B; Van Waasen, S; Huisman, J A; Treichel, A; Kemna, A

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is gaining importance in the field of geophysics and there is increasing interest for accurate borehole EIT measurements in a broad frequency range (mHz to kHz) in order to study subsurface properties. To characterize weakly polarizable soils and sediments with EIT, high phase accuracy is required. Typically, long electrode cables are used for borehole measurements. However, this may lead to undesired electromagnetic coupling effects associated with the inductive coupling between the double wire pairs for current injection and potential measurement and the capacitive coupling between the electrically conductive shield of the cable and the electrically conductive environment surrounding the electrode cables. Depending on the electrical properties of the subsurface and the measured transfer impedances, both coupling effects can cause large phase errors that have typically limited the frequency bandwidth of field EIT measurements to the mHz to Hz range. The aim of this paper is to develop numerical corrections for these phase errors. To this end, the inductive coupling effect was modeled using electronic circuit models, and the capacitive coupling effect was modeled by integrating discrete capacitances in the electrical forward model describing the EIT measurement process. The correction methods were successfully verified with measurements under controlled conditions in a water-filled rain barrel, where a high phase accuracy of 0.8 mrad in the frequency range up to 10 kHz was achieved. The corrections were also applied to field EIT measurements made using a 25 m long EIT borehole chain with eight electrodes and an electrode separation of 1 m. The results of a 1D inversion of these measurements showed that the correction methods increased the measurement accuracy considerably. It was concluded that the proposed correction methods enlarge the bandwidth of the field EIT measurement system, and that accurate EIT measurements can now

  6. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  7. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 2 21 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 2 33 , that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period

  8. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST botanical standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials. (author) 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. High-accuracy critical exponents for O(N) hierarchical 3D sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godina, J. J.; Li, L.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    The critical exponent γ and its subleading exponent Δ in the 3D O(N) Dyson's hierarchical model for N up to 20 are calculated with high accuracy. We calculate the critical temperatures for the measure δ(φ-vector.φ-vector-1). We extract the first coefficients of the 1/N expansion from our numerical data. We show that the leading and subleading exponents agree with Polchinski equation and the equivalent Litim equation, in the local potential approximation, with at least 4 significant digits

  10. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  11. A variational nodal diffusion method of high accuracy; Varijaciona nodalna difuziona metoda visoke tachnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasevic, Dj; Altiparmarkov, D [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    A variational nodal diffusion method with accurate treatment of transverse leakage shape is developed and presented in this paper. Using Legendre expansion in transverse coordinates higher order quasi-one-dimensional nodal equations are formulated. Numerical solution has been carried out using analytical solutions in alternating directions assuming Legendre expansion of the RHS term. The method has been tested against 2D and 3D IAEA benchmark problem, as well as 2D CANDU benchmark problem. The results are highly accurate. The first order approximation yields to the same order of accuracy as the standard nodal methods with quadratic leakage approximation, while the second order reaches reference solution. (author)

  12. High dose rate brachytherapy for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, J.L.; Streeter, O.E.; Chawla, S.; Menendez, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: we examined the role of preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation and adjuvant high-dose rate brachytherapy on the management of prognostically unfavorable soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Our goal was to examine the effect of high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR IBT) on reducing the risk of local recurrence following limb-sparing resection, as well as shortening treatment duration. Materials and methods: eleven patients, ranging in age from 31 to 73 years old, with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity were treated at USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center during 1994 and 1995. All patients had biopsy proven soft tissue sarcoma, and all were suitable candidates for limb-sparing surgery. All lesions were greater than 5cm in size and were primarily high grade. Tumor histologies included malignant fibrous histiocytoma (45%), liposarcoma (18%) and leiomyosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma and spindle cell sarcoma (36%). Sites of tumor origin were the lower extremity (55%), upper extremity (18%) and buttock (9%), 1 patient (9%) had lesions in both the upper and lower extremity. Patients received HDR IBT following combined chemotherapy and external beam irradiation (EBRT) and en bloc resection of the sarcoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisted of three to four cycles of either Ifosfamide/Mesna with or without Adriamycin, or Mesna, Adriamycin, Ifosfamide and Dacarbazine. One patient received Cis-platin in addition to Ifos/Adr. A minimum of two cycles of chemotherapy were administered prior to EBRT. Additional cycles of chemotherapy were completed concurrently with EBRT but prior to HDR IBT. Preoperative EBRT doses ranging from 40 to 59.4 Gy were given in daily fractions of 180 to 200cGy. Following en bloc resection, HDR IBT was administered using the Omnitron tm 2000 remote afterloading system. Doses ranging from 13 to 30 Gy were delivered to the surgical tumor bed at depths of 0.5mm to 0.75mm from the radioactive source. Results: median follow-up was

  13. Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus Hirae growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanyan, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth and survival were investigated using 51.8 GHz and 53 GHz frequencies in combination with two commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin and dalacin. Results revealed that, despite bacterial type and membrane structure and properties, the combined effect, especially with 53 GHz and dalacin, suppresses bacterial growth and decreases their survival

  14. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of highly charged argon ions at the Berlin EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C; Radtke, R; Fussmann, G; Allen, F I

    2007-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation from highly charged argon was investigated at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap with a 2 m grazing incidence spectrometer. Lines in the wavelength range 150 to 660 A originating from C-like Ar 12+ to Li-like Ar 15+ ions have been identified and are compared with database information from solar line lists and predictions. Line ratios for the observed resonance, intercombination and forbidden lines offer important diagnostic capabilities for low density, hot plasmas

  15. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  16. Extremely Durable, Flexible Supercapacitors with Greatly Improved Performance at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Jong-Chan; Braun, Paul V; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-08-25

    The reliability and durability of energy storage devices are as important as their essential characteristics (e.g., energy and power density) for stable power output and long lifespan and thus much more crucial under harsh conditions. However, energy storage under extreme conditions is still a big challenge because of unavoidable performance decays and the inevitable damage of components. Here, we report high-temperature operating, flexible supercapacitors (f-SCs) that can provide reliable power output and extreme durability under severe electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal conditions. The outstanding capacitive features (e.g., ∼40% enhancement of the rate capability and a maximum capacitances of 170 F g(-1) and 18.7 mF cm(-2) at 160 °C) are attributed to facilitated ion transport at elevated temperatures. Under high-temperature operation and/or a flexibility test in both static and dynamic modes at elevated temperatures >100 °C, the f-SCs showed extreme long-term stability of 100000 cycles (>93% of initial capacitance value) and mechanical durability after hundreds of bending cycles (at bend angles of 60-180°). Even at 120 °C, the versatile design of tandem serial and parallel f-SCs was demonstrated to provide both desirable energy and power requirements at high temperatures.

  17. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  18. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A. Mark; Press, Malcolm C.; Phoenix, Gareth K.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem "1"5N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m"−"2 yr"−"1, applied as "1"5NH_4"1"5NO_3 in Svalbard (79"°N), during the summer. Separate applications of "1"5NO_3"− and "1"5NH_4"+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total "1"5N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of "1"5N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater "1"5NO_3"− than "1"5NH_4"+, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. - Highlights: • High Arctic tundra demonstrated a

  19. High-resolution projections of mean and extreme precipitations over China through PRECIS under RCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxin; Huang, Gordon; Wang, Xiuquan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui

    2018-06-01

    The impact of global warming on the characteristics of mean and extreme precipitations over China is investigated by using the Providing REgional Climate Impacts for Studies (PRECIS) model. The PRECIS model was driven by the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 with Earth System components and coupling (HadGEM2-ES). The results of both models are analyzed in terms of mean precipitation and indices of precipitation extremes (R95p, R99p, SDII, WDF, and CWD) over China at the resolution of 25 km under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios for the baseline period (1976-2005) and two future periods (2036-2065 and 2070-2099). With improved resolution, the PRECIS model is able to better represent the fine-scale physical process than HadGEM2-ES. It can provide reliable spatial patterns of precipitation and its related extremes with high correlations to observations. Moreover, there is a notable improvement in temporal patterns simulation through the PRECIS model. The PRECIS model better reproduces the regional annual cycle and frequencies of daily precipitation intensity than its driving GCM. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, both the HadGEM2-ES and the precis project increasing annual precipitation over the entire country for two future periods. Precipitation increase in winter is greater than the increase in summer. The results suggest that increased radiative forcing from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5 would further intensify the magnitude of projected precipitation changes by both PRECIS and HadGEM2-ES. For example, some parts of south China with decreased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect even less precipitation under RCP8.5; regions (northwest, northcentral and northeast China) with increased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect more precipitation under RCP8.5. Apart from the projected increase in annual total precipitation, the results also suggest that there will be an increase in the days with precipitation higher than

  20. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  1. NiftyPET: a High-throughput Software Platform for High Quantitative Accuracy and Precision PET Imaging and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Pawel J; Ehrhardt, Matthias J; Erlandsson, Kjell; Noonan, Philip J; Barnes, Anna; Schott, Jonathan M; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    We present a standalone, scalable and high-throughput software platform for PET image reconstruction and analysis. We focus on high fidelity modelling of the acquisition processes to provide high accuracy and precision quantitative imaging, especially for large axial field of view scanners. All the core routines are implemented using parallel computing available from within the Python package NiftyPET, enabling easy access, manipulation and visualisation of data at any processing stage. The pipeline of the platform starts from MR and raw PET input data and is divided into the following processing stages: (1) list-mode data processing; (2) accurate attenuation coefficient map generation; (3) detector normalisation; (4) exact forward and back projection between sinogram and image space; (5) estimation of reduced-variance random events; (6) high accuracy fully 3D estimation of scatter events; (7) voxel-based partial volume correction; (8) region- and voxel-level image analysis. We demonstrate the advantages of this platform using an amyloid brain scan where all the processing is executed from a single and uniform computational environment in Python. The high accuracy acquisition modelling is achieved through span-1 (no axial compression) ray tracing for true, random and scatter events. Furthermore, the platform offers uncertainty estimation of any image derived statistic to facilitate robust tracking of subtle physiological changes in longitudinal studies. The platform also supports the development of new reconstruction and analysis algorithms through restricting the axial field of view to any set of rings covering a region of interest and thus performing fully 3D reconstruction and corrections using real data significantly faster. All the software is available as open source with the accompanying wiki-page and test data.

  2. A generalized polynomial chaos based ensemble Kalman filter with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Xiu Dongbin

    2009-01-01

    As one of the most adopted sequential data assimilation methods in many areas, especially those involving complex nonlinear dynamics, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been under extensive investigation regarding its properties and efficiency. Compared to other variants of the Kalman filter (KF), EnKF is straightforward to implement, as it employs random ensembles to represent solution states. This, however, introduces sampling errors that affect the accuracy of EnKF in a negative manner. Though sampling errors can be easily reduced by using a large number of samples, in practice this is undesirable as each ensemble member is a solution of the system of state equations and can be time consuming to compute for large-scale problems. In this paper we present an efficient EnKF implementation via generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion. The key ingredients of the proposed approach involve (1) solving the system of stochastic state equations via the gPC methodology to gain efficiency; and (2) sampling the gPC approximation of the stochastic solution with an arbitrarily large number of samples, at virtually no additional computational cost, to drastically reduce the sampling errors. The resulting algorithm thus achieves a high accuracy at reduced computational cost, compared to the classical implementations of EnKF. Numerical examples are provided to verify the convergence property and accuracy improvement of the new algorithm. We also prove that for linear systems with Gaussian noise, the first-order gPC Kalman filter method is equivalent to the exact Kalman filter.

  3. A high accuracy algorithm of displacement measurement for a micro-positioning stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A high accuracy displacement measurement algorithm for a two degrees of freedom compliant precision micro-positioning stage is proposed based on the computer micro-vision technique. The algorithm consists of an integer-pixel and a subpixel matching procedure. Series of simulations are conducted to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed algorithm possesses the advantages of high precision and stability, the resolution can attain to 0.01 pixel theoretically. In addition, the consuming time is reduced about 6.7 times compared with the classical normalized cross correlation algorithm. To validate the practical performance of the proposed algorithm, a laser interferometer measurement system (LIMS is built up. The experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm has better adaptability than that of the LIMS.

  4. Prediction of novel pre-microRNAs with high accuracy through boosting and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Yifan; Zhang, Huan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Xu, Bo; Xue, Yu; Cao, Yunxia; Zhai, Qian; Zhai, Yong; Xu, Mingqing; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-05-15

    High-throughput deep-sequencing technology has generated an unprecedented number of expressed short sequence reads, presenting not only an opportunity but also a challenge for prediction of novel microRNAs. To verify the existence of candidate microRNAs, we have to show that these short sequences can be processed from candidate pre-microRNAs. However, it is laborious and time consuming to verify these using existing experimental techniques. Therefore, here, we describe a new method, miRD, which is constructed using two feature selection strategies based on support vector machines (SVMs) and boosting method. It is a high-efficiency tool for novel pre-microRNA prediction with accuracy up to 94.0% among different species. miRD is implemented in PHP/PERL+MySQL+R and can be freely accessed at http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/rpg/mird/mird.php.

  5. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  6. Computer modeling of oil spill trajectories with a high accuracy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, Reinaldo; Flores-Tovar, Henry

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a high accuracy numerical method to model oil spill trajectories using a particle-tracking algorithm. The Euler method, used to calculate oil trajectories, can give adequate solutions in most open ocean applications. However, this method may not predict accurate particle trajectories in certain highly non-uniform velocity fields near coastal zones or in river problems. Simple numerical experiments show that the Euler method may also introduce artificial numerical dispersion that could lead to overestimation of spill areas. This article proposes a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with fourth-order velocity interpolation to calculate oil trajectories that minimise these problems. The algorithm is implemented in the OilTrack model to predict oil trajectories following the 'Nissos Amorgos' oil spill accident that occurred in the Gulf of Venezuela in 1997. Despite lack of adequate field information, model results compare well with observations in the impacted area. (Author)

  7. Study on extreme high temperature of cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fan; Jiang Ziying

    2012-01-01

    In order to protect aquatic life from the harmful effects of thermal discharge, the appropriate water temperature limits or the scope of the mixing zone is a key issue in the regulatory control of the environmental impact of thermal discharge. Based on the sea surface temperature in the Chinese coastal waters, the extreme value of the seawater temperature change was analyzed by using the Gumbel model. The limit of the design temperature rise of cooling water in the outfall is 9 ℃, and the limit of the temperature rise of cooling water in the edge of the mixing zone is 4 ℃. The extreme high temperature of the cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant is 37 ℃ in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and is 40 ℃ in East China Sea, South China Sea. (authors)

  8. Treatment accuracy of hypofractionated spine and other highly conformal IMRT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.; Hanlon, P.; Charles, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Spinal cord metastases pose difficult challenges for radiation treatment due to tight dose constraints and a concave PTY. This project aimed to thoroughly test the treatment accuracy of the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) for highly modulated IMRT treatments, in particular of the thoracic spine, using an Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. The increased understanding obtained through different quality assurance techniques allowed recommendations to be made for treatment site commissioning with improved accuracy at the Princess Alexandra Hospital (PAH). Three thoracic spine IMRT plans at the PAH were used for data collection. Complex phantom models were built using CT data, and fields simulated using Monte Carlo modelling. The simulated dose distributions were compared with the TPS using gamma analysis and DYH comparison. High resolution QA was done for all fields using the MatriXX ion chamber array, MapCHECK2 diode array shifted, and the EPlD to determine a procedure for commissioning new treatment sites. Basic spine simulations found the TPS overestimated absorbed dose to bone, however within spinal cord there was good agreement. High resolution QA found the average gamma pass rate of the fields to be 99.1 % for MatriXX, 96.5% for MapCHECK2 shifted and 97.7% for EPlD. Preliminary results indicate agreement between the TPS and delivered dose distributions higher than previously believed for the investigated IMRT plans. The poor resolution of the MatriXX, and normalisation issues with MapCHECK2 leads to probable recommendation of EPlD for future IMRT commissioning due to the high resolution and minimal setup required.

  9. Warmer and wetter winters: characteristics and implications of an extreme weather event in the High Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Brage B; Isaksen, Ketil; Benestad, Rasmus E; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Loe, Leif E; Coulson, Stephen J; Larsen, Jan Otto; Varpe, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    One predicted consequence of global warming is an increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, or heavy rainfalls. In parts of the Arctic, extreme warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) events in winter are already more frequent. How these weather events impact snow-pack and permafrost characteristics is rarely documented empirically, and the implications for wildlife and society are hence far from understood. Here we characterize and document the effects of an extreme warm spell and ROS event that occurred in High Arctic Svalbard in January–February 2012, during the polar night. In this normally cold semi-desert environment, we recorded above-zero temperatures (up to 7 °C) across the entire archipelago and record-breaking precipitation, with up to 98 mm rainfall in one day (return period of >500 years prior to this event) and 272 mm over the two-week long warm spell. These precipitation amounts are equivalent to 25 and 70% respectively of the mean annual total precipitation. The extreme event caused significant increase in permafrost temperatures down to at least 5 m depth, induced slush avalanches with resultant damage to infrastructure, and left a significant ground-ice cover (∼5–20 cm thick basal ice). The ground-ice not only affected inhabitants by closing roads and airports as well as reducing mobility and thereby tourism income, but it also led to high starvation-induced mortality in all monitored populations of the wild reindeer by blocking access to the winter food source. Based on empirical-statistical downscaling of global climate models run under the moderate RCP4.5 emission scenario, we predict strong future warming with average mid-winter temperatures even approaching 0 °C, suggesting increased frequency of ROS. This will have far-reaching implications for Arctic ecosystems and societies through the changes in snow-pack and permafrost properties. (letter)

  10. Warmer and wetter winters: characteristics and implications of an extreme weather event in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brage B.; Isaksen, Ketil; Benestad, Rasmus E.; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Loe, Leif E.; Coulson, Stephen J.; Larsen, Jan Otto; Varpe, Øystein

    2014-11-01

    One predicted consequence of global warming is an increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, or heavy rainfalls. In parts of the Arctic, extreme warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) events in winter are already more frequent. How these weather events impact snow-pack and permafrost characteristics is rarely documented empirically, and the implications for wildlife and society are hence far from understood. Here we characterize and document the effects of an extreme warm spell and ROS event that occurred in High Arctic Svalbard in January-February 2012, during the polar night. In this normally cold semi-desert environment, we recorded above-zero temperatures (up to 7 °C) across the entire archipelago and record-breaking precipitation, with up to 98 mm rainfall in one day (return period of >500 years prior to this event) and 272 mm over the two-week long warm spell. These precipitation amounts are equivalent to 25 and 70% respectively of the mean annual total precipitation. The extreme event caused significant increase in permafrost temperatures down to at least 5 m depth, induced slush avalanches with resultant damage to infrastructure, and left a significant ground-ice cover (˜5-20 cm thick basal ice). The ground-ice not only affected inhabitants by closing roads and airports as well as reducing mobility and thereby tourism income, but it also led to high starvation-induced mortality in all monitored populations of the wild reindeer by blocking access to the winter food source. Based on empirical-statistical downscaling of global climate models run under the moderate RCP4.5 emission scenario, we predict strong future warming with average mid-winter temperatures even approaching 0 °C, suggesting increased frequency of ROS. This will have far-reaching implications for Arctic ecosystems and societies through the changes in snow-pack and permafrost properties.

  11. High Accuracy, High Energy He-Erd Analysis of H,C, and T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, James F.; Langley, Robert A.; Doyle, Barney L.; Banks, James C.; Wampler, William R.

    1999-01-01

    A new analysis technique using high-energy helium ions for the simultaneous elastic recoil detection of all three hydrogen isotopes in metal hydride systems extending to depths of several microm's is presented. Analysis shows that it is possible to separate each hydrogen isotope in a heavy matrix such as erbium to depths of 5 microm using incident 11.48MeV 4 He 2 ions with a detection system composed of a range foil and ΔE-E telescope detector. Newly measured cross sections for the elastic recoil scattering of 4 He 2 ions from protons and deuterons are presented in the energy range 10 to 11.75 MeV for the laboratory recoil angle of 30degree

  12. PACMAN Project: A New Solution for the High-accuracy Alignment of Accelerator Components

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, Helene; Buzio, Marco; Caiazza, Domenico; Catalán Lasheras, Nuria; Cherif, Ahmed; Doytchinov, Iordan; Fuchs, Jean-Frederic; Gaddi, Andrea; Galindo Munoz, Natalia; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Kamugasa, Solomon; Modena, Michele; Novotny, Peter; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sanz, Claude; Severino, Giordana; Tshilumba, David; Vlachakis, Vasileios; Wendt, Manfred; Zorzetti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The beam alignment requirements for the next generation of lepton colliders have become increasingly challenging. As an example, the alignment requirements for the three major collider components of the CLIC linear collider are as follows. Before the first beam circulates, the Beam Position Monitors (BPM), Accelerating Structures (AS)and quadrupoles will have to be aligned up to 10 μm w.r.t. a straight line over 200 m long segments, along the 20 km of linacs. PACMAN is a study on Particle Accelerator Components' Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometre scale. It is an Innovative Doctoral Program, funded by the EU and hosted by CERN, providing high quality training to 10 Early Stage Researchers working towards a PhD thesis. The technical aim of the project is to improve the alignment accuracy of the CLIC components by developing new methods and tools addressing several steps of alignment simultaneously, to gain time and accuracy. The tools and methods developed will be validated on a test bench. This paper pr...

  13. High Accuracy Mass Measurement of the Dripline Nuclides $^{12,14}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    State-of-the art, three-body nuclear models that describe halo nuclides require the binding energy of the halo neutron(s) as a critical input parameter. In the case of $^{14}$Be, the uncertainty of this quantity is currently far too large (130 keV), inhibiting efforts at detailed theoretical description. A high accuracy, direct mass deterlnination of $^{14}$Be (as well as $^{12}$Be to obtain the two-neutron separation energy) is therefore required. The measurement can be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer, which is presently the only possible solution due to required accuracy (10 keV) and short half-life (4.5 ms). Having achieved a 5 keV uncertainty for the mass of $^{11}$Li (8.6 ms), MISTRAL has proved the feasibility of such measurements. Since the current ISOLDE production rate of $^{14}$Be is only about 10/s, the installation of a beam cooler is underway in order to improve MISTRAL transmission. The projected improvement of an order of magnitude (in each transverse direction) will make this measureme...

  14. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Jerry; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Hobbins, Michael; Senay, Gabriel; Paul, George; Marek, Thomas; Porter, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which is essential for regional scale water resources management. Data used in the development of NOAA daily ETref maps are derived from observations over surfaces that are different from short (grass — ETos) or tall (alfalfa — ETrs) reference crops, often in nonagricultural settings, which carries an unknown discrepancy between assumed and actual conditions. In this study, NOAA daily ETos and ETrs maps were evaluated for accuracy, using observed data from the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network. Daily ETos, ETrs and the climatic data (air temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) used for calculating ETref were extracted from the NOAA maps for TXHPET locations and compared against ground measurements on reference grass surfaces. NOAA ETrefmaps generally overestimated the TXHPET observations (1.4 and 2.2 mm/day ETos and ETrs, respectively), which may be attributed to errors in the NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed, to which reference ETref is most sensitive. Therefore, a bias correction to NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed data, or adjustment to the resulting NOAA ETref, may be needed to improve the accuracy of NOAA ETref maps.

  15. High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere

    2001-01-01

    CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 (micro)A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 (micro)A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 (micro)A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described

  16. Medication adherence assessment: high accuracy of the new Ingestible Sensor System in kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Bock, Andreas; Ambühl, Patrice; Steiger, Jürg; Intondi, Allison; Kuranoff, Susan; Maier, Thomas; Green, Damian; DiCarlo, Lorenzo; Feutren, Gilles; De Geest, Sabina

    2013-08-15

    This open-label single-arm exploratory study evaluated the accuracy of the Ingestible Sensor System (ISS), a novel technology for directly assessing the ingestion of oral medications and treatment adherence. ISS consists of an ingestible event marker (IEM), a microsensor that becomes activated in gastric fluid, and an adhesive personal monitor (APM) that detects IEM activation. In this study, the IEM was combined to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (ECMPS). Twenty stable adult kidney transplants received IEM-ECMPS for a mean of 9.2 weeks totaling 1227 cumulative days. Eight patients prematurely discontinued treatment due to ECMPS gastrointestinal symptoms (n=2), skin intolerance to APM (n=2), and insufficient system usability (n=4). Rash or erythema due to APM was reported in 7 (37%) patients, all during the first month of use. No serious or severe adverse events and no rejection episode were reported. IEM detection accuracy was 100% over 34 directly observed ingestions; Taking Adherence was 99.4% over a total of 2824 prescribed IEM-ECMPS ingestions. ISS could detect accurately the ingestion of two IEM-ECMPS capsules taken at the same time (detection rate of 99.3%, n=2376). ISS is a promising new technology that provides highly reliable measurements of intake and timing of intake of drugs that are combined with the IEM.

  17. Combined Scintigraphy and Tumor Marker Analysis Predicts Unfavorable Histopathology of Neuroblastic Tumors with High Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Peter Fendler

    Full Text Available Our aim was to improve the prediction of unfavorable histopathology (UH in neuroblastic tumors through combined imaging and biochemical parameters.123I-MIBG SPECT and MRI was performed before surgical resection or biopsy in 47 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumor. Semi-quantitative tumor-to-liver count-rate ratio (TLCRR, MRI tumor size and margins, urine catecholamine and NSE blood levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE were recorded. Accuracy of single and combined variables for prediction of UH was tested by ROC analysis with Bonferroni correction.34 of 47 patients had UH based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC. TLCRR and serum NSE both predicted UH with moderate accuracy. Optimal cut-off for TLCRR was 2.0, resulting in 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.86, p < 0.001. Optimal cut-off for NSE was 25.8 ng/ml, resulting in 74% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.81, p = 0.001. Combination of TLCRR/NSE criteria reduced false negative findings from 11/9 to only five, with improved sensitivity and specificity of 85% (AUC-ROC 0.85, p < 0.001.Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of NSE were each predictive of UH. Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.

  18. Enhancing the Accuracy of Advanced High Temperature Mechanical Testing through Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the advantages and enhanced accuracy thermography provides to high temperature mechanical testing. This technique is not only used to monitor, but also to control test specimen temperatures where the infra-red technique enables accurate non-invasive control of rapid thermal cycling for non-metallic materials. Isothermal and dynamic waveforms are employed over a 200–800 °C temperature range to pre-oxidised and coated specimens to assess the capability of the technique. This application shows thermography to be accurate to within ±2 °C of thermocouples, a standardised measurement technique. This work demonstrates the superior visibility of test temperatures previously unobtainable by conventional thermocouples or even more modern pyrometers that thermography can deliver. As a result, the speed and accuracy of thermal profiling, thermal gradient measurements and cold/hot spot identification using the technique has increased significantly to the point where temperature can now be controlled by averaging over a specified area. The increased visibility of specimen temperatures has revealed additional unknown effects such as thermocouple shadowing, preferential crack tip heating within an induction coil, and, fundamental response time of individual measurement techniques which are investigated further.

  19. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family.

  1. High accuracy Primary Reference gas Mixtures for high-impact greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Zalewska, Ewelina; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Brewer, Paul; Resner, Kate; Mace, Tatiana; Tarhan, Tanil; Zellweger, Christophe; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, due to increased man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, poses one of the greatest risks to society worldwide. High-impact greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirect drivers for global warming (e.g. CO) are measured by the global monitoring stations for greenhouse gases, operated and organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Reference gases for the calibration of analyzers have to meet very challenging low level of measurement uncertainty to comply with the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) set by the WMO. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), a project to improve the metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases was granted (HIGHGAS, June 2014-May 2017). As a result of the HIGHGAS project, primary reference gas mixtures in cylinders for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air have been prepared with unprecedented low uncertainties, typically 3-10 times lower than usually previously achieved by the NMIs. To accomplish these low uncertainties in the reference standards, a number of preparation and analysis steps have been studied and improved. The purity analysis of the parent gases had to be performed with lower detection limits than previously achievable. E.g., to achieve an uncertainty of 2•10-9 mol/mol (absolute) on the amount fraction for N2O, the detection limit for the N2O analysis in the parent gases has to be in the sub nmol/mol domain. Results of an OPO-CRDS analyzer set-up in the 5µm wavelength domain, with a 200•10-12 mol/mol detection limit for N2O, will be presented. The adsorption effects of greenhouse gas components at cylinder surfaces are critical, and have been studied for different cylinder passivation techniques. Results of a two-year stability study will be presented. The fit-for-purpose of the reference materials was studied for possible variation on isotopic composition between the reference material and the sample. Measurement results for a suit of CO2 in air

  2. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  3. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, E; Hazeleger, W; Van Oldenborgh, G J; Sterl, A

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T ann.max ). Linear trends in T ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly underestimates the observed trends over most of the north-western European land surface. Individual models do not fare much better, with even the best performing models underestimating observed trends over large areas. We argue that the inability of RCMs to reproduce observed trends is probably not due to errors in large-scale circulation. There is also no significant correlation between the RCM T ann.max trends and trends in radiation or Bowen ratio. We conclude that care should be taken when using RCM data for adaptation decisions. (letter)

  4. Study of a pressure measurement method using laser ionization for extremely-high vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring pressures in the range of extremely-high vacuum (XHV) using the laser ionization has been studied. For this purpose, nonresonant multiphoton ionization of various kinds of gases has been studied, and highly-sensitive ion-detection systems and an extremely-high vacuum equipment were fabricated. These results are presented in detail. Two ion-detection systems were fabricated and tested: the one is based on the pulse-counting method, and the other utilizes the image-processing technique. The former is superior in detecting a few ions or less. The latter was processing technique. The former is superior in detecting a few ions or less. The latter was verified to able to count accurately the number of ions in the range of a few to several hundreds. To obtain the information on residual gases and test our pressure measurement system, an extremely-high vacuum system was fabricated in our own fashion, attained a pressure lower than 1 x 10 -10 Pa, measured with an extractor gauge. The outgassing rate of this vacuum vessel was measured to be 7.8 x 10 -11 Pa·m 3 /s·m 2 . The surface structures and the surface compositions of the raw material, the machined material, and the machined-and-outgased material were studied by SEM and AES. Besides, the pumping characteristics and the residual gases of the XHV system were investigated in detail at each pumping stage. On the course of these studies, the method of pressure measurement using the laser-ionization has been verified to be very effective for measuring pressures in XHV. (J.P.N.)

  5. High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling Ensemble Projections of Future Extreme Temperature Distributions for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Zachary; Wang, Jiali; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kotamarthi, V. Rao

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine projections of extreme temperatures over the continental United States (CONUS) for the 21st century using an ensemble of high spatial resolution dynamically downscaled model simulations with different boundary conditions. The downscaling uses the Weather Research and Forecast model at a spatial resolution of 12 km along with outputs from three different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global climate models that provide boundary conditions under two different future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration trajectories. The results from two decadal-length time slices (2045-2054 and 2085-2094) are compared with a historical decade (1995-2004). Probability density functions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are analyzed over seven climatologically cohesive regions of the CONUS. The impacts of different boundary conditions as well as future GHG concentrations on extreme events such as heat waves and days with temperature higher than 95°F are also investigated. The results show that the intensity of extreme warm temperature in future summer is significantly increased, while the frequency of extreme cold temperature in future winter decreases. The distribution of summer daily maximum temperature experiences a significant warm-side shift and increased variability, while the distribution of winter daily minimum temperature is projected to have a less significant warm-side shift with decreased variability. Using "business-as-usual" scenario, 5-day heat waves are projected to occur at least 5-10 times per year in most CONUS and ≥95°F days will increase by 1-2 months by the end of the century.

  6. Accuracy optimization of high-speed AFM measurements using Design of Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is being increasingly employed in industrial micro/nano manufacturing applications and integrated into production lines. In order to achieve reliable process and product control at high measuring speed, instrument optimization is needed. Quantitative AFM measurement...... results are influenced by a number of scan settings parameters, defining topography sampling and measurement time: resolution (number of profiles and points per profile), scan range and direction, scanning force and speed. Such parameters are influencing lateral and vertical accuracy and, eventually......, the estimated dimensions of measured features. The definition of scan settings is based on a comprehensive optimization that targets maximization of information from collected data and minimization of measurement uncertainty and scan time. The Design of Experiments (DOE) technique is proposed and applied...

  7. Recent high-accuracy measurements of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, C.R.; Chen, Q.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Salinas, F.; Crowell, A.S.; Roper, C.D.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.; Carman, T.S.; Hussein, A.; Gibbs, W.R.; Gibson, B.F.; Morris, C.; Obst, A.; Sterbenz, S.; Whitton, M.; Mertens, G.; Moore, C.F.; Whiteley, C.R.; Pasyuk, E.; Slaus, I.; Tang, H.; Zhou, Z.; Gloeckle, W.; Witala, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports two recent high-accuracy determinations of the 1 S 0 neutron-neutron scattering length, a nn . One was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory using the π - d capture reaction to produce two neutrons with low relative momentum. The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction was used in other measurement, which was conducted at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The results from the two determinations were consistent with each other and with previous values obtained using the π - d capture reaction. The value obtained from the nd breakup measurements is a nn = -18.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.6 (systematic) fm, and the value from the π - d capture experiment is a nn = -18.50 ± 0.05 ± 0.53 fm. The recommended value is a nn = -18.5 ± 0.3 fm. (author)

  8. High accuracy amplitude and phase measurements based on a double heterodyne architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danyang; Wang Guangwei; Pan Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In the digital low level RF (LLRF) system of a circular (particle) accelerator, the RF field signal is usually down converted to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). The ratio of IF and sampling frequency determines the processing required, and differs in various LLRF systems. It is generally desirable to design a universally compatible architecture for different IFs with no change to the sampling frequency and algorithm. A new RF detection method based on a double heterodyne architecture for wide IF range has been developed, which achieves the high accuracy requirement of modern LLRF. In this paper, the relation of IF and phase error is systematically analyzed for the first time and verified by experiments. The effects of temperature drift for 16 h IF detection are inhibited by the amplitude and phase calibrations. (authors)

  9. High-accuracy biodistribution analysis of adeno-associated virus variants by double barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Biodistribution analysis is a key step in the evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variants, whether natural isolates or produced by rational design or directed evolution. Indeed, when screening candidate vectors, accurate knowledge about which tissues are infected and how efficiently is essential. We describe the design, validation, and application of a new vector, pTR-UF50-BC, encoding a bioluminescent protein, a fluorescent protein and a DNA barcode, which can be used to visualize localization of transduction at the organism, organ, tissue, or cellular levels. In addition, by linking capsid variants to different barcoded versions of the vector and amplifying the barcode region from various tissue samples using barcoded primers, biodistribution of viral genomes can be analyzed with high accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Accuracy and high-speed technique for autoprocessing of Young's fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, an accurate and high-speed method for auto-processing of Young's fringes is proposed. A group of 1-D sampled intensity values along three or more different directions are taken from Young's fringes, and the fringe spacings of each direction are obtained by 1-D FFT respectively. Two directions that have smaller fringe spacing are selected from all directions. The accurate fringe spacings along these two directions are obtained by using orthogonal coherent phase detection technique (OCPD). The actual spacing and angle of Young's fringes, therefore, can be calculated. In this paper, the principle of OCPD is introduced in detail. The accuracy of the method is evaluated theoretically and experimentally.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY, AND FLUENCY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN FOREIGN LANGUAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchaib Benzehaf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to longitudinally depict the dynamic and interactive development of Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency (CAF in multilingual learners’ L2 and L3 writing. The data sources include free writing tasks written in L2 French and L3 English by 45 high school participants over a period of four semesters. CAF dimensions are measured using a variation of Hunt’s T-units (1964. Analysis of the quantitative data obtained suggests that CAF measures develop differently for learners’ L2 French and L3 English. They increase more persistently in L3 English, and they display the characteristics of a dynamic, non-linear system characterized by ups and downs particularly in L2 French. In light of the results, we suggest more and denser longitudinal data to explore the nature of interactions between these dimensions in foreign language development, particularly at the individual level.

  12. Accuracy of thick-walled hollows during piercing on three-high mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, I.N.; Romantsev, B.A.; Shamanaev, V.I.; Popov, V.A.; Kharitonov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations are presented concerning the accuracy of geometrical dimensions of thick-walled sleeves produced by piercing on a 100-ton trio screw rolling mill MISiS with three schemes of fixing and centering the rod. The use of a spherical thrust journal for the rod and of a long centering bushing makes it possible to diminish the non-uniformity of the wall thickness of the sleeves by 30-50%. It is established that thick-walled sleeves with accurate geometrical dimensions (nonuniformity of the wall thickness being less than 10%) can be produced if the system sleeve - mandrel - rod is highly rigid and the rod has a two- or three-fold stability margin over the length equal to that of the sleeve being pierced. The process of piercing is expedient to be carried out with increased angles of feed (14-16 deg). Blanks have been made from steel 12Kh1MF

  13. Integral equation models for image restoration: high accuracy methods and fast algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yao; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2010-01-01

    Discrete models are consistently used as practical models for image restoration. They are piecewise constant approximations of true physical (continuous) models, and hence, inevitably impose bottleneck model errors. We propose to work directly with continuous models for image restoration aiming at suppressing the model errors caused by the discrete models. A systematic study is conducted in this paper for the continuous out-of-focus image models which can be formulated as an integral equation of the first kind. The resulting integral equation is regularized by the Lavrentiev method and the Tikhonov method. We develop fast multiscale algorithms having high accuracy to solve the regularized integral equations of the second kind. Numerical experiments show that the methods based on the continuous model perform much better than those based on discrete models, in terms of PSNR values and visual quality of the reconstructed images

  14. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Innovative High-Accuracy Lidar Bathymetric Technique for the Frequent Measurement of River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Crowley, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Thompson, G. S.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of shallow to deep water allowing for shoreline charting, measuring water volume, mapping bottom topology, and identifying submerged objects. The scalability of the technique opens up the ability for handheld or UAS-mounted lidar bathymetric systems, which provides for potential applications currently unavailable to the community. The high laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for understanding how rivers evolve over many timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  16. Innovative Technique for High-Accuracy Remote Monitoring of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.; Thayer, J. P.; Crowley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems and agricultural waterways. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of shallow to deep water allowing for shoreline charting, measuring water volume, mapping bottom topology, and identifying submerged objects. The scalability of the technique opens up the ability for handheld or UAS-mounted lidar bathymetric systems, which provides for potential applications currently unavailable to the community. The high laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for monitoring water resources on fast timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  17. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  18. High-accuracy self-mixing interferometer based on single high-order orthogonally polarized feedback effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoli; Qu, Xueming; Tan, Yidong; Tan, Runtao; Zhang, Shulian

    2015-06-29

    A simple and high-accuracy self-mixing interferometer based on single high-order orthogonally polarized feedback effects is presented. The single high-order feedback effect is realized when dual-frequency laser reflects numerous times in a Fabry-Perot cavity and then goes back to the laser resonator along the same route. In this case, two orthogonally polarized feedback fringes with nanoscale resolution are obtained. This self-mixing interferometer has the advantages of higher sensitivity to weak signal than that of conventional interferometer. In addition, two orthogonally polarized fringes are useful for discriminating the moving direction of measured object. The experiment of measuring 2.5nm step is conducted, which shows a great potential in nanometrology.

  19. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  20. Very high cycle fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films under extreme stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, E.K.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization technique based on kilohertz micro-resonators is presented to investigate the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 20 μm thick electroplated Ni films with a columnar microstructure (grain diameter less than 2 μm). The films exhibit superior fatigue resistance due to the extreme stress gradients at the surface. The effects of stress amplitude and environment on the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks are discussed based on scanning electron microscopy and the tracking of the specimens’ resonant frequency.

  1. Extreme-ultraviolet wavelength and lifetime measurements in highly ionized krypton

    CERN Document Server

    Kukla, K W; Vogt, C M V; Berry, H G; Dunford, R W; Curtis, L J; Cheng, S

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the spectrum of highly ionized krypton in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region (50-300 Aa), using beam-foil excitation of fast krypton ions at the Argonne ATLAS accelerator facility. We report measurements of transition wavelengths and excited-state lifetimes for n=2 states in the lithiumlike, berylliumlike, and boronlike ions, Kr/sup 31+,32+,33+/. Excited state lifetimes ranging from 10 ps to 3 ns were measured by acquiring time- of-flight-delayed spectra with a position-sensitive multichannel detector.

  2. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors...... change throughout the ammonia acclimation process. Clostridium ultunense, a syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria, increased significantly alongside with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus spp., indicating strong hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity at extreme ammonia levels (>7 g NH4+-N L−1...

  3. Extremely high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with horizontal emitting dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-10-01

    We present the factors influencing the orientation of the phosphorescent dyes in phosphorescent OLEDs. And, we report that an OLED containing a phosphorescent emitter with horizontally oriented dipoles in an exciplex-forming co-host that exhibits an extremely high EQE of 32.3% and power efficiency of 142 lm/W, the highest values ever reported in literature. Furthermore, we experimentally and theoretically correlated the EQE of OLEDs to the PL quantum yield and the horizontal dipole ratio of phosphorescent dyes using three different dyes.

  4. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  5. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  6. Characteristics of Extreme Extratropical Cyclones in a High-Resolution Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, A. J.; Broccoli, A. J.; Kapnick, S. B.; Janoski, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the northeastern United States, many of the strongest impacts from extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are associated with storms that exhibit slow movement, unusual tracks, or exceptional intensity. Examples of extreme ETCs include the Appalachian storm of November 1950, the Perfect Storm of October 1991, and the Superstorm of March 1993. Owing to the rare nature of these events, it is difficult to quantify the associated risks (e.g. high winds, storm surge) given the limited duration of high-quality observational datasets. Furthermore, storms with even greater impacts than those observed may be possible, particularly in a warming climate. In the context of tropical cyclones, Lin and Emanuel (2016) have used the metaphor "grey swans" to refer to high-impact events that have not been observed but may be physically possible. One method for analyzing "grey swans" is to generate a larger sample of ETCs using a coupled climate model. Therefore, we use long simulations (over 1,000 years with atmospheric constituents fixed at 1990 levels) from a global climate model (GFDL FLOR) with 50km atmospheric resolution. FLOR has been shown to realistically simulate the spatial distribution and climatology of ETCs during the reanalysis era. We will discuss the climatological features of these extreme ETC events.

  7. Accuracy assessment of high resolution satellite imagery orientation by leave-one-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Crespi, Mattia; Fratarcangeli, Francesca; Giannone, Francesca; Realini, Eugenio

    Interest in high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is spreading in several application fields, at both scientific and commercial levels. Fundamental and critical goals for the geometric use of this kind of imagery are their orientation and orthorectification, processes able to georeference the imagery and correct the geometric deformations they undergo during acquisition. In order to exploit the actual potentialities of orthorectified imagery in Geomatics applications, the definition of a methodology to assess the spatial accuracy achievable from oriented imagery is a crucial topic. In this paper we want to propose a new method for accuracy assessment based on the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV), a model validation method already applied in different fields such as machine learning, bioinformatics and generally in any other field requiring an evaluation of the performance of a learning algorithm (e.g. in geostatistics), but never applied to HRSI orientation accuracy assessment. The proposed method exhibits interesting features which are able to overcome the most remarkable drawbacks involved by the commonly used method (Hold-Out Validation — HOV), based on the partitioning of the known ground points in two sets: the first is used in the orientation-orthorectification model (GCPs — Ground Control Points) and the second is used to validate the model itself (CPs — Check Points). In fact the HOV is generally not reliable and it is not applicable when a low number of ground points is available. To test the proposed method we implemented a new routine that performs the LOOCV in the software SISAR, developed by the Geodesy and Geomatics Team at the Sapienza University of Rome to perform the rigorous orientation of HRSI; this routine was tested on some EROS-A and QuickBird images. Moreover, these images were also oriented using the world recognized commercial software OrthoEngine v. 10 (included in the Geomatica suite by PCI), manually performing the LOOCV

  8. The evolution of extreme precipitations in high resolution scenarios over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, J.; Déqué, M.; Somot, S.

    2009-09-01

    Over the past years, improving the modelling of extreme events and their variability at climatic time scales has become one of the challenging issue raised in the regional climate research field. This study shows the results of a high resolution (12 km) scenario run over France with the limited area model (LAM) ALADIN-Climat, regarding the representation of extreme precipitations. The runs were conducted in the framework of the ANR-SCAMPEI national project on high resolution scenarios over French mountains. As a first step, we attempt to quantify one of the uncertainties implied by the use of LAM : the size of the area on which the model is run. In particular, we address the issue of whether a relatively small domain allows the model to create its small scale process. Indeed, high resolution scenarios cannot be run on large domains because of the computation time. Therefore one needs to answer this preliminary question before producing and analyzing such scenarios. To do so, we worked in the framework of a « big brother » experiment. We performed a 23-year long global simulation in present-day climate (1979-2001) with the ARPEGE-Climat GCM, at a resolution of approximately 50 km over Europe (stretched grid). This first simulation, named ARP50, constitutes the « big brother » reference of our experiment. It has been validated in comparison with the CRU climatology. Then we filtered the short waves (up to 200 km) from ARP50 in order to obtain the equivalent of coarse resolution lateral boundary conditions (LBC). We have carried out three ALADIN-Climat simulations at a 50 km resolution with these LBC, using different configurations of the model : * FRA50, run over a small domain (2000 x 2000 km, centered over France), * EUR50, run over a larger domain (5000 x 5000 km, centered over France as well), * EUR50-SN, run over the large domain (using spectral nudging). Considering the facts that ARPEGE-Climat and ALADIN-Climat models share the same physics and dynamics

  9. High-Accuracy Measurements of Total Column Water Vapor From the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert R.; Crisp, David; Ott, Lesley E.; O'Dell, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the distribution of water vapor in Earth's atmosphere is of critical importance to both weather and climate studies. Here we report on measurements of total column water vapor (TCWV) from hyperspectral observations of near-infrared reflected sunlight over land and ocean surfaces from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). These measurements are an ancillary product of the retrieval algorithm used to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, with information coming from three highly resolved spectral bands. Comparisons to high-accuracy validation data, including ground-based GPS and microwave radiometer data, demonstrate that OCO-2 TCWV measurements have maximum root-mean-square deviations of 0.9-1.3mm. Our results indicate that OCO-2 is the first space-based sensor to accurately and precisely measure the two most important greenhouse gases, water vapor and carbon dioxide, at high spatial resolution [1.3 x 2.3 km(exp. 2)] and that OCO-2 TCWV measurements may be useful in improving numerical weather predictions and reanalysis products.

  10. A new device for liver cancer biomarker detection with high accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaipeng Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cantilever array-based bio-sensor was batch-fabricated with IC compatible MEMS technology for precise liver cancer bio-marker detection. A micro-cavity was designed in the free end of the cantilever for local antibody-immobilization, thus adsorption of the cancer biomarker is localized in the micro-cavity, and the adsorption-induced k variation can be dramatically reduced with comparison to that caused by adsorption of the whole lever. The cantilever is pizeoelectrically driven into vibration which is pizeoresistively sensed by Wheatstone bridge. These structural features offer several advantages: high sensitivity, high throughput, high mass detection accuracy, and small volume. In addition, an analytical model has been established to eliminate the effect of adsorption-induced lever stiffness change and has been applied to precise mass detection of cancer biomarker AFP, the detected AFP antigen mass (7.6 pg/ml is quite close to the calculated one (5.5 pg/ml, two orders of magnitude better than the value by the fully antibody-immobilized cantilever sensor. These approaches will promote real application of the cantilever sensors in early diagnosis of cancer.

  11. Design and Performance Evaluation of Real-time Endovascular Interventional Surgical Robotic System with High Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundong; Chen, Bing; Lu, Qingsheng; Li, Hongbing; Liu, Manhua; Shen, Yu; Xu, Zhuoyan

    2018-05-15

    Endovascular interventional surgery (EIS) is performed under a high radiation environment at the sacrifice of surgeons' health. This paper introduces a novel endovascular interventional surgical robot that aims to reduce radiation to surgeons and physical stress imposed by lead aprons during fluoroscopic X-ray guided catheter intervention. The unique mechanical structure allowed the surgeon to manipulate the axial and radial motion of the catheter and guide wire. Four catheter manipulators (to manipulate the catheter and guide wire), and a control console which consists of four joysticks, several buttons and two twist switches (to control the catheter manipulators) were presented. The entire robotic system was established on a master-slave control structure through CAN (Controller Area Network) bus communication, meanwhile, the slave side of this robotic system showed highly accurate control over velocity and displacement with PID controlling method. The robotic system was tested and passed in vitro and animal experiments. Through functionality evaluation, the manipulators were able to complete interventional surgical motion both independently and cooperatively. The robotic surgery was performed successfully in an adult female pig and demonstrated the feasibility of superior mesenteric and common iliac artery stent implantation. The entire robotic system met the clinical requirements of EIS. The results show that the system has the ability to imitate the movements of surgeons and to accomplish the axial and radial motions with consistency and high-accuracy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jun; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2017-11-06

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS). The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN) node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF) module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μ s. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM). The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS) signal.

  13. High-accuracy optical extensometer based on coordinate transform in two-dimensional digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zeqian; Xu, Xiaohai; Yan, Tianhao; Cai, Yulong; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2018-01-01

    In the measurement of plate specimens, traditional two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is challenged by two aspects: (1) the slant optical axis (misalignment of the optical camera axis and the object surface) and (2) out-of-plane motions (including translations and rotations) of the specimens. There are measurement errors in the results measured by 2D DIC, especially when the out-of-plane motions are big enough. To solve this problem, a novel compensation method has been proposed to correct the unsatisfactory results. The proposed compensation method consists of three main parts: 1) a pre-calibration step is used to determine the intrinsic parameters and lens distortions; 2) a compensation panel (a rigid panel with several markers located at known positions) is mounted to the specimen to track the specimen's motion so that the relative coordinate transformation between the compensation panel and the 2D DIC setup can be calculated using the coordinate transform algorithm; 3) three-dimensional world coordinates of measuring points on the specimen can be reconstructed via the coordinate transform algorithm and used to calculate deformations. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed compensation method. Results come out that when the extensometer length is 400 pixels, the strain accuracy reaches 10 με no matter out-of-plane translations (less than 1/200 of the object distance) nor out-of-plane rotations (rotation angle less than 5°) occur. The proposed compensation method leads to good results even when the out-of-plane translation reaches several percents of the object distance or the out-of-plane rotation angle reaches tens of degrees. The proposed compensation method has been applied in tensile experiments to obtain high-accuracy results as well.

  14. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS. The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μs. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM. The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS signal.

  15. High accuracy electromagnetic field solvers for cylindrical waveguides and axisymmetric structures using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1993-12-01

    Some two-dimensional finite element electromagnetic field solvers are described and tested. For TE and TM modes in homogeneous cylindrical waveguides and monopole modes in homogeneous axisymmetric structures, the solvers find approximate solutions to a weak formulation of the wave equation. Second-order isoparametric lagrangian triangular elements represent the field. For multipole modes in axisymmetric structures, the solver finds approximate solutions to a weak form of the curl-curl formulation of Maxwell's equations. Second-order triangular edge elements represent the radial (ρ) and axial (z) components of the field, while a second-order lagrangian basis represents the azimuthal (φ) component of the field weighted by the radius ρ. A reduced set of basis functions is employed for elements touching the axis. With this basis the spurious modes of the curl-curl formulation have zero frequency, so spurious modes are easily distinguished from non-static physical modes. Tests on an annular ring, a pillbox and a sphere indicate the solutions converge rapidly as the mesh is refined. Computed eigenvalues with relative errors of less than a few parts per million are obtained. Boundary conditions for symmetric, periodic and symmetric-periodic structures are discussed and included in the field solver. Boundary conditions for structures with inversion symmetry are also discussed. Special corner elements are described and employed to improve the accuracy of cylindrical waveguide and monopole modes with singular fields at sharp corners. The field solver is applied to three problems: (1) cross-field amplifier slow-wave circuits, (2) a detuned disk-loaded waveguide linear accelerator structure and (3) a 90 degrees overmoded waveguide bend. The detuned accelerator structure is a critical application of this high accuracy field solver. To maintain low long-range wakefields, tight design and manufacturing tolerances are required

  16. Model Accuracy Comparison for High Resolution Insar Coherence Statistics Over Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Fu, Kun; Sun, Xian; Xu, Guangluan; Wang, Hongqi

    2016-06-01

    The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  17. MODEL ACCURACY COMPARISON FOR HIGH RESOLUTION INSAR COHERENCE STATISTICS OVER URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  18. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  20. The One to Multiple Automatic High Accuracy Registration of Terrestrial LIDAR and Optical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Hu, C.; Xia, G.; Xue, H.

    2018-04-01

    The registration of ground laser point cloud and close-range image is the key content of high-precision 3D reconstruction of cultural relic object. In view of the requirement of high texture resolution in the field of cultural relic at present, The registration of point cloud and image data in object reconstruction will result in the problem of point cloud to multiple images. In the current commercial software, the two pairs of registration of the two kinds of data are realized by manually dividing point cloud data, manual matching point cloud and image data, manually selecting a two - dimensional point of the same name of the image and the point cloud, and the process not only greatly reduces the working efficiency, but also affects the precision of the registration of the two, and causes the problem of the color point cloud texture joint. In order to solve the above problems, this paper takes the whole object image as the intermediate data, and uses the matching technology to realize the automatic one-to-one correspondence between the point cloud and multiple images. The matching of point cloud center projection reflection intensity image and optical image is applied to realize the automatic matching of the same name feature points, and the Rodrigo matrix spatial similarity transformation model and weight selection iteration are used to realize the automatic registration of the two kinds of data with high accuracy. This method is expected to serve for the high precision and high efficiency automatic 3D reconstruction of cultural relic objects, which has certain scientific research value and practical significance.

  1. A web-based study of bipolarity and impulsivity in athletes engaging in extreme and high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Jaeschke, Rafał; Drozdowicz, Katarzyna; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Chrobak, Adrian A; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesised that men and women who engage in extreme or high-risk sports would score higher on standardised measures of bipolarity and impulsivity compared to age and gender matched controls. Four-hundred and eighty extreme or high-risk athletes (255 males and 225 females) and 235 age-matched control persons (107 males and 128 females) were enrolled into the web-based case-control study. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to screen for bipolarity and impulsive behaviours, respectively. Results indicated that extreme or high-risk athletes had significantly higher scores of bipolarity and impulsivity, and lower scores on cognitive complexity of the BIS-11, compared to controls. Further, there were positive correlations between the MDQ and BIS-11 scores. These results showed greater rates of bipolarity and impulsivity, in the extreme or high-risk athletes, suggesting these measures are sensitive to high-risk behaviours.

  2. Design of highly oriented (HOR) media for extremely high density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, C.H.; Wang, J.P.; Chong, T.C.; Low, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties and recording performance of highly oriented (HOR) longitudinal media are systematically studied via micromagnetic simulation. It was found that highly oriented longitudinal media could be achieved by controlling the anisotropy axes distribution. The effect of anisotropy constant, saturated magnetization and exchange coupling constants on the hysteresis loops are presented. It was further found that highly oriented media show an ultra-low transition noise. Another interesting observation made was that increasing M s for the HOR media decreases the coercivity, which suggests practical usage of this media with current head field. A 500 Gbit/in 2 recording media is simulated to support the application of the highly oriented longitudinal media for ultra high density recording

  3. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low androstenone boars. The study allows identification of genes and pathways associated with elevated androstenone levels, which is essential for recognising potential molecular markers for breeding purposes. Results: Testicular tissue was collected from 60 boars, 30 with extreme high and 30 with extreme low levels of androstenone, from each of the two breeds Duroc and Norwegian Landrace. The samples were hybridised to porcine arrays containing 26,877 cDNA clones, detecting 563 and 160 genes that were differentially expressed (p Conclusion: This study contributes to the understanding of the complex genetic system controlling and responding to androstenone levels in pig testis. The identification of new pathways and genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androstenone is an important first step towards finding molecular markers to reduce boar taint.

  4. Definitive intraoperative very high-dose radiotherapy for localized osteosarcoma in the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Natsuo; Kokubo, Masaki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagata, Yasushi; Sasai, Keisuke; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Toguchida, Junya; Nakamura, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and adverse effects in patients with osteosarcoma treated with very high-dose definitive intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), with the intention of saving the affected limb. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients with osteosarcoma in their extremities were treated with definitive IORT. The irradiation field included the tumor plus an adequate wide margin and excluded the major vessels and nerves. Forty-five to 80 Gy of electrons or X-rays were delivered. The median follow-up of the surviving patients was 124 months. Results: The cause-specific and relapse-free 5-year survival rate was 50% and 43%, respectively. Distant metastasis developed in 23 patients; 19 died and 4 were alive for >10 years. Nine local recurrences were found 4-29 months after IORT in the affected limb. No radiation-induced skin reaction or nerve palsy was observed in the patients treated with X-rays. Experiments using phantoms also confirmed that the scatter dose was below the toxic level in the IORT setting with X-rays. Conclusions: Very high-dose definitive IORT combined with preventive nailing and chemotherapy appeared to be a promising quality-of-life-oriented alternative to treating patients with osteosarcomas in the extremities, although the problem of recurrences from the surrounding unirradiated soft tissue remains to be solved

  5. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D.; DeJong, Pim A.; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R 2 = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  6. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  7. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  8. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Ultra-high field upper extremity peripheral nerve and non-contrast enhanced vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh B Raval

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of Ultra-high field [UHF] 7 Tesla [T] MRI as compared to 3T MRI in non-contrast enhanced [nCE] imaging of structural anatomy in the elbow, forearm, and hand [upper extremity].A wide range of sequences including T1 weighted [T1] volumetric interpolate breath-hold exam [VIBE], T2 weighted [T2] double-echo steady state [DESS], susceptibility weighted imaging [SWI], time-of-flight [TOF], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI], and diffusion spectrum imaging [DSI] were optimized and incorporated with a radiofrequency [RF] coil system composed of a transverse electromagnetic [TEM] transmit coil combined with an 8-channel receive-only array for 7T upper extremity [UE] imaging. In addition, Siemens optimized protocol/sequences were used on a 3T scanner and the resulting images from T1 VIBE and T2 DESS were compared to that obtained at 7T qualitatively and quantitatively [SWI was only qualitatively compared]. DSI studio was utilized to identify nerves based on analysis of diffusion weighted derived fractional anisotropy images. Images of forearm vasculature were extracted using a paint grow manual segmentation method based on MIPAV [Medical Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization].High resolution and high quality signal-to-noise ratio [SNR] and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]-images of the hand, forearm, and elbow were acquired with nearly homogeneous 7T excitation. Measured [performed on the T1 VIBE and T2 DESS sequences] SNR and CNR values were almost doubled at 7T vs. 3T. Cartilage, synovial fluid and tendon structures could be seen with higher clarity in the 7T T1 and T2 weighted images. SWI allowed high resolution and better quality imaging of large and medium sized arteries and veins, capillary networks and arteriovenous anastomoses at 7T when compared to 3T. 7T diffusion weighted sequence [not performed at 3T] demonstrates that the forearm nerves are clearly delineated by fiber tractography. The

  10. Beyond Extreme Ultra Violet (BEUV) Radiation from Spherically symmetrical High-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryouichi; Eshima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Scally, Enda; Nshimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; O'Sullivan, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Photo-lithography is a key technology for volume manufacture of high performance and compact semiconductor devices. Smaller and more complex structures can be fabricated by using shorter wavelength light in the photolithography. One of the most critical issues in development of the next generation photo-lithography is to increase energy conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to shorter wavelength light. Experimental database of beyond extreme ultraviolet (BEUV) radiation was obtained by using spherically symmetrical high-Z plasmas generated with spherically allocated laser beams. Absolute energy and spectra of BEUV light emitted from Tb, Gd, and Mo plasmas were measured with a absolutely calibrated BEUV calorimeter and a transmission grating spectrometer. 1.0 x 1012 W/cm2 is the optimal laser intensity to produced efficient BEUV light source plasmas with Tb and Gd targets. Maximum CE is achieved at 0.8% that is two times higher than the published CEs obtained with planar targets.

  11. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  12. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badala, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gustavino, C.

    2008-01-01

    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented

  13. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badalà, A; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Coccia, E; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D’Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Williams, C; Zuyeuski, R

    2008-01-01

    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.

  14. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2018-01-25

    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  15. Recent and future warm extreme events and high-mountain slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C; Salzmann, N; Allen, S; Caplan-Auerbach, J; Fischer, L; Haeberli, W; Larsen, C; Schneider, D; Wessels, R

    2010-05-28

    The number of large slope failures in some high-mountain regions such as the European Alps has increased during the past two to three decades. There is concern that recent climate change is driving this increase in slope failures, thus possibly further exacerbating the hazard in the future. Although the effects of a gradual temperature rise on glaciers and permafrost have been extensively studied, the impacts of short-term, unusually warm temperature increases on slope stability in high mountains remain largely unexplored. We describe several large slope failures in rock and ice in recent years in Alaska, New Zealand and the European Alps, and analyse weather patterns in the days and weeks before the failures. Although we did not find one general temperature pattern, all the failures were preceded by unusually warm periods; some happened immediately after temperatures suddenly dropped to freezing. We assessed the frequency of warm extremes in the future by analysing eight regional climate models from the recently completed European Union programme ENSEMBLES for the central Swiss Alps. The models show an increase in the higher frequency of high-temperature events for the period 2001-2050 compared with a 1951-2000 reference period. Warm events lasting 5, 10 and 30 days are projected to increase by about 1.5-4 times by 2050 and in some models by up to 10 times. Warm extremes can trigger large landslides in temperature-sensitive high mountains by enhancing the production of water by melt of snow and ice, and by rapid thaw. Although these processes reduce slope strength, they must be considered within the local geological, glaciological and topographic context of a slope.

  16. Design and simulation of high accuracy power supplies for injector synchrotron dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ring magnet of the injector synchrotron consists of 68 dipole magnets. These magnets are connected in series and are energized from two feed points 180 degrees apart by two identical 12-phase power supplies. The current in the magnet will be raised linearly at about 1 kA level, and after a small transition period (1 ms to 10 ms typical) the current will be reduced to below the injection level of 60 A. The repetition time for the current waveform is 500 ms. A relatively fast voltage loop along with a high gain current loop are utilized to control the current in the magnet with the required accuracy. Only one regulator circuit is used to control the firing pulses of the two sets of identical 12-phase power supplies. Pspice software was used to design and simulate the power supply performance under ramping and investigate the effect of current changes on the utility voltage and input power factor. A current ripple of ±2x10 -4 and tracking error of ±5x10 -4 was needed. 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. High accuracy line positions of the ν 1 fundamental band of 14 N 2 16 O

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaif, Bidoor

    2018-03-08

    The ν1 fundamental band of N2O is examined by a novel spectrometer that relies on the frequency locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser around 7.8 μm to a near-infrared Tm:based frequency comb at 1.9 μm. Due to the large tunability, nearly 70 lines in the 1240 – 1310 cm−1 range of the ν1 band of N2O, from P(40) to R(31), are for the first time measured with an absolute frequency calibration and an uncertainty from 62 to 180 kHz, depending on the line. Accurate values of the spectroscopic constants of the upper state are derived from a fit of the line centers (rms ≈ 4.8 × 10−6 cm−1 or 144 kHz). The ν1 transitions presently measured in a Doppler regime validate high accuracy predictions based on sub-Doppler measurements of the ν3 and ν3-ν1 transitions.

  18. Coronary CT angiography using prospective ECG triggering. High diagnostic accuracy with low radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldi, E.; Ramos-Duran, L.; Abro, J.A.; Costello, P.; Zwerner, P.L.; Schoepf, U.J.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) using prospective ECG triggering (PT) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA). A total of 20 patients underwent coronary CTA with PT using a 128-slice CT scanner (Definition trademark AS+, Siemens) and ICA. All coronary CTA studies were evaluated for significant coronary artery stenoses (≥50% luminal narrowing) by 2 observers in consensus using the AHA-15-segment model. Findings in CTA were compared to those in ICA. Coronary CTA using PT had 88% sensitivity in comparison to 100% with ICA, 95% to 88% specificity, 80% to 92% positive predictive value and 97% to 100% negative predictive value for diagnosing significant coronary artery stenosis on per segment per patient analysis, respectively. Mean effective radiation dose-equivalent of CTA was 2.6±1 mSv. Coronary CTA using PT enables non-invasive diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis with high diagnostic accuracy in comparison to ICA and is associated with comparably low radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  19. High accuracy line positions of the ν1 fundamental band of 14N216O

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaif, Bidoor; Lamperti, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Fermann, Martin; Farooq, Aamir; Lyulin, Oleg; Campargue, Alain; Marangoni, Marco

    2018-05-01

    The ν1 fundamental band of N2O is examined by a novel spectrometer that relies on the frequency locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser around 7.8 μm to a near-infrared Tm:based frequency comb at 1.9 μm. Due to the large tunability, nearly 70 lines in the 1240-1310 cm-1 range of the ν1 band of N2O, from P(40) to R(31), are for the first time measured with an absolute frequency calibration and an uncertainty from 62 to 180 kHz, depending on the line. Accurate values of the spectroscopic constants of the upper state are derived from a fit of the line centers (rms ≈ 4.8 × 10-6 cm-1 or 144 kHz). The ν1 transitions presently measured in a Doppler regime validate high accuracy predictions based on sub-Doppler measurements of the ν3 and ν3-ν1 transitions.

  20. On the impact of improved dosimetric accuracy on head and neck high dose rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, Vasiliki; Pappas, Eleftherios; Major, Tibor; Takácsi-Nagy, Zoltán; Pantelis, Evaggelos; Papagiannis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    To study the effect of finite patient dimensions and tissue heterogeneities in head and neck high dose rate brachytherapy. The current practice of TG-43 dosimetry was compared to patient specific dosimetry obtained using Monte Carlo simulation for a sample of 22 patient plans. The dose distributions were compared in terms of percentage dose differences as well as differences in dose volume histogram and radiobiological indices for the target and organs at risk (mandible, parotids, skin, and spinal cord). Noticeable percentage differences exist between TG-43 and patient specific dosimetry, mainly at low dose points. Expressed as fractions of the planning aim dose, percentage differences are within 2% with a general TG-43 overestimation except for the spine. These differences are consistent resulting in statistically significant differences of dose volume histogram and radiobiology indices. Absolute differences of these indices are however small to warrant clinical importance in terms of tumor control or complication probabilities. The introduction of dosimetry methods characterized by improved accuracy is a valuable advancement. It does not appear however to influence dose prescription or call for amendment of clinical recommendations for the mobile tongue, base of tongue, and floor of mouth patient cohort of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and simulation of high accuracy power supplies for injector synchrotron dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ring magnet of the injector synchrotron consists of 68 dipole magnets. These magnets are connected in series and are energized from two feed points 180 degree apart by two identical 12-phase power supplies. The current in the magnet will be raised linearly to about 1 kA level, and after a small transition period (1 ms to 10 ms typical) the current will be reduced to below the injection level of 60 A. The repetition time for the current waveform is 500 ms. A relatively fast voltage loop along with a high gain current loop are utilized to control the current in the magnet with the required accuracy. Only one regulator circuit is used to control the firing pulses of the two sets of identical 12-phase power supplies. Pspice software was used to design and simulate the power supply performance under ramping and investigate the effect of current changes on the utility voltage and input power factor. A current ripple of ± 2 x 10 -4 and tracking error of ± 5 x 10 -4 was needed

  2. Quantitative accuracy of serotonergic neurotransmission imaging with high-resolution 123I SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging can be used to study the role of regional abnormalities of neurotransmitter release in various mental disorders and to study the mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs or drugs' abuse. We examine the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility that can be achieved with high-resolution SPECT of serotonergic neurotransmission. Method: Binding potential (BP) of 123 I labeled tracer specific for midbrain SERT was assessed in 20 healthy persons. The effects of scatter, attenuation, partial volume, misregistration and statistical noise were estimated using phantom and human studies. Results: Without any correction, BP was underestimated by 73%. The partial volume error was the major component in this underestimation whereas the most critical error for the reproducibility was misplacement of region of interest (ROI). Conclusion: The proper ROI registration, the use of the multiple head gamma camera with transmission based scatter correction introduce more relevant results. However, due to the small dimensions of the midbrain SERT structures and poor spatial resolution of SPECT, the improvement without the partial volume correction is not great enough to restore the estimate of BP to that of the true one. (orig.) [de

  3. High Accuracy Ground-based near-Earth-asteroid Astrometry using Synthetic Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Saini, Navtej; Sandhu, Jagmit; Werne, Thomas; Choi, Philip; Ely, Todd A.; Jacobs, Chirstopher S.; Lazio, Joseph; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Owen, William M.; Preston, Robert; Turyshev, Slava; Michell, Adam; Nazli, Kutay; Cui, Isaac; Monchama, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Accurate astrometry is crucial for determining the orbits of near-Earth-asteroids (NEAs). Further, the future of deep space high data rate communications is likely to be optical communications, such as the Deep Space Optical Communications package that is part of the baseline payload for the planned Psyche Discovery mission to the Psyche asteroid. We have recently upgraded our instrument on the Pomona College 1 m telescope, at JPL's Table Mountain Facility, for conducting synthetic tracking by taking many short exposure images. These images can be then combined in post-processing to track both asteroid and reference stars to yield accurate astrometry. Utilizing the precision of the current and future Gaia data releases, the JPL-Pomona College effort is now demonstrating precision astrometry on NEAs, which is likely to be of considerable value for cataloging NEAs. Further, treating NEAs as proxies of future spacecraft that carry optical communication lasers, our results serve as a measure of the astrometric accuracy that could be achieved for future plane-of-sky optical navigation.

  4. Optimal design of a high accuracy photoelectric auto-collimator based on position sensitive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei-pei; Yang, Yong-qing; She, Wen-ji; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Kai; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiusha

    2018-02-01

    A kind of high accuracy Photo-electric auto-collimator based on PSD was designed. The integral structure composed of light source, optical lens group, Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) sensor, and its hardware and software processing system constituted. Telephoto objective optical type is chosen during the designing process, which effectively reduces the length, weight and volume of the optical system, as well as develops simulation-based design and analysis of the auto-collimator optical system. The technical indicators of auto-collimator presented by this paper are: measuring resolution less than 0.05″; a field of view is 2ω=0.4° × 0.4° measuring range is +/-5' error of whole range measurement is less than 0.2″. Measuring distance is 10m, which are applicable to minor-angle precise measuring environment. Aberration analysis indicates that the MTF close to the diffraction limit, the spot in the spot diagram is much smaller than the Airy disk. The total length of the telephoto lens is only 450mm by the design of the optical machine structure optimization. The autocollimator's dimension get compact obviously under the condition of the image quality is guaranteed.

  5. Review of The SIAM 100-Digit Challenge: A Study in High-Accuracy Numerical Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, David

    2005-01-01

    In the January 2002 edition of SIAM News, Nick Trefethen announced the '$100, 100-Digit Challenge'. In this note he presented ten easy-to-state but hard-to-solve problems of numerical analysis, and challenged readers to find each answer to ten-digit accuracy. Trefethen closed with the enticing comment: 'Hint: They're hard. If anyone gets 50 digits in total, I will be impressed.' This challenge obviously struck a chord in hundreds of numerical mathematicians worldwide, as 94 teams from 25 nations later submitted entries. Many of these submissions exceeded the target of 50 correct digits; in fact, 20 teams achieved a perfect score of 100 correct digits. Trefethen had offered $100 for the best submission. Given the overwhelming response, a generous donor (William Browning, founder of Applied Mathematics, Inc.) provided additional funds to provide a $100 award to each of the 20 winning teams. Soon after the results were out, four participants, each from a winning team, got together and agreed to write a book about the problems and their solutions. The team is truly international: Bornemann is from Germany, Laurie is from South Africa, Wagon is from the USA, and Waldvogel is from Switzerland. This book provides some mathematical background for each problem, and then shows in detail how each of them can be solved. In fact, multiple solution techniques are mentioned in each case. The book describes how to extend these solutions to much larger problems and much higher numeric precision (hundreds or thousands of digit accuracy). The authors also show how to compute error bounds for the results, so that one can say with confidence that one's results are accurate to the level stated. Numerous numerical software tools are demonstrated in the process, including the commercial products Mathematica, Maple and Matlab. Computer programs that perform many of the algorithms mentioned in the book are provided, both in an appendix to the book and on a website. In the process, the

  6. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  7. Achieving numerical accuracy and high performance using recursive tile LU factorization with partial pivoting

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack

    2013-09-18

    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving systems of linear equations in science and engineering and is a characteristic of many dense linear algebra computations. For example, it has become the de facto numerical algorithm implemented within the LINPACK benchmark to rank the most powerful supercomputers in the world, collected by the TOP500 website. Multicore processors continue to present challenges to the development of fast and robust numerical software due to the increasing levels of hardware parallelism and widening gap between core and memory speeds. In this context, the difficulty in developing new algorithms for the scientific community resides in the combination of two goals: achieving high performance while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical algorithm. This paper proposes a new approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures, which not only improves the overall performance but also sustains the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization algorithm with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic as well as the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. Our approach uses a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the panel factorization step and implements the update of the trailing submatrix with the tile algorithm. Based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lockless synchronization mechanisms, our implementation lets the overall computation flow naturally without contention. The dynamic runtime system called QUARK is then able to schedule tasks with heterogeneous granularities and to transparently introduce algorithmic lookahead. The performance results of our implementation are competitive compared to the currently available software packages and libraries. For example

  8. Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

  9. Achieving numerical accuracy and high performance using recursive tile LU factorization with partial pivoting

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack; Faverge, Mathieu; Ltaief, Hatem; Luszczek, Piotr R.

    2013-01-01

    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving systems of linear equations in science and engineering and is a characteristic of many dense linear algebra computations. For example, it has become the de facto numerical algorithm implemented within the LINPACK benchmark to rank the most powerful supercomputers in the world, collected by the TOP500 website. Multicore processors continue to present challenges to the development of fast and robust numerical software due to the increasing levels of hardware parallelism and widening gap between core and memory speeds. In this context, the difficulty in developing new algorithms for the scientific community resides in the combination of two goals: achieving high performance while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical algorithm. This paper proposes a new approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures, which not only improves the overall performance but also sustains the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization algorithm with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic as well as the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. Our approach uses a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the panel factorization step and implements the update of the trailing submatrix with the tile algorithm. Based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lockless synchronization mechanisms, our implementation lets the overall computation flow naturally without contention. The dynamic runtime system called QUARK is then able to schedule tasks with heterogeneous granularities and to transparently introduce algorithmic lookahead. The performance results of our implementation are competitive compared to the currently available software packages and libraries. For example

  10. Factors Determining the Inter-observer Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of High-resolution Manometry for Esophageal Motility Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Park, Moo In; Hwang, Jin Won; Jang, Jae-Sik; Oh, Minkyung

    2018-01-30

    Although high-resolution manometry (HRM) has the advantage of visual intuitiveness, its diagnostic validity remains under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of HRM for esophageal motility disorders. Six staff members and 8 trainees were recruited for the study. In total, 40 patients enrolled in manometry studies at 3 institutes were selected. Captured images of 10 representative swallows and a single swallow in analyzing mode in both high-resolution pressure topography (HRPT) and conventional line tracing formats were provided with calculated metrics. Assessments of esophageal motility disorders showed fair agreement for HRPT and moderate agreement for conventional line tracing (κ = 0.40 and 0.58, respectively). With the HRPT format, the k value was higher in category A (esophagogastric junction [EGJ] relaxation abnormality) than in categories B (major body peristalsis abnormalities with intact EGJ relaxation) and C (minor body peristalsis abnormalities or normal body peristalsis with intact EGJ relaxation). The overall exact diagnostic accuracy for the HRPT format was 58.8% and rater's position was an independent factor for exact diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic accuracy for major disorders was 63.4% with the HRPT format. The frequency of major discrepancies was higher for category B disorders than for category A disorders (38.4% vs 15.4%; P < 0.001). The interpreter's experience significantly affected the exact diagnostic accuracy of HRM for esophageal motility disorders. The diagnostic accuracy for major disorders was higher for achalasia than distal esophageal spasm and jackhammer esophagus.

  11. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING : A NEW STANDARD IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR HIGH ACCURACY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizaldy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct georeferencing is a new method in photogrammetry, especially in the digital camera era. Theoretically, this method does not require ground control points (GCP and the Aerial Triangulation (AT, to process aerial photography into ground coordinates. Compared with the old method, this method has three main advantages: faster data processing, simple workflow and less expensive project, at the same accuracy. Direct georeferencing using two devices, GPS and IMU. GPS recording the camera coordinates (X, Y, Z, and IMU recording the camera orientation (omega, phi, kappa. Both parameters merged into Exterior Orientation (EO parameter. This parameters required for next steps in the photogrammetric projects, such as stereocompilation, DSM generation, orthorectification and mosaic. Accuracy of this method was tested on topographic map project in Medan, Indonesia. Large-format digital camera Ultracam X from Vexcel is used, while the GPS / IMU is IGI AeroControl. 19 Independent Check Point (ICP were used to determine the accuracy. Horizontal accuracy is 0.356 meters and vertical accuracy is 0.483 meters. Data with this accuracy can be used for 1:2.500 map scale project.

  12. Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M.; Kim, H. Y.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2018-05-01

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

  13. High-resolution Fourier-transform extreme ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of 14N15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heays, A. N.; Dickenson, G. D.; Salumbides, E. J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Lewis, B. R.; Ubachs, W.

    2011-12-01

    The first comprehensive high-resolution photoabsorption spectrum of 14N15N has been recorded using the Fourier-transform spectrometer attached to the Desirs beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. Observations are made in the extreme ultraviolet and span 100 000-109 000 cm-1 (100-91.7 nm). The observed absorption lines have been assigned to 25 bands and reduced to a set of transition energies, f values, and linewidths. This analysis has verified the predictions of a theoretical model of N2 that simulates its photoabsorption and photodissociation cross section by solution of an isotopomer independent formulation of the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation. The mass dependence of predissociation linewidths and oscillator strengths is clearly evident and many local perturbations of transition energies, strengths, and widths within individual rotational series have been observed.

  14. High dark matter densities and the formation of extreme dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, G.

    1990-01-01

    The extreme dwarfs of the Local Group, GR 8, Draco, and Ursa Minor have high densities of dark matter. If the dark matter is dissipationless, then there is a simple relation between the redshift of turnaround z(turn) and its current mean density. Three alternatives for the dSphs are discussed. If the dark matter follows the light, then z(turn) is greater than 30. If a density profile is adopted so that the mean density becomes low enough to be barely consistent with the standard density fluctuation spectrum of cold dark matter, then the mass-to-light ratios are greater than 1000 solar mass/solar luminosity. The last alternative is dissipational dark matter. In this case, the additional collapse factor owing to dissipation allows a later epoch of formation. 39 refs

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Expected Wind Extremes over the Northwestern Sahara and High Atlas Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bustamante, E.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro, J.

    2017-12-01

    A robust statistical framework in the scientific literature allows for the estimation of probabilities of occurrence of severe wind speeds and wind gusts, but does not prevent however from large uncertainties associated with the particular numerical estimates. An analysis of such uncertainties is thus required. A large portion of this uncertainty arises from the fact that historical observations are inherently shorter that the timescales of interest for the analysis of return periods. Additional uncertainties stem from the different choices of probability distributions and other aspects related to methodological issues or physical processes involved. The present study is focused on historical observations over the Ouarzazate Valley (Morocco) and in a high-resolution regional simulation of the wind in the area of interest. The aim is to provide extreme wind speed and wind gust return values and confidence ranges based on a systematic sampling of the uncertainty space for return periods up to 120 years.

  16. Extremely high efficient nanoreactor with Au@ZnO catalyst for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Yi; Yang, Tung-Han; Gurylev, Vitaly; Huang, Sheng-Hsin; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Perng, Tsong-Pyng

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated a photocatalytic Au@ZnO@PC (polycarbonate) nanoreactor composed of monolayered Au nanoparticles chemisorbed on conformal ZnO nanochannel arrays within the PC membrane. A commercial PC membrane was used as the template for deposition of a ZnO shell into the pores by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Thioctic acid (TA) with sufficient steric stabilization was used as a molecular linker for functionalization of Au nanoparticles in a diameter of 10 nm. High coverage of Au nanoparticles anchored on the inner wall of ZnO nanochannels greatly improved the photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine B. The membrane nanoreactor achieved 63% degradation of Rhodamine B within only 26.88 ms of effective reaction time owing to its superior mass transfer efficiency based on Damköhler number analysis. Mass transfer limitation can be eliminated in the present study due to extremely large surface-to-volume ratio of the membrane nanoreactor.

  17. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y., E-mail: y.hirano@aist.go.jp, E-mail: hirano.yoichi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 101-0897 (Japan); Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y.; Sakakita, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm{sup 2}) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E{sub ib} ≈ 150–200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E{sub ib} is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  18. Towards Building Reliable, High-Accuracy Solar Irradiance Database For Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, S.; Ghedira, H.

    2012-12-01

    Middle East's growing interest in renewable energy has led to increased activity in solar technology development with the recent commissioning of several utility-scale solar power projects and many other commercial installations across the Arabian Peninsula. The region, lying in a virtually rainless sunny belt with a typical daily average solar radiation exceeding 6 kWh/m2, is also one of the most promising candidates for solar energy deployment. However, it is not the availability of resource, but its characterization and reasonably accurate assessment that determines the application potential. Solar irradiance, magnitude and variability inclusive, is the key input in assessing the economic feasibility of a solar system. The accuracy of such data is of critical importance for realistic on-site performance estimates. This contribution aims to identify the key stages in developing a robust solar database for desert climate by focusing on the challenges that an arid environment presents to parameterization of solar irradiance attenuating factors. Adjustments are proposed based on the currently available resource assessment tools to produce high quality data for assessing bankability. Establishing and maintaining ground solar irradiance measurements is an expensive affair and fairly limited in time (recently operational) and space (fewer sites) in the Gulf region. Developers within solar technology industry, therefore, rely on solar radiation models and satellite-derived data for prompt resource assessment needs. It is imperative that such estimation tools are as accurate as possible. While purely empirical models have been widely researched and validated in the Arabian Peninsula's solar modeling history, they are known to be intrinsically site-specific. A primal step to modeling is an in-depth understanding of the region's climate, identifying the key players attenuating radiation and their appropriate characterization to determine solar irradiance. Physical approach

  19. INLA goes extreme: Bayesian tail regression for the estimation of high spatio-temporal quantiles

    KAUST Repository

    Opitz, Thomas

    2018-05-25

    This work is motivated by the challenge organized for the 10th International Conference on Extreme-Value Analysis (EVA2017) to predict daily precipitation quantiles at the 99.8% level for each month at observed and unobserved locations. Our approach is based on a Bayesian generalized additive modeling framework that is designed to estimate complex trends in marginal extremes over space and time. First, we estimate a high non-stationary threshold using a gamma distribution for precipitation intensities that incorporates spatial and temporal random effects. Then, we use the Bernoulli and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions to model the rate and size of threshold exceedances, respectively, which we also assume to vary in space and time. The latent random effects are modeled additively using Gaussian process priors, which provide high flexibility and interpretability. We develop a penalized complexity (PC) prior specification for the tail index that shrinks the GP model towards the exponential distribution, thus preventing unrealistically heavy tails. Fast and accurate estimation of the posterior distributions is performed thanks to the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA). We illustrate this methodology by modeling the daily precipitation data provided by the EVA2017 challenge, which consist of observations from 40 stations in the Netherlands recorded during the period 1972–2016. Capitalizing on INLA’s fast computational capacity and powerful distributed computing resources, we conduct an extensive cross-validation study to select the model parameters that govern the smoothness of trends. Our results clearly outperform simple benchmarks and are comparable to the best-scoring approaches of the other teams.

  20. The research of digital circuit system for high accuracy CCD of portable Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectrum technology is widely used for it can identify various types of molecular structure and material. The portable Raman spectrometer has become a hot direction of the spectrometer development nowadays for its convenience in handheld operation and real-time detection which is superior to traditional Raman spectrometer with heavy weight and bulky size. But there is still a gap for its measurement sensitivity between portable and traditional devices. However, portable Raman Spectrometer with Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) technology can enhance the Raman signal significantly by several orders of magnitude, giving consideration in both measurement sensitivity and mobility. This paper proposed a design and implementation of driver and digital circuit for high accuracy CCD sensor, which is core part of portable spectrometer. The main target of the whole design is to reduce the dark current generation rate and increase signal sensitivity during the long integration time, and in the weak signal environment. In this case, we use back-thinned CCD image sensor from Hamamatsu Corporation with high sensitivity, low noise and large dynamic range. In order to maximize this CCD sensor's performance and minimize the whole size of the device simultaneously to achieve the project indicators, we delicately designed a peripheral circuit for the CCD sensor. The design is mainly composed with multi-voltage circuit, sequential generation circuit, driving circuit and A/D transition parts. As the most important power supply circuit, the multi-voltage circuits with 12 independent voltages are designed with reference power supply IC and set to specified voltage value by the amplifier making up the low-pass filter, which allows the user to obtain a highly stable and accurate voltage with low noise. What's more, to make our design easy to debug, CPLD is selected to generate sequential signal. The A/D converter chip consists of a correlated

  1. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  2. Automated, high accuracy classification of Parkinsonian disorders: a pattern recognition approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F Marquand

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, multiple system atrophy (MSA and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD can be clinically indistinguishable, especially in the early stages, despite distinct patterns of molecular pathology. Structural neuroimaging holds promise for providing objective biomarkers for discriminating these diseases at the single subject level but all studies to date have reported incomplete separation of disease groups. In this study, we employed multi-class pattern recognition to assess the value of anatomical patterns derived from a widely available structural neuroimaging sequence for automated classification of these disorders. To achieve this, 17 patients with PSP, 14 with IPD and 19 with MSA were scanned using structural MRI along with 19 healthy controls (HCs. An advanced probabilistic pattern recognition approach was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of several pre-defined anatomical patterns for discriminating the disorders, including: (i a subcortical motor network; (ii each of its component regions and (iii the whole brain. All disease groups could be discriminated simultaneously with high accuracy using the subcortical motor network. The region providing the most accurate predictions overall was the midbrain/brainstem, which discriminated all disease groups from one another and from HCs. The subcortical network also produced more accurate predictions than the whole brain and all of its constituent regions. PSP was accurately predicted from the midbrain/brainstem, cerebellum and all basal ganglia compartments; MSA from the midbrain/brainstem and cerebellum and IPD from the midbrain/brainstem only. This study demonstrates that automated analysis of structural MRI can accurately predict diagnosis in individual patients with Parkinsonian disorders, and identifies distinct patterns of regional atrophy particularly useful for this process.

  3. High accuracy of arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging in differentiation of pilomyxoid from pilocytic astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Hajmomenian, M.; Vossough, A. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Santi, M. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a relatively new tumor entity which has been added to the 2007 WHO Classification of tumors of the central nervous system. The goal of this study is to utilize arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to differentiate PMA from pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pulsed ASL and conventional MRI sequences of patients with PMA and PA in the past 5 years were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with history of radiation or treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs were excluded. A total of 24 patients (9 PMA, 15 PA) were included. There were statistically significant differences between PMA and PA in mean tumor/gray matter (GM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) ratios (1.3 vs 0.4, p < 0.001) and maximum tumor/GM CBF ratio (2.3 vs 1, p < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for differentiation of PMA from PA was 0.91 using mean tumor CBF, 0.95 using mean tumor/GM CBF ratios, and 0.89 using maximum tumor/GM CBF. Using a threshold value of 0.91, the mean tumor/GM CBF ratio was able to diagnose PMA with 77 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, and a threshold value of 0.7, provided 88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity. There was no statistically significant difference between the two tumors in enhancement pattern (p = 0.33), internal architecture (p = 0.15), or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (p = 0.07). ASL imaging has high accuracy in differentiating PMA from PA. The result of this study may have important applications in prognostication and treatment planning especially in patients with less accessible tumors such as hypothalamic-chiasmatic gliomas. (orig.)

  4. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  5. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  6. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza

    2017-05-01

    shows that our isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  7. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Souza, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies. PMID:28480140

  8. High accuracy subwavelength distance measurements: A variable-angle standing-wave total-internal-reflection optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynie, A.; Min, T.-J.; Luan, L.; Mu, W.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an extension of the total-internal-reflection microscopy technique that permits direct in-plane distance measurements with high accuracy (<10 nm) over a wide range of separations. This high position accuracy arises from the creation of a standing evanescent wave and the ability to sweep the nodal positions (intensity minima of the standing wave) in a controlled manner via both the incident angle and the relative phase of the incoming laser beams. Some control over the vertical resolution is available through the ability to scan the incoming angle and with it the evanescent penetration depth.

  9. Error quantification of abnormal extreme high waves in Operational Oceanographic System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jinah; Heo, Ki-Young; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    In winter season, large-height swell-like waves have occurred on the East coast of Korea, causing property damages and loss of human life. It is known that those waves are generated by a local strong wind made by temperate cyclone moving to eastward in the East Sea of Korean peninsula. Because the waves are often occurred in the clear weather, in particular, the damages are to be maximized. Therefore, it is necessary to predict and forecast large-height swell-like waves to prevent and correspond to the coastal damages. In Korea, an operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) and KOOS provides daily basis 72-hours' ocean forecasts such as wind, water elevation, sea currents, water temperature, salinity, and waves which are computed from not only meteorological and hydrodynamic model (WRF, ROMS, MOM, and MOHID) but also wave models (WW-III and SWAN). In order to evaluate the model performance and guarantee a certain level of accuracy of ocean forecasts, a Skill Assessment (SA) system was established as a one of module in KOOS. It has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data and model errors have been quantified with skill scores. Statistics which are used in skill assessment are including a measure of both errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), root-mean-square-error percentage (RMSE%), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), scatter index (SI), circular correlation (CC) and central frequency (CF) that is a frequency with which errors lie within acceptable error criteria. It should be utilized simultaneously not only to quantify an error but also to improve an accuracy of forecasts by providing a feedback interactively. However, in an abnormal phenomena such as high-height swell-like waves in the East coast of Korea, it requires more advanced and optimized error quantification method that allows to predict the abnormal

  10. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Li Guomin; Liu Shujun; Yang Yijing; Li Fumeng; Yang Junhua

    1997-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192 Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192 Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  11. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  12. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  13. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  14. Extreme implanting in Si: A study of ion-induced damage at high temperature and high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion-solid interactions near room temperature and below have been well studied in single-crystal Si. While this has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for nucleation and growth of lattice damage during irradiation, these studies have not, in general, been extended to high temperatures (e.g., >200 degrees C). This is the case despite the commercialization of ion beam technologies which utilize high-temperature processing, such as separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX). In this process, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material is produced by implanting a high dose of oxygen ions into a Si wafer to form a buried, stoichiometric oxide layer. Results will be presented of a study of damage accumulation during high-dose implantation of Si at elevated temperatures. In particular, O + -ions were used because of the potential impact of the results on the SIMOX technology. It will be shown that the nature of the damage accumulation at elevated temperatures is quite distinctive and portends the presence of a new mechanism, one which is only dominant under the extreme conditions encountered during ion beam synthesis (i.e., high temperature and high dose). This mechanism is discussed and shown to be quite general and not dependent on the chemical identity of the ions. Also, techniques for suppressing this mechanism by open-quotes defect engineeringclose quotes are discussed. Such techniques are technologically relevant because they offer the possibility of reducing the defect density of the SOI produced by SIMOX

  15. High-accuracy dosimetry study for intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun

    2010-02-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), an advanced modality of high-precision radiotherapy, allows for an increase in dose to the tumor volume without increasing the dose to nearby critical organs. In order to successfully achieve the treatment, intensive dosimetry with accurate dose verification is necessary. A dosimetry for IMRT, however, is a challenging task due to dosimetric ally unfavorable phenomena such as dramatic changes of the dose at the field boundaries, dis-equilibrium of the electrons, non-uniformity between the detector and the phantom materials, and distortion of scanner-read doses. In the present study, therefore, the LEGO-type multi-purpose dosimetry phantom was developed and used for the studies on dose measurements and correction. Phantom materials for muscle, fat, bone, and lung tissue were selected after considering mass density, atomic composition, effective atomic number, and photon interaction coefficients. The phantom also includes dosimeter holders for several different types of detectors including films, which accommodates a construction of different designs of phantoms as necessary. In order to evaluate its performance, the developed phantom was tested by measuring the point dose and the percent depth dose (PDD) for small size fields under several heterogeneous conditions. However, the measurements with the two types of dosimeter did not agree well for the field sizes less than 1 x 1 cm 2 in muscle and bone, and less than 3 x 3 cm 2 in air cavity. Thus, it was recognized that several studies on small fields dosimetry and correction methods for the calculation with a PMCEPT code are needed. The under-estimated values from the ion chamber were corrected with a convolution method employed to eliminate the volume effect of the chamber. As a result, the discrepancies between the EBT film and the ion chamber measurements were significantly decreased, from 14% to 1% (1 x 1 cm 2 ), 10% to 1% (0.7 x 0.7 cm 2 ), and 42% to 7% (0.5 x 0

  16. High-accuracy dosimetry study for intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun

    2010-02-15

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), an advanced modality of high-precision radiotherapy, allows for an increase in dose to the tumor volume without increasing the dose to nearby critical organs. In order to successfully achieve the treatment, intensive dosimetry with accurate dose verification is necessary. A dosimetry for IMRT, however, is a challenging task due to dosimetric ally unfavorable phenomena such as dramatic changes of the dose at the field boundaries, dis-equilibrium of the electrons, non-uniformity between the detector and the phantom materials, and distortion of scanner-read doses. In the present study, therefore, the LEGO-type multi-purpose dosimetry phantom was developed and used for the studies on dose measurements and correction. Phantom materials for muscle, fat, bone, and lung tissue were selected after considering mass density, atomic composition, effective atomic number, and photon interaction coefficients. The phantom also includes dosimeter holders for several different types of detectors including films, which accommodates a construction of different designs of phantoms as necessary. In order to evaluate its performance, the developed phantom was tested by measuring the point dose and the percent depth dose (PDD) for small size fields under several heterogeneous conditions. However, the measurements with the two types of dosimeter did not agree well for the field sizes less than 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} in muscle and bone, and less than 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} in air cavity. Thus, it was recognized that several studies on small fields dosimetry and correction methods for the calculation with a PMCEPT code are needed. The under-estimated values from the ion chamber were corrected with a convolution method employed to eliminate the volume effect of the chamber. As a result, the discrepancies between the EBT film and the ion chamber measurements were significantly decreased, from 14% to 1% (1 x 1 cm{sup 2}), 10% to 1% (0.7 x 0.7 cm{sup 2}), and 42

  17. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfridsson, J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have proved

  18. Analysis of the plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasonder, Edwin; Ishihama, Yasushi; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    -accuracy (average deviation less than 0.02 Da at 1,000 Da) mass spectrometric proteome analysis of selected stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The analysis revealed 1,289 proteins of which 714 proteins were identified in asexual blood stages, 931 in gametocytes and 645 in gametes. The last...

  19. High-accuracy interferometric measurements of flatness and parallelism of a step gauge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method in the calibration of step gauges is the coordinate measuring machine (CMM), equipped with a laser interferometer for the highest accuracy. This paper describes a modification to a length-bar measuring machine...

  20. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfridsson, J. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have

  1. The extremely high 137Cs inventory in the Sulu Sea: a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang; Zheng Jian

    2006-01-01

    Large-volume seawater samples were collected in the Sulu and South China Seas and their 137 Cs activities were determined by γ-ray spectrometry using a low background type high-purity Ge detector. Vertical distributions of 137 Cs activity showed an exponential decrease in the South China Sea, whereas a subsurface maximum at 200 m depth and monotonic decrease below 300 m were observed in the Sulu Sea. A significant difference in intermediate water 137 Cs activities in the 500-2000 m depth was observed between the Sulu and South China Seas, i.e., the 137 Cs activities in the Sulu Sea were remarkably higher than those in the South China Sea. The difference in the 137 Cs inventory below 500 m was ∼1200 Bq m -2 between the Sulu and South China Seas. The 137 Cs total inventory of 3200 Bq m -2 in the Sulu Sea was 5.7 times higher than that expected from global fallout. A possible mechanism controlling this extremely high 137 Cs total inventory may be inflows of the 137 Cs rich water masses through the Luzon Strait, lateral transport across the Mindoro Strait into the Sulu Sea, and then subduction into the deep layer in the basin

  2. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  4. A noise-optimized virtual monochromatic reconstruction algorithm improves stent visualization and diagnostic accuracy for detection of in-stent re-stenosis in lower extremity run-off CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Yamada, Ricardo T.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C.; Fuller, Stephen R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Todoran, Thomas M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI+) on stent visualization and accuracy for in-stent re-stenosis at lower extremity dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). We evaluated third-generation dual-source DE-CTA studies in 31 patients with prior stent placement. Images were reconstructed with linear blending (F{sub 0}.5) and VMI+ at 40-150 keV. In-stent luminal diameter was measured and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated. Diagnostic confidence was determined using a five-point scale. In 21 patients with invasive catheter angiography, accuracy for significant re-stenosis (≥50 %) was assessed at F{sub 0}.5 and 80 keV-VMI+ chosen as the optimal energy level based on image-quality analysis. At CTA, 45 stents were present. DSA was available for 28 stents whereas 12 stents showed significant re-stenosis. CNR was significantly higher with ≤80 keV-VMI+ (17.9 ± 6.4-33.7 ± 12.3) compared to F{sub 0}.5 (16.9 ± 4.8; all p < 0.0463); luminal stent diameters were increased at ≥70 keV (5.41 ± 1.8-5.92 ± 1.7 vs. 5.27 ± 1.8, all p < 0.001) and diagnostic confidence was highest at 70-80 keV-VMI+ (4.90 ± 0.48-4.88 ± 0.63 vs. 4.60 ± 0.66, p = 0.001, 0.0042). Sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy for re-stenosis were higher with 80 keV-VMI+ (100, 100, 96.4 %) than F{sub 0}.5 (90.9, 94.1, 89.3 %). 80 keV-VMI+ improves image quality, diagnostic confidence and accuracy for stent evaluation at lower extremity DE-CTA. (orig.)

  5. [Accuracy of placenta accreta prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and MRI in a high-risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daney de Marcillac, F; Molière, S; Pinton, A; Weingertner, A-S; Fritz, G; Viville, B; Roedlich, M-N; Gaudineau, A; Sananes, N; Favre, R; Nisand, I; Langer, B

    2016-02-01

    Main objective was to compare accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI for antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Secondary objectives were to specify the most common sonographic and RMI signs associated with diagnosis of placenta accreta. This retrospective study used data collected from all potential cases of placenta accreta (patients with an anterior placenta praevia with history of scarred uterus) admitted from 01/2010 to 12/2014 in a level III maternity unit in Strasbourg, France. High-risk patients beneficiated antenatally from ultrasonography and MRI. Sonographic signs registered were: abnormal placental lacunae, increased vascularity on color Doppler, absence of the retroplacental clear space, interrupted bladder line. MRI signs registered were: abnormal uterine bulging, intraplacental bands of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images, increased vascularity, heterogeneous signal of the placenta on T2-weighed, interrupted bladder line, protrusion of the placenta into the cervix. Diagnosis of placenta accreta was confirmed histologically after hysterectomy or clinically in case of successful conservative treatment. Twenty-two potential cases of placenta accreta were referred to our center and underwent both ultrasonography and MRI. All cases of placenta accreta had a placenta praevia associated with history of scarred uterus. Sensibility and specificity for ultrasonography were, respectively, 0.92 and 0.67, for MRI 0.84 and 0.78 without significant difference (p>0.05). The most relevant signs associated with diagnosis of placenta accreta in ultrasonography were increased vascularity on color Doppler (sensibility 0.85/specificity 0.78), abnormal placental lacunae (sensibility 0.92/specificity 0.55) and loss of retroplacental clear space (sensibility 0.76/specificity 1.0). The most relevant signs in MRI were: abnormal uterine bulging (sensitivity 0.92/specificity 0.89), dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images (sensitivity 0.83/specificity 0.80) or

  6. Isolated psychosis during exposure to very high and extreme altitude - characterisation of a new medical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Katharina; Brugger, Hermann; Kuster, Eva; Dünsser, Franziska; Stawinoga, Agnieszka E; Turner, Rachel; Tomazin, Iztok; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2017-12-05

    Psychotic episodes during exposure to very high or extreme altitude have been frequently reported in mountain literature, but not systematically analysed and acknowledged as a distinct clinical entity. Episodes reported above 3500 m altitude with possible psychosis were collected from the lay literature and provide the basis for this observational study. Dimensional criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used for psychosis, and the Lake Louise Scoring criteria for acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE). Eighty-three of the episodes collected underwent a cluster analysis to identify similar groups. Ratings were done by two independent, trained researchers (κ values 0.6-1). Findings Cluster 1 included 51% (42/83) episodes without psychosis; cluster 2 22% (18/83) cases with psychosis, plus symptoms of HACE or mental status change from other origins; and cluster 3 28% (23/83) episodes with isolated psychosis. Possible risk factors of psychosis and associated somatic symptoms were analysed between the three clusters and revealed differences regarding the factors 'starvation' (χ2 test, p = 0.002), 'frostbite' (p = 0.024) and 'supplemental oxygen' (p = 0.046). Episodes with psychosis were reversible but associated with near accidents and accidents (p = 0.007, odds ratio 4.44). Episodes of psychosis during exposure to high altitude are frequently reported, but have not been specifically examined or assigned to medical diagnoses. In addition to the risk of suffering from somatic mountain illnesses, climbers and workers at high altitude should be aware of the potential occurrence of psychotic episodes, the associated risks and respective coping strategies.

  7. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  8. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  9. Future Projection of Summer Extreme Precipitation from High Resolution Multi-RCMs over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Min, Seung-Ki; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the frequency and intensity of natural hazards have been increasing due to human-induced climate change. Because most damages of natural hazards over East Asia have been related to extreme precipitation events, it is important to estimate future change in extreme precipitation characteristics caused by climate change. We investigate future changes in extremal values of summer precipitation simulated by five regional climate models participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (i.e., HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, MM5, WRF, and GRIMs) over East Asia. 100-year return value calculated from the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameters is analysed as an indicator of extreme intensity. In the future climate, the mean values as well as the extreme values of daily precipitation tend to increase over land region. The increase of 100-year return value can be significantly associated with the changes in the location (intensity) and scale (variability) GEV parameters for extreme precipitation. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as fruitful references when making the policy of disaster management. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government and Development program under grant MPSS-NH-2013-63 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  10. A highly efficient multi-core algorithm for clustering extremely large datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Johann M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the demand for computational power in computational biology has increased due to rapidly growing data sets from microarray and other high-throughput technologies. This demand is likely to increase. Standard algorithms for analyzing data, such as cluster algorithms, need to be parallelized for fast processing. Unfortunately, most approaches for parallelizing algorithms largely rely on network communication protocols connecting and requiring multiple computers. One answer to this problem is to utilize the intrinsic capabilities in current multi-core hardware to distribute the tasks among the different cores of one computer. Results We introduce a multi-core parallelization of the k-means and k-modes cluster algorithms based on the design principles of transactional memory for clustering gene expression microarray type data and categorial SNP data. Our new shared memory parallel algorithms show to be highly efficient. We demonstrate their computational power and show their utility in cluster stability and sensitivity analysis employing repeated runs with slightly changed parameters. Computation speed of our Java based algorithm was increased by a factor of 10 for large data sets while preserving computational accuracy compared to single-core implementations and a recently published network based parallelization. Conclusions Most desktop computers and even notebooks provide at least dual-core processors. Our multi-core algorithms show that using modern algorithmic concepts, parallelization makes it possible to perform even such laborious tasks as cluster sensitivity and cluster number estimation on the laboratory computer.

  11. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  12. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  13. SFOL Pulse: A High Accuracy DME Pulse for Alternative Aircraft Position and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euiho Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA performance based navigation strategy announced in 2016, the FAA stated that it would retain and expand the Distance Measuring Equipment (DME infrastructure to ensure resilient aircraft navigation capability during the event of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS outage. However, the main drawback of the DME as a GNSS back up system is that it requires a significant expansion of the current DME ground infrastructure due to its poor distance measuring accuracy over 100 m. The paper introduces a method to improve DME distance measuring accuracy by using a new DME pulse shape. The proposed pulse shape was developed by using Genetic Algorithms and is less susceptible to multipath effects so that the ranging error reduces by 36.0–77.3% when compared to the Gaussian and Smoothed Concave Polygon DME pulses, depending on noise environment.

  14. Automatic J–A Model Parameter Tuning Algorithm for High Accuracy Inrush Current Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishan Wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inrush current simulation plays an important role in many tasks of the power system, such as power transformer protection. However, the accuracy of the inrush current simulation can hardly be ensured. In this paper, a Jiles–Atherton (J–A theory based model is proposed to simulate the inrush current of power transformers. The characteristics of the inrush current curve are analyzed and results show that the entire inrush current curve can be well featured by the crest value of the first two cycles. With comprehensive consideration of both of the features of the inrush current curve and the J–A parameters, an automatic J–A parameter estimation algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm can obtain more reasonable J–A parameters, which improve the accuracy of simulation. Experimental results have verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. [Method for evaluating the positional accuracy of a six-degrees-of-freedom radiotherapy couch using high definition digital cameras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Shinichi; Noto, Kimiya; Kurata, Yuichi; Shoji, Saori

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed and evaluated a positional accuracy assessment method with two high-resolution digital cameras for add-on six-degrees-of-freedom radiotherapy (6D) couches. Two high resolution digital cameras (D5000, Nikon Co.) were used in this accuracy assessment method. These cameras were placed on two orthogonal axes of a linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate system and focused on the isocenter of the LINAC. Pictures of a needle that was fixed on the 6D couch were taken by the cameras during couch motions of translation and rotation of each axis. The coordinates of the needle in the pictures were obtained using manual measurement, and the coordinate error of the needle was calculated. The accuracy of a HexaPOD evo (Elekta AB, Sweden) was evaluated using this method. All of the mean values of the X, Y, and Z coordinate errors in the translation tests were within ±0.1 mm. However, the standard deviation of the Z coordinate errors in the Z translation test was 0.24 mm, which is higher than the others. In the X rotation test, we found that the X coordinate of the rotational origin of the 6D couch was shifted. We proposed an accuracy assessment method for a 6D couch. The method was able to evaluate the accuracy of the motion of only the 6D couch and revealed the deviation of the origin of the couch rotation. This accuracy assessment method is effective for evaluating add-on 6D couch positioning.

  16. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  17. Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a new non-Standard Model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big-bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called Neutrino Dark Energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time/redshift dependent quantities. Such a possible neutrino mass variation introduces a redshift dependence into the resonance energies associated with the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on relic anti-neutrinos and vice versa into Z-bosons. In general, this annihilation process is expected to lead to sizeable absorption dips in the spectra to be observed on earth by neutrino observatories operating in the relevant energy region above 10 13 GeV. In our analysis, we contrast the characteristic absorption features produced by constant and varying neutrino masses, including all thermal background effects caused by the relic neutrino motion. We firstly consider neutrinos from astrophysical sources and secondly neutrinos originating from the decomposition of topological defects using the appropriate fragmentation functions. On the one hand, independent of the nature of neutrino masses, our results illustrate the discovery potential for the cosmic neutrino background by means of relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, they allow to estimate the prospects for testing its possible interpretation as source of Neutrino Dark Energy within the next decade by the neutrino observatories ANITA and LOFAR. (Orig.)

  18. Morbidity in extreme low birth weight newborns hospitalized in a high risk public maternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derijulie Siqueira Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence of the most common morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate the influence of these morbidities through the length of in-hospital stay. Methods: observational, longitudinal, prospective and analytical study in a high risk reference maternity NICU from Sergipe, realized with 158 ELBW infants admitted between March 2014 and April 2015. The analysis of the hospitalization time was realized through the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: the average weight of premature was 785,2g ± 138,2g. The gestational age vary from 22 to 35 weeks and the average was 26,8 weeks. Of those admitted at NICU, sixty three (39,9% were discharged and 95 (60,1% died. The time of hospitalization was influenced for morbidities as: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication (157 - 99,4%. The incidence of persistent arterial duct, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity was 39,2%, 17,1%, 32,3%,50,3%, 52,3% e 16,6% respectively. Conclusions: the morbidities from respiratory tract, cardiac, neurological and infectious were the most prevalent, whilst PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis were the morbidities that significantly influenced the time of hospitalization.

  19. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  20. Thermal Stability of Magnetic Compass Sensor for High Accuracy Positioning Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van-Tang PHAM; Dinh-Chinh NGUYEN; Quang-Huy TRAN; Duc-Trinh CHU; Duc-Tan TRAN

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic compass sensors in angle measurements have a wide area of application such as positioning, robot, landslide, etc. However, one of the most phenomenal that affects to the accuracy of the magnetic compass sensor is the temperature. This paper presents two thermal stability schemes for improving performance of a magnetic compass sensor. The first scheme uses the feedforward structure to adjust the angle output of the compass sensor adapt to the variation of the temperature. The se...

  1. A High-Accuracy Linear Conservative Difference Scheme for Rosenau-RLW Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-boundary value problem for Rosenau-RLW equation. We propose a three-level linear finite difference scheme, which has the theoretical accuracy of Oτ2+h4. The scheme simulates two conservative properties of original problem well. The existence, uniqueness of difference solution, and a priori estimates in infinite norm are obtained. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the scheme by energy method. At last, numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical results.

  2. New perspectives for high accuracy SLR with second generation geodesic satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the accuracy limitations imposed by geodesic satellite signatures, and on the potential for achieving millimetric performances by means of alternative satellite concepts and an optimized 2-color system tradeoff. Long distance laser ranging, when performed between a ground (emitter/receiver) station and a distant geodesic satellite, is now reputed to enable short arc trajectory determinations to be achieved with an accuracy of 1 to 2 centimeters. This state-of-the-art accuracy is limited principally by the uncertainties inherent to single-color atmospheric path length correction. Motivated by the study of phenomena such as postglacial rebound, and the detailed analysis of small-scale volcanic and strain deformations, the drive towards millimetric accuracies will inevitably be felt. With the advent of short pulse (less than 50 ps) dual wavelength ranging, combined with adequate detection equipment (such as a fast-scanning streak camera or ultra-fast solid-state detectors) the atmospheric uncertainty could potentially be reduced to the level of a few millimeters, thus, exposing other less significant error contributions, of which by far the most significant will then be the morphology of the retroreflector satellites themselves. Existing geodesic satellites are simply dense spheres, several 10's of cm in diameter, encrusted with a large number (426 in the case of LAGEOS) of small cube-corner reflectors. A single incident pulse, thus, results in a significant number of randomly phased, quasi-simultaneous return pulses. These combine coherently at the receiver to produce a convolved interference waveform which cannot, on a shot to shot basis, be accurately and unambiguously correlated to the satellite center of mass. This paper proposes alternative geodesic satellite concepts, based on the use of a very small number of cube-corner retroreflectors, in which the above difficulties are eliminated while ensuring, for a given emitted pulse, the return

  3. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  4. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangbin; Qiu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition(HAR) from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM) approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP) is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  5. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Zhu

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition(HAR from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  6. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a...... 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications....

  7. Silicic, high- to extremely high-grade ignimbrites and associated deposits from the Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Ana Carolina F.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.; Madeira, José

    2018-04-01

    The Cretaceous trachydacites and dacites of Chapecó type (ATC) and dacites and rhyolites of Palmas type (ATP) make up 2.5% of the 800.000 km3 of volcanic pile in the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP), emplaced at the onset of Gondwana breakup. Together they cover extensive areas in southern Brazil, overlapping volcanic sequences of tholeiitic basalts and andesites; occasional mafic units are also found within the silicic sequence. In the central region of the PMP silicic volcanism comprises porphyritic ATC-type, trachydacite high-grade ignimbrites (strongly welded) overlying aphyric ATP-type, rhyolite high- to extremely high-grade ignimbrites (strongly welded to lava-like). In the southwestern region strongly welded to lava-like high-grade ignimbrites overlie ATP lava domes, while in the southeast lava domes are found intercalated within the ignimbrite sequence. Characteristics of these ignimbrites are: widespread sheet-like deposits (tens to hundreds of km across); absence of basal breccias and basal fallout layers; ubiquitous horizontal to sub-horizontal sheet jointing; massive, structureless to horizontally banded-laminated rock bodies locally presenting flow folding; thoroughly homogeneous vitrophyres or with flow banding-lamination; phenocryst abundance presenting upward and lateral decrease; welded glass blobs in an 'eutaxitic'-like texture; negligible phenocryst breakage; vitroclastic texture locally preserved; scarcity of lithic fragments. These features, combined with high eruption temperatures (≥ 1000 °C), low water content (≤ 2%) and low viscosities (104-7 Pa s) suggest that the eruptions were characterized by low fountaining, little heat loss during collapse, and high mass fluxes producing extensive deposits.

  8. THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH-INTENSITY FATIGUE ON GROUNDSTROKE ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NON-EXPERT TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70% and high-intensities (90% set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test. Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on

  9. High accuracy prediction of beta-turns and their types using propensities and multiple alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Patrick F J; Alix, Alain J P

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method that predicts both the presence and the type of beta-turns, using a straightforward approach based on propensities and multiple alignments. The propensities were calculated classically, but the way to use them for prediction was completely new: starting from a tetrapeptide sequence on which one wants to evaluate the presence of a beta-turn, the propensity for a given residue is modified by taking into account all the residues present in the multiple alignment at this position. The evaluation of a score is then done by weighting these propensities by the use of Position-specific score matrices generated by PSI-BLAST. The introduction of secondary structure information predicted by PSIPRED or SSPRO2 as well as taking into account the flanking residues around the tetrapeptide improved the accuracy greatly. This latter evaluated on a database of 426 reference proteins (previously used on other studies) by a sevenfold crossvalidation gave very good results with a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.42 and an overall prediction accuracy of 74.8%; this places our method among the best ones. A jackknife test was also done, which gave results within the same range. This shows that it is possible to reach neural networks accuracy with considerably less computional cost and complexity. Furthermore, propensities remain excellent descriptors of amino acid tendencies to belong to beta-turns, which can be useful for peptide or protein engineering and design. For beta-turn type prediction, we reached the best accuracy ever published in terms of MCC (except for the irregular type IV) in the range of 0.25-0.30 for types I, II, and I' and 0.13-0.15 for types VIII, II', and IV. To our knowledge, our method is the only one available on the Web that predicts types I' and II'. The accuracy evaluated on two larger databases of 547 and 823 proteins was not improved significantly. All of this was implemented into a Web server called COUDES (French acronym

  10. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heays, A. N. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T., E-mail: heays@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  11. The extreme condition analyzing for NEMPI shielding of electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaolei; Liu Fang; Ouyang Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty for estimating the NEMPI (electromagnetic pulsed interference caused by the nuclear reaction) on the electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing is analyzed in this article. To solve the difficulty, a method called 'Extreme Condition Analyzing' is presented for estimating the NEMPI conservatively and reliably. Through an extreme condition hypothesizing which could be described as 'Entire Coupling of Electric Field Energy', the E max (maximum electric field intensity which could be endured by the electronic system in the high-intensity pulsed radiation) could be figured out without any other information of the EMP caused by the nuclear reaction. Then a feasibility inspection is introduced, to confirm that the EMPI shielding request according to E max is not too extreme to be achieved. (authors)

  12. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ankle-Brachial Index, and Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Arterial Injury in Patients With Penetrating Extremity Trauma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSouza, Ian S; Benabbas, Roshanak; McKee, Sean; Zangbar, Bardiya; Jain, Ashika; Paladino, Lorenzo; Boudourakis, Leon; Sinert, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Penetrating Extremity Trauma (PET) may result in arterial injury, a rare but limb- and life-threatening surgical emergency. Timely, accurate diagnosis is essential for potential intervention in order to prevent significant morbidity. Using a systematic review/meta-analytic approach, we determined the utility of physical examination, Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and Ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of arterial injury in emergency department (ED) patients who have sustained PET. We applied a test-treatment threshold model to determine which evaluations may obviate CT Angiography (CTA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus from inception to November 2016 for studies of ED patients with PET. We included studies on adult and pediatric subjects. We defined the reference standard to include CTA, catheter angiography, or surgical exploration. When low-risk patients did not undergo the reference standard, trials must have specified that patients were observed for at least 24 hours. We used the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) to evaluate bias and applicability of the included studies. We calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of physical examination ("hard signs" of vascular injury), US, and ABI. Using established CTA test characteristics (sensitivity = 96.2%, specificity = 99.2%) and applying the Pauker-Kassirer method, we developed a test-treatment threshold model (testing threshold = 0.14%, treatment threshold = 72.9%). We included eight studies (n = 2,161, arterial injury prevalence = 15.5%). Studies had variable quality with most at high risk for partial and double verification bias. Some studies investigated multiple index tests: physical examination (hard signs) in three studies (n = 1,170), ABI in five studies (n = 1,040), and US in four studies (n = 173). Due to high heterogeneity (I 2  > 75%) of the results, we could not calculate LR+ or LR- for hard signs or LR+ for ABI. The weighted

  13. Accuracy of applicator tip reconstruction in MRI-guided interstitial 192Ir-high-dose-rate brachytherapy of liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wybranski, Christian; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Fischbach, Katharina; Fischbach, Frank; Walke, Mathias; Hass, Peter; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Kosiek, Ortrud; Kaiser, Mandy; Pech, Maciej; Lüdemann, Lutz; Ricke, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy of brachytherapy (BT) applicators tips in vitro and in vivo in MRI-guided 192 Ir-high-dose-rate (HDR)-BT of inoperable liver tumors. Materials and methods: Reconstruction accuracy of plastic BT applicators, visualized by nitinol inserts, was assessed in MRI phantom measurements and in MRI 192 Ir-HDR-BT treatment planning datasets of 45 patients employing CT co-registration and vector decomposition. Conspicuity, short-term dislocation, and reconstruction errors were assessed in the clinical data. The clinical effect of applicator reconstruction accuracy was determined in follow-up MRI data. Results: Applicator reconstruction accuracy was 1.6 ± 0.5 mm in the phantom measurements. In the clinical MRI datasets applicator conspicuity was rated good/optimal in ⩾72% of cases. 16/129 applicators showed not time dependent deviation in between MRI/CT acquisition (p > 0.1). Reconstruction accuracy was 5.5 ± 2.8 mm, and the average image co-registration error was 3.1 ± 0.9 mm. Vector decomposition revealed no preferred direction of reconstruction errors. In the follow-up data deviation of planned dose distribution and irradiation effect was 6.9 ± 3.3 mm matching the mean co-registration error (6.5 ± 2.5 mm; p > 0.1). Conclusion: Applicator reconstruction accuracy in vitro conforms to AAPM TG 56 standard. Nitinol-inserts are feasible for applicator visualization and yield good conspicuity in MRI treatment planning data. No preferred direction of reconstruction errors were found in vivo

  14. Horizontal Positional Accuracy of Google Earth’s High-Resolution Imagery Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Potere

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth now hosts high-resolution imagery that spans twenty percent of the Earth’s landmass and more than a third of the human population. This contemporary highresolution archive represents a significant, rapidly expanding, cost-free and largely unexploited resource for scientific inquiry. To increase the scientific utility of this archive, we address horizontal positional accuracy (georegistration by comparing Google Earth with Landsat GeoCover scenes over a global sample of 436 control points located in 109 cities worldwide. Landsat GeoCover is an orthorectified product with known absolute positional accuracy of less than 50 meters root-mean-squared error (RMSE. Relative to Landsat GeoCover, the 436 Google Earth control points have a positional accuracy of 39.7 meters RMSE (error magnitudes range from 0.4 to 171.6 meters. The control points derived from satellite imagery have an accuracy of 22.8 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the 48 control-points based on aerial photography (41.3 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01. The accuracy of control points in more-developed countries is 24.1 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the control points in developing countries (44.4 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01. These findings indicate that Google Earth highresolution imagery has a horizontal positional accuracy that is sufficient for assessing moderate-resolution remote sensing products across most of the world’s peri-urban areas.

  15. High accuracy mapping with cartographic assessment for a fixed-wing remotely piloted aircraft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Côrtes, João Batista Ramos; de Castro Jorge, Lúcio André

    2018-01-01

    The lack of updated maps on large scale representations has encouraged the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to generate maps for a wide range of professionals. However, some questions arise: do the orthomosaics generated by these systems have the cartographic precision required to use them? Which problems can be identified in stitching orthophotos to generate orthomosaics? To answer these questions, an aerophotogrammetric survey was conducted in an environmental conservation unit in the city of Goiânia. The flight plan was set up using the E-motion software, provided by Sensefly-a Swiss manufacturer of the RPAS Swinglet CAM used in this work. The camera installed in the RPAS was the Canon IXUS 220 HS, with the number of pixels in the sensor array of 12.1 megapixel, complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1 ∶ 2.3 ? (4000 × 3000 pixel), horizontal and vertical pixel sizes of 1.54 μm. Using the orthophotos, four orthomosaics were generated in the Pix4D mapper software. The first orthomosaic was generated without using the control points. The other three mosaics were generated using 4, 8, and 16 premarked ground control points. To check the precision and accuracy of the orthomosaics, 46 premarked targets were uniformly distributed in the block. The three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of the premarked targets were read on the orthomosaic and compared with the coordinates obtained by the geodetic survey real-time kinematic positioning method using the global navigation satellite system receiver signals. The cartographic accuracy standard was evaluated by discrepancies between these coordinates. The bias was analyzed by the Student's t test and the accuracy by the chi-square probability considering the orthomosaic on a scale of 1 ∶ 250, in which 90% of the points tested must have a planimetric error of control points the scale was 10-fold smaller (1 ∶ 3000).

  16. High-accuracy resolver-to-digital conversion via phase locked loop based on PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoling; Wu, Zhong

    2018-03-01

    The problem of resolver-to-digital conversion (RDC) is transformed into the problem of angle tracking control, and a phase locked loop (PLL) method based on PID controller is proposed in this paper. This controller comprises a typical PI controller plus an incomplete differential which can avoid the amplification of higher-frequency noise components by filtering the phase detection error with a low-pass filter. Compared with conventional ones, the proposed PLL method makes the converter a system of type III and thus the conversion accuracy can be improved. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. KLEIN: Coulomb functions for real lambda and positive energy to high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    KLEIN computes relativistic Schroedinger (Klein-Gordon) equation solutions, i.e. Coulomb functions for real lambda > - 1, Fsub(lambda)(eta,x), Gsub(lambda)(eta,x), F'sub(lambda)(eta,x) and G'sub(lambda)(eta,x) for real kappa > 0 and real eta, - 10 4 4 . Hence it is also suitable for Bessel and spherical Bessel functions. Accuracies are in the range 10 -14 -10 -16 in oscillating region, and approx. equal to 10 -30 on an extended precision compiler. The program is suitable for generating Klein-Gordon wavefunctions for matching in pion and kaon physics. (orig.)

  18. Depth extraction method with high accuracy in integral imaging based on moving array lenslet technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-yao; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Xue-wei; Song, Li-pei; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xing

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve depth extraction accuracy, a method using moving array lenslet technique (MALT) in pickup stage is proposed, which can decrease the depth interval caused by pixelation. In this method, the lenslet array is moved along the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously for N times in a pitch to get N sets of elemental images. Computational integral imaging reconstruction method for MALT is taken to obtain the slice images of the 3D scene, and the sum modulus (SMD) blur metric is taken on these slice images to achieve the depth information of the 3D scene. Simulation and optical experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of this method.

  19. Cause and Cure - Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations With Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral meshes are avoided by CFD re-searchers in the vicinity of a solid wall, as it is known to reduce the accuracy of gradient computations in those regions and also cause numerical instability. Although for certain complex geometries, the use of high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements in the vicinity of a solid wall can be replaced by quadrilateral/prismatic elements, ability to use triangular/tetrahedral elements in such regions without any degradation in accuracy can be beneficial from a mesh generation point of view. The benefits also carry over to numerical frameworks such as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE), where triangular/tetrahedral elements are the mandatory building blocks. With the requirement of the CESE method in mind, a rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identities the reason behind the difficulties in use of such high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements is presented here. As will be shown, it turns out that the degree of accuracy deterioration of gradient computation involving a triangular element is hinged on the value of its shape factor Gamma def = sq sin Alpha1 + sq sin Alpha2 + sq sin Alpha3, where Alpha1; Alpha2 and Alpha3 are the internal angles of the element. In fact, it is shown that the degree of accuracy deterioration increases monotonically as the value of Gamma decreases monotonically from its maximal value 9/4 (attained by an equilateral triangle only) to a value much less than 1 (associated with a highly obtuse triangle). By taking advantage of the fact that a high-aspect ratio triangle is not necessarily highly obtuse, and in fact it can have a shape factor whose value is close to the maximal value 9/4, a potential solution to avoid accuracy deterioration of gradient computation associated with a high-aspect ratio triangular grid is given. Also a brief discussion on the extension of the current mathematical framework to the

  20. Affine-Invariant Geometric Constraints-Based High Accuracy Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangchen Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe a new appearance-based loop-closure detection method for online incremental simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM using affine-invariant-based geometric constraints. Unlike other pure bag-of-words-based approaches, our proposed method uses geometric constraints as a supplement to improve accuracy. By establishing an affine-invariant hypothesis, the proposed method excludes incorrect visual words and calculates the dispersion of correctly matched visual words to improve the accuracy of the likelihood calculation. In addition, camera’s intrinsic parameters and distortion coefficients are adequate for this method. 3D measuring is not necessary. We use the mechanism of Long-Term Memory and Working Memory (WM to manage the memory. Only a limited size of the WM is used for loop-closure detection; therefore the proposed method is suitable for large-scale real-time SLAM. We tested our method using the CityCenter and Lip6Indoor datasets. Our proposed method results can effectively correct the typical false-positive localization of previous methods, thus gaining better recall ratios and better precision.

  1. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is only one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). We compete daily against all of the other available analytical techniques in terms of accuracy, precision, and the cost required to obtain that requisite accuracy and precision. Over the years, the authors have found that NAA can and does compete favorably with these other techniques because of its' unique capabilities for redundancy and quality assurance. Good examples are the two new NIST leaf SRMs, Apple Leaves (SRM 1515) and Peach Leaves (SRM 1547). INAA was used to measure the homogeneity of 12 elements in 15 samples of each material at the 100 mg sample size. In addition, instrumental and radiochemical NAA combined for 27 elemental determinations, out of a total of 54 elemental determinations made on each material with all NIST techniques combined. This paper describes the NIST NAA procedures used in these analyses, the quality assurance techniques employed, and the analytical results for the 24 elements determined by NAA in these new botanical SRMs. The NAA results are also compared to the final certified values for these SRMs

  2. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  3. Vision-based algorithms for high-accuracy measurements in an industrial bakery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Paulo; Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Dinis, Joao

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the machine vision algorithms developed for VIP3D, a measuring system used in an industrial bakery to monitor the dimensions and weight of loaves of bread (baguettes). The length and perimeter of more than 70 different varieties of baguette are measured with 1-mm accuracy, quickly, reliably and automatically. VIP3D uses a laser triangulation technique to measure the perimeter. The shape of the loaves is approximately cylindrical and the perimeter is defined as the convex hull of a cross-section perpendicular to the baguette axis at mid-length. A camera, mounted obliquely to the measuring plane, captures an image of a laser line projected onto the upper surface of the baguette. Three cameras are used to measure the baguette length, a solution adopted in order to minimize perspective-induced measurement errors. The paper describes in detail the machine vision algorithms developed to perform segmentation of the laser line and subsequent calculation of the perimeter of the baguette. The algorithms used to segment and measure the position of the ends of the baguette, to sub-pixel accuracy, are also described, as are the algorithms used to calibrate the measuring system and compensate for camera-induced image distortion.

  4. Frequency Analysis of High Flow Extremes in the Yingluoxia Watershed in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanling Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling of hydrological extremes is significant to the construction of hydraulic engineering. This paper, taking the Yingluoxia watershed as the study area, compares the annual maximum (AM series and the peaks over a threshold (POT series in order to study the hydrological extremes, examines the stationarity and independence assumptions for the two series, and discusses the estimations and uncertainties of return levels from the two series using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto distribution (GPD models. For comparison, the return levels from all threshold excesses with considering the extremal index are also estimated. For the POT series, the threshold is selected by examining the mean excess plot and the stability of the parameter estimates and by using common-sense. The serial correlation is reduced by filtering out a set of dependent threshold excesses. Results show that both series are approximately stationary and independent. The GEV model fits the AM series well and the GPD model fits the POT series well. The estimated return levels are fairly comparable for the AM series, the POT series, and all threshold excesses with considering the extremal index, with the difference being less than 10% for return periods longer than 10 years. The uncertainties of the estimated return levels are the highest for the AM series, and next for the POT series and then for all threshold excesses series in turn.

  5. Serpentinization-Influenced Groundwater Harbors Extremely Low Diversity Microbial Communities Adapted to High pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twing, Katrina I; Brazelton, William J; Kubo, Michael D Y; Hyer, Alex J; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M; McCollom, Tom M; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2017-01-01

    Serpentinization is a widespread geochemical process associated with aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks that produces abundant reductants (H 2 and CH 4 ) for life to exploit, but also potentially challenging conditions, including high pH, limited availability of terminal electron acceptors, and low concentrations of inorganic carbon. As a consequence, past studies of serpentinites have reported low cellular abundances and limited microbial diversity. Establishment of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (California, U.S.A.) allowed a comparison of microbial communities and physicochemical parameters directly within serpentinization-influenced subsurface aquifers. Samples collected from seven wells were subjected to a range of analyses, including solute and gas chemistry, microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metabolic potential by shotgun metagenomics, in an attempt to elucidate what factors drive microbial activities in serpentinite habitats. This study describes the first comprehensive interdisciplinary analysis of microbial communities in hyperalkaline groundwater directly accessed by boreholes into serpentinite rocks. Several environmental factors, including pH, methane, and carbon monoxide, were strongly associated with the predominant subsurface microbial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) of Betaproteobacteria and a few OTUs of Clostridia were the almost exclusive inhabitants of fluids exhibiting the most serpentinized character. Metagenomes from these extreme samples contained abundant sequences encoding proteins associated with hydrogen metabolism, carbon monoxide oxidation, carbon fixation, and acetogenesis. Metabolic pathways encoded by Clostridia and Betaproteobacteria, in particular, are likely to play important roles in the ecosystems of serpentinizing groundwater. These data provide a basis for further biogeochemical studies of key processes in serpentinite subsurface environments.

  6. Influence of Mascarene High and Indian Ocean dipole on East African extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Bob Alex

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather and climate events such as floods and droughts are common in East Africa, causing huge socio-economic losses. This study links the east African October-December (OND rainfall, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and Mascarene High (MH.Correlation analysis is applied to quantify the relationship between the index of IOD (Dipole Mode Index (DMI and OND rainfall. Results show that there exists a significant correlation between OND rainfall and DMI, with a correlation coefficient of 0.6. During dry years, MH is observed to intensify and align itself in the southeast-northwest orientation, stretching up to the continent, which in turn inhibits the influx of moisture from Indian Ocean into East Africa. During wet years, MH weakens, shifts to the east and aligns itself in the zonal orientation. Moisture from Indian Ocean is freely transported into east Africa during wet years. Analysis of the drought and flood years with respect to the different variables including wind, velocity potential and divergence/ convergence revealed that the drought (flood years were characterized by divergence (convergence in the lower troposphere and convergence (divergence at the upper level, implying sinking (rising motion, especially over the western Indian Ocean and the study area. Convergence at low level gives rise to vertical stretching, whereas divergence results in vertical shrinking, which suppresses convection due to subsidence. Positive IOD (Negative IOD event results into flood (drought in the region. The evolution of these phenomena can thus be keenly observed for utilization in the update of seasonal forecasts.

  7. Mechanism of de-activation and clustering of B in Si at extremely high concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, L.; Piro, A.M.; Privitera, V.; Rimini, E.; Fortunato, G.; Svensson, B.G.; Foad, M.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that B deactivation and clustering occur in the presence of an excess of Si self-interstitials (Is). First principle calculations predicted the path of clusters growth, but the precursor complexes are too small to be visible even by the highest resolution microscopy. Channeling with nuclear reaction analyses allowed to detect the location of small B-Is complexes into the lattice formed as a consequence of the B interaction with the Is. In this work we extend this method to determine the complexes formed during the initial stage of B precipitation in Si doped at extremely high concentration (4 at%) and subjected to thermal treatment. The samples were prepared by excimer laser annealing (ELA) of Si implanted with 1 keV B. The thickness of the molten layer was 100 nm and the B profile was boxlike with a maximum hole concentration of ∼2 x 10 21 cm -3 . The electrical deactivation and carrier mobility of this metastable system has been studied as a function of subsequent annealing in the temperature range between 200 and 850 deg. C. Channeling analyses have been performed to investigate the B lattice location at the initial stage of precipitation. The difference, with respect to previous investigations, is the very small distance (<1 nm) between adjacent B atoms substitutional located in the lattice and the absence of Is that can be released during annealing, since the end of range defects were completely dissolved by ELA. In this way, information on the B complex evolution in a free-of-defects sample have been obtained

  8. Cause and Cure-Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations with Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular/Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    In the multi-dimensional space-time conservation element and solution element16 (CESE) method, triangles and tetrahedral mesh elements turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial grids, respectively. As such, the CESE method is naturally compatible with the simplest 2D and 3D unstructured grids and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because (a) accurate solution of a high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall requires that the grid intervals along the direction normal to the wall be much finer than those in a direction parallel to the wall and, as such, the use of grid cells with extremely high aspect ratio (103 to 106) may become mandatory, and (b) unlike quadrilateral hexahedral grids, it is well-known that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular tetrahedral grids tends to deteriorate rapidly as cell aspect ratio increases. As a result, the use of triangular tetrahedral grid cells near a solid wall has long been deemed impractical by CFD researchers. In view of (a) the critical role played by triangular tetrahedral grids in the CESE development, and (b) the importance of accurate resolution of high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall, as will be presented in the main paper, a comprehensive and rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identifies the reasons behind the accuracy deterioration as described above has been developed for the 2D case involving triangular cells. By avoiding the pitfalls identified by the 2D framework, and its 3D extension, it has been shown numerically.

  9. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...

  10. Evolution of extreme high waters along the east coast of India and at the head of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Woodworth, P.L.

    . The highest water levels above mean sea level have the greatest magnitude towards the northern part of the Bay, which decreases towards its south-west. Extreme high waters were observed to result from a combination of moderate, or even small, surges with large...

  11. Extreme ultra-violet emission spectroscopy of highly charged gadolinium ions with an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A

    2013-01-01

    We present extreme ultra-violet emission spectra of highly charged gadolinium ions obtained with an electron beam ion trap at electron energies of 0.53–1.51 keV. The electron energy dependence of the spectra in the 5.7–11.3 nm range is compared with calculation with the flexible atomic code. (paper)

  12. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  13. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...... gauges in the model area. The spatiotemporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatiotemporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying on precipitation output...

  14. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    gauges in the model area. The spatio-temporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatio-temporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying onprecipitation output......Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...

  15. Interobserver Variability and Accuracy of High-Definition Endoscopic Diagnosis for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia among Experienced and Inexperienced Endoscopists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yil Sik; Bae, Joong Ho; Park, Hye Sun; Eun, Chang Soo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia is important; however, conventional endoscopy is known to be an unreliable modality for diagnosing gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM). The aims of the study were to evaluate the interobserver variation in diagnosing IM by high-definition (HD) endoscopy and the diagnostic accuracy of this modality for IM among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists. Selected 50 cases, taken with HD endoscopy, were sent for a diagnostic inquiry of gastric IM through visual inspection to five experienced and five inexperienced endoscopists. The interobserver agreement between endoscopists was evaluated to verify the diagnostic reliability of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated for validity of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM. Interobserver agreement among the experienced endoscopists was "poor" (κ = 0.38) and it was also "poor" (κ = 0.33) among the inexperienced endoscopists. The diagnostic accuracy of the experienced endoscopists was superior to that of the inexperienced endoscopists (P = 0.003). Since diagnosis through visual inspection is unreliable in the diagnosis of IM, all suspicious areas for gastric IM should be considered to be biopsied. Furthermore, endoscopic experience and education are needed to raise the diagnostic accuracy of gastric IM. PMID:23678267

  16. Interobserver variability and accuracy of high-definition endoscopic diagnosis for gastric intestinal metaplasia among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yil Sik; Han, Dong Soo; Bae, Joong Ho; Park, Hye Sun; Eun, Chang Soo

    2013-05-01

    Accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia is important; however, conventional endoscopy is known to be an unreliable modality for diagnosing gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM). The aims of the study were to evaluate the interobserver variation in diagnosing IM by high-definition (HD) endoscopy and the diagnostic accuracy of this modality for IM among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists. Selected 50 cases, taken with HD endoscopy, were sent for a diagnostic inquiry of gastric IM through visual inspection to five experienced and five inexperienced endoscopists. The interobserver agreement between endoscopists was evaluated to verify the diagnostic reliability of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated for validity of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM. Interobserver agreement among the experienced endoscopists was "poor" (κ = 0.38) and it was also "poor" (κ = 0.33) among the inexperienced endoscopists. The diagnostic accuracy of the experienced endoscopists was superior to that of the inexperienced endoscopists (P = 0.003). Since diagnosis through visual inspection is unreliable in the diagnosis of IM, all suspicious areas for gastric IM should be considered to be biopsied. Furthermore, endoscopic experience and education are needed to raise the diagnostic accuracy of gastric IM.

  17. Nitrogen-enriched carbon with extremely high mesoporosity and tunable mesopore size for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Chengfei; Fu, Ruowen

    2016-07-01

    As one of the most potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, nitrogen-enriched nanocarbons are still facing challenge of constructing developed mesoporosity for rapid mass transportation and tailoring their pore size for performance optimization and expanding their application scopes. Herein we develop a series of nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbon (NMC) with extremely high mesoporosity and tunable mesopore size by a two-step method using silica gel as template. In our approach, mesopore size can be easily tailored from 4.7 to 35 nm by increasing the HF/TEOS volume ratio from 1/100 to 1/4. The NMC with mesopores of 6.2 nm presents the largest mesopore volume, surface area and mesopore ratio of 2.56 cm3 g-1, 1003 m2 g-1 and 97.7%, respectively. As a result, the highest specific capacitance of 325 F g-1 can be obtained at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, which can stay over 88% (286 F g-1) as the current density increases by 100 times (10 A g-1). This approach may open the doors for preparation of nitrogen-enriched nanocarbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

  18. Thermal Stability of Magnetic Compass Sensor for High Accuracy Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Tang PHAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using magnetic compass sensors in angle measurements have a wide area of application such as positioning, robot, landslide, etc. However, one of the most phenomenal that affects to the accuracy of the magnetic compass sensor is the temperature. This paper presents two thermal stability schemes for improving performance of a magnetic compass sensor. The first scheme uses the feedforward structure to adjust the angle output of the compass sensor adapt to the variation of the temperature. The second scheme increases both the temperature working range and steady error performance of the sensor. In this scheme, we try to keep the temperature of the sensor is stable at the certain value (e.g. 25 oC by using a PID (proportional-integral-derivative controller and a heating/cooling generator. Many experiment scenarios have implemented to confirm the effectivity of these solutions.

  19. Hyperbolic Method for Dispersive PDEs: Same High-Order of Accuracy for Solution, Gradient, and Hessian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Ricchiuto, Mario; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new hyperbolic first-order system for general dispersive partial differential equations (PDEs). We then extend the proposed system to general advection-diffusion-dispersion PDEs. We apply the fourth-order RD scheme of Ref. 1 to the proposed hyperbolic system, and solve time-dependent dispersive equations, including the classical two-soliton KdV and a dispersive shock case. We demonstrate that the predicted results, including the gradient and Hessian (second derivative), are in a very good agreement with the exact solutions. We then show that the RD scheme applied to the proposed system accurately captures dispersive shocks without numerical oscillations. We also verify that the solution, gradient and Hessian are predicted with equal order of accuracy.

  20. High-accuracy energy formulas for the attractive two-site Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor; Byrnes, Tim; Bogoliubov, Nikolay

    2018-02-01

    The attractive two-site Bose-Hubbard model is studied within the framework of the analytical solution obtained by the application of the quantum inverse scattering method. The structure of the ground and excited states is analyzed in terms of solutions of Bethe equations, and an approximate solution for the Bethe roots is given. This yields approximate formulas for the ground-state energy and for the first excited-state energy. The obtained formulas work with remarkable precision for a wide range of parameters of the model, and are confirmed numerically. An expansion of the Bethe state vectors into a Fock space is also provided for evaluation of expectation values, although this does not have accuracy similar to that of the energies.

  1. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Paweł

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe’s numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

  2. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Paweł; Powałka, Bartosz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe's numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

  3. A method of high accuracy clock synchronization by frequency following with VCXO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yichao; Wu Jie; Zhang Jie; Song Hongzhi; Kong Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of the synchronous protocol of the IEEE1588 is analyzed, and the factors that affect the accuracy of synchronization is summarized. Through the hardware timer in a microcontroller, we give the exactly the time when a package is sent or received. So synchronization of the distributed clocks can reach 1 μs in this way. Another method to improve precision of the synchronization is to replace the traditional fixed frequency crystal of the slave device, which needs to follow up the master clock, by an adjustable VCXO. So it is possible to fine tune the frequency of the distributed clocks, and reduce the drift of clock, which shows great benefit for the clock synchronization. A test measurement shows the synchronization of distribute clocks can be better than 10 ns using this method, which is more accurate than the method realized by software. (authors)

  4. STTR Phase I: Low-Cost, High-Accuracy, Whole-Building Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Demand Control Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallstrom, Jason; Ni, Zheng Richard

    2018-05-15

    This STTR Phase I project assessed the feasibility of a new CO2 sensing system optimized for low-cost, high-accuracy, whole-building monitoring for use in demand control ventilation. The focus was on the development of a wireless networking platform and associated firmware to provide signal conditioning and conversion, fault- and disruptiontolerant networking, and multi-hop routing at building scales to avoid wiring costs. Early exploration of a bridge (or “gateway”) to direct digital control services was also explored. Results of the project contributed to an improved understanding of a new electrochemical sensor for monitoring indoor CO2 concentrations, as well as the electronics and networking infrastructure required to deploy those sensors at building scales. New knowledge was acquired concerning the sensor’s accuracy, environmental response, and failure modes, and the acquisition electronics required to achieve accuracy over a wide range of CO2 concentrations. The project demonstrated that the new sensor offers repeatable correspondence with commercial optical sensors, with supporting electronics that offer gain accuracy within 0.5%, and acquisition accuracy within 1.5% across three orders of magnitude variation in generated current. Considering production, installation, and maintenance costs, the technology presents a foundation for achieving whole-building CO2 sensing at a price point below $0.066 / sq-ft – meeting economic feasibility criteria established by the Department of Energy. The technology developed under this award addresses obstacles on the critical path to enabling whole-building CO2 sensing and demand control ventilation in commercial retrofits, small commercial buildings, residential complexes, and other highpotential structures that have been slow to adopt these technologies. It presents an opportunity to significantly reduce energy use throughout the United States a

  5. Number of Black Children in Extreme Poverty Hits Record High. Analysis Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    To examine the experiences of black children and poverty, researchers conducted a computer analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey, the source of official government poverty statistics. The data are through 2001. Results indicated that nearly 1 million black children were living in extreme poverty, with after-tax…

  6. Quantification of climate change effects on extreme precipitation used for high resolution hydrologic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    are studied, all based on output from historical rain series of the present climate and output from Regional Climate Models. Two models are applied, one being based on an extreme value model, the Partial Duration Series Approach, and the other based on a stochastic rainfall generator model. Finally...

  7. Distinctive properties of high hydrogen producing extreme thermophiles, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotaga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Haas, de G.G.; Wal, van der F.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Growth and hydrogen production by two extreme thermophiles during sugar fermentation was investigated. In cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus grown on sucrose and Thermotoga elfii grown on glucose stoichiometries of 3.3 mol of hydrogen and 2 mol of acetate per mol C6-sugar unit were

  8. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  9. High-accuracy CFD prediction methods for fluid and structure temperature fluctuations at T-junction for thermal fatigue evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Shaoxiang, E-mail: qian.shaoxiang@jgc.com [EN Technology Center, Process Technology Division, JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-6001 (Japan); Kanamaru, Shinichiro [EN Technology Center, Process Technology Division, JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-6001 (Japan); Kasahara, Naoto [Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Numerical methods for accurate prediction of thermal loading were proposed. • Predicted fluid temperature fluctuation (FTF) intensity is close to the experiment. • Predicted structure temperature fluctuation (STF) range is close to the experiment. • Predicted peak frequencies of FTF and STF also agree well with the experiment. • CFD results show the proposed numerical methods are of sufficiently high accuracy. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuations generated by the mixing of hot and cold fluids at a T-junction, which is widely used in nuclear power and process plants, can cause thermal fatigue failure. The conventional methods for evaluating thermal fatigue tend to provide insufficient accuracy, because they were developed based on limited experimental data and a simplified one-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). CFD/FEA coupling analysis is expected as a useful tool for the more accurate evaluation of thermal fatigue. The present paper aims to verify the accuracy of proposed numerical methods of simulating fluid and structure temperature fluctuations at a T-junction for thermal fatigue evaluation. The dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) is used for large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence model, and a hybrid scheme (HS) is adopted for the calculation of convective terms in the governing equations. Also, heat transfer between fluid and structure is calculated directly through thermal conduction by creating a mesh with near wall resolution (NWR) by allocating grid points within the thermal boundary sub-layer. The simulation results show that the distribution of fluid temperature fluctuation intensity and the range of structure temperature fluctuation are remarkably close to the experimental results. Moreover, the peak frequencies of power spectrum density (PSD) of both fluid and structure temperature fluctuations also agree well with the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical methods used in the present paper are

  10. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  11. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  12. Projected changes of extreme weather events in the eastern United States based on a high resolution climate modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Fu, J S; Drake, J B; Liu, Y; Lamarque, J-F

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first evaluation of dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model on a 4 km × 4 km high resolution scale in the eastern US driven by the new Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM v1.0). First we examined the global and regional climate model results, and corrected an inconsistency in skin temperature during the downscaling process by modifying the land/sea mask. In comparison with observations, WRF shows statistically significant improvement over CESM in reproducing extreme weather events, with improvement for heat wave frequency estimation as high as 98%. The fossil fuel intensive scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 was used to study a possible future mid-century climate extreme in 2057–9. Both the heat waves and the extreme precipitation in 2057–9 are more severe than the present climate in the Eastern US. The Northeastern US shows large increases in both heat wave intensity (3.05 °C higher) and annual extreme precipitation (107.3 mm more per year). (letter)

  13. The high accuracy data processing system of laser interferometry signals based on MSP430

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong-yue; Lin, Yu-chi; Zhao, Mei-rong

    2009-07-01

    Generally speaking there are two orthogonal signals used in single-frequency laser interferometer for differentiating direction and electronic subdivision. However there usually exist three errors with the interferential signals: zero offsets error, unequal amplitude error and quadrature phase shift error. These three errors have a serious impact on subdivision precision. Based on Heydemann error compensation algorithm, it is proposed to achieve compensation of the three errors. Due to complicated operation of the Heydemann mode, a improved arithmetic is advanced to decrease the calculating time effectively in accordance with the special characteristic that only one item of data will be changed in each fitting algorithm operation. Then a real-time and dynamic compensatory circuit is designed. Taking microchip MSP430 as the core of hardware system, two input signals with the three errors are turned into digital quantity by the AD7862. After data processing in line with improved arithmetic, two ideal signals without errors are output by the AD7225. At the same time two original signals are turned into relevant square wave and imported to the differentiating direction circuit. The impulse exported from the distinguishing direction circuit is counted by the timer of the microchip. According to the number of the pulse and the soft subdivision the final result is showed by LED. The arithmetic and the circuit are adopted to test the capability of a laser interferometer with 8 times optical path difference and the measuring accuracy of 12-14nm is achieved.

  14. A new phase-shift microscope designed for high accuracy stitching interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasset, Muriel; Idir, Mourad; Polack, François; Bray, Michael; Servant, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing nanofocusing X-ray mirrors for the soon coming nano-imaging beamlines of synchrotron light sources motivates the development of new instruments with improved performances. The sensitivity and accuracy goal is now fixed well under the nm level and, at the same time, the spatial frequency range of the measurement should be pushed toward 50 mm −1 . SOLEIL synchrotron facility has therefore undertaken to equip with an interferential microscope suitable for stitching interferometry at this performance level. In order to keep control on the whole metrology chain it was decided to build a custom instrument in partnership with two small optics companies EOTECH and MBO. The new instrument is a Michelson micro-interferometer equipped with a custom-designed telecentric objective. It achieves the large depth of focus suitable for performing reliable calibrations and measurements. The concept has been validated with a predevelopment set-up, delivered in July 2010, which showed a static repeatability below 1 nm PV despite a non-thermally stabilized environment. The final instrument was delivered early this year and was installed inside SOLEIL's controlled environment facility, where thorough characterization tests are under way. Latest test results and first stitching measurements are presented

  15. Experimental study of very low permeability rocks using a high accuracy permeameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larive, Elodie

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of fluid flow through 'tight' rocks is important to provide a better understanding of physical processes involved in several industrial and natural problems. These include deep nuclear waste repositories, management of aquifers, gas, petroleum or geothermal reservoirs, or earthquakes prevention. The major part of this work consisted of the design, construction and use of an elaborate experimental apparatus allowing laboratory permeability measurements (fluid flow) of very low permeability rocks, on samples at a centimetric scale, to constrain their hydraulic behaviour at realistic in-situ conditions. The accuracy permeameter allows the use of several measurement methods, the steady-state flow method, the transient pulse method, and the sinusoidal pore pressure oscillation method. Measurements were made with the pore pressure oscillation method, using different waveform periods, at several pore and confining pressure conditions, on different materials. The permeability of one natural standard, Westerly granite, and an artificial one, a micro-porous cement, were measured, and results obtained agreed with previous measurements made on these materials showing the reliability of the permeameter. A study of a Yorkshire sandstone shows a relationship between rock microstructure, permeability anisotropy and thermal cracking. Microstructure, porosity and permeability concepts, and laboratory permeability measurements specifications are presented, the permeameter is described, and then permeability results obtained on the investigated materials are reported [fr

  16. Demonstrating High-Accuracy Orbital Access Using Open-Source Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Welch, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Orbit propagation is fundamental to almost every space-based analysis. Currently, many system analysts use commercial software to predict the future positions of orbiting satellites. This is one of many capabilities that can replicated, with great accuracy, without using expensive, proprietary software. NASAs SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Center for Engineering, Networks, Integration, and Communications (SCENIC) project plans to provide its analysis capabilities using a combination of internal and open-source software, allowing for a much greater measure of customization and flexibility, while reducing recurring software license costs. MATLAB and the open-source Orbit Determination Toolbox created by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) were utilized to develop tools with the capability to propagate orbits, perform line-of-sight (LOS) availability analyses, and visualize the results. The developed programs are modular and can be applied for mission planning and viability analysis in a variety of Solar System applications. The tools can perform 2 and N-body orbit propagation, find inter-satellite and satellite to ground station LOS access (accounting for intermediate oblate spheroid body blocking, geometric restrictions of the antenna field-of-view (FOV), and relativistic corrections), and create animations of planetary movement, satellite orbits, and LOS accesses. The code is the basis for SCENICs broad analysis capabilities including dynamic link analysis, dilution-of-precision navigation analysis, and orbital availability calculations.

  17. A study for high accuracy measurement of residual stress by deep hole drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Houichi; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    The deep hole drilling technique (DHD) received much attention in recent years as a method for measuring through-thickness residual stresses. However, some accuracy problems occur when residual stress evaluation is performed by the DHD technique. One of the reasons is that the traditional DHD evaluation formula applies to the plane stress condition. The second is that the effects of the plastic deformation produced in the drilling process and the deformation produced in the trepanning process are ignored. In this study, a modified evaluation formula, which is applied to the plane strain condition, is proposed. In addition, a new procedure is proposed which can consider the effects of the deformation produced in the DHD process by investigating the effects in detail by finite element (FE) analysis. Then, the evaluation results obtained by the new procedure are compared with that obtained by traditional DHD procedure by FE analysis. As a result, the new procedure evaluates the residual stress fields better than the traditional DHD procedure when the measuring object is thick enough that the stress condition can be assumed as the plane strain condition as in the model used in this study.

  18. On a novel low cost high accuracy experimental setup for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discetti, Stefano; Ianiro, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the critical aspects related to cost reduction of a Tomo PIV setup and to the bias errors introduced in the velocity measurements by the coherent motion of the ghost particles. The proposed solution consists of using two independent imaging systems composed of three (or more) low speed single frame cameras, which can be up to ten times cheaper than double shutter cameras with the same image quality. Each imaging system is used to reconstruct a particle distribution in the same measurement region, relative to the first and the second exposure, respectively. The reconstructed volumes are then interrogated by cross-correlation in order to obtain the measured velocity field, as in the standard tomographic PIV implementation. Moreover, differently from tomographic PIV, the ghost particle distributions of the two exposures are uncorrelated, since their spatial distribution is camera orientation dependent. For this reason, the proposed solution promises more accurate results, without the bias effect of the coherent ghost particles motion. Guidelines for the implementation and the application of the present method are proposed. The performances are assessed with a parametric study on synthetic experiments. The proposed low cost system produces a much lower modulation with respect to an equivalent three-camera system. Furthermore, the potential accuracy improvement using the Motion Tracking Enhanced MART (Novara et al 2010 Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 035401) is much higher than in the case of the standard implementation of tomographic PIV. (paper)

  19. Pyogenic Arthritis of the Ankle Joint Following a High-Voltage Electrical Burn in the Lower Extremity: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kuk Seon; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Eil Seong; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mie [Dept. of Radiology, Hangang Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eil Seong [Dept.of Radiology, Gyeongju Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A high-voltage electrical burn caused extensive deep muscle injuries beneath a relatively small skin wound at the contact point. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, which can lead to major amputations or sepsis. The radiologic features of this rare, sometimes life-threatening injury have occasionally been described in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a case of pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity. We report a case of the pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity.

  20. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  1. High temperature extremes in the Czech Republic 1961–2010 and their synoptic variants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeriánová, A.; Crhová, L.; Holtanová, E.; Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav; Pecho, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 127, 1-2 (2016), s. 17-29 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1990 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : weather extreme * heat waves * Central Europe * atmospheric circulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00704-015-1614-8/fulltext.html

  2. Detection of irradiated peppers by viscosity measurement at extremely high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1996-01-01

    The viscosities of aqueous suspensions of irradiated peppers determined after heat gelatinization were influenced by the pH of the suspension to a greater degree than those of unirradiated ones. Viscosity measurement under an extremely alkaline condition (pH 13.8) resulted in a significant different between irradiated peppers and unirradiated ones, irrespective of the planting locality and storage period. All of the pepper samples irradiated at 5 kGy showed viscosity values significantly lower than unirradiated ones. (Author)

  3. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospit......, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals....

  4. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural studies of disordered materials using high-energy x-ray diffraction from ambient to extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inamura, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2007-12-19

    High-energy x-rays from a synchrotron radiation source allow us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to extreme conditions, which is necessary for revealing the detailed structures of glass, liquid and amorphous materials. We introduced high-energy x-ray diffraction beamlines and a dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid and amorphous materials at SPring-8 and report the recent developments of ancillary equipment. Furthermore, the structures of liquid and amorphous materials determined from the high-energy x-ray diffraction data obtained at SPring-8 are discussed.

  6. Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    , a high PRF of 32 kHz, and a high-speed camera with gate times down to 200 ps and delay steps down to 100 ps. The electronics and the software also allow for gated viewing with automatic gain control versus range, whereby foreground backscatter can be suppressed. We describe our technique for the rapid...

  7. High-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS; DGPS ni yoru sensoku keisoku no koseidoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S; Koterayama, W [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-04-10

    The differential global positioning system (DGPS) can eliminate most of errors in ship velocity measurement by GPS positioning alone. Through two rounds of marine observations by towing an observation robot in summer 1995, the authors attempted high-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS, and also carried out both positioning by GPS alone and measurement using the bottom track of ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler). In this paper, the results obtained by these measurement methods were examined through comparison among them, and the accuracy of the measured ship velocities was considered. In DGPS measurement, both translocation method and interference positioning method were used. ADCP mounted on the observation robot allowed measurement of the velocity of current meter itself by its bottom track in shallow sea areas less than 350m. As the result of these marine observations, it was confirmed that the accuracy equivalent to that of direct measurement by bottom track is possible to be obtained by DGPS. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  9. High construal level can help negotiators to reach integrative agreements: The role of information exchange and judgement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wening, Stefanie; Keith, Nina; Abele, Andrea E

    2016-06-01

    In negotiations, a focus on interests (why negotiators want something) is key to integrative agreements. Yet, many negotiators spontaneously focus on positions (what they want), with suboptimal outcomes. Our research applies construal-level theory to negotiations and proposes that a high construal level instigates a focus on interests during negotiations which, in turn, positively affects outcomes. In particular, we tested the notion that the effect of construal level on outcomes was mediated by information exchange and judgement accuracy. Finally, we expected the mere mode of presentation of task material to affect construal levels and manipulated construal levels using concrete versus abstract negotiation tasks. In two experiments, participants negotiated in dyads in either a high- or low-construal-level condition. In Study 1, high-construal-level dyads outperformed dyads in the low-construal-level condition; this main effect was mediated by information exchange. Study 2 replicated both the main and mediation effects using judgement accuracy as mediator and additionally yielded a positive effect of a high construal level on a second, more complex negotiation task. These results not only provide empirical evidence for the theoretically proposed link between construal levels and negotiation outcomes but also shed light on the processes underlying this effect. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Neutrino mass from cosmology: impact of high-accuracy measurement of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Ichikawa, Kazuhide [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Greenhill, Lincoln, E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhide@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp, E-mail: greenhill@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Non-zero neutrino mass would affect the evolution of the Universe in observable ways, and a strong constraint on the mass can be achieved using combinations of cosmological data sets. We focus on the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, and the length scale for baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to investigate the constraint on the neutrino mass, m{sub ν}. We analyze data from multiple existing CMB studies (WMAP5, ACBAR, CBI, BOOMERANG, and QUAD), recent measurement of H{sub 0} (SHOES), with about two times lower uncertainty (5 %) than previous estimates, and recent treatments of BAO from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained an upper limit of m{sub ν} < 0.2eV (95 % C.L.), for a flat ΛCDM model. This is a 40 % reduction in the limit derived from previous H{sub 0} estimates and one-third lower than can be achieved with extant CMB and BAO data. We also analyze the impact of smaller uncertainty on measurements of H{sub 0} as may be anticipated in the near term, in combination with CMB data from the Planck mission, and BAO data from the SDSS/BOSS program. We demonstrate the possibility of a 5σ detection for a fiducial neutrino mass of 0.1 eV or a 95 % upper limit of 0.04 eV for a fiducial of m{sub ν} = 0 eV. These constraints are about 50 % better than those achieved without external constraint. We further investigate the impact on modeling where the dark-energy equation of state is constant but not necessarily -1, or where a non-flat universe is allowed. In these cases, the next-generation accuracies of Planck, BOSS, and 1 % measurement of H{sub 0} would all be required to obtain the limit m{sub ν} < 0.05−0.06 eV (95 % C.L.) for the fiducial of m{sub ν} = 0 eV. The independence of systematics argues for pursuit of both BAO and H{sub 0} measurements.

  11. Challenges in high accuracy surface replication for micro optics and micro fluidics manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Calaon, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Patterning the surface of polymer components with microstructured geometries is employed in optical and microfluidic applications. Mass fabrication of polymer micro structured products is enabled by replication technologies such as injection moulding. Micro structured tools are also produced...... by replication technologies such as nickel electroplating. All replication steps are enabled by a high precision master and high reproduction fidelity to ensure that the functionalities associated with the design are transferred to the final component. Engineered surface micro structures can be either...

  12. Tolerance to High Temperature Extremes in an Invasive Lace Bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), in Subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and ada...

  13. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    OpenAIRE

    ?uhadar, Serap; K?seo?lu, Mehmet; ?inpolat, Yasemin; Bu?dayc?, G?ler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods: Base...

  14. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    OpenAIRE

    Gozani, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Shai N Gozani NeuroMetrix, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be ...

  15. A content analysis of the quantity and accuracy of dietary supplement information found in magazines with high adolescent readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Patricia; Zhang, Vivien; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and accuracy of dietary supplement (DS) information through magazines with high adolescent readership. Eight (8) magazines (3 teen and 5 adult with high teen readership) were selected. A content analysis for DS was conducted on advertisements and editorials (i.e., articles, advice columns, and bulletins). Noted claims/cautions regarding DS were evaluated for accuracy using Medlineplus.gov and Naturaldatabase.com. Claims for dietary supplements with three or more types of ingredients and those in advertisements were not evaluated. Advertisements were evaluated with respect to size, referenced research, testimonials, and Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) warning visibility. Eighty-eight (88) issues from eight magazines yielded 238 DS references. Fifty (50) issues from five magazines contained no DS reference. Among teen magazines, seven DS references were found: five in the editorials and two in advertisements. In adult magazines, 231 DS references were found: 139 in editorials and 92 in advertisements. Of the 88 claims evaluated, 15% were accurate, 23% were inconclusive, 3% were inaccurate, 5% were partially accurate, and 55% were unsubstantiated (i.e., not listed in reference databases). Of the 94 DS evaluated in advertisements, 43% were full page or more, 79% did not have a DSHEA warning visible, 46% referred to research, and 32% used testimonials. Teen magazines contain few references to DS, none accurate. Adult magazines that have a high teen readership contain a substantial amount of DS information with questionable accuracy, raising concerns that this information may increase the chances of inappropriate DS use by adolescents, thereby increasing the potential for unexpected effects or possible harm.

  16. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  17. Interethnic differences in the accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity in screening for high risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, VM; Casas, JP; Miranda, JJ; Perel, P; Pichardo, R; González, A; Sanchez, JR; Ferreccio, C; Aguilera, X; Silva, E; Oróstegui, M; Gómez, LF; Chirinos, JA; Medina-Lezama, J; Pérez, CM; Suárez, E; Ortiz, AP; Rosero, L; Schapochnik, N; Ortiz, Z; Ferrante, D; Diaz, M; Bautista, LE

    2009-01-01

    Background Cut points for defining obesity have been derived from mortality data among Whites from Europe and the United States and their accuracy to screen for high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in other ethnic groups has been questioned. Objective To compare the accuracy and to define ethnic and gender-specific optimal cut points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) when they are used in screening for high risk of CHD in the Latin-American and the US populations. Methods We estimated the accuracy and optimal cut points for BMI, WC and WHR to screen for CHD risk in Latin Americans (n=18 976), non-Hispanic Whites (Whites; n=8956), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks; n=5205) and Hispanics (n=5803). High risk of CHD was defined as a 10-year risk ≥20% (Framingham equation). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the misclassification-cost term were used to assess accuracy and to identify optimal cut points. Results WHR had the highest AUC in all ethnic groups (from 0.75 to 0.82) and BMI had the lowest (from 0.50 to 0.59). Optimal cut point for BMI was similar across ethnic/gender groups (27 kg/m2). In women, cut points for WC (94 cm) and WHR (0.91) were consistent by ethnicity. In men, cut points for WC and WHR varied significantly with ethnicity: from 91 cm in Latin Americans to 102 cm in Whites, and from 0.94 in Latin Americans to 0.99 in Hispanics, respectively. Conclusion WHR is the most accurate anthropometric indicator to screen for high risk of CHD, whereas BMI is almost uninformative. The same BMI cut point should be used in all men and women. Unique cut points for WC and WHR should be used in all women, but ethnic-specific cut points seem warranted among men. PMID:19238159

  18. High accuracy and precision micro injection moulding of thermoplastic elastomers micro ring production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Elsborg, René

    2016-01-01

    The mass-replication nature of the process calls for fast monitoring of process parameters and product geometrical characteristics. In this direction, the present study addresses the possibility to develop a micro manufacturing platform for micro assembly injection moulding with real-time process....../product monitoring and metrology. The study represent a new concept yet to be developed with great potential for high precision mass-manufacturing of highly functional 3D multi-material (i.e. including metal/soft polymer) micro components. The activities related to HINMICO project objectives proves the importance...

  19. ACUTE EFFECTS OF STATIC STRETCHING, DYNAMIC EXERCISES, AND HIGH VOLUME UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC ACTIVITY ON TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Gelen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  20. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocchi, Fabio E.

    2006-01-01

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double-reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications

  1. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  2. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

  3. High Accuracy Three-dimensional Simulation of Micro Injection Moulded Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F. S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is the key replication technology for high precision manufacturing of polymer micro products. Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted during the present validation study. Detailed information about the μIM process was gathered...

  4. State-of-the-Art of Extreme Pressure Lubrication Realized with the High Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Tian, Pengyi; Lu, Hongyu; Jia, Wenpeng; Du, Haodong; Zhang, Xiangjun; Li, Qunyang; Tian, Yu

    2017-02-15

    Sliding between two objects under very high load generally involves direct solid-solid contact at molecular/atomic level, the mechanism of which is far from clearly disclosed yet. Those microscopic solid-solid contacts could easily lead to local melting of rough surfaces. At extreme conditions, this local melting could propagate to the seizure and welding of the entire interface. Traditionally, the microscopic solid-solid contact is alleviated by various lubricants and additives based on their improved mechanical properties. In this work, we realized the state-of-the-art of extreme pressure lubrication by utilizing the high thermal diffusivity of liquid metal, 2 orders of magnitude higher than general organic lubricants. The extreme pressure lubrication property of gallium based liquid metal (GBLM) was compared with gear oil and poly-α-olefin in a four-ball test. The liquid metal lubricates very well at an extremely high load (10 kN, the maximum capability of a four-ball tester) at a rotation speed of 1800 rpm for a duration of several minutes, much better than traditional organic lubricants which typically break down within seconds at a load of a few kN. Our comparative experiments and analysis showed that this superextreme pressure lubrication capability of GBLM was attributed to the synergetic effect of the ultrafast heat dissipation of GBLM and the low friction coefficient of FeGa 3 tribo-film. The present work demonstrated a novel way of improving lubrication capability by enhancing the lubricant thermal properties, which might lead to mechanical systems with much higher reliability.

  5. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  6. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2 SPL rms re 2.10(-5 Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6 SPL re 2.10(-5 Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  7. Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok

    2018-04-01

    The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.

  8. Museum genomics: low-cost and high-accuracy genetic data from historical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Singhal, Sonal; Macmanes, Matthew D; Ayroles, Julien F; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Rubidge, Emily M; Bi, Ke; Moritz, Craig C

    2011-11-01

    Natural history collections are unparalleled repositories of geographical and temporal variation in faunal conditions. Molecular studies offer an opportunity to uncover much of this variation; however, genetic studies of historical museum specimens typically rely on extracting highly degraded and chemically modified DNA samples from skins, skulls or other dried samples. Despite this limitation, obtaining short fragments of DNA sequences using traditional PCR amplification of DNA has been the primary method for genetic study of historical specimens. Few laboratories have succeeded in obtaining genome-scale sequences from historical specimens and then only with considerable effort and cost. Here, we describe a low-cost approach using high-throughput next-generation sequencing to obtain reliable genome-scale sequence data from a traditionally preserved mammal skin and skull using a simple extraction protocol. We show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the genome sequences obtained independently from the skin and from the skull are highly repeatable compared to a reference genome. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Algorithm of dynamic regulation of a system of duct, for a high accuracy climatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbatskiy, A. A.; Afonina, G. N.; Glazov, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, major part of climatic system, are stationary in projected mode only. At the same time, many modern industrial sites, require constant or periodical changes in technological process. That is 80% of the time, the industrial site is not require ventilation system in projected mode and high precision of climatic parameters must maintain. While that not constantly is in use for climatic systems, which use in parallel for different rooms, we will be have a problem for balance of duct system. For this problem, was created the algorithm for quantity regulation, with minimal changes. Dynamic duct system: Developed of parallel control system of air balance, with high precision of climatic parameters. The Algorithm provide a permanent pressure in main duct, in different a flow of air. Therefore, the ending devises air flow have only one parameter for regulation - flaps open area. Precision of regulation increase and the climatic system provide high precision for temperature and humidity (0,5C for temperature, 5% for relative humidity). Result: The research has been made in CFD-system - PHOENICS. Results for velocity of air in duct, for pressure of air in duct for different operation mode, has been obtained. Equation for air valves positions, with different parameters for climate in room’s, has been obtained. Energy saving potential for dynamic duct system, for different types of a rooms, has been calculated.

  10. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, Boeckem

    1999-01-01

    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle Δβ, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: β IR ν(β blue - β IR ) = ν Δβ, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of the in [1] proposed conception of the dual

  11. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R., E-mail: r.adam@fz-juelich.de; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M. [University of Kaiserslautern and Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mathias, S. [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, I. Physikalisches Institut, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  12. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  13. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  14. High accuracy injection circuit for the calibration of a large pixel sensor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartieri, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, for particle tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments as well as for X-ray imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs, require a large area sensor matrix. This work will discuss the design and the characterization of a high-linearity, low dispersion injection circuit to be used for pixel-level calibration of detector readout electronics in a large pixel sensor matrix. The circuit provides a useful tool for the characterization of the readout electronics of the pixel cell unit for both monolithic active pixel sensors and hybrid pixel detectors. In the latter case, the circuit allows for precise analogue test of the readout channel already at the chip level, when no sensor is connected. Moreover, it provides a simple means for calibration of readout electronics once the detector has been connected to the chip. Two injection techniques can be provided by the circuit: one for a charge sensitive amplification and the other for a transresistance readout channel. The aim of the paper is to describe the architecture and the design guidelines of the calibration circuit, which has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Moreover, experimental results of the proposed injection circuit will be presented in terms of linearity and dispersion

  15. Accuracy of an automated system for tuberculosis detection on chest radiographs in high-risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J; Hogeweg, L; Sánchez, C I; Philipsen, R H H M; Aldridge, R W; Hayward, A C; Abubakar, I; van Ginneken, B; Story, A

    2018-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes can be optimised by reducing the number of chest radiographs (CXRs) requiring interpretation by human experts. To evaluate the performance of computerised detection software in triaging CXRs in a high-throughput digital mobile TB screening programme. A retrospective evaluation of the software was performed on a database of 38 961 postero-anterior CXRs from unique individuals seen between 2005 and 2010, 87 of whom were diagnosed with TB. The software generated a TB likelihood score for each CXR. This score was compared with a reference standard for notified active pulmonary TB using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and localisation ROC (LROC) curve analyses. On ROC curve analysis, software specificity was 55.71% (95%CI 55.21-56.20) and negative predictive value was 99.98% (95%CI 99.95-99.99), at a sensitivity of 95%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.90 (95%CI 0.86-0.93). Results of the LROC curve analysis were similar. The software could identify more than half of the normal images in a TB screening setting while maintaining high sensitivity, and may therefore be used for triage.

  16. A three axis turntable's online initial state measurement method based on the high-accuracy laser gyro SINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunfeng; Wei, Guo; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Zhenyu; Wang, Qun; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    As an indispensable equipment in inertial technology tests, the three-axis turntable is widely used in the calibration of various types inertial navigation systems (INS). In order to ensure the calibration accuracy of INS, we need to accurately measure the initial state of the turntable. However, the traditional measuring method needs a lot of exterior equipment (such as level instrument, north seeker, autocollimator, etc.), and the test processing is complex, low efficiency. Therefore, it is relatively difficult for the inertial measurement equipment manufacturers to realize the self-inspection of the turntable. Owing to the high precision attitude information provided by the laser gyro strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) after fine alignment, we can use it as the attitude reference of initial state measurement of three-axis turntable. For the principle that the fixed rotation vector increment is not affected by measuring point, we use the laser gyro INS and the encoder of the turntable to provide the attitudes of turntable mounting plat. Through this way, the high accuracy measurement of perpendicularity error and initial attitude of the three-axis turntable has been achieved.

  17. High-accuracy measurement and compensation of grating line-density error in a tiled-grating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Wang, Xiao; Mu, Jie; Li, Zhilin; Zuo, Yanlei; Zhou, Song; Zhou, Kainan; Zeng, Xiaoming; Su, Jingqin; Zhu, Qihua

    2017-02-01

    The grating tiling technology is one of the most effective means to increase the aperture of the gratings. The line-density error (LDE) between sub-gratings will degrade the performance of the tiling gratings, high accuracy measurement and compensation of the LDE are of significance to improve the output pulses characteristics of the tiled-grating compressor. In this paper, the influence of LDE on the output pulses of the tiled-grating compressor is quantitatively analyzed by means of numerical simulation, the output beams drift and output pulses broadening resulting from the LDE are presented. Based on the numerical results we propose a compensation method to reduce the degradations of the tiled grating compressor by applying angular tilt error and longitudinal piston error at the same time. Moreover, a monitoring system is setup to measure the LDE between sub-gratings accurately and the dispersion variation due to the LDE is also demonstrated based on spatial-spectral interference. In this way, we can realize high-accuracy measurement and compensation of the LDE, and this would provide an efficient way to guide the adjustment of the tiling gratings.

  18. Using extreme value theory approaches to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangpeng Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza.The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB "VIEM" toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a "fat tail" distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively.Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course.

  19. High accuracy velocity control method for the french moving-coil watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc; Haddad, Darine; Alayli, Yasser; Juncar, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel method of velocity control dedicated to the French moving-coil watt balance. In this project, a coil has to move in a magnetic field at a velocity of 2 mm s -1 with a relative uncertainty of 10 -9 over 60 mm. Our method is based on the use of both a heterodyne Michelson's interferometer, a two-level translation stage, and a homemade high frequency phase-shifting electronic circuit. To quantify the stability of the velocity, the output of the interferometer is sent into a frequency counter and the Doppler frequency shift is recorded. The Allan standard deviation has been used to calculate the stability and a σ y (τ) of about 2.2x10 -9 over 400 s has been obtained

  20. Real-time and high accuracy frequency measurements for intermediate frequency narrowband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing; Lin, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Real-time and accurate measurements of intermediate frequency signals based on microprocessors are difficult due to the computational complexity and limited time constraints. In this paper, a fast and precise methodology based on the sigma-delta modulator is designed and implemented by first generating the twiddle factors using the designed recursive scheme. This scheme requires zero times of multiplications and only half amounts of addition operations by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the combination of the Rife algorithm and Fourier coefficient interpolation as compared with conventional methods such as DFT and Fast Fourier Transform. Experimentally, when the sampling frequency is 10 MHz, the real-time frequency measurements with intermediate frequency and narrowband signals have a measurement mean squared error of ±2.4 Hz. Furthermore, a single measurement of the whole system only requires approximately 0.3 s to achieve fast iteration, high precision, and less calculation time.

  1. A high-accuracy image registration algorithm using phase-only correlation for dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koichi; Nikaido, Akira; Aoki, Takafumi; Kosuge, Eiko; Kawamata, Ryota; Kashima, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    Dental radiographs have been used for the accurate assessment and treatment of dental diseases. The nonlinear deformation between two dental radiographs may be observed, even if they are taken from the same oral regions of the subject. For an accurate diagnosis, the complete geometric registration between radiographs is required. This paper presents an efficient dental radiograph registration algorithm using Phase-Only Correlation (POC) function. The use of phase components in 2D (two-dimensional) discrete Fourier transforms of dental radiograph images makes possible to achieve highly robust image registration and recognition. Experimental evaluation using a dental radiograph database indicates that the proposed algorithm exhibits efficient recognition performance even for distorted radiographs. (author)

  2. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  3. Accuracy of W' Recovery Kinetics in High Performance Cyclists - Modelling Intermittent Work Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jason C; Thewlis, Dominic; Martin, David T; Norton, Kevin I

    2017-10-16

    With knowledge of an individual's critical power (CP) and W' the SKIBA 2 model provides a framework with which to track W' balance during intermittent high intensity work bouts. There are fears the time constant controlling the recovery rate of W' (τ W' ) may require refinement to enable effective use in an elite population. Four elite endurance cyclists completed an array of intermittent exercise protocols to volitional exhaustion. Each protocol lasted approximately 3.5-6 minutes and featured a range of recovery intensities, set in relation to athlete's CPs (DCP). Using the framework of the SKIBA 2 model, the τ W ' values were modified for each protocol to achieve an accurate W' at volitional exhaustion. Modified τ W ' values were compared to equivalent SKIBA 2 τ W ' values to assess the difference in recovery rates for this population. Plotting modified τ W ' values against DCP showed the adjusted relationship between work-rate and recovery-rate. Comparing modified τ W' values against the SKIBA 2 τ W' values showed a negative bias of 112±46s (mean±95%CL), suggesting athlete's recovered W' faster than predicted by SKIBA 2 (p=0.0001). The modified τ W' to DCP relationship was best described by a power function: τ W' =2287.2∗D CP -0.688 (R 2 = 0.433). The current SKIBA 2 model is not appropriate for use in elite cyclists as it under predicts the recovery rate of W'. The modified τ W' equation presented will require validation, but appears more appropriate for high performance athletes. Individual τ W' relationships may be necessary in order to maximise the model's validity.

  4. Accuracy of Administrative Codes for Distinguishing Positive Pressure Ventilation from High-Flow Nasal Cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ryan J; Leroue, Matthew K; Czaja, Angela S

    2018-06-07

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used in critically ill pediatric patients, despite limited data on safety and efficacy. Administrative data may be a good resource for observational studies. Therefore, we sought to assess the performance of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure code for NIPPV. Patients admitted to the PICU requiring NIPPV or heated high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) over the 11-month study period were identified from the Virtual PICU System database. The gold standard was manual review of the electronic health record to verify the use of NIPPV or HHFNC among the cohort. The presence or absence of a NIPPV procedure code was determined by using administrative data. Test characteristics with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were generated, comparing administrative data with the gold standard. Among the cohort ( n = 562), the majority were younger than 5 years, and the most common primary diagnosis was bronchiolitis. Most (82%) required NIPPV, whereas 18% required only HHFNC. The NIPPV code had a sensitivity of 91.1% (95% CI: 88.2%-93.6%) and a specificity of 57.6% (95% CI: 47.2%-67.5%), with a positive likelihood ratio of 2.15 (95% CI: 1.70-2.71) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.11-0.22). Among our critically ill pediatric cohort, NIPPV procedure codes had high sensitivity but only moderate specificity. On the basis of our study results, there is a risk of misclassification, specifically failure to identify children who require NIPPV, when using administrative data to study the use of NIPPV in this population. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Automatic camera to laser calibration for high accuracy mobile mapping systems using INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, Werner; Douterloigne, Koen; Gautama, Sidharta

    2013-09-01

    A mobile mapping system (MMS) is a mobile multi-sensor platform developed by the geoinformation community to support the acquisition of huge amounts of geodata in the form of georeferenced high resolution images and dense laser clouds. Since data fusion and data integration techniques are increasingly able to combine the complementary strengths of different sensor types, the external calibration of a camera to a laser scanner is a common pre-requisite on today's mobile platforms. The methods of calibration, nevertheless, are often relatively poorly documented, are almost always time-consuming, demand expert knowledge and often require a carefully constructed calibration environment. A new methodology is studied and explored to provide a high quality external calibration for a pinhole camera to a laser scanner which is automatic, easy to perform, robust and foolproof. The method presented here, uses a portable, standard ranging pole which needs to be positioned on a known ground control point. For calibration, a well studied absolute orientation problem needs to be solved. In many cases, the camera and laser sensor are calibrated in relation to the INS system. Therefore, the transformation from camera to laser contains the cumulated error of each sensor in relation to the INS. Here, the calibration of the camera is performed in relation to the laser frame using the time synchronization between the sensors for data association. In this study, the use of the inertial relative movement will be explored to collect more useful calibration data. This results in a better intersensor calibration allowing better coloring of the clouds and a more accurate depth mask for images, especially on the edges of objects in the scene.

  6. Laser-produced dense plasma in extremely high pressure gas and its application to a plasma-bridged gap switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, J.; Okuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    When an extremely high pressure gas is irradiated by an intense laser light, a dense plasma produced at the focal spot moves towards the focusing lens with a high velocity. Making use of this phenomenon, a new plasma-bridged gap switch is proposed and its switching characteristics is experimentally examined. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the switching time is almost constant with the applied voltage only when the focal spot is just on the positive electrode, indicating that the bridging of gap is caused by the laser light. (author)

  7. High resolution modelling of the extreme precipitation event over Algiers in November 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Moore

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 18:00UTC on Friday 9th November and 12:00UTC on Saturday 10th November 2001 260mm of rainfall was recorded at Bouzareah, compared to the November average of just 96mm. This extreme rainfall resulted in landslides and flooding, causing immense damage to the Bab-el-Oued district of Algiers and affected the lives of more than 2000 people. In this paper, key results from a modelling study of this event using the UK Met Office Unified Model at global (60km, regional (20km and national (4km horizontal resolutions are described. In general, it is found that the event could be well forecast with increases in resolution leading to better predictions of both the distribution and intensity of the rainfall. The role of the local orography and latent heating are also discussed.

  8. Extremely Stable Polypyrrole Achieved via Molecular Ordering for Highly Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yang; Geng, Huiyuan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-01-27

    The cycling stability of flexible supercapacitors with conducting polymers as electrodes is limited by the structural breakdown arising from repetitive counterion flow during charging/discharging. Supercapacitors made of facilely electropolymerized polypyrrole (e-PPy) have ultrahigh capacitance retentions of more than 97, 91, and 86% after 15000, 50000, and 100000 charging/discharging cycles, respectively, and can sustain more than 230000 charging/discharging cycles with still approximately half of the initial capacitance retained. To the best of our knowledge, such excellent long-term cycling stability was never reported. The fully controllable electropolymerization shows superiority in molecular ordering, favoring uniform stress distribution and charge transfer. Being left at ambient conditions for even 8 months, e-PPy supercapacitors completely retain the good electrochemical performance. The extremely stable supercapacitors with excellent flexibility and scalability hold considerable promise for the commerical application of flexible and wearable electronics.

  9. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd, E-mail: hfd1@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9–14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  10. Analysis of high accuracy, quantitative proteomics data in the MaxQB database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaab, Christoph; Geiger, Tamar; Stoehr, Gabriele; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    MS-based proteomics generates rapidly increasing amounts of precise and quantitative information. Analysis of individual proteomic experiments has made great strides, but the crucial ability to compare and store information across different proteome measurements still presents many challenges. For example, it has been difficult to avoid contamination of databases with low quality peptide identifications, to control for the inflation in false positive identifications when combining data sets, and to integrate quantitative data. Although, for example, the contamination with low quality identifications has been addressed by joint analysis of deposited raw data in some public repositories, we reasoned that there should be a role for a database specifically designed for high resolution and quantitative data. Here we describe a novel database termed MaxQB that stores and displays collections of large proteomics projects and allows joint analysis and comparison. We demonstrate the analysis tools of MaxQB using proteome data of 11 different human cell lines and 28 mouse tissues. The database-wide false discovery rate is controlled by adjusting the project specific cutoff scores for the combined data sets. The 11 cell line proteomes together identify proteins expressed from more than half of all human genes. For each protein of interest, expression levels estimated by label-free quantification can be visualized across the cell lines. Similarly, the expression rank order and estimated amount of each protein within each proteome are plotted. We used MaxQB to calculate the signal reproducibility of the detected peptides for the same proteins across different proteomes. Spearman rank correlation between peptide intensity and detection probability of identified proteins was greater than 0.8 for 64% of the proteome, whereas a minority of proteins have negative correlation. This information can be used to pinpoint false protein identifications, independently of peptide database

  11. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_M_S(m_Z) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_s(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_s=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α_s∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  12. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Fritzsch, Patrick [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Korzec, Tomasz [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ramos, Alberto [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2016-04-15

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α{sub MS}(m{sub Z}) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α{sub s}(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α{sub s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α{sub s}∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  13. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.

    2010-06-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  14. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  15. High-accuracy local positioning network for the alignment of the Mu2e experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejdukova, Jana B. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    This Diploma thesis describes the establishment of a high-precision local positioning network and accelerator alignment for the Mu2e physics experiment. The process of establishing new network consists of few steps: design of the network, pre-analysis, installation works, measurements of the network and making adjustments. Adjustments were performed using two approaches. First is a geodetic approach of taking into account the Earth’s curvature and the metrological approach of a pure 3D Cartesian system on the other side. The comparison of those two approaches is performed and evaluated in the results and compared with expected differences. The effect of the Earth’s curvature was found to be significant for this kind of network and should not be neglected. The measurements were obtained with Absolute Tracker AT401, leveling instrument Leica DNA03 and gyrotheodolite DMT Gyromat 2000. The coordinates of the points of the reference network were determined by the Least Square Meth od and the overall view is attached as Annexes.

  16. The effects of extracorporeal shockwave on acute high-energy long bone fractures of the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Liu, Hao-Chen; Fu, Te-Hu

    2007-02-01

    High-energy long bone fractures of the lower extremity are at risk of poor fracture healing and high rate of non-union. Extracorporeal shockwave was shown effective to heal non-union of long bone fracture. However, the effect of shockwave on acute fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shockwave on acute high-energy fractures of the lower extremity. Between January and October 2004, 56 patients with 59 acute high-energy fractures were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups with 28 patients with 28 fractures in the study group and 28 patients with 31 fractures in the control group. Both groups showed similar age, gender, type of fracture and follow-up time. Patients in the study group received open reduction and internal fixation and shockwave treatment immediately after surgery on odd-numbered days of the week, whereas, patients in the control group received open reduction and internal fixation without shockwave treatment on even-numbered days of the week. Postoperative managements were similarly performed in both groups including crutch walking with non-weight bearing on the affected limb until fracture healing shown on radiographs. The evaluation parameters included clinical assessments of pain score and weight bearing status of the affected leg and serial radiographs at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end-point is the rate of non-union at 12 months, and the secondary end point is the rate of fracture healing at 3, 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, the rate of non-union was 11% for the study group versus 20% for the control group (P fracture healing was noted in the study group than the control group at 3, 6 and 12 months (P fracture healing and decreasing the rate of non-union in acute high-energy fractures of the lower extremity.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy for X-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of x-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest. Study Design: A cross-sectional validational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Oct 2013 to Apr 2014. Material and Method: A total of 137 patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) aged 20-50 years of both genders were included in the study. Patients with h/o previous histopathological diagnosis, already taking treatment and pregnant females were excluded. All the patients had chest x-ray and then HRCT. The x-ray and HRCT findings were recorded as presence or absence of the ILD. Results: Mean age was 40.21 ± 4.29 years. Out of 137 patients, 79 (57.66 percent) were males and 58 (42.34 percent) were females with male to female ratio of 1.36:1. Chest x-ray detected ILD in 80 (58.39 percent) patients, out of which, 72 (true positive) had ILD and 8 (false positive) had no ILD on HRCT. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of chest x-ray in diagnosing ILD was 80.0 percent, 82.98 percent, 90.0 percent, 68.42 percent and 81.02 percent respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that chest x-ray is simple, non-invasive, economical and readily available alternative to HRCT with an acceptable diagnostic accuracy of 81 percent in the diagnosis of ILD. (author)

  18. Social power and recognition of emotional prosody: High power is associated with lower recognition accuracy than low power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Paulmann, Silke; Weick, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Listeners have to pay close attention to a speaker's tone of voice (prosody) during daily conversations. This is particularly important when trying to infer the emotional state of the speaker. Although a growing body of research has explored how emotions are processed from speech in general, little is known about how psychosocial factors such as social power can shape the perception of vocal emotional attributes. Thus, the present studies explored how social power affects emotional prosody recognition. In a correlational study (Study 1) and an experimental study (Study 2), we show that high power is associated with lower accuracy in emotional prosody recognition than low power. These results, for the first time, suggest that individuals experiencing high or low power perceive emotional tone of voice differently. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. High-accuracy detection of early Parkinson's Disease using multiple characteristics of finger movement while typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick R Adams

    Full Text Available Parkinson's Disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disease affecting over 6 million people worldwide. Loss of dopamine-producing neurons results in a range of both motor and non-motor symptoms, however there is currently no definitive test for PD by non-specialist clinicians, especially in the early disease stages where the symptoms may be subtle and poorly characterised. This results in a high misdiagnosis rate (up to 25% by non-specialists and people can have the disease for many years before diagnosis. There is a need for a more accurate, objective means of early detection, ideally one which can be used by individuals in their home setting. In this investigation, keystroke timing information from 103 subjects (comprising 32 with mild PD severity and the remainder non-PD controls was captured as they typed on a computer keyboard over an extended period and showed that PD affects various characteristics of hand and finger movement and that these can be detected. A novel methodology was used to classify the subjects' disease status, by utilising a combination of many keystroke features which were analysed by an ensemble of machine learning classification models. When applied to two separate participant groups, this approach was able to successfully discriminate between early-PD subjects and controls with 96% sensitivity, 97% specificity and an AUC of 0.98. The technique does not require any specialised equipment or medical supervision, and does not rely on the experience and skill of the practitioner. Regarding more general application, it currently does not incorporate a second cardinal disease symptom, so may not differentiate PD from similar movement-related disorders.

  20. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  1. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities: A SEER Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Matthew; Rich, Shayna E.; Mohiuddin, Majid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of radiation therapy in extremity soft tissue sarcomas remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of radiation therapy on overall survival among patients with primary soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity who underwent limb-sparing surgery. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database that included data from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2005. A total of 6,960 patients constituted the study population. Overall survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meir method and for patients with low- and high-grade tumors. Hazard ratios were calculated based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Of the cohort, 47% received radiation therapy. There was no significant difference in overall survival among patients with low-grade tumors by radiation therapy. In high-grade tumors, the 3-year overall survival was 73% in patients who received radiation therapy vs. 63% for those who did not receive radiation therapy (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumors who received radiation therapy had an improved overall survival (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.79). In patients receiving radiation therapy, 13.5% received it in a neoadjuvant setting. The incidence of patients receiving neoadjuvant radiation did not change significantly between 1988 and 2005. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest population-based study reported in patients undergoing limb-sparing surgery for soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. It reports that radiation was associated with improved survival in patients with high-grade tumors.

  2. A diabetes dashboard and physician efficiency and accuracy in accessing data needed for high-quality diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Richelle J; Kochendorfer, Karl M; Moore, Joi L; Mehr, David R; Wakefield, Douglas S; Yadamsuren, Borchuluun; Coberly, Jared S; Kruse, Robin L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Belden, Jeffery L

    2011-01-01

    We compared use of a new diabetes dashboard screen with use of a conventional approach of viewing multiple electronic health record (EHR) screens to find data needed for ambulatory diabetes care. We performed a usability study, including a quantitative time study and qualitative analysis of information-seeking behaviors. While being recorded with Morae Recorder software and "think-aloud" interview methods, 10 primary care physicians first searched their EHR for 10 diabetes data elements using a conventional approach for a simulated patient, and then using a new diabetes dashboard for another. We measured time, number of mouse clicks, and accuracy. Two coders analyzed think-aloud and interview data using grounded theory methodology. The mean time needed to find all data elements was 5.5 minutes using the conventional approach vs 1.3 minutes using the diabetes dashboard (P dashboard (P dashboard (P dashboard improves both the efficiency and accuracy of acquiring data needed for high-quality diabetes care. Usability analysis tools can provide important insights into the value of optimizing physician use of health information technologies.

  3. High-accuracy self-calibration method for dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Qun; Long, Xingwu

    2017-05-01

    Inertial navigation system has been the core component of both military and civil navigation systems. Dual-axis rotation modulation can completely eliminate the inertial elements constant errors of the three axes to improve the system accuracy. But the error caused by the misalignment angles and the scale factor error cannot be eliminated through dual-axis rotation modulation. And discrete calibration method cannot fulfill requirements of high-accurate calibration of the mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope navigation system with shock absorbers. This paper has analyzed the effect of calibration error during one modulated period and presented a new systematic self-calibration method for dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS. Procedure for self-calibration of dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS has been designed. The results of self-calibration simulation experiment proved that: this scheme can estimate all the errors in the calibration error model, the calibration precision of the inertial sensors scale factor error is less than 1ppm and the misalignment is less than 5″. These results have validated the systematic self-calibration method and proved its importance for accuracy improvement of dual -axis rotation inertial navigation system with mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope.

  4. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  5. Assessment of high precision, high accuracy Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to obtain concentration uncertainties less than 0.2% with variable matrix concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabb, Savelas A.; Olesik, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to obtain high precision, high accuracy measurements in samples with complex matrices using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (HP-ICP-OES) was investigated. The Common Analyte Internal Standard (CAIS) procedure was incorporated into the High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method to correct for matrix-induced changes in emission intensity ratios. Matrix matching and standard addition approaches to minimize matrix-induced errors when using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy were also assessed. The High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method was tested with synthetic solutions in a variety of matrices, alloy standard reference materials and geological reference materials

  6. SPREAD: a high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset for Spain – an extreme events frequency and intensity overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serrano-Notivoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset was built from raw data of 12 858 observatories covering a period from 1950 to 2012 in peninsular Spain and 1971 to 2012 in Balearic and Canary islands. The original data were quality-controlled and gaps were filled on each day and location independently. Using the serially complete dataset, a grid with a 5 × 5 km spatial resolution was constructed by estimating daily precipitation amounts and their corresponding uncertainty at each grid node. Daily precipitation estimations were compared to original observations to assess the quality of the gridded dataset. Four daily precipitation indices were computed to characterise the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and nine extreme precipitation indices were used to describe the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. The Mediterranean coast and the Central Range showed the highest frequency and intensity of extreme events, while the number of wet days and dry and wet spells followed a north-west to south-east gradient in peninsular Spain, from high to low values in the number of wet days and wet spells and reverse in dry spells. The use of the total available data in Spain, the independent estimation of precipitation for each day and the high spatial resolution of the grid allowed for a precise spatial and temporal assessment of daily precipitation that is difficult to achieve when using other methods, pre-selected long-term stations or global gridded datasets. SPREAD dataset is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/7393.

  7. Simplifying and expanding analytical capabilities for various classes of doping agents by means of direct urine injection high performance liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Philipp; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-11-30

    So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for more than 200 analytes of various classes of doping agents far below the required detection limits in sports drug testing. Here, classic groups of drugs as diuretics, stimulants, β 2 -agonists, narcotics and anabolic androgenic steroids as well as various newer target compounds like hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), plasma volume expanders and other doping related compounds, listed in the 2016 WADA prohibited list were implemented. As a main achievement, growth hormone releasing peptides could be implemented, which chemically belong to the group of small peptides (0.99), limit of detection (0.1-25ng/mL; 3'OH-stanozolol glucuronide: 50pg/mL; dextran/HES: 10μg/mL) and matrix effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Superconductivity induced by extremely high pressures in organic Mott-insulator β'-(BEDT-TTF)2IBrCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, M; Uchiyama, K; Taniguchi, H; Hedo, M; Matsubayashi, K; Uwatoko, Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous research revealed that, at a pressure of 8.2 GPa, β'-(BEDT-TTF)2ICl2 possesses the highest transition temperature (T C ) among the organic conductors[1]. In the present work, transport studies under extremely high pressure of up to 10.0 GPa, using a cubic anvil press are reported for a related material, β'-(BEDT-TTF)2IBrCl which is an organic Mott-insulator in ambient pressure. Superconductivity with the highest T c (8.5 K, onset) was observed at P = 8.6 GPa.

  9. Detection of extremely high bit density signals with a narrow track width GMR head in double layered perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, T.; Honda, N.; Ariake, J.; Ouchi, K.; Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recording resolution, medium noise and thermal stability have been investigated for double layered perpendicular magnetic recording media. The recording performance was improved by introducing a stacked intermediate layer between a soft magnetic backlayer and a storage layer due to increased crystal orientation with a small magnetic domain size and suppressed initial growing layer of the storage layer. The reproduced output at an extremely high linear density of 950 kFRPI was detected by using a contact-type CF-SPT head for write and a GMR head with a narrow read track width of 0.4 μm

  10. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkai; Yi, Ming; Zou, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms of cell fate decision in a noisy environment, the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on cell fate are explored at the single cell level. Specifically, we theoretically define the impulse of Cln1/2 as an indication of cell fates. The strong dependence between the impulse of Cln1/2 and cell fates is exhibited. Based on the simulation results, we illustrate that increasing intrinsic fluctuations causes the parallel shift of the separation ratio of Whi5P but that increasing extrinsic fluctuations leads to the mixture of different cell fates. Our quantitative study also suggests that the strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic noises around an approximate linear model can ensure a high accuracy of cell fate selection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the selection of cell fates is an entropy-decreasing process. In addition, we reveal that cell fates are significantly correlated with the range of entropy decreases. PMID:25042292

  11. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (α 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device an on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  12. A high-accuracy extraction of the isoscalar πN scattering length from pionic deuterium data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.; Baru, Vadim; Hanhart, Christoph; Nogga, Andreas; Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    We present a high-accuracy calculation of the π(bar sign)d scattering length using chiral perturbation theory up to order (M π /m p ) 7/2 . For the first time isospin-violating corrections are included consistently. The resulting value of a π -bar d has a theoretical uncertainty of a few percent. We use it, together with data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms, to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths from a combined analysis, and obtain a + (7.9±3.2)·10 -3 M π -1 and a-bar (86.3±1.0)·10 -3 M π -1 .

  13. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (≅ 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  14. High accuracy determination of trace elements in NIST standard reference materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, P.J.; Beary, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    At NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), ICP-MS ID (inductively coupled mass spectrometry isotope dilution) has been used to certify a wide range of elements in a variety of materials with high accuracy. Both the chemical preparation and instrumental procedures are simpler than with other ID mass spectrometric techniques. The ICP-MS has picogram/ml detection limits for most elements using fixed operating parameters. Chemical separations are required only to remove an interference (from molecular ions as well as isobaric atoms), or to pre-concentrate the analyte. For example, chemical separations were required for the analysis of SRM 2711, Montana II Soil, but not for boron in peach leaves, SRM 1547.(3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Activated Mesoporous Biocarbons with Extremely High Surface Area for High-Pressure CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurwinder; Lakhi, Kripal S; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sungho; Srivastava, Prashant; Naidu, Ravi; Vinu, Ajayan

    2017-09-06

    A simple and efficient way to synthesize activated mesoporous biocarbons (AMBs) with extremely high BET surface area and large pore volume has been achieved for the first time through a simple solid state activation of freely available biomass, Arundo donax, with zinc chloride. The textural parameters of the AMB can easily be controlled by varying the activation temperature. It is demonstrated that the mesoporosity of AMB can be finely tuned with a simple adjustment of the amount of activating agent. AMB with almost 100% mesoporosity can be achieved using the activating agent and the biomass ratio of 5 and carbonization at 500 °C. Under the optimized conditions, AMB with a BET surface area of 3298 m 2 g -1 and a pore volume of 1.9 cm 3 g -1 can be prepared. While being used as an adsorbent for CO 2 capture, AMB registers an impressively high pressure CO 2 adsorption capacity of 30.2 mmol g -1 at 30 bar which is much higher than that of activated carbon (AC), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and mesoporous carbon nitrides. AMB also shows high stability with excellent regeneration properties under vacuum and temperatures of up to 250 °C. These impressive textural parameters and high CO 2 adsorption capacity of AMB clearly reveal its potential as a promising adsorbent for high-pressure CO 2 capture and storage application. Also, the simple one-step synthesis strategy outlined in this work would provide a pathway to generate a series of novel mesoporous activated biocarbons from different biomasses.

  16. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  17. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non-responders. FS-TENS is a safe and effective

  18. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozani SN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shai N Gozani NeuroMetrix, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods: Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results: One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9% were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1 pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80

  19. Modeling and evaluation of a high-resolution CMOS detector for cone-beam CT of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Sisniega, Alejandro; Brehler, Michael; Stayman, J Webster; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Zbijewski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture in extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) would benefit from the high spatial resolution, low electronic noise, and fast scan time provided by complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) x-ray detectors. We investigate the performance of CMOS sensors in extremity CBCT, in particular with respect to potential advantages of thin (CMOS x-ray detector incorporating the effects of CsI:Tl scintillator thickness was developed. Simulation studies were performed using nominal extremity CBCT acquisition protocols (90 kVp, 0.126 mAs/projection). A range of scintillator thickness (0.35-0.75 mm), pixel size (0.05-0.4 mm), focal spot size (0.05-0.7 mm), magnification (1.1-2.1), and dose (15-40 mGy) was considered. The detectability index was evaluated for both CMOS and a-Si:H flat-panel detector (FPD) configurations for a range of imaging tasks emphasizing spatial frequencies associated with feature size aobj. Experimental validation was performed on a CBCT test bench in the geometry of a compact orthopedic CBCT system (SAD = 43.1 cm, SDD = 56.0 cm, matching that of the Carestream OnSight 3D system). The test-bench studies involved a 0.3 mm focal spot x-ray source and two CMOS detectors (Dalsa Xineos-3030HR, 0.099 mm pixel pitch) - one with the standard CsI:Tl thickness of 0.7 mm (C700) and one with a custom 0.4 mm thick scintillator (C400). Measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and CBCT scans of a cadaveric knee (15 mGy) were obtained for each detector. Optimal detectability for high-frequency tasks (feature size of ~0.06 mm, consistent with the size of trabeculae) was ~4× for the C700 CMOS detector compared to the a-Si:H FPD at nominal system geometry of extremity CBCT. This is due to ~5× lower electronic noise of a CMOS sensor, which enables input quantum-limited imaging at smaller pixel size. Optimal pixel size for high-frequency tasks was CMOS

  20. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough numerical analysis of a highly birefringent slotted porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The slot shaped air-holes break the symmetry of the porous-core which offers a very high birefringence whereas the compact geometry of the...

  1. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    1995). 42. Eichmann , H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing. Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O...calculations of polarization-dependent two- color high-harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995). 10. Eichmann , H. et al. polarization

  2. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  3. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniyappan, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dromey, B [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Henig, A [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Horlein, R [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Kefer, D. [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Tajima, T [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Yan, X [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Habs, D [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN-UNIV MUNCHEN

    2011-01-31

    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  4. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  5. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  6. High-Accuracy Tidal Flat Digital Elevation Model Construction Using TanDEM-X Science Phase Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ryu, Joo-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using TanDEM-X (TDX) interferometric observations of tidal flats for digital elevation model (DEM) construction. Our goal was to generate high-precision DEMs in tidal flat areas, because accurate intertidal zone data are essential for monitoring coastal environment sand erosion processes. To monitor dynamic coastal changes caused by waves, currents, and tides, very accurate DEMs with high spatial resolution are required. The bi- and monostatic modes of the TDX interferometer employed during the TDX science phase provided a great opportunity for highly accurate intertidal DEM construction using radar interferometry with no time lag (bistatic mode) or an approximately 10-s temporal baseline (monostatic mode) between the master and slave synthetic aperture radar image acquisitions. In this study, DEM construction in tidal flat areas was first optimized based on the TDX system parameters used in various TDX modes. We successfully generated intertidal zone DEMs with 57-m spatial resolutions and interferometric height accuracies better than 0.15 m for three representative tidal flats on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, we validated these TDX DEMs against real-time kinematic-GPS measurements acquired in two tidal flat areas; the correlation coefficient was 0.97 with a root mean square error of 0.20 m.

  7. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  8. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits SERDES I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments subject to...

  9. Probing physics at extreme energies with cosmic ultra-high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    testing new particle physics. Keywords. Ultra-high ... conventional theories of CR origin based on acceleration of charged particles in powerful ... Before discussing specific scenarios for UHECR origin we give a short account of the numerical ...

  10. Foldable Compactly Stowable Extremely High Power Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of ultra-compact stowage...

  11. [The action of low-intensity extremely high-freguency electromagnetic radiation on growth parameters for bacteria Enterococcus hirae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, V; Sarkisian, A; Tadevosian, A; Torchunian, A

    2008-01-01

    It has been found that the exposure of Enterococcus hirae ATCC9790, grown under anaerobic conditions for 30 min or 1 h, to low-intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/sm2) coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMI) of extremely high-frequency 45 - 53 GHz), or millimeter waves causes a marked prolongation of the lag-growth phase and a decrease in their specific growth rate, the inhibitory effect increasing in the frequency range from 49 to 53 GHz. The effect enhanced as duration of expocure was encreased from 30 min to 1 h; however, further increase in exposure duration to 2 h did not cause an enhancement of the effect. It has been shown that the action of extremely high-frequency EMI on these bacteria does not depend on medium pH (pH 8.0 or pH 6.0). It is proposed that these bacteria have defensive or reparation mechanisms which compensate for the action of radiation; the occurrence of different mechanisms for pH regulation is not ruled out.

  12. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  13. Extremely high magnetoresistance and conductivity in the type-II Weyl semimetals WP2 and MoP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Sun, Yan; Xu, Nan; Manna, Kaustuv; Yao, Mengyu; Süss, Vicky; Leermakers, Inge; Young, Olga; Förster, Tobias; Schmidt, Marcus; Borrmann, Horst; Yan, Binghai; Zeitler, Uli; Shi, Ming; Felser, Claudia; Shekhar, Chandra

    2017-11-21

    The peculiar band structure of semimetals exhibiting Dirac and Weyl crossings can lead to spectacular electronic properties such as large mobilities accompanied by extremely high magnetoresistance. In particular, two closely neighboring Weyl points of the same chirality are protected from annihilation by structural distortions or defects, thereby significantly reducing the scattering probability between them. Here we present the electronic properties of the transition metal diphosphides, WP 2 and MoP 2 , which are type-II Weyl semimetals with robust Weyl points by transport, angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Our single crystals of WP 2 display an extremely low residual low-temperature resistivity of 3 nΩ cm accompanied by an enormous and highly anisotropic magnetoresistance above 200 million % at 63 T and 2.5 K. We observe a large suppression of charge carrier backscattering in WP 2 from transport measurements. These properties are likely a consequence of the novel Weyl fermions expressed in this compound.

  14. Extreme triple asymmetric (ETAS) epitaxial designs for increased efficiency at high powers in 9xx-nm diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, T.; Erbert, G.; Maaßdorf, A.; Martin, D.; Crump, P.

    2018-02-01

    Broad area lasers that are tailored to be most efficient at the highest achievable optical output power are sought by industry to decrease operation costs and improve system performance. Devices using Extreme-Double-ASymmetric (EDAS) epitaxial designs are promising candidates for improved efficiency at high optical output powers due to low series resistance, low optical loss and low carrier leakage. However, EDAS designs leverage ultra-thin p-side waveguides, meaning that the optical mode is shifted into the n-side waveguide, resulting in a low optical confinement in the active region, low gain and hence high threshold current, limiting peak performance. We introduce here explicit design considerations that enable EDAS-based devices to be developed with increased optical confinement in the active layer without changing the p-side layer thicknesses. Specifically, this is realized by introducing a third asymmetric component in the vicinity of the quantum well. We call this approach Extreme-Triple-ASymmetric (ETAS) design. A series of ETAS-based vertical designs were fabricated into broad area lasers that deliver up to 63% power conversion efficiency at 14 W CW optical output power from a 100 μm stripe laser, which corresponds to the operation point of a kW optical output power in a laser bar. The design process, the impact of structural changes on power saturation mechanisms and finally devices with improved performance will be presented.

  15. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  16. Intermittent dynamics of nonlinear resistive tearing modes at extremely high magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takahiro; Becchaku, Masahiro; Kusano, Kanya

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of the resistive tearing instability in high magnetic Reynolds number (R m ) plasmas is studied by newly developing an accurate and robust resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scheme. The results show that reconnection processes strongly depend on R m . Particularly, in a high R m case, small-scale plasmoids induced by a secondary instability are intermittently generated and ejected accompanied by fast shocks. According to the intermittent processes, the reconnection rate increases intermittently at a later nonlinear stage. (author)

  17. Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. THE IMPACT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY TOTAL BODY FATIGUE ON PASSING ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NOVICE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged importance of fatigue on performance in sport, ecologically sound studies investigating fatigue and its effects on sport-specific skills are surprisingly rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate and high intensity total body fatigue on passing accuracy in expert and novice basketball players. Ten novice basketball players (age: 23.30 ± 1.05 yrs and ten expert basketball players (age: 22.50 ± 0.41 yrs volunteered to participate in the study. Both groups performed the modified AAHPERD Basketball Passing Test under three different testing conditions: rest, moderate intensity and high intensity total body fatigue. Fatigue intensity was established using a percentage of the maximal number of squat thrusts performed by the participant in one minute. ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant (F 2,36 = 5.252, p = 0.01 level of fatigue by level of skill interaction. On examination of the mean scores it is clear that following high intensity total body fatigue there is a significant detriment in the passing performance of both novice and expert basketball players when compared to their resting scores. Fundamentally however, the detrimental impact of fatigue on passing performance is not as steep in the expert players compared to the novice players. The results suggest that expert or skilled players are better able to cope with both moderate and high intensity fatigue conditions and maintain a higher level of performance when compared to novice players. The findings of this research therefore, suggest the need for trainers and conditioning coaches in basketball to include moderate, but particularly high intensity exercise into their skills sessions. This specific training may enable players at all levels of the game to better cope with the demands of the game on court and maintain a higher standard of play

  19. High genetic diversity in a potentially vulnerable tropical tree species despite extreme habitat loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika M E Noreen

    Full Text Available Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter, 193 saplings (>1 yr, and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae. We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1 that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2 K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854, high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5, low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076, and a large proportion (30.1% of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%. However, spatial genetic structure (SGS analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961, calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.

  20. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  1. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  2. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  3. Novel spin transition between S = 5/2 and S = 3/2 in highly saddled iron(III) porphyrin complexes at extremely low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgo, Yoshiki; Chiba, Yuya; Hashizume, Daisuke; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Ozeki, Tomoji; Nakamura, Mikio

    2006-05-14

    A novel spin transition between S = 5/2 and S = 3/2 has been observed for the first time in five-coordinate, highly saddled iron(III) porphyrinates by EPR and SQUID measurements at extremely low temperatures.

  4. The influence of non thermal coherent EMR with low intensity and extremely high frequency on total activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, A.V.; Shahinyan, M.A.; Khachatryan, A.V.; Vardevanyan, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with low intensity and extremely high frequency on intensity of wheat developing germ metabolism has been investigated. Particularly, total activity and isoenzymatic composition of peroxidase of germ cells have been determined during their growth. The role of water in formation of organism response reaction to the external physical field effect has also been investigated. It has been shown, that water appears to be a primary element of extremely high frequency EMR effect on bio system. Extremely high frequency EMR irradiation of germinating seeds and the cultivation of dry seeds and their germs by irradiated water stimulate peroxidase synthesis in germ cells. The redistribution of quantitative composition of peroxidase molecular forms takes place in germ cells effected by EMR with extremely high frequency and low intensity

  5. Predicting extreme rainfall over eastern Asia by using complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Su-Hong; Gong Yan-Chun; Huang Yan-Hua; Wu Cheng-Guo; Feng Tai-Chen; Gong Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A climate network of extreme rainfall over eastern Asia is constructed for the period of 1971–2000, employing the tools of complex networks and a measure of nonlinear correlation called event synchronization (ES). Using this network, we predict the extreme rainfall for several cases without delay and with n-day delay (1 ≤ n ≤ 10). The prediction accuracy can reach 58% without delay, 21% with 1-day delay, and 12% with n-day delay (2 ≤ n ≤ 10). The results reveal that the prediction accuracy is low in years of a weak east Asia summer monsoon (EASM) or 1 year later and high in years of a strong EASM or 1 year later. Furthermore, the prediction accuracy is higher due to the many more links that represent correlations between different grid points and a higher extreme rainfall rate during strong EASM years. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  6. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux in the new experimental area nTOF-EAR2 at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate-Gilarte, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Damone, L.; Belloni, F.; Mastromarco, M.; Tagliente, G.; Variale, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Gunsing, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Diakaki, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Dupont, E. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zugec, P.; Bosnar, D. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Vlachoudis, V.; Aberle, O.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Cardella, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Montesano, S.; Rubbia, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chen, Y.H.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IPN, Orsay (France); Stamatopoulos, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Guerrero, C.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Villacorta, A. [University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Piscopo, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); Andrzejewski, J.; Gawlik, A.; Marganiec, J.; Perkowski, J. [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Becares, V.; Balibrea, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Garcia, A.R.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bacak, M.; Weiss, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Baccomi, R.; Milazzo, P.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Barros, S.; Ferreira, P.; Goncalves, I.F.; Vaz, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Valenta, S. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Beinrucker, C.; Goebel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Weigand, M.; Wolf, C. [Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Billowes, J.; Frost, R.J.W.; Ryan, J.A.; Smith, A.G.; Warren, S.; Wright, T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Caamano, M.; Deo, K.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Paradela, C.; Robles, M.S. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Calvino, F.; Casanovas, A.; Riego-Perez, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Castelluccio, D.M.; Lo Meo, S. [Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie (ENEA), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cortes, G.; Mengoni, A. [Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie (ENEA), Bologna (Italy); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L. [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Dressler, R.; Heinitz, S.; Kivel, N.; Maugeri, E.A.; Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villingen (Switzerland); Furman, V.; Sedyshev, P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Mirea, M.; Oprea, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Goverdovski, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation); Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Kavrigin, P.; Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Harada, H.; Kimura, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-mura (Japan); Hernandez-Prieto, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Heyse, J.; Schillebeeckx, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (BE); Jenkins, D.G. [University of York, York (GB); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (DE); Katabuchi, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (JP); Lederer, C.; Lonsdale, S.J.; Woods, P.J. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Licata, M.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Mastinu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Legnaro, Legnaro (IT); Matteucci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (IT); Universita di Trieste, Dipartimento di Astronomia, Trieste (IT); Mingrone, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Nolte, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (DE); Palomo-Pinto, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla (ES); Patronis, N. [University of Ioannina, Ioannina (GR); Pavlik, A. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Porras, J.I. [University of Granada, Granada (ES); Praena, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (ES); University of Granada, Granada (ES); Rajeev, K.; Rout, P.C.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (IN); Rauscher, T. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Hatfield (GB); University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (CH); Tarifeno-Saldivia, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (ES); Ventura, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Wallner, A. [Australian National University, Canberra (AU)

    2017-10-15

    A new high flux experimental area has recently become operational at the nTOF facility at CERN. This new measuring station, nTOF-EAR2, is placed at the end of a vertical beam line at a distance of approximately 20 m from the spallation target. The characterization of the neutron beam, in terms of flux, spatial profile and resolution function, is of crucial importance for the feasibility study and data analysis of all measurements to be performed in the new area. In this paper, the measurement of the neutron flux, performed with different solid-state and gaseous detection systems, and using three neutron-converting reactions considered standard in different energy regions is reported. The results of the various measurements have been combined, yielding an evaluated neutron energy distribution in a wide energy range, from 2 meV to 100 MeV, with an accuracy ranging from 2%, at low energy, to 6% in the high-energy region. In addition, an absolute normalization of the nTOF-EAR2 neutron flux has been obtained by means of an activation measurement performed with {sup 197}Au foils in the beam. (orig.)

  7. Topic 14+16: High-performance and scientific applications and extreme-scale computing (Introduction)

    KAUST Repository

    Downes, Turlough P.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Berry; Bürger, Gerd; Heistermann, Maik

    2017-09-01

    High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  9. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boessenkool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius–Clapeyron (CC scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  10. High-z X-ray Obscured Quasars in Galaxies with Extreme Mid-IR/Optical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Grappioni, C.

    2009-05-01

    Extreme Optical/Mid-IR color cuts have been used to uncover a population of dust-enshrouded, mid-IR luminous galaxies at high redshifts. Several lines of evidence point towards the presence of an heavily absorbed, possibly Compton-thick quasar at the heart of these systems. Nonetheless, the X-ray spectral properties of these intriguing sources still remain largely unexplored. Here we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of a large sample of 44 extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs) with F24 μm/FR>2000 and F24 μm>1.3 mJy selected from a 6 deg2 region in the SWIRE fields. The application of our selection criteria to a wide area survey has been capable of unveiling a population of X-ray luminous, absorbed z>1 quasars which is mostly missed in the traditional optical/X-ray surveys performed so far. Advances in the understanding of the X-ray properties of these recently-discovered sources by Simbol-X observations will be also discussed.

  11. Solving Component Structural Dynamic Failures Due to Extremely High Frequency Structural Response on the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Greg; Nesman, Thomas; Zoladz, Thomas; Szabo, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the capabilities to determine the root-cause failure of component failures have been limited to the analytical tools and the state of the art data acquisition systems. With this limited capability, many anomalies have been resolved by adding material to the design to increase robustness without the ability to determine if the design solution was satisfactory until after a series of expensive test programs were complete. The risk of failure and multiple design, test, and redesign cycles were high. During the Space Shuttle Program, many crack investigations in high energy density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps and high energy flows in the main propulsion system, have led to the discovery of numerous root-cause failures and anomalies due to the coexistences of acoustic forcing functions, structural natural modes, and a high energy excitation, such as an edge tone or shedding flow, leading the technical community to understand many of the primary contributors to extremely high frequency high cycle fatique fluid-structure interaction anomalies. These contributors have been identified using advanced analysis tools and verified using component and system tests during component ground tests, systems tests, and flight. The structural dynamics and fluid dynamics communities have developed a special sensitivity to the fluid-structure interaction problems and have been able to adjust and solve these problems in a time effective manner to meet budget and schedule deadlines of operational vehicle programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program over the years.

  12. Highly efficient periodically poled KTP-isomorphs with large apertures and extreme domain aspect-ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalias, Carlota; Zukauskas, Andrius; Tjörnhamman, Staffan; Viotti, Anne-Lise; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    Since the early 1990's, a substantial effort has been devoted to the development of quasi-phased-matched (QPM) nonlinear devices, not only in ferroelectric oxides like LiNbO3, LiTaO3 and KTiOPO4 (KTP), but also in semiconductors as GaAs, and GaP. The technology to implement QPM structures in ferroelectric oxides has by now matured enough to satisfy the most basic frequency-conversion schemes without substantial modification of the poling procedures. Here, we present a qualitative leap in periodic poling techniques that allows us to demonstrate devices and frequency conversion schemes that were deemed unfeasible just a few years ago. Thanks to our short-pulse poling and coercive-field engineering techniques, we are able to demonstrate large aperture (5 mm) periodically poled Rb-doped KTP devices with a highly-uniform conversion efficiency over the whole aperture. These devices allow parametric conversion with energies larger than 60 mJ. Moreover, by employing our coercive-field engineering technique we fabricate highlyefficient sub-µm periodically poled devices, with periodicities as short as 500 nm, uniform over 1 mm-thick crystals, which allow us to realize mirrorless optical parametric oscillators with counter-propagating signal and idler waves. These novel devices present unique spectral and tuning properties, superior to those of conventional OPOs. Furthermore, our techniques are compatible with KTA, a KTP isomorph with extended transparency in the mid-IR range. We demonstrate that our highly-efficient PPKTA is superior both for mid-IR and for green light generation - as a result of improved transmission properties in the visible range. Our KTP-isomorph poling techniques leading to highly-efficient QPM devices will be presented. Their optical performance and attractive damage thresholds will be discussed.

  13. Estimation of the high-spatial-resolution variability in extreme wind speeds for forestry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Venäläinen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The bioeconomy has an increasing role to play in climate change mitigation and the sustainable development of national economies. In Finland, a forested country, over 50 % of the current bioeconomy relies on the sustainable management and utilization of forest resources. Wind storms are a major risk that forests are exposed to and high-spatial-resolution analysis of the most vulnerable locations can produce risk assessment of forest management planning. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of the wind multiplier approach for downscaling of maximum wind speed, using 20 m spatial resolution CORINE land-use dataset and high-resolution digital elevation data. A coarse spatial resolution estimate of the 10-year return level of maximum wind speed was obtained from the ERA-Interim reanalyzed data. Using a geospatial re-mapping technique the data were downscaled to 26 meteorological station locations to represent very diverse environments. Applying a comparison, we find that the downscaled 10-year return levels represent 66 % of the observed variation among the stations examined. In addition, the spatial variation in wind-multiplier-downscaled 10-year return level wind was compared with the WAsP model-simulated wind. The heterogeneous test area was situated in northern Finland, and it was found that the major features of the spatial variation were similar, but in some locations, there were relatively large differences. The results indicate that the wind multiplier method offers a pragmatic and computationally feasible tool for identifying at a high spatial resolution those locations with the highest forest wind damage risks. It can also be used to provide the necessary wind climate information for wind damage risk model calculations, thus making it possible to estimate the probability of predicted threshold wind speeds for wind damage and consequently the probability (and amount of wind damage for certain forest stand configurations.

  14. Enumeration of an extremely high particle-to-PFU ratio for Varicella-zoster virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John E; Henderson, Ernesto P; Grose, Charles

    2009-07-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is renowned for its low titers. Yet investigations to explore the low infectivity are hampered by the fact that the VZV particle-to-PFU ratio has never been determined with precision. Herein, we accomplish that task by applying newer imaging technology. More than 300 images were taken of VZV-infected cells on 4 different samples at high magnification. We enumerated the total number of viral particles within 25 cm(2) of the infected monolayer at 415 million. Based on these numbers, the VZV particle:PFU ratio was approximately 40,000:1 for a cell-free inoculum.

  15. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    -walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated....../unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators...

  16. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  17. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control.