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Sample records for extreme response style

  1. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research: a global investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Jean-Paul; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing proc

  2. Extreme response style as a cultural response to climato-economic deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of climato-economic harshness on extreme response style. Climato-economic theorising postulates that a more threatening climate in poorer countries, in contrast to countries with a more comforting climate and richer countries with a more challenging climate, triggers into

  3. The Stability of Extreme Response Style and Acquiescence Over 8 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Lüdtke, Oliver; Zettler, Ingo; Böhnke, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the stability of extreme response style (ERS) and acquiescence response style (ARS) over a period of 8 years. ERS and ARS were measured with item sets drawn randomly from a large pool of items used in an ongoing German panel study. Latent-trait-state-occasion and latent-state models were applied to test the relationship between time-specific (state) response style behaviors and time-invariant trait components of response styles. The results show that across different random item samples, on average between 49% and 59% of the variance in the state response style factors was explained by the trait response style factors. This indicates that the systematic differences respondents show in their preferences for certain response categories are remarkably stable over a period of 8 years. The stability of ERS and ARS implies that it is important to consider response styles in the analysis of self-report data from polytomous rating scales, especially in longitudinal studies aimed at investigating stability in substantive traits. Furthermore, the stability of response styles raises the question in how far they might be considered trait-like latent variables themselves that could be of substantive interest.

  4. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  5. Extreme Response Style in Recurrent and Chronically Depressed Patients: Change with Antidepressant Administration and Stability during Continuation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Timothy J.; Feldman, Greg; Harley, Rebecca; Fresco, David M.; Graves, Lesley; Holmes, Avram; Bogdan, Ryan; Papakostas, George I.; Bohn, Laurie; Lury, R. Alana; Fava, Maurizio; Segal, Zindel V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined extreme response style in recurrently and chronically depressed patients, assessing its role in therapeutic outcome. During the acute phase, outpatients with major depressive disorder (N = 384) were treated with fluoxetine for 8 weeks. Remitted patients (n = 132) entered a continuation phase during which their fluoxetine dose…

  6. An examination of acquiescent response styles in cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Fischer; J.R.J. Fontaine; F.J.R. van de Vijver; D.A. van Hemert

    2006-01-01

    Response styles constitute a formidable challenge for cross-cultural research. In this article, three different response styles are discussed (acquiescence, extremity scoring, and social desirability). Acquiescence responding (ARS) is then integrated into a larger classical test theoretical framewor

  7. Support For Distributed Programming In Extreme Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dajda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic limitation emerging from practising eXtreme Programming methodology is theconstraint of close physical proximity between the members of the collaborating team including customer. This became the main idea behind research on XP supporting environmentfor geographically distributed teams. This work presents basic assumptions, elaborated architecture and selected implementation issues for the system of this type. Deliberations aresupplied with the initial results of the verification of its usability based on the users tests.

  8. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  9. Measuring response styles in Likert items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckenholt, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    The recently proposed class of item response tree models provides a flexible framework for modeling multiple response processes. This feature is particularly attractive for understanding how response styles may affect answers to attitudinal questions. Facilitating the disassociation of response styles and attitudinal traits, item response tree models can provide powerful process tests of how different response formats may affect the measurement of substantive traits. In an empirical study, 3 response formats were used to measure the 2-dimensional Personal Need for Structure traits. Different item response tree models are proposed to capture the response styles for each of the response formats. These models show that the response formats give rise to similar trait measures but different response-style effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Response styles and personality traits : A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Bartram, D.; Inceoglu, I.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the shared and unique meaning of acquiescent, extreme, midpoint, and socially desirable responding in association with the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32), a forced-choice format personality measure designed to be less affected by these response styles,

  11. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  12. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  13. Effects of physical characteristics and residence style on alignment of lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwon; Park, Hye-Sang

    2016-04-01

    This research was performed to identify the incidence of deformity of lower extremity and to identify the relationship of the incidence between the deformities. Once the incidences and relationship are found, next purpose was to find the effects of physical characteristics and residence styles on the development of lower extremity deformities. One hundred fifteen males and 108 females participated in this study. Data collecting was performed by questionnaire and visual postural evaluation. The incidence of genu varus was significantly high in standing-up life style compared to sitting-on life style (chi-square=8.28; P=0.004). However, the incidences of heel varus (chi-square=13.223; P=0.004) and femoral torsion (chi-square=19.347; Pstyle than standing-up life style. The incidences of genu varus (chi-square=24.18; Pstyle compared to standing-up life style (Pstyle against standing-up life style showed 6.6 times significantly high relationship in femoral torsion (95% confidence range, 1.64-26.47) in men.

  14. Response Styles and the Rural-Urban Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Troy D.; Abts, Koen; Vander Weyden, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of the rural-urban divide on mean response styles (RSs) and their relationships with the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. It uses the Representative Indicator Response Style Means and Covariance Structure (RIRSMACS) method and data from Guyana--a developing country in the Caribbean. The…

  15. Extreme wind turbine response during operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, S.R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of extreme response values is very important for structural design of wind turbines. Due to the influence of control system and nonlinear structural behavior the extreme response is usually assessed based on simulation of turbulence time series. In this paper the problem of statistical...... provides a tool to obtain consistent estimates incl. the statistical uncertainty. An illustrative example indicates that the statistical uncertainty is important compared to the coefficient of variation of the extreme response when the number of 10 minutes simulations at each mean wind speed is limited...

  16. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  17. Free style perforator based propeller flaps: Simple solutions for upper extremity reconstruction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Panse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of perforator flaps by Koshima et al. was met with much animosity in the plastic surgery fraternity. The safety concerns of these flaps following the intentional twist of the perforators have prevented widespread adoption of this technique. Use of perforator based propeller flaps in the lower extremity is gradually on the rise, but their use in upper extremity reconstruction is infrequently reported, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: We present a retrospective series of 63 free style perforator flaps used for soft tissue reconstruction of the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Flaps were performed by a single surgeon for various locations and indications over the upper extremity. Patient demographics, surgical indication, defect features, complications and clinical outcome are evaluated and presented as an uncontrolled case series. Results: 63 free style perforator based propeller flaps were used for soft tissue reconstruction of 62 patients for the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Of the 63 flaps, 31 flaps were performed for trauma, 30 for post burn sequel, and two for post snake bite defects. We encountered flap necrosis in 8 flaps, of which there was complete necrosis in 4 flaps, and partial necrosis in four flaps. Of these 8 flaps, 7 needed a secondary procedure, and one healed secondarily. Although we had a failure rate of 12-13%, most of our failures were in the early part of the series indicative of a learning curve associated with the flap. Conclusion: Free style perforator based propeller flaps are a reliable option for coverage of small to moderate sized defects. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.

  18. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Senormanci, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Guclu, Oya; Senormanci, Guliz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a c...

  19. The effect of response style on self-reported Conscientiousness across 20 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon; Cabrera, Helena F; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Church, A Timothy; Cissé, Daouda Dougoumalé; Dahourou, Donatien; Feng, Xiaohang; Guan, Yanjun; Hwang, Hyi-Sung; Idris, Fazilah; Katigbak, Marcia S; Kuppens, Peter; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Laurinavicius, Alfredas; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Matsumoto, David; Riemann, Rainer; Schug, Joanna; Simpson, Brian; Tseung-Wong, Caroline Ng; Johnson, Wendy

    2012-11-01

    Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were estimated based on respondents' ratings of 30 hypothetical people described in short vignettes. In the vignette ratings, clear cross-sample differences in extreme and neutral responding emerged. These responding style differences were correlated with mean self-reported Conscientiousness scores. Correcting self-reports for extreme and neutral responding changed sample rankings of Conscientiousness, as well as the predictive validities of these rankings for external criteria. The findings suggest that the puzzling country rankings of self-reported Conscientiousness may to some extent result from differences in response styles.

  20. Feeding practices correlated with authoritative parenting style and responsive feeding style scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objective was to identify correlations of authoritative parenting and responsive feeding styles with parental practices and child behaviors previously found to protect children from or increase risk of child obesity. Participants were 144 low-income mothers of 3- to 5-year-old children (71 gir...

  1. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  2. Learning Style Responses to an Online Soil Erosion Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Martha; Kettler, Timothy; Hussman, Dann

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate responses from students with different learning styles to the use of computer technology as a supplemental tool in teaching soil erosion concepts. The online lesson utilized photographs, illustrations, animations, and an interactive model that allowed students to manipulate factors influencing soil erosion. Students…

  3. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. The effect of management team characteristics on performance and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Along with mutual funds’ scale and quantity expanding for our country, it is common for fund management companies hiring new managers or the original fund managers mobilizing from one to another. The high liquidity of fund managers makes different managers regroup to manage the funds that belong to the same fund management company in each fund year. The characteristics of these different management team will influence the fund performance, and also affect the earnings of the fund management company and portfolio investors. The purpose of this paper is as follows. First, evaluating the effect of management team characteristics on portfolio characteristics: risk, performance, and extremity. Second, testing the hypothesis that the ranking of mid-year performance have effect on investment style extremity and research what relationship exists between this phenomenon and management team characteristics in depth.Design/methodology/approach: On the analysis of the relationships between the management team characteristics and portfolio characteristics, a series of OLS regressions is run where the time series regression model (the factor model and cross-sectional regression are included based on using the STATA, EVIEWS and MATLAB. The validity and practicability of the model will be verified in the paper. All of the above are aimed at achieving portfolio optimization and realizing the maximization of the interests of fund management companies and investors.Findings: The main findings are as follows. Teams with more doctors or MBA (CPA and CFA hold more risky portfolios, while teams with long team tenure hold less. More members and large gender diversity have negative effect on performance, and the opposite is age diversity. Teams with more members and long tenure tend to hold less extreme style decisions, but age diversity is related to more. Besides, tournament hypothesis does exist in China investment funds industry especially when the

  5. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  6. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer SENORMANCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a control group of 30 healthy males with similar sociodemographic characteristics. A sociodemographic data form, Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, Ruminative Response Scale-short version (RRS-SV, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used for data collection. Results: The MCQ-30 total, MCQ-30 uncontrollability and danger score, MCQ-30 need to control thoughts score and RRS-SV scores statistically significantly higher in study group compared the control group. After correcting for BDI by ANCOVA, the difference between MCQ-30 total score and RRS-SV disappeared. Conclusion: Internet addicts show ruminative responses instead of having an effective problem-solving attitude and defining problems; and this self-focused rumination leads an individual to recall more reinforced memories about the Internet so that the problem of Internet addiction becomes deeper. As a result of this study, although Internet addiction is accompanied by depression primarily or secondarily, manifestation of Internet addiction is exacerbated by depression through ruminative responses and metacognitions

  7. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.

  8. Reflections on different governance styles in regulating science: a contribution to 'Responsible Research and Innovation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeweerd, Laurens; Townend, David; Mesman, Jessica; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2015-01-01

    In European science and technology policy, various styles have been developed and institutionalised to govern the ethical challenges of science and technology innovations. In this paper, we give an account of the most dominant styles of the past 30 years, particularly in Europe, seeking to show their specific merits and problems. We focus on three styles of governance: a technocratic style, an applied ethics style, and a public participation style. We discuss their merits and deficits, and use this analysis to assess the potential of the recently established governance approach of 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI). Based on this analysis, we reflect on the current shaping of RRI in terms of 'doing governance'.

  9. Research progress of extreme climate and its vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The IPCC’s fifth assessment report indicates that climate warming is unquestionable, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events may increase, and extreme weather events can destroy the growth conditions of vegetation that is otherwise in a stable condition. Therefore, it is essential to research the formation of extreme weather events and its ecological response, both in terms scientific development and the needs of societal development. This paper mainly examines these issues from the following aspects: (1) the definition of extreme climate events and the methods of studying the associated response of vegetation; (2) the research progress on extreme climate events and their vegetation response; and (3) the future direction of research on extreme climate and its vegetation response.

  10. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  11. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric JIGUET; Lluis BROTONS; Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-01-01

    Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. Soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes) have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate.

  12. Stochastic procedures for extreme wave induced responses in flexible ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Seng, Sopheak

    2014-01-01

    estimation of extreme responses. Secondly, stochastic procedures using measured time series of responses as input are considered. The Peak-over-Threshold procedure and the Weibull fitting are applied and discussed for the extreme value predictions including possible corrections for clustering effects....

  13. Extreme wave and wind response predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders S.; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to advocate effective stochastic procedures, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind-induced loads.Due to the efficient optimization procedures implemented in standard FORM...

  14. Stochastic procedures for extreme wave induced responses in flexible ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jørgen Juncher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different procedures for estimation of the extreme global wave hydroelastic responses in ships are discussed. Firstly, stochastic procedures for application in detailed numerical studies (CFD are outlined. The use of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM to generate critical wave episodes of short duration, less than 1 minute, with prescribed probability content is discussed for use in extreme response predictions including hydroelastic behaviour and slamming load events. The possibility of combining FORM results with Monte Carlo simulations is discussed for faster but still very accurate estimation of extreme responses. Secondly, stochastic procedures using measured time series of responses as input are considered. The Peak-over-Threshold procedure and the Weibull fitting are applied and discussed for the extreme value predictions including possible corrections for clustering effects.

  15. Socially responsible investing and management style of mutual funds in the euronext stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses fund management styles on the Euronext stock exchanges. Especially, we investigate how social responsibility is accounted for. We use style analysis to assess fund performance in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands for over 800 investment funds during the 1990s. We find remarkab

  16. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  17. Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Miniat, Chelcy Ford; Vose, James M.

    2016-04-01

    Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the impact of the interaction between forest management and precipitation. We use daily long-term data from paired watersheds that have undergone forest harvest or species conversion. We find that interactive effects of climate change, represented by changes in observed precipitation trends, and forest management regime, significantly alter expected streamflow most often during extreme events, ranging from a decrease of 59% to an increase of 40% in streamflow, depending upon management. Our results suggest that vegetation might be managed to compensate for hydrologic responses due to climate change to help mitigate effects of extreme changes in precipitation.

  18. Most Likely Response Waves for Estimation of Extreme Value Ship Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Jesper Skjoldager; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    Fast and accurate methods for estimation of non-linear extreme value ship response statistics using 2D or 3D time-domain codes are of interest. The present study illustrates a new approach using Most Likely Response Waves (MLRW) to estimate the entire non-linear extreme response value distribution...

  19. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  20. [Hormonal changes in response to extreme environment factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubassov, R V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper presented current state about hormonal changes in sympathetic-adrenal, hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-gonads and thyroid levels from extreme environment factors. It's shown that hypophysis gonads and thyroid endocrine links along with sympathetic adrenal, hypophysis adrenal axes are very important relevance in response to extreme environment factors and organism adaptation. In this time a hormonal secretion changes corresponds as interrelated reactions cascade in mechanisms of homeostasis maintenance. A studying of this mechanisms and revealing of its role in stress pathogenesis is fundamental biomedical investigation task. A problem solving allow to perfect prophylactic and treatment methods against stress diseases.

  1. Mangrove species' responses to winter air temperature extremes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao

    2017-01-01

    The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of winter air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to winter temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to winter temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to winter temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of winter temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) winter air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological

  2. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  3. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  4. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  5. Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2014-08-28

    Snowfall is an important element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are important, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing climate, however, is unclear. Here I show that in simulations with climate models under a scenario of high emissions of greenhouse gases, by the late twenty-first century there are smaller fractional changes in the intensities of daily snowfall extremes than in mean snowfall over many Northern Hemisphere land regions. For example, for monthly climatological temperatures just below freezing and surface elevations below 1,000 metres, the 99.99th percentile of daily snowfall decreases by 8% in the multimodel median, compared to a 65% reduction in mean snowfall. Both mean and extreme snowfall must decrease for a sufficiently large warming, but the climatological temperature above which snowfall extremes decrease with warming in the simulations is as high as -9 °C, compared to -14 °C for mean snowfall. These results are supported by a physically based theory that is consistent with the observed rain-snow transition. According to the theory, snowfall extremes occur near an optimal temperature that is insensitive to climate warming, and this results in smaller fractional changes for higher percentiles of daily snowfall. The simulated changes in snowfall that I find would influence surface snow and its hazards; these changes also suggest that it may be difficult to detect a regional climate-change signal in snowfall extremes.

  6. Cataloguers May Tend to Have Learning Styles Different from Other Library Job Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon C. Tewell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether relationships exist between academic librarians’ learning styles and their professional work responsibilities. Design – Self-selecting survey. Setting – Email listservs. Subjects – 1579 academic librarians. Methods – The authors used the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire, based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model consisting of eight dimensions on four scales: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global. The multiple choice survey was distributed online to 23 email listservs for academic librarians in 2011, and to 14 additional listservs in 2013 targeting technical services librarians. 1579 responses were received in total, which were analyzed using ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc mean separation, and descriptively using observed frequencies. Main Results – In examining the relationship between positions and learning styles, the study revealed there to be five statistically significant p-values when the data were analyzed. Catalogers (n=145 were found to be more reflective learners compared to Administrative (n=321 and Instruction librarians (n=228 at the p = 0.009 level. Administrative, Instruction, and “Other” librarians were found to be more intuitive learners than Catalogers, who are more likely to be sensing learners, at the p = 0.0004 level. Digital librarians (n=40 are more likely to be visual learners and Catalogers more likely to be sequential learners when compared to several other librarian categories, at the p = 0.020 and p = 0.001 levels respectively. Conclusions – The authors concluded that there were some statistically significant differences between librarians’ learning styles scores according to job responsibilities. Catalogers were found to have different learning styles than other types of librarians for three out of four scales. Based on these findings, the authors indicate that further research into how librarians’ work

  7. A MEASURE OF PATIENT'S RESPONSE STYLE TO THERAPIST AND THERAPY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PATIENT RESPONSE STYLE SCALE (PRSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Besharat

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-disclosure, as communication of information about one's affects, behaviors, and cognitions, has been emphasized as one of the central issues of the psychotherapeutic process. Verbal and nonverbal aspects of disclosure are important factors of psychotherapeutic communication, both for therapist and patient. This paper presents an account of the development and reliability of an observational instrument to measure patient's response style to therapist and therapy: the self-disclosure and emotional engagement. One hundred thirty eating disordered patients were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Videotapes were assessed by two independent raters. Inter-rater reliability was good for both dimensions of the Patient Response Style Scale (PRSS: Self-Disclosure (SD and Emotional Engagement (EEn.

  8. Creative Response Styles: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Problem-Solving Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Gay L.

    1984-01-01

    Eighty-nine Black preschoolers (advantaged and disadvantaged) participated in sociodrama, verbal training, or control groups. Among results was that differences in socioeconomic groups were related to creative response style rather than to overall ideational, fluency, and originality in divergent production. (CL)

  9. A Comparison of the Response Styles Theory and the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Kirsty F.; Jose, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares predictions from the Hopelessness Theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) with the Response Styles Theory of depression (RST; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987) with data obtained from a preadolescent sample (ages 9 to 13 years). Three hundred ten preadolescents completed self-report measures of stress, sense of control,…

  10. Crop insurance evaluation in response to extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Marco; Ferrise, Roberto; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Crop yield insurance has been indicated as a tool to manage the uncertainties of crop yields (Sherrick et al., 2004) but the changes in crop yield variability as expected in the near future should be carefully considered for a better quantitative assessment of farmer's revenue risk and insurance values in a climatic change regime (Moriondo et al., 2011). Under this point of view, mechanistic crop growth models coupled to the output of General/Regional Circulation Models (GCMs, RCMs) offer a valuable tool to evaluate crop responses to climatic change and this approach has been extensively used to describe crop yield distribution in response to climatic change considering changes in both mean climate and variability. In this work, we studied the effect of a warmer climate on crop yield distribution of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp durum) in order to assess the economic significance of climatic change in a risk decision context. Specifically, the outputs of 6 RCMs (Tmin, Tmax, Rainfall, Global Radiation) (van der Linden and Mitchell 2009) have been statistically downscaled by a stochastic weather generator over eight sites across the Mediterranean basin and used to feed the crop growth model Sirius Quality. Three time slices were considered i) the present period PP (average of the period 1975-1990, [CO2]=350 ppm), 2020 (average of the period 2010-2030, SRES scenario A1b, [CO2]=415 ppm) and 2040 (average of the period 2030-2050, SRES scenario A1b, [CO2]=480 ppm). The effect of extreme climate events (i.e. heat stress at anthesis stage) was also considered. The outputs of these simulations were used to estimate the expected payout per hectare from insurance triggered when yields fall below a specific threshold defined as "the insured yield". For each site, the threshold was calculated as a fraction (70%) of the median of yield distribution under PP that represents the percentage of median yield above which indemnity payments are triggered. The results

  11. Increased Stream Temperature in Response to Extreme Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystem temperature regulation is essential to the survival of riverine fish species restricted to limited water temperature ranges. Dissolved oxygen levels, similarly necessary to fish health, are decreased by rising temperatures, as warmer waters can hold less oxygen than colder waters. Climate change projections forecast increased precipitation intensities, a trend that has already been observed in the past decade. Though extreme events are becoming more common, the stream temperature response to high-intensity rainfall is not yet completely understood. Precipitation and stream temperature records from gages in the Upper Midwestern United States were analyzed to determine whether there exists a positive relationship between high-intensity rainfall and stream temperature response. This region was chosen for its already observed trends in increasing precipitation intensity, and rural gages were used in order to minimize the effect of impervious surfaces on runoff amounts and temperature. Days with recorded precipitation were divided by an intensity threshold and classified as either high-intensity or low-intensity days. While the effects of rain events on temperature are variable, increases in stream temperature in response to high-intensity rainfall were observed. For some basins, daily maximum rates of stream temperature increase were, on average, greater for higher intensity events. Similarly, the average daily stream temperature range was higher in streams on days of high-intensity precipitation, compared to days of low-intensity events. Understanding the effect of increasing precipitation intensity in conjunction with rising air temperatures will provide insight into the future of aquatic ecosystems and their adaptation to climate change.

  12. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Donker, M.H.; Ouwens, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator effe

  13. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  14. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  15. Behavioural responses to hypoxia provide a non-invasive method for distinguishing between stress coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Olsén, Hanna L.; Ruiz-Gomez, Maria de Lourdes;

    2011-01-01

    can be characterised by contrasting behavioural responses to hypoxia. Two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains, bred for a low- (LR) and high- (HR) cortisol response to a standardized stressor, are suggested to resemble the proactive and reactive coping styles respectively. Therefore......, the findings of the present study demonstrate a repeatable difference in behavioural response to hypoxia between the two strains. The method presented could be utilized as a non-invasive method for sorting fish according to stress coping style....

  16. Response style and severity and chronicity of depressive disorders in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K; Vuorilehto, M; Jylhä, P; Isometsä, E

    2016-03-01

    Response styles theory of depression postulates that rumination is a central factor in occurrence, severity and maintaining of depression. High neuroticism has been associated with tendency to ruminate. We investigated associations of response styles and neuroticism with severity and chronicity of depression in a primary care cohort study. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 adult patients was screened for depression using the Prime-MD. Depressive and comorbid psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews. Of the 137 patients with depressive disorders, 82% completed the prospective five-year follow-up with a graphic life chart enabling evaluation of the longitudinal course of episodes. Neuroticism was measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI-Q). Response styles were investigated at five years using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ-43). At five years, rumination correlated significantly with scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (r=0.54), Beck Depression Inventory (r=0.61), Beck Anxiety Inventory (r=0.50), Beck Hopelessness Scale (r=0.51) and Neuroticism (r=0.58). Rumination correlated also with proportion of follow-up time spent depressed (r=0.38). In multivariate regression, high rumination was significantly predicted by current depressive symptoms and neuroticism, but not by anxiety symptoms or preceding duration of depressive episodes. Among primary care patients with depression, rumination correlated with current severity of depressive symptoms, but the association with preceding episode duration remained uncertain. The association between neuroticism and rumination was strong. The findings are consistent with rumination as a state-related phenomenon, which is also strongly intertwined with traits predisposing to depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Financial market response to extreme events indicating climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Hughes, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of recent extreme climatic events are considered to be strong evidence that the climate is warming, but these incremental advances in certainty often seem ignored by non-scientists. I identify two unusual types of events that are considered to be evidence of climate change, announcements by NASA that the global annual average temperature has set a new record, and the sudden collapse of major polar ice shelves, and then conduct an event study to test whether news of these events changes investors' valuation of energy companies, a subset of firms whose future performance is closely tied to climate change. I find evidence that both classes of events have influenced energy stock prices since the 1990s, with record temperature announcements on average associated with negative returns and ice shelf collapses associated with positive returns. I identify a variety of plausible mechanisms that may be driving these differential responses, discuss implications for energy markets' views on long-term regulatory risk, and conclude that investors not only pay attention to scientifically significant climate events, but discriminate between signals carrying different information about the nature of climatic change.

  18. Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shongwe, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often

  19. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Mφller

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1) A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2) a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3): 351-362,2011].

  20. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  1. Responsiveness of SF-36 and Lower Extremity Functional Scale for assessing outcomes in traumatic injuries of lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shin-Liang; Liang, Huey-Wen; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Yeh, Tian-Shin

    2014-11-01

    To assess the responsiveness of one generic questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and one region-specific outcome measure, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), in patients with traumatic injuries of lower extremities. A prospective and observational study of patients after traumatic injuries of lower extremities. Assessments were performed at baseline and 3 months later. In-patients and out-patients in two university hospitals in Taiwan. A convenience sample of 109 subjects were evaluated and 94 (86%) were followed. Not applicable. Assessments of responsiveness with distribution-based approach (effect size, standardized response mean [SRM], minimal detectable change) and anchor-based approach (receiver's operating curve analysis, ROC analysis). LEFS and physical component score (PCS) of SF-36 were all responsive to global improvement, with fair-to-good accuracy in discriminating between participants with and without improvement. The area under curve gained by ROC analysis for LEFS and SF-36 PCS was similar (0.65 vs. 0.70, p=0.26). Our findings revealed comparable responsiveness of LEFS and PCS of SF-36 in a sample of subjects with traumatic injuries of lower limbs. Either type of functional measure would be suitable for use in clinical trials where improvement in function was an endpoint of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior ...

  3. Modified Logistic Regression Approaches to Eliminating the Impact of Response Styles on DIF Detection in Likert-Type Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Extreme response styles (ERS) is prevalent in Likert- or rating-type data but previous research has not well-addressed their impact on differential item functioning (DIF) assessments. This study aimed to fill in the knowledge gap and examined their influence on the performances of logistic regression (LR) approaches in DIF detections, including the ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and the logistic discriminant functional analysis (LDFA). Results indicated that both the standard OLR and LDFA yielded severely inflated false positive rates as the magnitude of the differences in ERS increased between two groups. This study proposed a class of modified LR approaches to eliminating the ERS effect on DIF assessment. These proposed modifications showed satisfactory control of false positive rates when no DIF items existed and yielded a better control of false positive rates and more accurate true positive rates under DIF conditions than the conventional LR approaches did. In conclusion, the proposed modifications are recommended in survey research when there are multiple group or cultural groups.

  4. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto the stru......Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto...... the structure and the harvested power of the device as well as the fact that extreme loads may occur during operation and not at extreme wave states when the device is in storm protection mode. The extrapolation method is based on shortterm load time series and applied to a case study where up-scaled surge load...

  5. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Loureiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers.

  6. The Effects of Communication Style and Message Function in Triggering Responses and Critical Discussion in Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Allan C.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how differences in communication style affect how likely particular types of messages (e.g. arguments, evidence, critiques, explanations) were able to elicit critical responses during four online debates. Event sequence analysis was used to compare the response probabilities for each type of message across messages that used…

  7. Effects of Arm Ergometry Exercise on the Reaction, Movement and Response Times of the Lower Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.

    A study determined the effects of fatigue produced in the upper extremities on the reaction time, movement time, and response time of the lower extremities in 30 male subjects, 19-25 years old. Each subject participated in a 10 trial practice session one day prior to the experiment and immediately preceding the pre-test. The pre-test consisted of…

  8. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, W.W.A.; Proulx, T.; van Beest, I.

    2015-01-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this

  9. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, W.W.A.; Proulx, T.; van Beest, I.

    2015-01-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this ar

  10. The impact of instruction and response cost on the modulation of response-style in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhausen Hans-Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigated the impact of divergent instructions and response cost on strategic cognitive control in children with ADHD. Methods Children with ADHD (N = 34, combined subtype, and control children (N = 34 performed a series of self-paced computerized visual search tasks. The tasks varied by verbal instructions: after a baseline task, children were either instructed to work as fast as possible (speed instruction or as accurately as possible (accuracy instruction. In addition, tasks were performed with and without response cost. Results Both groups modulated latencies and errors according to instructions in a comparable way, except for latency in the accuracy - instruction without response cost, where control children showed a larger increase of response time. Response cost did not affect the modulation of response style in children with ADHD to a larger extent than in controls. However, with instructions group differences related to target criteria became clearly more accentuated compared to baseline but disappeared when response cost was added. Conclusions Delay aversion theory and motivational or state regulation models may account for different aspects of the results. Modifications related to task presentation, such as the emphasis put on different details in the verbal instruction, may lead to divergent results when comparing performances of children with ADHD and control children on a self-paced task.

  11. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei;

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...... Purcell factors, and thus has important implications for quantum plasmonics....

  12. An extremely large magnitude eruption close to the Plio-Pleistocene boundary: reconstruction of eruptive style and history of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephra, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, K.; Nagahashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.

    2001-06-01

    An extremely large magnitude eruption of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephra, close to the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, central Japan, spread volcanic materials widely more than 290,000 km 2 reaching more than 300 km from the probable source. Characteristics of the distal air-fall ash (>150 km away from the vent) and proximal pyroclastic deposits are clarified to constrain the eruptive style, history, and magnitude of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda eruption. Eruptive history had five phases. Phase 1 is phreatoplinian eruption producing >105 km 3 of volcanic materials. Phases 2 and 3 are plinian eruption and transition to pyroclastic flow. Plinian activity also occurred in phase 4, which ejected conspicuous obsidian fragments to the distal locations. In phase 5, collapse of eruption column triggered by phase 4, generated large pyroclastic flow in all directions and resulted in more than 250-350 km 3 of deposits. Thus, the total volume of this tephra amounts over 380-490 km 3. This indicates that the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephra is greater than 7. The huge thickness of reworked volcaniclastic deposits overlying the fall units also attests to the tremendous volume of eruptive materials of this tephra. Numerous ancient tephra layers with large volume have been reported worldwide, but sources and eruptive history are often unknown and difficult to determine. Comparison of distal air-fall ashes with proximal pyroclastic deposits revealed eruption style, history and magnitude of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephra. Hence, recognition of the Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephra, is useful for understanding the volcanic activity during the Pliocene to Pleistocene, is important as a boundary marker bed, and can be used to interpret the global environmental and climatic impact of large magnitude eruptions in the past.

  13. The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodyer Ian M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

  14. A Test of the Integration of the Hopelessness and Response Styles Theories of Depression in Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Parkinson, Carolyn; Stolow, Darren; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined several theories of depression in a sample of middle adolescents. At Time 1, 367 ninth graders completed measures assessing depressogenic inferential styles, the tendency to ruminate in response to depressed mood, and depressive symptoms. Six weeks later, participants completed measures assessing negative events and…

  15. Does Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) Mediate the Relation between Hostile Attributional Style and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Tanha, Marieh; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent…

  16. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleegers, Willem W A; Proulx, Travis; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-05-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this arousal. We hypothesize that this is due to the differential impact of measuring extremism on behavioral inhibition and approach systems following meaning violations, whereby extremism both reduces markers of conflict arousal (BIS) and increases values affirmation (BAS) unrelated to this initial arousal. Using pupil dilation as a proxy for immediate conflict arousal, we found that the same meaning violation (anomalous playing cards) evoked greater pupil dilation, and that this pupillary reaction was diminished in participants who earlier reported extreme beliefs. We also found that reporting extreme beliefs was associated with greater affirmation of an unrelated meaning framework, where this affirmation was unrelated to physiological markers of conflict arousal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Slow and fast responses of mean and extreme precipitation to different forcing in CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillmann, Jana; Stjern, Camilla Weum; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.

    2017-06-01

    We are investigating the fast and slow responses of changes in mean and extreme precipitation to different climate forcing mechanisms, such as greenhouse gas and solar forcing, to understand whether rapid adjustments are important for extreme precipitation. To disentangle the effect of rapid adjustment to a given forcing on the overall change in extreme precipitation, we use a linear regression method that has been previously applied to mean precipitation. Equilibrium experiments with preindustrial CO2 concentrations and reduced solar constant were compared with a four times CO2 concentration experiment for 10 state-of-the-art climate models. We find that the two forcing mechanisms, greenhouse gases and solar, impose clearly different rapid adjustment signals in the mean precipitation, while such difference is difficult to discern for extreme precipitation due to large internal variability. In contrast to mean precipitation, changes in extreme precipitation scale with surface temperature trends and do not seem to depend on the forcing mechanism.

  18. Tourniquet-induced systemic inflammatory response in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury in animals produces significant systemic inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether a biologic response occurs in a clinically relevant model of tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were prospectively randomized into controls (no tourniquet) and subjects (tourniquet-controlled). The effects of tourniquet-induced reperfusion on monocyte activation state, neutrophil activation state, and transendothelial migration (TEM) were studied. Changes in the cytokines implicated in reperfusion injury, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-10 were also determined. RESULTS: After 15 minutes of reperfusion, neutrophil and monocyte activation were significantly increased. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pooled subject (ischemia-primed) plasma significantly increased TEM. In contrast, TEM was not significantly altered by ischemia-primed plasma pretreatment of the endothelial monolayer. Significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta were observed in subjects compared with controls after 15 minutes of reperfusion. There was no significant difference in serum IL-10 levels between the groups at all the time points studied. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a transient neutrophil and monocyte activation after tourniquet-ischemia that translates into enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential for tissue injury.

  19. Responses of greenhouse gas fluxes to climate extremes in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Fan, Wenyu; Kang, Xiaoming; Wang, Yanfen; Cui, Xiaoyong; Xu, Chengyuan; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hao, Yanbin

    2016-10-01

    Climate extremes are expected to increase in frequency and intensity as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change attributed to the rise of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, studies on the impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are limited. Here, we experimentally imposed extreme drought and a heat wave (∼60-year recurrence) to investigate their effects on GHGs fluxes of a semiarid grassland in China. We estimated a 16% and 38% percent reduction in net ecosystem CO2 uptake caused by the heat wave and drought respectively, but via different mechanisms. Drought reduced gross ecosystem productively (GEP) and to a lower extent ecosystem respiration (ER). By contrast, the simulated heat wave suppressed only GEP while ER remained stable. The climate extremes also created a legacy effect on GEP and NEE lasting until the end of the growing season, whereas ER recovered immediately. Although CH4 and N2O fluxes were unaffected by the heat wave, drought promoted CH4 uptake and suppressed N2O emission during the treatment period. The effect of drought on GHGs fluxes generally overwhelmed that of the heat wave treatment, and there were no interactive effects of these two types of climate extremes. Our results showed that responses of ecosystem GHGs exchange to climate extremes are strongly regulated by soil moisture status. In conclusion, future amplification of climate extremes could decrease the sink for GHGs, especially CO2, in this semiarid grasslands.

  20. Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Observational data during the past several decades show faster increase of hot temperature extremes over land than changes in mean temperature. Towards more extreme temperature is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. However, the ecological impacts of hot extremes on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot temperature extremes on aboveground net primary production (ANPP by combining MODIS EVI dataset and in situ climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climates. Our results showed that higher mean annual maximum temperatures (Tmax greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effects of precipitation. Relative decreases in ANPP were 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase were 5% for forest. We also observed a significant positive relationship between interannual ANPP and Tmax for forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001. This line of evidence suggests that hot temperature extreme leads to contrasting ecosystem-level response of vegetation production to warming climate between grassland and forest. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily temperature as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider these contrasting responses to more hot temperature extreme regimes associated with climate change.

  1. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  2. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Otten, R; Vermaes, Ignace P R; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-10-01

    This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence. This was the only negative cognitive error that predicted depressive symptoms. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of the three response styles. In line with the theory, ruminating was positively and problem-solving was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Distractive response styles were not related to depressive symptoms. The relationship between response styles, cognitive errors and depressive symptoms were similar for both groups. The main premises of both theories of depression are equally applicable to adolescents with and without MBID. The cognitive error 'Underestimation of the ability to cope' poses a specific risk factor for developing a depression for adolescents with MBID and requires special attention in treatment and prevention of depression. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescents with MBID, little is known about the etiology and cognitive processes that play a role in the development of depression in this group. The current paper fills this gap in research by examining the core tenets of two important theories on the etiology of depression (Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory) in a clinical sample of adolescents with and without MBID. This paper demonstrated that the theories are equally applicable to adolescents with MBID, as to adolescents with average intellectual ability. However, the cognitive bias 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was the only cognitive error

  3. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Donker, Marianne H; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2016-05-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator effect of subjective well-being on the association of BMI with the scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions (DEBQ-E). Study 2 tested in women (n = 832) whether items on desire to eat in response to positive emotions loaded on the same factor as those in response to negative emotions and body mass. Study 3 assessed in the total sample (n = 203) and an overweight subsample (n = 40) a) whether self-reported desire to eat in response to positive emotions predicted actual food intake and b) whether this also held true over and above self-reported desire to eat in response to negative emotions. Study 1 showed only for women with low positive affect a significant positive association of BMI with DEBQ-E. In Study 2, only items on desire to eat in response to negative emotions loaded on the same factor as BMI. Study 3: In the total sample, the significant effect on food intake of the scale on desire to eat in response to positive emotions disappeared when a scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions was added to the model. In the overweight-subsample there was only an effect on food intake for desire to eat in response to negative emotions. It is concluded that only desire to eat in response to negative emotions is an 'obese' eating style, suggesting that Kummerspeck is not a misnomer.

  4. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  5. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  6. Measuring responsive style in parents who use AAC with their children: development and evaluation of a new instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Malin; Ferm, Ulrika; Thunberg, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument - the Responsive Augmentative and Alternative Communication Style (RAACS) scale Version 2 - to assess the communicative style of parents as they interact with their children using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This scale was used to analyze play interactions between 43 parents and 28 children with different diagnoses (including Down syndrome, autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability), aged between 12 and 60 months. Parent-child interactions were observed both before and after parent participation in ComAlong, a training course on using responsive communication and AAC to support interaction with children. Based on an analysis of the results, Version 3 of the RAACS scale was developed and is recommended for future use. Analyses of Version 3 showed acceptable inter- and intra-coder reliability, and excellent internal consistency.

  7. Tree-ring responses to extreme climate events as benchmarks for terrestrial dynamic vegetation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rammig

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can trigger exceptional responses in terrestrial ecosystems, for instance by altering growth or mortality rates. Effects of this kind are often manifested in reductions of the local net primary production (NPP. Investigating a set of European long-term data on annual radial tree growth confirms this pattern: we find that 53% of tree ring width (TRW indices are below one standard deviation, and up to 16% of the TRW values are below two standard deviations in years with extremely high temperatures and low precipitation. Based on these findings we investigate if climate driven patterns in long-term tree growth data may serve as benchmarks for state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation models such as LPJmL. The model simulates NPP but not explicitly the radial tree ring growth, hence requiring a generic method to ensure an objective comparison. Here we propose an analysis scheme that quantifies the coincidence rate of climate extremes with some biotic responses (here TRW or simulated NPP. We find that the reduction in tree-ring width during drought extremes is lower than the corresponding reduction of simulated NPP. We identify ten extreme years during the 20th century in which both, model and measurements indicate high coincidence rates across Europe. However, we detect substantial regional differences in simulated and observed responses to extreme events. One explanation for this discrepancy could be that the tree-ring data have preferentially been sampled at more climatically stressed sites. The model-data difference is amplified by the fact that dynamic vegetation models are designed to simulate mean ecosystem responses at landscape or regional scale. However, we find that both model-data and measurements display carry-over effects from the previous year. We conclude that using radial tree growth is a good basis for generic model-benchmarks if the data are analyzed by scale-free measures such as coincidence analysis. Our study shows

  8. Photosynthesis in extreme environments: responses to different light regimes in the Antarctic alga Koliella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Sciuto, Katia; Meneghesso, Andrea; Moro, Isabella; Rascio, Nicoletta; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic algae play a fundamental role in polar ecosystem thanks to their ability to grow in an extreme environment characterized by low temperatures and variable illumination. Here, for prolonged periods, irradiation is extremely low and algae must be able to harvest light as efficiently as possible. On the other side, at low temperatures even dim irradiances can saturate photosynthesis and drive to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Colonization of this extreme environment necessarily required the optimization of photosynthesis regulation mechanisms by algal organisms. In order to investigate these adaptations we analyzed the time course of physiological and morphological responses to different irradiances in Koliella antarctica, a green microalga isolated from Ross Sea (Antarctica). Koliella antarctica not only modulates cell morphology and composition of its photosynthetic apparatus on a long-term acclimation, but also shows the ability of a very fast response to light fluctuations. Koliella antarctica controls the activity of two xanthophyll cycles. The first, involving lutein epoxide and lutein, may be important for the growth under very low irradiances. The second, involving conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin, is relevant to induce a fast and particularly strong non-photochemical quenching, when the alga is exposed to higher light intensities. Globally K. antarctica thus shows the ability to activate a palette of responses of the photosynthetic apparatus optimized for survival in its natural extreme environment.

  9. Response spectrum method for extreme wave loading with higher order components of drag force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Tabeshpour Mohammad; Mani, Fatemi Dezfouli; Mohammad Ali, Dastan Diznab; Saied, Mohajernasab; Saied, Seif Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomic responses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N Ari; Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M; Einstein, Francine H

    2014-10-10

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular ageing and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life.

  11. Simulation study for analysis of binary responses in the presence of extreme case problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekaya Romdhane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of variance components for binary responses in presence of extreme case problems tend to be biased due to an under-identified likelihood. The bias persists even when a normal prior is used for the fixed effects. Methods A simulation study was carried out to investigate methods for the analysis of binary responses with extreme case problems. A linear mixed model that included a fixed effect and random effects of sire and residual on the liability scale was used to generate binary data. Five simulation scenarios were conducted based on varying percentages of extreme case problems, with true values of heritability equal to 0.07 and 0.17. Five replicates of each dataset were generated and analyzed with a generalized prior (g-prior of varying weight. Results Point estimates of sire variance using a normal prior were severely biased when the percentage of extreme case problems was greater than 30%. Depending on the percentage of extreme case problems, the sire variance was overestimated when a normal prior was used by 36 to 102% and 25 to 105% for a heritability of 0.17 and 0.07, respectively. When a g-prior was used, the bias was reduced and even eliminated, depending on the percentage of extreme case problems and the weight assigned to the g-prior. The lowest Pearson correlations between true and estimated fixed effects were obtained when a normal prior was used. When a 15% g-prior was used instead of a normal prior with a heritability equal to 0.17, Pearson correlations between true and fixed effects increased by 11, 20, 23, 27, and 60% for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 75% of extreme case problems, respectively. Conversely, Pearson correlations between true and estimated fixed effects were similar, within datasets of varying percentages of extreme case problems, when a 5, 10, or 15% g-prior was included. Therefore this indicates that a model with a g-prior provides a more adequate estimation of fixed effects. Conclusions The

  12. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  13. Application of the Most Likely Extreme Response Method for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Platt, Andrew; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Lawson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Extreme loads are often a key cost driver for wave energy converters (WECs). As an alternative to exhaustive Monte Carlo or long-term simulations, the most likely extreme response (MLER) method allows mid- and high-fidelity simulations to be used more efficiently in evaluating WEC response to events at the edges of the design envelope, and is therefore applicable to system design analysis. The study discussed in this paper applies the MLER method to investigate the maximum heave, pitch, and surge force of a point absorber WEC. Most likely extreme waves were obtained from a set of wave statistics data based on spectral analysis and the response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the floating body; the RAOs were computed from a simple radiation-and-diffraction-theory-based numerical model. A weakly nonlinear numerical method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were then applied to compute the short-term response to the MLER wave. Effects of nonlinear wave and floating body interaction on the WEC under the anticipated 100-year waves were examined by comparing the results from the linearly superimposed RAOs, the weakly nonlinear model, and CFD simulations. Overall, the MLER method was successfully applied. In particular, when coupled to a high-fidelity CFD analysis, the nonlinear fluid dynamics can be readily captured.

  14. Application of the Most Likely Extreme Response Method for Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Platt, Andrew; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-24

    Extreme loads are often a key cost driver for wave energy converters (WECs). As an alternative to exhaustive Monte Carlo or long-term simulations, the most likely extreme response (MLER) method allows mid- and high-fidelity simulations to be used more efficiently in evaluating WEC response to events at the edges of the design envelope, and is therefore applicable to system design analysis. The study discussed in this paper applies the MLER method to investigate the maximum heave, pitch, and surge force of a point absorber WEC. Most likely extreme waves were obtained from a set of wave statistics data based on spectral analysis and the response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the floating body; the RAOs were computed from a simple radiation-and-diffraction-theory-based numerical model. A weakly nonlinear numerical method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were then applied to compute the short-term response to the MLER wave. Effects of nonlinear wave and floating body interaction on the WEC under the anticipated 100-year waves were examined by comparing the results from the linearly superimposed RAOs, the weakly nonlinear model, and CFD simulations. Overall, the MLER method was successfully applied. In particular, when coupled to a high-fidelity CFD analysis, the nonlinear fluid dynamics can be readily captured.

  15. Antarctic climate change: extreme events disrupt plastic phenotypic response in Adelie penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Lescroël

    Full Text Available In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae breeding in the Ross Sea. A 'natural experiment' brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The 'natural experiment' uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise.

  16. Antarctic climate change: extreme events disrupt plastic phenotypic response in Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroël, Amélie; Ballard, Grant; Grémillet, David; Authier, Matthieu; Ainley, David G

    2014-01-01

    In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC) on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding in the Ross Sea. A 'natural experiment' brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The 'natural experiment' uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise.

  17. The Political Economy of Rhetorical Style: Hugh Blair's Response to the Civic-Commercial Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Recent scholarship treats Hugh Blair's "Lectures" on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) as an effort to endorse either the liberal or the civic political traditions in eighteenth-century Scotland. This essay questions this orthodoxy by reading the "Lectures", and in particular Blair's attention to considerations of rhetorical style, against their…

  18. Coping styles and response to high versus low-structure individual counseling for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Charles; Gottheil, Edward; Patkar, Ashwin; Weinstein, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    We compared outcomes during and after treatment for mixed substance dependent patients (N=143) randomly assigned to a high-structure, behaviorally-oriented (HSB) or a low-structure, facilitative (LSF) individual counseling style. We hypothesized that patients with different coping characteristics would respond differently to the two styles of counseling. Patients were treated in once-weekly individual HSB or LSF counseling for up to 12 weeks. Outcome measures included patient and counselor ratings of benefit, retention, symptom reduction, and negative urines; follow-up assessments included control of substance use and psychosocial adjustment. While no differences in outcomes during or after treatment were found for the HSB and LSF patients, both groups did improve equally. Contrary to our hypothesis, our coping measures did not predict different outcomes for patients treated in the LSF and HSB styles. Post-hoc analyses, however, revealed that outcomes could be predicted in each style from patterns of pretreatment characteristics, which included measures of coping strategies, psychological characteristics, and treatment readiness. Moreover, the patterns associated with positive outcomes were different for the HSB and LSF patients: high treatment readiness was most important for success in HSB counseling, while low psychiatric severity and positive coping styles were important for the LSF clients. The finding of no HSB-LSF outcome differences calls into question the exclusive emphasis on behavioral treatment approaches by the present-day managed care industry. Also, the traditional approach to matching studies, ie, employing one patient characteristic at a time to predict differential outcomes for particular treatments, may be simplistic. An alternative approach employing multivariate statistical procedures to predict outcomes from several patient characteristics may hold more promise.

  19. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  20. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  1. A plant's perspective of extremes: terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Rammig, Anja; Wolf, Annett; Bartholomeus, Ruud P; Bonfante, Antonello; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Dury, Marie; Gloning, Philipp; Abou Jaoudé, Renée; Klein, Tamir; Kuster, Thomas M; Martins, Monica; Niedrist, Georg; Riccardi, Maria; Wohlfahrt, Georg; de Angelis, Paolo; de Dato, Giovanbattista; François, Louis; Menzel, Annette; Pereira, Marízia

    2013-01-01

    We review observational, experimental, and model results on how plants respond to extreme climatic conditions induced by changing climatic variability. Distinguishing between impacts of changing mean climatic conditions and changing climatic variability on terrestrial ecosystems is generally underrated in current studies. The goals of our review are thus (1) to identify plant processes that are vulnerable to changes in the variability of climatic variables rather than to changes in their mean, and (2) to depict/evaluate available study designs to quantify responses of plants to changing climatic variability. We find that phenology is largely affected by changing mean climate but also that impacts of climatic variability are much less studied, although potentially damaging. We note that plant water relations seem to be very vulnerable to extremes driven by changes in temperature and precipitation and that heat-waves and flooding have stronger impacts on physiological processes than changing mean climate. Moreover, interacting phenological and physiological processes are likely to further complicate plant responses to changing climatic variability. Phenological and physiological processes and their interactions culminate in even more sophisticated responses to changing mean climate and climatic variability at the species and community level. Generally, observational studies are well suited to study plant responses to changing mean climate, but less suitable to gain a mechanistic understanding of plant responses to climatic variability. Experiments seem best suited to simulate extreme events. In models, temporal resolution and model structure are crucial to capture plant responses to changing climatic variability. We highlight that a combination of experimental, observational, and/or modeling studies have the potential to overcome important caveats of the respective individual approaches.

  2. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  3. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKlucken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fearful stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers.In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS- did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs were measured continuously.As the main findings, we found increased neural activations in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex as well as conditioned SCRs were found in repressors.The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is also mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fearful stimuli, but also a second emotion down-regulating process.

  4. Using participatory agent-based models to measure flood managers' decision thresholds in extreme event response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, A.; Douglass, E.; Gray, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme flooding impacts to coastal cities are not only a function of storm characteristics, but are heavily influenced by decision-making and preparedness in event-level response. While recent advances in climate and hydrological modeling make it possible to predict the influence of climate change on storm and flooding patterns, flood managers still face a great deal of uncertainty related to adapting organizational responses and decision thresholds to these changing conditions. Some decision thresholds related to mitigation of extreme flood impacts are well-understood and defined by organizational protocol, but others are difficult to quantify due to reliance on contextual expert knowledge, experience, and complexity of information necessary to make certain decisions. Our research attempts to address this issue by demonstrating participatory modeling methods designed to help flood managers (1) better understand and parameterize local decision thresholds in extreme flood management situations, (2) collectively learn about scaling management decision thresholds to future local flooding scenarios and (3) identify effective strategies for adaptating flood mitigation actions and organizational response to climate change-intensified flooding. Our agent-based system dynamic models rely on expert knowledge from local flood managers and sophisticated, climate change-informed hydrological models to simulate current and future flood scenarios. Local flood managers from interact with these models by receiving dynamic information and making management decisions as a flood scenario progresses, allowing parametrization of decision thresholds under different scenarios. Flooding impacts are calculated in each iteration as a means of discussing effectiveness of responses and prioritizing response alternatives. We discuss the findings of this participatory modeling and educational process from a case study of Boston, MA, and discuss transferability of these methods to other types

  5. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Virgílio Loureiro; Renato Brasil; Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed trainin...

  6. Migrant mothers in unstable environments balancing healthy life styles and parenting responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    ” as presented by health care professionals working with childhood weight interventions; the everyday life of vulnerable migrant families; the balance between attempts to promote a healthy life style and other needs and concerns in the family; the link between family conditions, unstable environments......-structured interviews with Danish health care professionals and families with migrant/refugee background who are dealing with weight problems....

  7. Role of Soils in Hydrologic Response to Climate Extremes and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing demand for water in response to growing global population underscores the need to better understand linkages and feedbacks between land surface processes and water resources to manage water resources more sustainably. Here we examine the role of soils on hydrologic response to climate extremes and land use change using field scale and remote sensing data at point to basin scales in the U.S. High Plains and California Central Valley. In the U.S. High Plains, soil-textural variations make the difference between sustainable water resources related to coarse-grained soils in the northern High Plains and groundwater mining associated with fine-grained soils in much of the central and southern High Plains. Field data show dynamic response of water resources to droughts and land use change in the northern High Plains with limited response in much of the central and southern High Plains. Soil profiles provide a key to the past by archiving system response to environmental changes in subsurface soil physics and environmental tracer data. Areas with coarse-grained soils are vulnerable to reduced recharge during droughts and increased recharge with land use change from perennial to annual vegetation whereas fine-grained soils are generally insensitive to these stresses. GRACE satellite monitoring of total water storage variations in response to recent droughts is consistent with these spatial variations in soils across the High Plains and hydrologic response to droughts.In the California Central Valley, coarse grained soils in alluvial basins result in dynamic hydrologic responses to climate extremes. GRACE satellite data show marked depletion in total water storage in response to recent droughts reflecting groundwater and surface reservoir storage declines consistent with regional groundwater modeling and monitoring data. The coarse alluvial soils typical of much of the region facilitate managed aquifer recharge in depleted aquifers to complement surface reservoir

  8. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar2@buffalo.edu; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  9. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  10. Endocrine and metabolic responses to extreme altitude and physical exercise in climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benso, Andrea; Broglio, Fabio; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Lucatello, Barbara; Lanfranco, Fabio; Ghigo, Ezio; Grottoli, Silvia

    2007-12-01

    Chronic hypoxia induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. High-altitude (HA) exposure is a physiological model of hypoxia. To further investigate the endocrine and metabolic responses to extreme HA. We studied nine male elite climbers at sea level and at 5200 m after climbing Mt. Everest. After 7 weeks at HA, body weight was reduced (Pweight loss, leptin levels showed non-significant trend toward decrease, while ghrelin levels did not change at all. The results of the present study in a unique experimental human model of maximal exposure to altitude and physical exercise demonstrate that extreme HA and strenuous physical exercise are coupled with specific endocrine adaptations. These include increased activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and a low T(3) syndrome but no change in ghrelin and leptin that was expected taking into account body weight decrease. These findings would contribute to better understanding human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.

  11. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  12. Adrenocortical stress responses influence an invasive vertebrate's fitness in an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Tim S; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim

    2013-10-07

    Continued range expansion into physiologically challenging environments requires invasive species to maintain adaptive phenotypic performance. The adrenocortical stress response, governed in part by glucocorticoid hormones, influences physiological and behavioural responses of vertebrates to environmental stressors. However, any adaptive role of this response in invasive populations that are expanding into extreme environments is currently unclear. We experimentally manipulated the adrenocortical stress response of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to investigate its effect on phenotypic performance and fitness at the species' range front in the Tanami Desert, Australia. Here, toads are vulnerable to overheating and dehydration during the annual hot-dry season and display elevated plasma corticosterone levels indicative of severe environmental stress. By comparing unmanipulated control toads with toads whose adrenocortical stress response was manipulated to increase acute physiological stress responsiveness, we found that control toads had significantly reduced daily evaporative water loss and higher survival relative to the experimental animals. The adrenocortical stress response hence appears essential in facilitating complex phenotypic performance and setting fitness trajectories of individuals from invasive species during range expansion.

  13. Global self-esteem and method effects: competing factor structures, longitudinal invariance and response styles in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Róbert; Szigeti, Réka; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a widely used measure for assessing self-esteem, but its factor structure is debated. Our goals were to compare 10 alternative models for RSES; and to quantify and predict the method effects. This sample involves two waves (N=2513 ninth-grade and 2370 tenth-grade students) from five waves of a school-based longitudinal study. RSES was administered in each wave. The global self-esteem factor with two latent method factors yielded the best fit to the data. The global factor explained large amount of the common variance (61% and 46%); however, a relatively large proportion of the common variance was attributed to the negative method factor (34 % and 41%), and a small proportion of the common variance was explained by the positive method factor (5% and 13%). We conceptualized the method effect as a response style, and found that being a girl and having higher number of depressive symptoms were associated with both low self-esteem and negative response style measured by the negative method factor. Our study supported the one global self-esteem construct and quantified the method effects in adolescents. PMID:24061931

  14. Global self-esteem and method effects: competing factor structures, longitudinal invariance, and response styles in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Róbert; Szigeti, Réka; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a widely used measure for assessing self-esteem, but its factor structure is debated. Our goals were to compare 10 alternative models for the RSES and to quantify and predict the method effects. This sample involves two waves (N =2,513 9th-grade and 2,370 10th-grade students) from five waves of a school-based longitudinal study. The RSES was administered in each wave. The global self-esteem factor with two latent method factors yielded the best fit to the data. The global factor explained a large amount of the common variance (61% and 46%); however, a relatively large proportion of the common variance was attributed to the negative method factor (34 % and 41%), and a small proportion of the common variance was explained by the positive method factor (5% and 13%). We conceptualized the method effect as a response style and found that being a girl and having a higher number of depressive symptoms were associated with both low self-esteem and negative response style, as measured by the negative method factor. Our study supported the one global self-esteem construct and quantified the method effects in adolescents.

  15. 抑郁症患者中庸思维、反应方式和情绪的关系%Relationship between zhongyong thinking -style, response style and emotion in depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭轶; 李雪晶; 钟婵; 黄新英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨抑郁症患者中庸思维、反应方式和情绪的关系。方法运用中庸思维量表、反应方式问卷、正性负性情绪量表对300例符合ICD-10中抑郁症诊断的患者进行测评,并对三者的关系进行分析。结果沉思与负性情绪呈正相关( r =0.268,P <0.01),分心与正性情绪呈正相关( r =0.359,P <0.01),与负性情绪呈负相关( r =-0.167,P <0.05);中庸思维与分心呈正相关( r =0.242,P <0.01),与负性情绪呈负相关( r=-0.237,P<0.01)。中庸思维调节沉思和负性情绪的关系。结论中庸思维程度不会改变分心对情绪的影响,中庸思维程度越低沉思对负性情绪的影响越大。%Objective To explore the relationship between zhongyong thinking -style ,response style and emotion in depression .Methods Three hundred depression patients in accord with ICD -10 diagnostic criteria were investigated with zhongyong thinking -style scale ,Response Style Questionnaire and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS ) .Results Rumination had positive correlation with negative emotion (r = 0 .268 ,P< 0 .01) .Distraction had positive correlation with positive emotion (r = 0 .359 ,P < 0 .01) and negative correlation with negative emotion (r = - 0 .167 ,P < 0 .05) . Zhongyong thinking -style had positive correlation with distraction (r = 0 .242 ,P< 0 .01) and negative correlation with negative emotion (r = -0 .237 ,P < 0 .01) .Zhongyong thinking -style moderated the relationship between rumination and negative emotion .Conclusions The level of zhongyong thinking -style won't change the influence of distractions on mood .With lower zhongyong thinking -style ,the in‐fluence of rumination on negative emotion will be greater .

  16. Geomorphically Effective Energy Expenditure for Quantifying Channel Responses to Extreme Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, William; Righini, Margherita; Wohl, Ellen E.; Borga, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rathburn, Sara L.; Surian, Nicola; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatio-temporal rainfall variability and therefore show variations in energy expenditure and associated geomorphic impacts that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on variations in flood intensity. Geomorphic modification is expected to occur in river channels when driving forces (i.e., hydraulic and abrasive forces of water and sediment acting on the channel) exceed threshold of resisting forces (i.e., the ability of channel boundaries to remain unchanged by the passage of water and sediments). However, these forces that determine the capacity of floods to modify existing channel configuration are extremely difficult to quantify. Geomorphic impacts or hazards usually take the form of erosional and depositional modification of the pre-flood channel and valley geometry. A central question in hydrogeomorphology relates to why flash floods of similar magnitudes and intensities sometimes produce dissimilar geomorphic results? In fact, some less magnitude floods in terms of discharge per unit of drainage area have been found to produce major geomorphic damage than some high magnitude events. Furthermore, the use of peak instantaneous flow parameters such as discharge, velocity, shear stress and stream power to quantify geomorphic changes have often been non-deterministic and/or inconclusive. Investigations are therefore needed on how factors such as channel geometry, substrate, riparian vegetation, sediment supply, and flood magnitude and duration can interact and influence geomorphic effectiveness of high magnitude floods. The main objective of this study is to assess the coupled influence of flood-flow duration and total energy expenditure on geomorphic response to extreme flash floods, which is aimed at developing an index that combines flow duration, stream power per unit area and threshold for major channel erosion to be evaluated as a predictor of geomorphic adjustment

  17. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds.

  18. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads.

  19. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  20. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation, and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings.

  1. Leadership Style, Crisis Response and Blame Management: The case of Hurricane Katrina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; t Hart, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072685387; McConnell, A.; Preston, T

    2010-01-01

    Crisis management research has largely ignored one of the most pressing challenges political leaders are confronted with in the wake of a large-scale extreme event: how to cope with what is commonly called the blame game. In this article, we provide a heuristic to help understand political leader

  2. Event-related potential responses to beloved and familiar faces in different marriage styles: evidence from Mosuo subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eWu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime. In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity.

  3. A vulnerability-stress examination of response styles theory in adolescence: stressors, sex differences, and symptom specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-01-01

    The stress-reactivity extension of the response styles theory of depression suggests that individuals who ruminate (or fail to engage in distraction or problem solving) in response to dysphoric mood are likely to experience higher levels of depression following stress. However, previous studies have not addressed (a) the specificity of these vulnerability-stress relations to symptoms of depression following different types of stressors, and (b) to what extent rumination and stress can account for the sex differences in depression that emerge during early adolescence. A community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12-13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit 9 months later. Response styles and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events, emotional maltreatment, peer relational victimization, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at follow-up. Higher rumination and lower distraction/problem solving interacted with several types of stressors to predict higher levels of symptoms of depression but not anxiety. Rumination was more strongly associated with elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of relational victimization events in girls than in boys. In addition, dependent interpersonal stress mediated the sex difference in depressive symptoms that emerged at follow-up, and this indirect pathway was stronger among adolescents who tended to ruminate. Rumination may confer vulnerability that is specific to symptoms of depression following recent stressors during early adolescence. Girls who ruminate may be particularly likely to experience depression following relational victimization, and dependent interpersonal stressors may help to account for girls' greater risk for depression during adolescence.

  4. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  5. Age Modulates Physiological Responses during Fan Use under Extreme Heat and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Poh, Paula Ys; Ngo, Hai; Jay, Ollie; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-06-12

    We examined the effect of electric fan use on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of nine young (26 ± 3 years) and nine aged (68 ± 4 years) adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. While resting at a temperature of 42°C, relative humidity increased from 30 to 70% in 2% increments every 5 minutes. On randomized days, the protocol was repeated without or with fan use. Heart rate (HR), core (Tcore) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured continuously. Whole-body sweat loss (WBSL) was measured from changes in nude body weight. Other measures of cardiovascular (cardiac output), thermoregulatory (local cutaneous and forearm vascular conductance, local sweat rate), and perceptual (thermal and thirst sensations) responses were also examined. When averaged over the entire protocol, fan use resulted in a small reduction of HR (-2 beats/min, 95% CI: -8 to 3), and slightly greater Tcore (+0.05°C, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.23) and Tsk (+0.03°C, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.42) in young adults. In contrast, fan use resulted in greater HR (+5 beats/min, 95% CI: 0 to 10), Tcore (+0.20°C, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.41) and Tsk (+0.47°C, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.76) in aged adults. A greater WBSL during fan use was observed in young (+0.2 kg, 95% CI: -0.2 to 0.6) but not aged (0.0 kg, 95% CI: -0.2 to 0.2) adults. Greater local sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance were observed with fan use in aged adults. Other measures of cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses were unaffected by fan use in both groups. During extreme heat and humidity, fan use elevates physiological strain in aged, but not young, adults.

  6. Response character styles in adolescents: a replication of convergent validity between the MMPI-A and the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John M; Pogge, David L; Zaccario, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which similar or discordant response character styles (RCS) affected convergence between MMPI-A and Rorschach findings in a sample of 673 adolescents from a psychiatric inpatient setting. Meyer's (Meyer, 1997; Meyer, Riethmiller, Brooks, Benoit, & Handler, 2000) findings for adult samples were generally replicated in that adolescents showing similar RCS across both measures showed moderate to strong relationships between Rorschach and MMPI-A indicants of affective distress, psychosis, and interpersonal wariness, whereas those showing discordant RCS demonstrated negligible or negative correlations between these indicants. This pattern was evident for conceptually similar, but not conceptually unrelated variable pairs. Similarity and discordance of RCS was also found to have an impact on relationships with external criterion variables, including therapist ratings and discharge diagnoses. Moderated regression analysis supports the hypothesis that RCS moderates the strength of the relationship between Rorschach and MMPI-A. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  7. Determinants of subjective quality of life in depressed patients: the role of self-esteem, response styles, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Buerger, Christin

    2005-06-01

    We aimed to assess the subjective quality of life (QOL) in depressed patients after discharge from inpatient treatment and to investigate the net impact of self-related constructs (self-esteem, response styles to depressed mood) and of social support on specific subjective QOL domains. Four weeks after discharge from inpatient treatment, 89 unipolar depressed patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of psychopathology and psychosocial measures. Subjective QOL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). Analyses included hierarchical regressions. Non-remitted patients reported poorer subjective QOL than fully and partially remitted patients regarding physical and psychological health, and overall QOL. After adjusting for demographic and clinical history variables, interviewer-rated severity of depression accounted for 4% to 36% of the variance in individual QOL domain scores. Self-esteem, rumination, distraction and the existence of a partnership added further increments to the explained variance of the psychological QOL domain. Rumination, partnership, and network size of family members providing psychological crisis support also predicted subjective QOL on the social relations domain. Our results suggest that self-esteem, response styles to depressed mood, and social support characteristics contribute substantially to the psychological and social domains of subjective QOL in depressed patients. These associations are not attributable to concurrent symptom severity. Therapy with depressed patients should not only focus on symptom reduction but should help the patients to establish and maintain supportive relationships and to enhance self-appreciation and skills to cope with negative mood in order to improve psychological well-being and health-related quality of life.

  8. Resistance to Confounding Style and Content in Scoring Constructed-Response Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Gagne, Phill; Lissitz, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    An assumption that is fundamental to the scoring of student-constructed responses (e.g., essays) is the ability of raters to focus on the response characteristics of interest rather than on other features. A common example, and the focus of this study, is the ability of raters to score a response based on the content achievement it demonstrates…

  9. Responsibility and Task Structuring as the Basic Attributes of Learning Styles and Their Relation Towards Consistency and the Quality of Hierarchy of a Learner’s Mind Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchovičová Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the identification of the relationship between the learning style and mental representation of curriculum content. The research problem identifies the relationship between the learning style factors - responsibility and task structuring and the selected categories of curriculum content representation - consistency and the quality of hierarchy identified through mind mapping. For the purposes of the research, we used the LSI Questionnaire by R. Dunn, K. Dunn and G. E. Price, a mind mapping test and chi-square statistics were used for the evaluation of research findings. The research sample consisted of 115 respondents. By means of analysis, we found out that a learning style in the observed factors of responsibility and task structuring does not influence students’ mental representation of the curriculum content.

  10. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulus-response characteristics of motor evoked potentials and silent periods in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Anker, L.C.; Pasman, J.W.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulus-response characteristics of both motor evoked potentials (MEP) and silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles. METHODS: Stimulus-response curves of MEPs and SPs were obtained from the biceps bra

  12. Stimulus-response characteristics of motor evoked potentials and silent periods in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Anker, L.C.; Pasman, J.W.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulus-response characteristics of both motor evoked potentials (MEP) and silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles. METHODS: Stimulus-response curves of MEPs and SPs were obtained from the biceps bra

  13. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  14. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. METHODS: Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline. Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. RESULTS: Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. DISCUSSION: Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  15. Extreme precipitation and temperature responses to circulation patterns in current climate: statistical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Photiadou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the frequency of extreme extremes - temperature, precipitation and hydrological extremes, which implies increasing risks for flood and drought events in Europe. In current climate, European countries were often not sufficiently prepared to deal with the great so

  16. Institutional and policy responses to uncertainty in environmental policy: A comparison of dutch and US styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding problem definition and policy response are an endemic pan of environmental decisionmaking. Some standard responses to uncertainty in decisionmaking are analyzed and then used to suggest the importance of learning-oriented policy processes in open, flexible, and adaptive

  17. Diagnosing Response Style Behavior by Means of a Latent-Class Factor Approach. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Gender Role Attitudes and Perceptions of Ethnic Discrimination Reexamined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, G.B.D.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that response style behavior in survey research may seriously distort the measurement of attitudes and subsequent causal models that include attitudinal dimensions. However, there in no single accepted methodological approach in dealing with this issue. This article aims at

  18. Diagnosing Response Style Behavior by Means of a Latent-Class Factor Approach. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Gender Role Attitudes and Perceptions of Ethnic Discrimination Reexamined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, G.B.D.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that response style behavior in survey research may seriously distort the measurement of attitudes and subsequent causal models that include attitudinal dimensions. However, there in no single accepted methodological approach in dealing with this issue. This article aims at

  19. Multi-Wave Prospective Examination of the Stress-Reactivity Extension of Response Styles Theory of Depression in High-Risk Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Fishman, Michael B.; Stolow, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the stress-reactivity extension of response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema "Journal of Abnormal Psychology" 100:569-582, 1991) in a sample of high-risk children and early adolescents from a vulnerability-stress perspective using a multi-wave longitudinal design. In addition, we examined whether obtained…

  20. Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009 that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  1. Extreme earthquake response of nuclear power plants isolated using sliding bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar@iitgn.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar 382355 (India); Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of a nuclear power plant (NPP) isolated using sliding bearings. • Two models of the NPP, five friction models and four seismic hazard levels considered. • Isolation system displacement can be obtained using a macro NPP model subjected to only horizontal ground motions. • Temperature dependence of friction should be considered in isolation-system displacement calculations. • The effect of friction model on floor spectral ordinates is rather small, especially near the basemat. - Abstract: Horizontal seismic isolation is a viable approach to mitigate risk to structures, systems and components (SSCs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ground shaking. This paper presents a study on an NPP seismically isolated using single concave Friction Pendulum™ (FP) bearings subjected to ground motions representing seismic hazard at two US sites: Diablo Canyon and Vogtle. Two models of the NPP, five models to describe friction at the sliding surface of the FP bearings, and four levels of ground shaking are considered for response-history analysis, which provide insight into the influence of 1) the required level of detail of an NPP model, 2) the vertical component of ground motion on response of isolated NPPs, and 3) the pressure-, temperature- and/or velocity-dependencies of the coefficient of friction, on the response of an isolated NPP. The isolation-system displacement of an NPP can be estimated using a macro model subjected to only the two orthogonal horizontal components of ground motion. The variation of the coefficient of friction with temperature at the sliding surface during earthquake shaking should be accounted for in the calculation of isolation-system displacements, particularly when the shaking intensity is high; pressure and velocity dependencies are not important. In-structure floor spectra should be computed using a detailed three-dimensional model of an isolated NPP subjected to all three components of

  2. Ultramarathon is an outstanding model for the study of adaptive responses to extreme load and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millet Grégoire P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultramarathons comprise any sporting event involving running longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 km (26.2 miles. Studies on ultramarathon participants can investigate the acute consequences of ultra-endurance exercise on inflammation and cardiovascular or renal consequences, as well as endocrine/energetic aspects, and examine the tissue recovery process over several days of extreme physical load. In a study published in BMC Medicine, Schütz et al. followed 44 ultramarathon runners over 4,487 km from South Italy to North Cape, Norway (the Trans Europe Foot Race 2009 and recorded daily sets of data from magnetic resonance imaging, psychometric, body composition and biological measurements. The findings will allow us to better understand the timecourse of degeneration/regeneration of some lower leg tissues such as knee joint cartilage, to differentiate running-induced from age-induced pathologies (for example, retropatelar arthritis and finally to assess the interindividual susceptibility to injuries. Moreover, it will also provide new information about the complex interplay between cerebral adaptations/alterations and hormonal influences resulting from endurance exercise and provide data on the dose-response relationship between exercise and brain structure/function. Overall, this study represents a unique attempt to investigate the limits of the adaptive response of human bodies. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/78

  3. Apoptosis-like death, an extreme SOS response in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erental, Ariel; Kalderon, Ziva; Saada, Ann; Smith, Yoav; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2014-07-15

    In bacteria, SOS is a global response to DNA damage, mediated by the recA-lexA genes, resulting in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. Previously, we reported that Escherichia coli responds to DNA damage via another recA-lexA-mediated pathway resulting in programmed cell death (PCD). We called it apoptosis-like death (ALD) because it is characterized by membrane depolarization and DNA fragmentation, which are hallmarks of eukaryotic mitochondrial apoptosis. Here, we show that ALD is an extreme SOS response that occurs only under conditions of severe DNA damage. Furthermore, we found that ALD is characterized by additional hallmarks of eukaryotic mitochondrial apoptosis, including (i) rRNA degradation by the endoribonuclease YbeY, (ii) upregulation of a unique set of genes that we called extensive-damage-induced (Edin) genes, (iii) a decrease in the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain, and (iv) the formation of high levels of OH˙ through the Fenton reaction, eventually resulting in cell death. Our genetic and molecular studies on ALD provide additional insight for the evolution of mitochondria and the apoptotic pathway in eukaryotes. Importance: The SOS response is the first described and the most studied bacterial response to DNA damage. It is mediated by a set of two genes, recA-lexA, and it results in DNA repair and thereby in the survival of the bacterial culture. We have shown that Escherichia coli responds to DNA damage by an additional recA-lexA-mediated pathway resulting in an apoptosis-like death (ALD). Apoptosis is a mode of cell death that has previously been reported only in eukaryotes. We found that E. coli ALD is characterized by several hallmarks of eukaryotic mitochondrial apoptosis. Altogether, our results revealed that recA-lexA is a DNA damage response coordinator that permits two opposite responses: life, mediated by the SOS, and death, mediated by the ALD. The choice seems to be a function of the degree

  4. Hormonal and neuromuscular responses to mechanical vibration applied to upper extremity muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Di Giminiani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute residual hormonal and neuromuscular responses exhibited following a single session of mechanical vibration applied to the upper extremities among different acceleration loads. METHODS: Thirty male students were randomly assigned to a high vibration group (HVG, a low vibration group (LVG, or a control group (CG. A randomized double-blind, controlled-parallel study design was employed. The measurements and interventions were performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics of the University of L'Aquila. The HVG and LVG participants were exposed to a series of 20 trials ×10 s of synchronous whole-body vibration (WBV with a 10-s pause between each trial and a 4-min pause after the first 10 trials. The CG participants assumed an isometric push-up position without WBV. The outcome measures were growth hormone (GH, testosterone, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during bench-press, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during handgrip, and electromyography root-mean-square (EMGrms muscle activity (pectoralis major [PM], triceps brachii [TB], anterior deltoid [DE], and flexor carpi radialis [FCR]. RESULTS: The GH increased significantly over time only in the HVG (P = 0.003. Additionally, the testosterone levels changed significantly over time in the LVG (P = 0.011 and the HVG (P = 0.001. MVC during bench press decreased significantly in the LVG (P = 0.001 and the HVG (P = 0.002. In the HVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the TB (P = 0.006 muscle. In the LVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the DE (P = 0.009 and FCR (P = 0.006 muscles. CONCLUSION: Synchronous WBV acutely increased GH and testosterone serum concentrations and decreased the MVC and their respective maximal EMGrms activities, which indicated a possible central fatigue effect. Interestingly, only the GH response was dependent on the acceleration with respect to the subjects' responsiveness.

  5. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style, and Propaganda in Response to National Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    National reports on higher education are seen as a form of democratic propaganda whose aim is participation. Their progress is described through content analysis of media responses. "Aesthetic judgment" is seen as the key to participation in reform by college faculty and administrators. (Author/MLW)

  7. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  8. Ambulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornes, John Edward; Fisher, Paul Anthony; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Smith, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Although there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007-2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance call-out and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December-20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency.

  9. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  10. Response Identification in the Extremely Low Frequency Region of an Electret Condenser Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Yang, Tzung-Ming; Lee, Shang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC) has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD) plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems. PMID:22346594

  11. Response Identification in the Extremely Low Frequency Region of an Electret Condenser Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems.

  12. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  13. Visualizing the local optical response to extreme-ultraviolet radiation with a resolution of λ/380

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasaku, Kenji; Sawada, Kei; Nishibori, Eiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Scientists have continually tried to improve the spatial resolution of imaging ever since the invention of the optical microscope in around 1610 by Galileo. Recently, a spatial resolution near λ/10 was achieved in a near-field scheme by using surface plasmon polaritons. However, further improvement in this direction is hindered by the size of metallic nanostructures. Here we show that atom-scale resolution is achievable in the extreme-ultraviolet region by using X-ray parametric down-conversion, which detaches the achievable resolution from the wavelength of the probe light. We visualize three-dimensionally the local optical response of diamond at wavelengths between 103 and 206Å with a resolution as fine as 0.54Å. This corresponds to a resolution from λ/190 to λ/380, an order of magnitude better than ever achieved. Although the present study focuses on the relatively high-energy optical regions, our method could be extended into the visible region using advanced X-ray sources, and would open a new window into the optical properties of solids.

  14. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agro-ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter-early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments: cooling (Co, warming (W, mix (M and control (C. An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh, soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in seed germination in both W and M treatments and a delay in germination for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co.

  15. Plant phenological responses to extreme events - A long term perspective from the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, D. M.; Peters, D. P.; Anderson, J.; Yao, J.

    2011-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA are especially sensitive to changes in temperature as well as drought frequency and intensity. Timing of periodic life cycle events (i.e., phenology) is an integrated and salient indicator of plant responses to climate change. We examine an 18-year dataset of monthly observations of plant phenology for two species of perennial grasses and a deciduous shrub (honey mesquite) distributed across three upland grassland sites and three mesquite-dominated sites on the Jornada Basin USDA-LTER in southern New Mexico, USA. Precipitation is highly variable between years and across space. Long-term phenology data collection spanned a multi-year drought (1994-2003) followed by a sequence of years with average to very high rainfall (2004 - 2008). Our objective was to compare and contrast responses to extreme dry and wet cycles in the timing and duration of first leaf and fruit production for two grasses (Bouteloua eriopoda [black grama], Sporobolus flexuosus [mesa dropseed]) with one co-existing shrub that has displaced grasses in this system (Prosopis glandulosa [honey mesquite]). Monthly field observations yield estimates of phenological status and abundance for 18 growing seasons from 1993 to 2010. All three species most commonly initiated new growth prior to onset of the monsoon rains (March or April). Timing of first growth for mesquite was less variable (standard deviation = 0.47) than for black grama (SD = 1.42) and mesa dropseed (SD = 1.22) grasses. Initial growth for grasses was delayed to September in 2006 following twelve months of deficit values for PDSI. The appearance of first fruit for grasses occurred consistently in August or September, although the number of plants producing fruit was highly variable from year to year. The largest numbers of fruit-bearing grasses were observed in late fall 2008 in response to heavy monsoon rains in 2006 and 2008. Mesquite demonstrated remarkable synchrony in the production of

  16. 反应风格与青少年抑郁的相关性%Study on the relations of response styles and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜嘉嘉; 陈杰; 李新影

    2015-01-01

    目的 考察反应风格理论中的三种反应风格及其构成的比例分数与青少年抑郁的关系;反应风格的性别差异,及性别对反应风格与抑郁关系的调节.方法 采用儿童反应风格问卷和儿童抑郁量表对932对青少年双生子进行调查分析.结果 (1)冗思与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.485),积极反应风格与青少年抑郁呈负相关(r=-0.331);(2)比例分数与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.586),且相关程度高于单一反应风格;(3)反应风格的性别差异在中国青少年样本中不显著;(4)性别对冗思与抑郁的关系起调节作用(β=-0.07,P<0.05).结论 比例分数比单一反应风格能更有效地诠释反应风格与抑郁的相关,女孩中冗思与抑郁的相关性更高.%Objective To investigate the effect of three response styles and the ratio scores on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms,and to investigate the gender differences of response styles and the moderation effects of gender on the relations between response styles and depressive symptoms.Methods The response style questionnaire and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were adopted to measure 932 adolescent twins.Results (1)Rumination was positively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms (r=0.485),positive response styles were negatively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms (r =-0.331).(2) Ratio score was positively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms(r=0.586) and the correlation between ratio score and depressive symptoms was even higher than that between response styles and depressive symptoms.(3) Gender differences of response styles were not significant in Chinese youth samples.(4)Gender moderated the relation between rumination and depressive symptoms(β=-0.07,P<0.05).Conclusion Ratio scores can explain the relationship between response styles and depressive symptoms better than each of the three individual response styles,and the association between rumination and

  17. Soliciting Feedback from Resource Managers to Inform Response to Extreme Event Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    To date, extreme events have been defined by scientists through a top-down approach, relying on observations for current extremes and climate model projections based on future scenarios for their expected changes. These abstract definitions of extreme events are based on a corresponding characterization of what is "normal" and perhaps the choice of a threshold (e.g., a percentile of a historical distribution for a given climate variable), beyond which would represent an extreme event. However, there are not necessarily direct connections between these definitions and what is considered "extreme" in terms of impacts that challenge resource management. Several researchers have suggested that extreme event definitions would also be informed by input from on-the-ground resource managers who are familiar with the systems being impacted, the climate conditions that pose risks to those systems, and their resilience and adaptive capacity. This research will present preliminary survey work designed to solicit input from air and water quality managers in terms of what is considered an extreme event, how these events have been weathered in the past, and planned for in the future. The survey is based on literature review, interviews with air and water quality managers in California, and outreach to the scientific community. This work is the first step of a multistage research effort to link input from resource managers with scientific information to better inform air and water quality management and impacts of extreme events under a changing climate.

  18. Imagining your child's mind: psychosocial adjustment and mothers' ability to predict their children's attributional response styles

    OpenAIRE

    C.; Sharp; Fonagy, P.; Goodyer, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    One class of parent-child interaction that has recently received attention is maternal engagement with her child at a mental level. The current study operationalises this notion by asking the mothers of 354 7-11 year old children drawn from a larger community sample (n=659) to guess the responses of their children, who in turn, were asked to attribute thoughts to their peers in distressing peer-related scenarios. The following predictions were made: (1) mothers would be above chance in the ac...

  19. Physiological Responses to Firefighting in Extreme Temperatures Do Not Compare to Firefighting in Temperate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Windisch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300° in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change.Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT. The treadmill testing was used to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold (VT1 and respiratory compensation point (RCP. Three intensity zones were identified according to heart rate (HR values corresponding to VT1 and RCP: zone 1–HR below VT1, zone 2-HR between VT1 and RCP, zone 3–HR above RCP. Firefighting performance was determined by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Correlations were then established between TSA based firefighting performance parameters and fitness variables representing strength and endurance.Results: HR was significantly lower during SFE (79.9 ± 6.9%HRmax compared to FOT (85.4 ± 5.2%HRmax. During SFE subjects spent 24.6 ± 30.2% of time in zone 1, 65.8 ± 28.1% in zone 2 and 9.7 ± 16.6% in zone 3. During FOT subjects spent 16.3 ± 12.8% in zone 1, 50.4 ± 13.2% in zone 2 and 33.3 ± 16.6% in zone 3. Out of all correlations, relative VO2peak showed the highest relation to mean HR during SFE (−0.593 as well as FOT (−0.693.Conclusions: Endurance in terms of

  20. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  1. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature (Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days (Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  2. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention.

  3. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  4. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  5. Effects of Mycorrhizae on Carbon Cycling in Response to Extreme Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficken, C. D.; Warren, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant-mycorrhizal symbioses are being increasingly accepted as drivers of ecosystem-level biogeochemical patterns and play an important role plant resource acquisition. Although some evidence suggests that mycorrhizal association increases plant drought-tolerance, direct comparisons of drought-resilience between mycorrhizal groups (i.e. arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal) are lacking. Indeed, soil CO2 pulses following dry-wet cycles are detectable at the ecosystem scale, but it remains unclear whether these pulses are driven by the activity of mycorrhizae or free-living microbes. These knowledge gaps hinder our ability to predict CO2 fluxes in the face of increased precipitation variability and have broad implications for understanding plant performance during, and recovery following, drought. We predicted that arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) would be more resilient to drought than ectomycorrhizae (ECM) because narrower AM hyphae may access water from smaller soil pores and because AM produce a glycoprotein that increases soil aggregation. To compare the functioning of AM and ECM throughout drought, we examined soil respiration dynamics between AM- and ECM-dominated mesocosms throughout moderate and extreme drought. Mesocosms were partitioned with mesh dividers into chambers (roots+hyphae+microbes; hyphae+microbes; microbes only) to compare the relative functioning of biotic pools throughout drought. We found that respiration responses to drought differed substantially between AM and ECM-dominated systems. Under dry conditions, respiration from both root- and hyphal-exclusion chambers did not differ between AM and ECM mesocosms. In contrast, under wet conditions, respiration was significantly greater from AM than ECM mesocosms. Following rewetting, the respiration pulse in AM systems was largely due to to free-living microbes (+330% C flux above dry conditions), whereas in ECM systems there was a proportionally greater increase from mycorrhizal chambers (+130%). This

  6. Individual Differences in the Psychobiological Response to Psychosocial Stress (Trier Social Stress Test): The Relevance of Trait Anxiety and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.

  7. Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Scherer, Martin [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Snow accumulation is critical for water availability in the Northern Hemisphere1,2, raising concern that global warming could have important impacts on natural and human systems in snow-dependent regions1,3. Although regional hydrologic changes have been observed (for example, refs 1,3 5), the time of emergence of extreme changes in snow accumulation and melt remains a key unknown for assessing climate- change impacts3,6,7. We find that the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble exhibits an imminent shift towards low snow years in the Northern Hemisphere, with areas of western North America, northeastern Europe and the Greater Himalaya showing the strongest emergence during the near- termdecadesandat2 Cglobalwarming.Theoccurrenceof extremely low snow years becomes widespread by the late twenty-first century, as do the occurrences of extremely high early-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing flood risk), and extremely low late-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing water stress). Our results suggest that many snow-dependent regions of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience increasing stress from low snow years within the next three decades, and from extreme changes in snow-dominated water resources if global warming exceeds 2 C above the pre-industrial baseline.

  8. Responses of Natural Vegetation to Different Stages of Extreme Drought during 2009–2010 in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An extreme drought event is usually a long-term process with different stages. Although it is well known that extreme droughts that have occurred frequently in recent years can substantially affect vegetation growth, few studies have revealed the characteristics of vegetation responses for different stages of an extreme drought event. Especially, studies should address when the vegetation growth was disturbed and how it recovered through an extreme drought event. In this study, we used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI to evaluate the response of vegetation to different stages of a severe drought event during 2009–2010 throughout Southwestern China. The PDSI time series indicated that the drought can be divided into three stages, including an initial stage represented by moderate drought (S1, a middle stage represented by continual severe drought (S2, and a final recovery stage (S3. The results revealed that the drought during the initial stage inhibited the growth of grassland and woody savanna, however, forest growth did not decrease during the first stage of droughts, and there was even a trend towards higher NDVI values. The continual severe drought in the middle stage inhibited growth for all vegetation types, and the woody savanna was affected most severely. In the final stage, all vegetation types underwent recovery, including the grassland that had endured the most severe drought. This study provides observational evidence and reveals that the responses of forest to the extreme drought are different from grassland and woody savanna in the different drought stages.

  9. Channel response to extreme floods: Insights on controlling factors from six mountain rivers in northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surian, Nicola; Righini, Margherita; Lucía, Ana; Nardi, Laura; Amponsah, William; Benvenuti, Marco; Borga, Marco; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimo; Viero, Alessia

    2016-11-01

    This work addresses the geomorphic response of mountain rivers to extreme floods, exploring the relationships between morphological changes and controlling factors. The research was conducted on six tributaries of the Magra River (northern Apennines, Italy) whose catchments were affected by an extreme flood (estimated recurrence interval > 100 years in most of the basins) on 25 October 2011. An integrated approach was deployed to study this flood, including (i) analysis of channel width changes by comparing aerial photographs taken before and after the flood, (ii) estimate of peak discharges in ungauged streams, (iii) detailed mapping of landslides and analysis of their connectivity with the channel network. Channel widening occurred in 35 reaches out of 39. In reaches with channel slope hydraulic variables alone are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain the channel response to extreme floods, and inclusion of other factors such as lateral confinement is needed to increase explanatory capability of regression models. Concerning hydraulic variables, this study showed that the degree of channel widening is more strongly related to unit stream power calculated based on pre-flood channel width than to cross-sectional stream power and to unit stream power calculated with post-flood channel width. This could suggest that most width changes occurred after the flood peak. Finally, in terms of hazard, it is crucial to document the type and magnitude of channel changes, to identify controlling factors, and most importantly, to develop tools enabling us to predict where major geomorphic changes occur during an extreme flood.

  10. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  11. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Reale

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD, have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a

  12. The response of the soil microbial food web to extreme rainfall under different plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Pan, Kaiwen; Tariq, Akash; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Zilong; Wang, Sizhong; Xiong, Qinli; Song, Dagang; Olatunji, Olusanya Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    An agroforestry experiment was conducted that involved four planting systems: monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z. bungeanum and Capsicum annuum, Z. bungeanum and Medicago sativa and Z. bungeanum and Glycine max. Soil microbial food web (microorganisms and nematodes) was investigated under manipulated extreme rainfall in the four planting systems to assess whether presence of neighbor species alleviated the magnitude of extreme rainfall on nutrient uptake of the focal species by increasing the stability of soil food web. Our results indicate that in the focal species and G. max mixed culture, leaf nitrogen contents of the focal species were higher than in the monoculture and in the other mixed cultures under extreme rainfall. This result was mainly due to the significant increase under extreme rainfall of G. max species root biomass, resulting in enhanced microbial resistance and subsequent net nitrogen mineralization rate and leaf nitrogen uptake for the focal species. Differences in functional traits of neighbors had additive effects and led to a marked divergence of soil food-web resistance and nutrient uptake of the focal species. Climate change can indirectly alleviate focal species via its influence on their neighbors. PMID:27874081

  13. Application of constrained stochastic simulation to determine the extreme response of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Peeringa, J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to now just deterministic gust shapes are specified in standards; e.g. the Extreme Operating Gust (IEC) is given by a Mexican hat like shape. In this paper gust shapes will be determined by application of so-called constrained stochastic simulation. This method specifies how to efficiently genera

  14. Preventing Violent Extremism and "Not in My Name": Theatrical Representation, Artistic Responsibility and Shared Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on my own recent experience of local artistic engagement with the British government's counter-terrorism strategy, Prevent(ing Violent Extremism). "Not in My Name" uses verbatim theatre techniques to negotiate dialogue within and across communities around a controversial agenda, and has received national acclaim for its…

  15. Clumsy Floodplains and the Law: Towards a Responsive Land Policy for Extreme Floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Almost every year, extreme floods cause enormous damage in floodplains. However, urban development still takes place in these areas. As levees are built up, space for the rivers shrinks. The same patterns of human activity can often be observed in floodplains: values are accumulated there, floods th

  16. The response of the soil microbial food web to extreme rainfall under different plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Pan, Kaiwen; Tariq, Akash; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Zilong; Wang, Sizhong; Xiong, Qinli; Song, Dagang; Olatunji, Olusanya Abiodun

    2016-11-01

    An agroforestry experiment was conducted that involved four planting systems: monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z. bungeanum and Capsicum annuum, Z. bungeanum and Medicago sativa and Z. bungeanum and Glycine max. Soil microbial food web (microorganisms and nematodes) was investigated under manipulated extreme rainfall in the four planting systems to assess whether presence of neighbor species alleviated the magnitude of extreme rainfall on nutrient uptake of the focal species by increasing the stability of soil food web. Our results indicate that in the focal species and G. max mixed culture, leaf nitrogen contents of the focal species were higher than in the monoculture and in the other mixed cultures under extreme rainfall. This result was mainly due to the significant increase under extreme rainfall of G. max species root biomass, resulting in enhanced microbial resistance and subsequent net nitrogen mineralization rate and leaf nitrogen uptake for the focal species. Differences in functional traits of neighbors had additive effects and led to a marked divergence of soil food-web resistance and nutrient uptake of the focal species. Climate change can indirectly alleviate focal species via its influence on their neighbors.

  17. Development of a dynamic multibody model to analyze human lower extremity impact response and injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunissen, J.G.; Hall, G.W.; Crandall, J.R.; Pilkey, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic multibody model of the 50th percentile male lower extremity is developed to examine internal loading plantar impact. The foot and leg, represented by five and seven rigid bodies respectively, are provided with degrees of freedom and stiffness values from cadaveric and volunteer data. Soft

  18. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  19. Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, D.; Conway, D.; Ramankutty, N.; Price, J.; Warren, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme heat stress during the crop reproductive period can be critical for crop productivity. Projected changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are expected to negatively impact crop yields and global food production. This study applies the global crop model PEGASUS to quantify, for the first time at the global scale, impacts of extreme heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soybean yields resulting from 72 climate change scenarios for the 21st century. Our results project maize to face progressively worse impacts under a range of RCPs but spring wheat and soybean to improve globally through to the 2080s due to CO2 fertilization effects, even though parts of the tropic and sub-tropic regions could face substantial yield declines. We find extreme heat stress at anthesis (HSA) by the 2080s (relative to the 1980s) under RCP 8.5, taking into account CO2 fertilization effects, could double global losses of maize yield (dY = -12.8 ± 6.7% versus -7.0 ± 5.3% without HSA), reduce projected gains in spring wheat yield by half (dY = 34.3 ± 13.5% versus 72.0 ± 10.9% without HSA) and in soybean yield by a quarter (dY = 15.3 ± 26.5% versus 20.4 ± 22.1% without HSA). The range reflects uncertainty due to differences between climate model scenarios; soybean exhibits both positive and negative impacts, maize is generally negative and spring wheat generally positive. Furthermore, when assuming CO2 fertilization effects to be negligible, we observe drastic climate mitigation policy as in RCP 2.6 could avoid more than 80% of the global average yield losses otherwise expected by the 2080s under RCP 8.5. We show large disparities in climate impacts across regions and find extreme heat stress adversely affects major producing regions and lower income countries.

  20. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  1. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum.......Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  2. Estimation of Extreme Response and Failure Probability of Wind Turbines under Normal Operation using Probability Density Evolution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Liu, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of extreme response and failure probability of structures subjected to ultimate design loads is essential for structural design of wind turbines according to the new standard IEC61400-1. This task is focused on in the present paper in virtue of probability density evolution method (PDEM......), which underlies the schemes of random vibration analysis and structural reliability assessment. The short-term rare failure probability of 5-mega-watt wind turbines, for illustrative purposes, in case of given mean wind speeds and turbulence levels is investigated through the scheme of extreme value...... distribution instead of any other approximate schemes of fitted distribution currently used in statistical extrapolation techniques. Besides, the comparative studies against the classical fitted distributions and the standard Monte Carlo techniques are carried out. Numerical results indicate that PDEM exhibits...

  3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may affect cytokine response and benefit healing of combat-related extremity wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Felipe A; Bradley, Matthew J; Hueman, Matthew T; Schobel, Seth A; Gaucher, Beverly J; Styrmisdottir, Edda L; Potter, Benjamin K; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Elster, Eric A

    2017-04-01

    After adequate operative debridement and antimicrobial therapies, combat-related extremity wounds that either heal or fail are both associated with a distinct inflammatory response. Short-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in postoperative pain management may affect this response and, by consequence, the healing potential of these wounds. We investigated whether patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had a distinct inflammatory response; different rates of critical colonization, defined as >10(5) colony forming units on quantitative bacteriology; and healing potential. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 73 patients with combat-related extremity wounds. Patients were separated into 2 groups: those who received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during the debridement period (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, N = 17) and those who did not (control group; N = 56). Serum and wound tissue samples collected during each operative debridement were measured for 32 known cytokines and tested for quantitative bacteriology, respectively. We compared cytokine concentrations between groups and then designed a logistic regression model to identify variables associated with successful wound healing, while controlling for known confounders. Despite similar demographics and wound characteristics, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group had significant lesser concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. On multivariate analysis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment emerged as a predictor of successful wound healing after controlling for known confounders such as wound size, tobacco use, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and critical colonization. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management after major combat-related extremity trauma is associated with lesser

  4. Modelling Tradeoffs Evolution in Multipurpose Water Systems Operation in Response to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.; Gazzotti, P.; Amigoni, F.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2015-12-01

    Multipurpose water resource systems are usually operated on a tradeoff of the operating objectives, which - under steady state climatic and socio-economic boundary conditions - is supposed to ensure a fair and/or efficient balance among the conflicting interests. Extreme variability in the system's drivers might affect operators' risk aversion and force a change in the tradeoff. Properly accounting for these shifts is key to any rigorous retrospective assessment of operators' behavior and the associated system's performance. In this study, we explore how the selection of different optimal tradeoffs among the operating objectives is linked to the variations of the boundary conditions, such as, for example, drifting rainfall season or remarkable changes in crop and energy prices. We argue that tradeoff selection is driven by recent, extreme variations in system performance: underperforming on one of the operating objective target value should push the tradeoff toward the disadvantaged objective. To test this assumption, we developed a rational procedure to simulate the operators' tradeoff selection process. We map the selection onto a multi lateral negotiation process, where different multiple, virtual agents optimize different operating objectives. The agents periodically negotiate a compromise on the operating policy. The agent's rigidity in each negotiation round is determined by the recent system performances according to the specific objective it represents. The negotiation follows a set-based egocentric monotonic concession protocol: at each negotiation step an agent incrementally adds some options to the set of its acceptable compromises and (possibly) accepts lower and lower satisfying policies until an agreement is achieved. We apply this reiterated negotiation framework on the regulated Lake Como, Italy, simulating the lake dam operation and its recurrent updates over the last 50 years. The operation aims to balance shoreline flood prevention and irrigation

  5. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which...

  6. Evaluating your personal management style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D H

    1982-01-01

    Every medical group manager develops his own managerial leadership style. This style is based on personal background and education, an individual conception of what management and leadership are, and analysis and application of management theory. The author identifies many responsibilities that an administrator must assume to effectively manage--responsibilities which are closely tied to employee motivation. Motivational theories are discussed, as well as the application of techniques based on principles. The author has also distilled what he considers to be the essential qualities of a successful management style.

  7. Ecological Responses to Extreme Flooding Events: A Case Study with a Reintroduced Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Bearhop, Stuart; Cleasby, Ian R; Lock, Leigh; Votier, Stephen C; Hilton, Geoff M

    2016-06-27

    In recent years numerous studies have documented the effects of a changing climate on the world's biodiversity. Although extreme weather events are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity and are challenging to organisms, there are few quantitative observations on the survival, behaviour and energy expenditure of animals during such events. We provide the first data on activity and energy expenditure of birds, Eurasian cranes Grus grus, during the winter of 2013-14, which saw the most severe floods in SW England in over 200 years. We fitted 23 cranes with telemetry devices and used remote sensing data to model flood dynamics during three consecutive winters (2012-2015). Our results show that during the acute phase of the 2013-14 floods, potential feeding areas decreased dramatically and cranes restricted their activity to a small partially unflooded area. They also increased energy expenditure (+15%) as they increased their foraging activity and reduced resting time. Survival did not decline in 2013-14, indicating that even though extreme climatic events strongly affected time-energy budgets, behavioural plasticity alleviated any potential impact on fitness. However under climate change scenarios such challenges may not be sustainable over longer periods and potentially could increase species vulnerability.

  8. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-01

    A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W-1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W-1 to 1915 A W-1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 1012 to 1.0 × 1013 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  9. Two opposite extremes of adiposity similarly reduce inflammatory response of antigen-induced acute joint inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Silveira, A.L.; Tavares, L.P.; Rodrigues, D.F.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Sousa, L.P.; Teixeira, M.M.; Amaral, F.A.; Ferreira, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute inflammation is a normal response of tissue to an injury. During this process, inflammatory mediators are produced and metabolic alterations occur. Adipose tissue is metabolically activated, and upon food consumption, it disrupts the inflammatory response. However, little is known a

  10. Characterising the Geomorphic Response of a Tropical Mega-River to an Extreme, Cyclone Induced, Flood Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme events have the ability to induce extensive geomorphic change in fluvial systems as a result of elevated discharge levels, increased sediment transport capacity and associated changes in sheer stresses along channel boundaries. Understanding how rapid rises in water levels change flow structures and channel boundary roughness is key to understanding the relative significance of large events in terms of driving local and system wide geomorphic change. However, capturing the fluvial process dynamics in operation during such events is technically and logistically difficult, especially in the world's largest rivers. During September 2013, on the peak of the monsoon, a series of tropical cyclones induced a large flood event within the Mekong basin. At the peak of the flood wave, discharge measured ~60000 m3/s; the 11th largest flood on record. Pre and post event high resolution topographic surveys of parts of the bed and bank were captured using a combination of contiguous multibeam echo sounding (MBES) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) during the event. Simultaneously detailed measurements of cross sectional and near bank flow structure were acquired using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp). Together, these unique datasets can be used to characterise and assess the geomorphic impact of a cyclone induced extreme flood event on the Mekong. We show how flow structures in the near bank region evolve with stage during the extreme event and how the associated geomorphic response is modulated by the distinctive process dynamics of a mega-river.

  11. Response of Extreme Precipitation to Solar Activity and El Nino Events in Typical Regions of the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic oscillation has been the subject of global attention. The purpose of this study is to explore the response of extreme precipitation to solar activity and El Nino events in typical regions of the Loess Plateau—a case study in the Yan’an area. The precipitation data was from nine weather stations in Yan’an and the sunspot number and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI were from 1951 to 2015. The results show that maximum precipitation occurred mainly at the peak sunspot number or 2a near it and the sunspot number minimum and valley values were not significantly correlated. The results of Morlet wavelet showed that a 41-year period of precipitation was the most obvious within the 64-year scale. Similarly, sunspot number showed a 16-year periodic variability. Correlation analyses of the 16-year and 41-year scales demonstrated that the relationships between precipitation and sunspot number were close. In addition, extreme precipitation often occurred in the year following El Nino events. According to 10-year moving average curves, precipitation generally showed a downward trend when SOI was negative. The results indicate that solar activity and El Nino events had significant impacts on precipitation in typical regions of the Loess Plateau.

  12. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme’s amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first withou...

  13. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems.

  14. Extreme and Local 3rd Harmonic Response of Niobium (Nb) Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oripov, Bakhrom; Tai, Tamin; Anlage, Steven

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are being widely used in new generation particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are based on bulk Nb. Based on the needs of the SRF community to identify defects on Nb surfaces, a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope was successfully built using a magnetic writer from a conventional magnetic recording hard-disk drive1. This magnetic writer can create an RF magnetic field, localized and strong enough to drive Nb into the vortex state. This probe enables us to locate defects through scanning and mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency range. Recent measurements have shown that 3rd harmonic nonlinear response is far more sensitive to variations in input power and temperature then linear response, thus we mainly study the 3rd harmonic response. Moreover, the superconductor is usually the only source for nonlinear response in our setup, thus there is less chance of having noise or background signal. Understanding the mechanism responsible for this non-linear response is important for improving the performance of SRF cavities. Besides Nb we also study various other superconductors such as MgB2 and the cuprate Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) for potential applications in SRF cavities. This work is funded by US Department of Energy through Grant # DE-SC0012036T and CNAM.

  15. Thermal reactionomes reveal divergent responses to thermal extremes in warm and cool-climate ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanton-Geddes, John; Nguyen, Andrew; Chick, Lacy

    2016-01-01

    (enhanced response), constitutively elevated expression of protective genes (genetic assimilation) or a shift from damage resistance to passive mechanisms of thermal stability (tolerance), we conducted an analysis of the reactionome: the reaction norm for all genes in an organism’s transcriptome measured......The distributions of species and their responses to climate change are in part determined by their thermal tolerances. However, little is known about how thermal tolerance evolves. To test whether evolutionary extension of thermal limits is accomplished through enhanced cellular stress response...

  16. Responses of Soil CO2 Emissions to Extreme Precipitation Regimes: a Simulation on Loess Soil in Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Zhao, M.; Hu, Y.; Guo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Responses of soil CO2 emission to natural precipitation play an essential role in regulating regional C cycling. With more erratic precipitation regimes, mostly likely of more frequent heavy rainstorms, projected into the future, extreme precipitation would potentially affect local soil moisture, plant growth, microbial communities, and further soil CO2 emissions. However, responses of soil CO2 emissions to extreme precipitation have not yet been systematically investigated. Such performances could be of particular importance for rainfed arable soil in semi-arid regions where soil microbial respiration stress is highly sensitive to temporal distribution of natural precipitation.In this study, a simulated experiment was conducted on bare loess soil from the semi-arid Chinese Loess Plateau. Three precipitation regimes with total precipitation amounts of 150 mm, 300 mm and 600 mm were carried out to simulate the extremely dry, business as usual, and extremely wet summer. The three regimes were individually materialized by wetting soils in a series of sub-events (10 mm or 150 mm). Co2 emissions from surface soil were continuously measured in-situ for one month. The results show that: 1) Evident CO2 emission pulses were observed immediately after applying sub-events, and cumulative CO2 emissions from events of total amount of 600 mm were greater than that from 150 mm. 3) In particular, for the same total amount of 600 mm, wetting regimes by applying four times of 150 mm sub-events resulted in 20% less CO2 emissions than by applying 60 times of 10 mm sub-events. This is mostly because its harsh 150 mm storms introduced more over-wet soil microbial respiration stress days (moisture > 28%). As opposed, for the same total amount of 150 mm, CO2 emissions from wetting regimes by applying 15 times of 10 mm sub-events were 22% lower than by wetting at once with 150 mm water, probably because its deficiency of soil moisture resulted in more over-dry soil microbial respiration

  17. Dissociating indifferent, directional, and extreme responding in personality data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert-style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three-process model, to data of self...... supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. CONCLUSION: In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Sutton

    Full Text Available Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  19. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015-2016 El Niño.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L; Hoover, Daniel; Hubbard, David M; Snyder, Alex; Ludka, Bonnie C; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George M; Ruggiero, Peter; Gallien, Timu W; Gabel, Laura; McCandless, Diana; Weiner, Heather M; Cohn, Nicholas; Anderson, Dylan L; Serafin, Katherine A

    2017-02-14

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015-2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

  20. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Hoover, Daniel J.; Hubbard, David M.; Snyder, Alexander; Ludka, Bonnie C.; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero,; Gallien, Timu W.; Gabel, Laura; McCandless, Diana; Weiner, Heather M.; Cohn, Nicholas; Anderson, Dylan L.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015–2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

  1. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015-2016 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel; Hubbard, David M.; Snyder, Alex; Ludka, Bonnie C.; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Gallien, Timu W.; Gabel, Laura; McCandless, Diana; Weiner, Heather M.; Cohn, Nicholas; Anderson, Dylan L.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2017-02-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015-2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

  2. Differences in Communication Competence among Administrator Social Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, William B.; Walters, Ellen V.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed coworkers' perceptions of public school superintendents' behavior related to social style (assertiveness, responsiveness, versatility) and interpersonal communication competence (empathy, social anxiety, listening, self-disclosure, flexibility). Found that superintendents with highly responsive styles were perceived as more competent than…

  3. Characterisation of random Gaussian and non-Gaussian stress processes in terms of extreme responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of military land vehicles, random vibration processes generated by all-terrain wheeled vehicles in motion are not classical stochastic processes with a stationary and Gaussian nature. Non-stationarity of processes induced by the variability of the vehicle speed does not form a major difficulty because the designer can have good control over the vehicle speed by characterising the histogram of instantaneous speed of the vehicle during an operational situation. Beyond this non-stationarity problem, the hard point clearly lies in the fact that the random processes are not Gaussian and are generated mainly by the non-linear behaviour of the undercarriage and the strong occurrence of shocks generated by roughness of the terrain. This non-Gaussian nature is expressed particularly by very high flattening levels that can affect the design of structures under extreme stresses conventionally acquired by spectral approaches, inherent to Gaussian processes and based essentially on spectral moments of stress processes. Due to these technical considerations, techniques for characterisation of random excitation processes generated by this type of carrier need to be changed, by proposing innovative characterisation methods based on time domain approaches as described in the body of the text rather than spectral domain approaches.

  4. Response of Bacillus subtilis spores to dehydration and UV irradiation at extremely low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, K; Klein, A

    1996-02-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis have been exposed to the conditions of extreme dehydration (argon/silica gel; simulated space vacuum) for up to 12 weeks at 298 K and 80 K in the dark. The inactivation has been correlated with the production of DNA-double strand-breaks. The temperature-dependence of the rate constants for inactivation or production of DNA-double strand-breaks is surprisingly low. Controls kept in the frozen state at 250 K for the same period of time showed no sign of deterioration. In another series of experiments the spores have been UV irradiated (253.7 nm) at 298 K, 200 K and 80 K after exposure to dehydrating conditions for 3 days. Fluence-effect relationships for inactivation, production of DNA-double strand-breaks and DNA-protein cross-links are presented. The corresponding F37-values for inactivation and production of DNA lesions are significantly increased only at 80 K (factor of 4 to 5). The data indicate that the low temperatures that prevail in the outer parts of the Solar System or at the nightside of Mars or the Moon are not sufficiently low to crucially inhibit inactivation by dehydration. Our data place further constraints on the panspermia hypothesis.

  5. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  6. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malyshev, Andrey; Arfin Kahn, Mohammed A.S.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2016-01-01

    , root 15N uptake, and live and dead tissue mass. Using coefficients of variation (CVs) for each experiment and response parameter, a total of 156 within- vs. among-species comparisons were conducted, comparing within-species variation in each of four species with among- species variation for each seed......) and for practical applications (e.g., biodiversity conservation)....

  7. Present limits to heat-adaptability in corals and population-level responses to climate extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard M Riegl

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios suggest an increase in tropical ocean temperature by 1-3°C by 2099, potentially killing many coral reefs. But Arabian/Persian Gulf corals already exist in this future thermal environment predicted for most tropical reefs and survived severe bleaching in 2010, one of the hottest years on record. Exposure to 33-35°C was on average twice as long as in non-bleaching years. Gulf corals bleached after exposure to temperatures above 34°C for a total of 8 weeks of which 3 weeks were above 35°C. This is more heat than any other corals can survive, providing an insight into the present limits of holobiont adaptation. We show that average temperatures as well as heat-waves in the Gulf have been increasing, that coral population levels will fluctuate strongly, and reef-building capability will be compromised. This, in combination with ocean acidification and significant local threats posed by rampant coastal development puts even these most heat-adapted corals at risk. WWF considers the Gulf ecoregion as "critically endangered". We argue here that Gulf corals should be considered for assisted migration to the tropical Indo-Pacific. This would have the double benefit of avoiding local extinction of the world's most heat-adapted holobionts while at the same time introducing their genetic information to populations naïve to such extremes, potentially assisting their survival. Thus, the heat-adaptation acquired by Gulf corals over 6 k, could benefit tropical Indo-Pacific corals who have <100 y until they will experience a similarly harsh climate. Population models suggest that the heat-adapted corals could become dominant on tropical reefs within ∼20 years.

  8. Extreme Response Predictions for Jack-up Units in Second Order Stochastic Waves by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Capul, Julien

    2006-01-01

    An efficient procedure for derivation of mean outcrossing rates for non-linear wave-induced responses in stationary sea states is presented and applied to an analysis of the horizontal deck sway of a jack-up unit. The procedure is based on the theory of random vibrations and uses the first order...... reliability method (FORM) to estimate the most probable set of wave components in the ocean wave system that will lead to exceedance of a specific response level together with the associated mean outcrossing rate. The procedure bears some resemblance to the Constrained NewWave methodology, but is conceptually......-tic waves, not previously included in the analysis of jack-up units in stochastic seaways....

  9. Countering Radicalization: Refocusing Responses to Violent Extremism Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    homeschooled along with his younger sisters and brother but was active socially, playing in Little League baseball and attending Christian home school support...against possible targets, target hardening, or improving emergency response.”112 These actions, done for the benefit of the community, result in...success resulting in closer ties and integrated projects between the community and law enforcement which benefits the Muslim community as a whole. The

  10. Anger management style moderates effects of emotion suppression during initial stress on pain and cardiovascular responses during subsequent pain-induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Suppression of emotion, anger in particular, may be linked to heightened pain intensity during a subsequent painful event, but it is not clear whether an individual's anger management style (trait anger-out or trait anger-in) moderates effects on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during pain. To determine whether (a) trait anger-out and/or trait anger-in moderate effects of Emotion-Induction (anger, anxiety)xEmotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) manipulations during mental arithmetic on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during and following a cold pressor pain task, such that "mismatch" relationships emerge (preferred anger management style is discrepant from situation demands), and (b) general emotional expressivity accounts for these effects. Healthy nonpatients (N=187) were assigned to 1 of 6 conditions for a mental arithmetic task. Cells were formed by crossing 2 Emotion-Induction (anxiety, anger)x3 Emotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) conditions. After mental arithmetic, participants underwent a cold pressor followed by recovery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), heart rate (HR), and pain intensity ratings were recorded. Spielberger Anger Expression Inventory tapped anger management style. General Linear Model procedures tested Emotion-Induction x Emotion SuppressionxAnger-Out or Anger-In (continuous)xPeriod (baseline, cold pressor, recovery) effects on pain intensity, SBP, DBP, and HR. A 4-way interaction emerged for pain intensity: Only for those in the anger-induction/experiential suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to pain recovery. Three-way interactions emerged for SBP and DBP: Only for those in expressive suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to SBP during and following cold pressor and to DBP following cold pressor. General emotion expressivity did not account for anger-out effects. A mismatch situation may apply for high

  11. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  12. Strain response of thermal barrier coatings captured under extreme engine environments through synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2014-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of thermal barrier coatings in operation holds the key to understanding durability of jet engine turbine blades. Here we report the results from experiments that monitor strains in the layers of a coating subjected to thermal gradients and mechanical loads representing extreme engine environments. Hollow cylindrical specimens, with electron beam physical vapour deposited coatings, were tested with internal cooling and external heating under various controlled conditions. High-energy synchrotron X-ray measurements captured the in situ strain response through the depth of each layer, revealing the link between these conditions and the evolution of local strains. Results of this study demonstrate that variations in these conditions create corresponding trends in depth-resolved strains with the largest effects displayed at or near the interface with the bond coat. With larger temperature drops across the coating, significant strain gradients are seen, which can contribute to failure modes occurring within the layer adjacent to the interface.

  13. Strain response of thermal barrier coatings captured under extreme engine environments through synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Siddiqui, Sanna F; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2014-07-31

    The mechanical behaviour of thermal barrier coatings in operation holds the key to understanding durability of jet engine turbine blades. Here we report the results from experiments that monitor strains in the layers of a coating subjected to thermal gradients and mechanical loads representing extreme engine environments. Hollow cylindrical specimens, with electron beam physical vapour deposited coatings, were tested with internal cooling and external heating under various controlled conditions. High-energy synchrotron X-ray measurements captured the in situ strain response through the depth of each layer, revealing the link between these conditions and the evolution of local strains. Results of this study demonstrate that variations in these conditions create corresponding trends in depth-resolved strains with the largest effects displayed at or near the interface with the bond coat. With larger temperature drops across the coating, significant strain gradients are seen, which can contribute to failure modes occurring within the layer adjacent to the interface.

  14. Structural and functional responses of extremity veins to long-term gravitational loading or unloading—lessons from animal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monos, Emil; Raffai, Gábor; Dörnyei, Gabriella; Nádasy, György L.; Fehér, Erzsébet

    2007-02-01

    Long, transparent tubular tilt-cages were developed to maintain experimental rats either in 45∘ head-up (orthostasis model), or in 45∘ head-down body position (antiorthostasis model) for several weeks. In order to study the functional and structural changes in extremity blood vessels, also novel pressure angiograph systems, as well as special quantitative electron microscopic methods were applied. It was found that several adaptive mechanisms are activated in the lower limb superficial veins and microvessels of muscles when an organism is exposed to long-term (1-2 weeks) orthostatic-type gravitational load including a reversible amplification of the pressure-dependent myogenic response, tuning of the myogenic tone by Ca++- and voltage-sensitive K+ channels in humans, augmentation of the intramural sympathetic innervation involving an increased nerve terminal density and synaptic vesicle count with functional remodeling, reorganization of vascular network properties (microvascular rarefaction in muscles, decreased branching angles in superficial veins), and responses of an endothelin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) containing vesicle system in the endothelium. On the other hand, when applying long-term head-down tilting, the effects are dichotomous, e.g. it suppresses significantly the pressure-induced myogenic response, however does not diminish the adventitial sympathetic innervation density.

  15. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  16. Extreme hypoxic conditions induce selective molecular responses and metabolic reset in detached apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka eCukrov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1,000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These

  17. Extreme Postinjection Flare in Response to Intra-Articular Triamcinolone Acetonide (Kenalog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Porter; Homlar, Kelly C

    2016-01-01

    As intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a common treatment for osteoarthritis, physicians must well understand their potential side effects. Postinjection flares are an acute side effect of intra-articular CSIs, with symptoms ranging from mild joint effusion to disabling pain. The present case involved a severe postinjection flare that occurred after the patient, a 56-year-old woman with moderate osteoarthritis in the left knee, received 2 mL of 1% lidocaine and 2 mL (40 mg) of triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog). Two hours after injection, she experienced swelling and intense pain in the knee and was unable to ambulate. The knee was aspirated with a return of 25 mL of "butterscotch"-colored fluid. This case is novel in that its acuity of onset, severity of symptoms, and synovial fluid analysis mimicked septic arthritis, which was ultimately ruled out with negative cultures and confirmation of triamcinolone acetonide crystals in the synovial aspirate, viewed by polarized light microscopy. Thus, the patient's reaction represents an acute crystal-induced inflammatory response. Although reactions to an intra-articular CSI of this severity are rare, it is important for treating physicians to inform patients of this potential side effect.

  18. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.

  19. Stress reaction in freshwater ifsh in response to extreme impacts and during the reproduction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivamovich; Martemyanov

    2015-01-01

    The original and published data on the physiological and biochemical reactions in fish in response to stress impact and during the reproduction period are presented. It is shown that at the initial period of stress and before spawning the protective functions in fish are enhanced which relates to the adaptation syndrome. However, during the initial period of stress the damaging effects prevail over the adaptive processes resulting in the decrease in the level of resistance (“alarm reaction” according to Selye). In contrary, during pre-spawning period protective systems dominate along with enhancement of general adaptation syndromes. This facilitates the increase in the level of resistance in the parental fish (“resistance stage”according to Selye). Before the spawning the alarm stage is not manifested. The state comparable to strong stress occurs in the parental fish only during the spawning. This state is accompanied by decrease in the resistance of organism in spawner evidencing exhaustion of protective functions (“exhaustion stage” according to Selye). With time, both at stress and after spawning, within two to three weeks period, the physiological-biochemical parameters recover and stabilize with the normal limits.

  20. Dietary cholecalciferol and calcium levels in a Western-style defined rodent diet alter energy metabolism and inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastie, Claire C; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Ting-Wen A; Dhima, Elena; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2012-05-01

    Male and female C57Bl6 mice were fed a control AIN76A diet, a new Western-style diet (NWD1) reflecting dietary patterns linked to elevated colon cancer incidence (higher fat, lower cholecalciferol, calcium, methyl donors, fiber), or NWD1 with elevated cholecalciferol and calcium (NWD2) from weaning. After 24 wk, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] decreased by >80% in the NWD1 group compared with controls, but with no alteration in serum calcium or bone mineral density. The decreased serum 25(OH)D was prevented in the NWD2 group. After 32 wk, the NWD1 group compared with controls reduced overall energy expenditure by 15% without altering food consumption or physical activity and induced glucose intolerance, phenotypes associated with metabolic syndrome. These responses were unexpectedly exacerbated in the NWD2 group, further shifting mice toward greater fatty acid storage rather than oxidation compared with both control and NWD1 groups, but there was no change in physical activity, causing significant weight gain due to increased fat mass. The NWD1 group also exhibited inflammatory responses compared with controls, including macrophage-associated crown-like structures in epididymal adipose tissue and increased serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and of its targets, MCP-1 and Rantes, which were prevented or greatly mitigated in the NWD2 group. However, there was also elevated lipid storage in the liver and steatosis not seen in the control and NWD1 groups. Thus, elevating cholecalciferol and calcium in a Western-style diet can reduce inflammation associated with risk for colon tumor development, but interaction of nutrients in this diet can compromise liver function when fed long term.

  1. The Dynamic Response of Marine Life to Extreme Temperature and Low Oxygen Events Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, C.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most devastating taxonomic and ecological crisis in the history of life on Earth. The recovery lasted 5 My making it the longest in geologic history, although the cause of the delay is still heavily debated. We find that additional environmental changes during the recovery interval reset the attempts that marine communities made toward ecological complexity, resulting in the overall appearance of a stagnant recovery. The extinction mechanisms during the end-Permian include extreme temperature change and low oxygen environments resulting from the volcanic emission of carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses to the atmosphere. The biotic response to ancient environmental change is a direct analog for the ecological impacts of modern anthropogenic climate change. We applied an ecological recovery rubric to benthic, sea floor dwelling, communities throughout the Early Triassic recovery in two major ocean basins. Newly collected bulk fossil data from the Moenkopi and Thaynes Formations from the Southwest US and the Werfen Formation in Italy were analyzed along with literature data. In Italy, directly following the extinction, low oxygen environments prevented an ecological rebound. Once low oxygen conditions receded, 600 kyr after the extinction, taxonomic diversity, fossil body size, and trace fossil complexity rebounded. A little more than 1 My into the Early Triassic, an extreme temperature event resulted in a reset of community complexity in both Italy and the Southwest US. The body size of gastropods and the repopulation of echinoderms were significantly inhibited as was trace fossil complexity. Low oxygen conditions that developed in the last ~2My of the Early Triassic limited diversity and body size in the Southwest United States. The stagnant recovery is re-interpreted as dynamic resets and rapid rebounds driven by environmental perturbations throughout the Early Triassic.

  2. Learning Style Dimensions and Professional Characteristics of Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…

  3. Learning Style Dimensions and Professional Characteristics of Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…

  4. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style and Propaganda in Response to National Reports on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    Responses to national reports during October 1984 through May 1985 concerning the state of American higher education are analyzed. Quantitative content analysis and qualitative rehetorical criticism are used to examine responses to national reports. Three national reports are of concern: "Involvement in Learning,""A Nation at…

  5. Pharmacological treatment of hyperinsulineamia in rats depends on coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Steimer, Thierry J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Passive and proactive coping styles are associated with marked differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses. Previous studies revealed that the passive individuals are more prone to hyperinsulineamia. Likewise, we hypothesize that different coping styles may require different drugs to trea

  6. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not significantly different

  7. Fifty hertz extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure elicits redox and trophic response in rat-cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, Silvia; Falone, Stefano; Caracciolo, Valentina; Sebastiani, Pierluigi; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Mirabilio, Alessandro; Zimmitti, Vincenzo; Amicarelli, Fernanda

    2009-05-01

    Large research activity has raised around the mechanisms of interaction between extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and biological systems. ELF-MFs may interfere with chemical reactions involving reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus facilitating oxidative damages in living cells. Cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to oxidative stressors and are also highly dependent on the specific factors and proteins governing neuronal development, activity and survival. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of exposures to two different 50 Hz sinusoidal ELF-MFs intensities (0.1 and 1 mT) in maturing rat cortical neurons' major anti-oxidative enzymatic and non-enzymatic cellular protection systems, membrane peroxidative damage, as well as growth factor, and cytokine expression pattern. Briefly, our results showed that ELF-MFs affected positively the cell viability and concomitantly reduced the levels of apoptotic death in rat neuronal primary cultures, with no significant effects on the main anti-oxidative defences. Interestingly, linear regression analysis suggested a positive correlation between reduced glutathione (GSH) and ROS levels in 1 mT MF-exposed cells. On this basis, our hypothesis is that GSH could play an important role in the antioxidant defence towards the ELF-MF-induced redox challenge. Moreover, the GSH-based cellular response was achieved together with a brain-derived neurotrophic factor over-expression as well as with the interleukin 1beta-dependent regulation of pro-survival signaling pathways after ELF-MF exposure.

  8. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme's amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first without weight and then with 250 g weight on the ankle joint. The blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were recorded before and after Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 10 stairs up & down stairs test. Physiological Cost Index was used to calculate the energy expenditure. [Results] Heart rate and energy expenditure increased significantly when without weight and with weight results compared. [Conclusion] We conclude that the segmental weight of the prosthetic limb has a significant effect on the heart rate and energy expenditure but has no effect on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of lower limb amputees. In order to generalize our results to lower limb amputees, more patients need to be included in future studies.

  9. Succession and Fermentation Products of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Hindgut Microbiota in Response to an Extreme Dietary Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Tong Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake affects the structure and function of microbes in host intestine. However, the succession of gut microbiota in response to changes in macronutrient levels during a long period of time remains insufficiently studied. Here, we determined the succession and metabolic products of intestinal microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus undergoing an abrupt and extreme diet change, from fish meal to Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense. Grass carp hindgut microbiota responded rapidly to the diet shift, reaching a new equilibrium approximately within 11 days. In comparison to animal-diet samples, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae increased significantly while Cetobacterium decreased significantly in plant-diet samples. Cetobacterium was negatively correlated with Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, while Bacteroides was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae. Predicted glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide lyase genes in Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy database might be involved in degradation of the plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, none of these enzymes was detected in the grass carp genome searched against dbCAN database. Additionally, a significant decrease of short chain fatty acids levels in plant-based samples was observed. Generally, our results suggest a rapid adaption of grass carp intestinal microbiota to dietary shift, and that microbiota are likely to play an indispensable role in nutrient turnover and fermentation.

  10. Investigating extreme flood response to Holocene palaeoclimate in the Chinese monsoonal zone: A palaeoflood case study from the Hanjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Zhou, Yali; Wang, Longsheng; Zhang, Yuzhu; Hu, Guiming

    2015-06-01

    Palaeoflood events recorded by slackwater deposits (SWDs) were investigated extensively by sedimentological criteria of palaeohydrology along the upper Hanjiang River valley. Modern flood SWDs were collected for comparison with palaeoflood SWD in the same reaches. Three typical palaeoflood SWDs were observed within Holocene loess-soil blanket on the first river terrace land. The grain size distributions of palaeoflood SWDs are similar to modern flood SWDs, whereas they are different from eolian loess and soil. Palaeoflood SWD lies in three major pedo-stratigraphic boundaries (TS/L0, L0/S0, and S0/Lt) in the Holocene loess-soil profiles. The chronology of three palaeoflood episodes was established by OSL dating and pedo-stratigraphic correlation with the well-dated Holocene loess-soil profiles in the upper Hanjiang River basin. Holocene palaeoflood events were dated to 9500-8500, 3200-2800, and 1800-1700 a B.P., respectively. Palaeoflood discharges were estimated by the palaeoflood model (i.e., slope-area method and step-backwater method). The highest discharges are 51,680-53,950 m3 s- 1 at the 11,500-time scale in the Xunyang reach of the upper Hanjiang River valley. Holocene extraordinary hydroclimatic events in the Hanjiang River often result from abnormal atmospheric circulations from Southwest monsoons in the Chinese monsoonal zone. These results provide a regional expression of extreme flood response to Holocene palaeoclimate to understand the effects of global climatic variations on the river system dynamics.

  11. Executive functions in extremely low birth weight and late-preterm preschoolers: effects on working memory and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to fundamental capacities that underlie more complex cognition and have ecological relevance across the individual's lifespan. However, emerging executive functions have rarely been studied in young preterm children (age 3) whose critical final stages of fetal development are interrupted by their early birth. We administered four novel touch-screen computerized measures of working memory and inhibition to 369 participants born between 2004 and 2006 (52 Extremely Low Birth Weight [ELBW]; 196 late preterm; 121 term-born). ELBW performed worse than term-born on simple and complex working memory and inhibition tasks and had the highest percentage of incomplete performance on a continuous performance test. The latter finding indicates developmental immaturity and the ELBW group's most at-risk preterm status. Additionally, late-preterm participants performed worse compared with term-born on measures of complex working memory but did not differ from those term-born on response inhibition measures. These results are consistent with a recent literature that identifies often subtle but detectable neurocognitive deficits in late-preterm children. Our results support the development and standardization of computerized touch-screen measures to assess EF subcomponent abilities during the formative preschool period. Such measures may be useful to monitor the developmental trajectory of critical executive function abilities in preterm children, and their use is necessary for timely recognition of deficit and application of appropriate interventional strategies.

  12. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  13. Styles of Success: Research on Gender Differences in Management Styles [and] What Is the Most Important Difference in Management Styles between Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Forum, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Responses to the Success Style Profile from 127 men and women businessowners and reactions from an 8-member panel found that male and female entrepreneurs resemble each other more than they resemble nonentrepreneurs in thinking and management styles. Women favor right-brain, intuitive styles. One conclusion is that both ways have strengths. (JOW)

  14. Parenting Style and Its Correlates. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy

    One of the most robust approaches to researching parents' influence on children's social competence is the study of what has been called "parenting style." Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental…

  15. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  16. An assessment of the response of Military lower extremity and Hybrid III leg during typical blast impact using the Hybrid III and EUROSID-2 ATD.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the response of Military lower extremity and Hybrid III leg during typical blast impact using the Hybrid III and EUROSID-2 ATD Thanyani Pandelani, David Reinecke, Tleyane Sono, Frans Beetge and Phumlane Nkosi Abstract: This paper...

  17. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  18. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  19. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular) of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the extreme regime are

  20. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Otero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3 model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira. In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the

  1. Extreme drought events in Mediterranean forests: phenological response as a preemptive mechanisms for water and nitrogen conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Laurent; Rambal, Serge; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rodriguez, Raquel; Collin, Christian; Degueldre, David; Letts, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to result in more frequent and intense droughts in the Mediterranean region. To understand forest response to severe drought at different periods of the year, we used a mobile rainfall shelter to examine the impact of spring and autumn rainfall exclusion on phenology and photosynthesis in a holm oak (Quercus ilex) ecosystem. Leaf, female flower, fruit development and maturation were highly affected by the spring rainfall exclusion treatment because predawn leaf water potential started to decrease at the same time actual leaf and female flower were appearing. Half of the sampled trees did not show signs of bud burst and new leaf development. The spring exclusion treatment had much less effects on male flower, probably because they follow an earlier development than leaf and female flower and in consequence, they avoided the decrease in water potential. Spring rainfall exclusion, carried out during increasing atmospheric demand and leaf development, had a larger impact on photosynthesis than autumn exclusion, conducted at a time of mature foliage and decreasing vapour pressure deficit. The relative importance of NSL increased with drought intensity, including balanced reductions in assimilation due to mesophyll conductance (MCL) and biochemical processes (BL). Stomatal closure quickly limited net photosynthesis (An) under mild drought stress. Effects of SL and NSL were equal once total limitation (TL) reached 60%, with 15% contributions from both MCL and BL. Non-stomatal limitation greatly exceeded SL during severe drought, with 76% NSL partitioned equally between MCL and BL when TL reached 100%. Maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and An decreased by more than 70% by midsummer, in response to lower predawn water potential (φp). The relationship between φp and NSL was steeper than for SL, and the impact of BL was strong at low φp during spring exclusion. Leaf lifespan increased with spring exclusion and some trees did not produce

  2. Academic Performance in Introductory Accounting: Do Learning Styles Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…

  3. What Can We Learn from Our Learners' Learning Styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung; Kim, Haedong

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korean university-level EFL learners' learning style preferences. The characteristics of their learning style preferences and implications for effective English learning were examined through the quantitative analysis of 496 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and their English achievement and term-end…

  4. Academic Performance in Introductory Accounting: Do Learning Styles Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…

  5. Climatic and biotic extreme events moderate long-term responses of above- and belowground sub-Arctic heathland communities to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Phoenix, Gareth K; Berg, Matty P; Callaghan, Terry V; Kirby-Lambert, Christopher; Bjerke, Jarle W

    2015-11-01

    Climate change impacts are not uniform across the Arctic region because interacting factors causes large variations in local ecosystem change. Extreme climatic events and population cycles of herbivores occur simultaneously against a background of gradual climate warming trends and can redirect ecosystem change along routes that are difficult to predict. Here, we present the results from sub-Arctic heath vegetation and its belowground micro-arthropod community in response to the two main drivers of vegetation damage in this region: extreme winter warming events and subsequent outbreaks of the defoliating autumnal moth caterpillar (Epirrita autumnata). Evergreen dwarf shrub biomass decreased (30%) following extreme winter warming events and again by moth caterpillar grazing. Deciduous shrubs that were previously exposed to an extreme winter warming event were not affected by the moth caterpillar grazing, while those that were not exposed to warming events (control plots) showed reduced (23%) biomass from grazing. Cryptogam cover increased irrespective of grazing or winter warming events. Micro-arthropods declined (46%) following winter warming but did not respond to changes in plant community. Extreme winter warming and caterpillar grazing suppressed the CO2 fluxes of the ecosystem. Evergreen dwarf shrubs are disadvantaged in a future sub-Arctic with more stochastic climatic and biotic events. Given that summer warming may further benefit deciduous over evergreen shrubs, event and trend climate change may both act against evergreen shrubs and the ecosystem functions they provide. This is of particular concern given that Arctic heath vegetation is typically dominated by evergreen shrubs. Other components of the vegetation showed variable responses to abiotic and biotic events, and their interaction indicates that sub-Arctic vegetation response to multiple pressures is not easy to predict from single-factor responses. Therefore, while biotic and climatic events may

  6. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  7. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  8. Learning styles in two otolaryngology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeq, Kulsoom; Weatherly, Robert A; Carrott, Alice; Pandian, Vinciya; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2009-12-01

    Kolb portrays four learning styles depending on how an individual grasps or transforms experience: accommodating, assimilating, diverging, and converging. Past studies in surgery, medicine, and anesthesia identified the predominant learning style in each of these specialties. The prevalence of different learning styles and existence of a predominant style, if any, has not been reported for otolaryngology residency programs. The purpose of our study was to determine if otolaryngology residents have a preferred learning style that is different from the predominant learning styles reported for other specialties. We conducted a survey of the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents at two residency programs. Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 was administered to 46 residents from Johns Hopkins University and Kansas University Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery programs. LSI is a widely used 12-item questionnaire, with each item followed by four options. The subjects graded the options depending on how the options applied to them. Forty-three otolaryngology residents completed the survey, with a response rate of 93.47%. The predominant learning style was converging (55.81%) followed by accommodating (18.61%), accounting for the learning styles of 74.42% of the total population. There were only 13.95% assimilating and 6.98% diverging learning styles. Two residents (4.65%) had their preference balanced across four learning styles. The predominant learning styles in otolaryngology were converging and accommodating, accounting for three fourths of the population. It would be desirable to modify our curriculum in a way that will optimize and facilitate learning.

  9. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  10. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  11. Social Desirability and Self-Reports: Testing a Content and Response-Style Model of Socially Desirable Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dodaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality assessment as a pre-employment screening procedure receives great interest from both researchers and practitioners. One key concern for selection specialists is represented by the response distortion among job applicants completing personality inventories. There are different operationalizations of socially desirable responding. One of the most accepted operationalizations was provided by Paulhus who distinguished between two social desirability factors (the egoistic and moralistic bias as well as their conscious and unconscious aspects (management and enhancement. The aim of the study reported here is to test the basic assumption of the Paulhus model of socially desirable responding. A convenience sample of 200 students (N = 21.61; SD = 1.46 completed the Comprehensive Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 2006 and the International Personality Item Pool Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1999; by Goldberg et al., 2006. Questionnaires were applied in three conditions: honest responding, responding as an ideal manager job applicant, and as an ideal teacher applicant. Results give partial support to the existence of egoistic and moralistic bias. However, conscious and unconscious aspects of distortion were not found. In conclusion it could be said that Paulhus’ model doesn’t provide a full answer to the problem of the nature of socially desirable responding.

  12. Dissection of the style's response to pollination using transcriptome profiling in self-compatible (Solanum pimpinellifolium) and self-incompatible (Solanum chilense) tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panfeng; Zhang, Lida; Zhao, Lingxia

    2015-05-15

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) self-compatibility (SC) is defined as self-pollen tubes that can penetrate their own stigma, elongate in the style and fertilize their own ovules. Self-incompatibility (SI) is defined as self-pollen tubes that are prevented from developing in the style. To determine the influence of gene expression on style self-pollination, a transcriptome-wide comparative analysis of SC and SI tomato unpollinated/pollinated styles was performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Transcriptome profiles of 24-h unpollination (UP) and self-pollination (P) styles from SC and SI tomato species were generated using high-throughput next generation sequencing. From the comparison of SC self-pollinated and unpollinated styles, 1341 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 753 were downregulated and 588 were upregulated. From the comparison of SI self-pollinated and unpollinated styles, 804 DEGs were identified, of which 215 were downregulated and 589 were upregulated. Nine gene ontology (GO) terms were enriched significantly in SC and 78 GO terms were enriched significantly in SI. A total of 105 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were identified in SC and 80 enriched KEGG pathways were identified in SI, among which "Cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway" and "Plant hormone signal transduction pathway" were significantly enriched in SI. This study is the first global transcriptome-wide comparative analysis of SC and SI tomato unpollinated/pollinated styles. Advanced bioinformatic analysis of DEGs uncovered the pathways of "Cysteine and methionine metabolism" and "Plant hormone signal transduction", which are likely to play important roles in the control of pollen tubes growth in SI species.

  13. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to their geographic location

  14. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  15. Extreme coastal storms along the north coast of Ireland: hydrodynamic forcing and beach response during the winter seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carlos; Marianne, O'Connor; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The increase in storminess (frequency, duration and magnitude) and the occurrence of extreme coastal storms partly associated with climate change, represent pressing concerns for coastal communities in many regions globally. The Atlantic seaboard of Europe has recently experienced record-breaking winter seasons, particularly in Ireland and the UK, where the 2013/14 winter was characterised as the stormiest on record according to measured levels of total precipitation, extreme wind speeds, and particularly the frequency and intensity of cyclone activity. The enhanced cyclone activity during 2013/14 has resulted in unprecedented sequences of extreme water levels and energetic waves and gave rise to widespread coastal erosion and flooding, setting new benchmarks for coastal analysis and offered a glimpse of future storm impact scenarios. A regional analysis of hydrodynamic forcing along the north coast of Ireland over the last two extended winter seasons (October to March) has revealed that, although 2013/14 was indeed characterised by an exceptional frequency and intensity of coastal storms, the 2014/15 extended winter was significantly stormier. Not only was the number of individual storm events higher, but also the duration and intensity was greater, including record values of offshore significant wave height. The geomorphic response along the sandy coastal stretches of the north coast of Ireland, evaluated from morphological change at a diverse group of beach sites, revealed considerable differences in beach erosion and actual shoreline response. Variability in beach changes during these two extreme winter seasons is attributed to a variety of factors. These include localised coastal orientation relative to particular storm tracks, the embayed and highly compartmentalised setting of most of the beaches, as well as site-specific morphodynamic mechanisms such as large rip-current cells forcing the onset and/or reactivation of erosional hotspots. Such heterogeneous

  16. Breeding on the extreme edge : Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Brian G; Meddle, Simone L; Romero, L Michael; Landys, MM; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migrat

  17. Comparison of learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y; Alhreish, Suhail K; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2012-12-12

    To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin's Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track.

  18. Designing Judgement Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Albert Fei

    2017-01-01

    The role played by Online Customer Reviews (OCRs) in consumers’ decision making decisions is increasingly prominent. Compelled by the paucity of understanding regarding how OCRs assist consumers’ decision making process, this study investigates how OCRs and the emerging OCR curation features...... facilitate consumers’ judgement styles in the light of the model of dual-system cognition function. This study postulates that the information cues available in numerical rating and opinionated review are conducive to intuitive and deliberate judgements respectively. Furthermore, OCR curation features can...... help to enhance judgements in response to OCRs through manipulating cue accessibility. Lastly, different judgement modes are expected to entail distinct decisional outcomes in terms of performance and justifiability. To empirically validate the proposed hypotheses, this study proposes a plan...

  19. The Impact of Social Style on Person Perception and Attraction across Three Relationship Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, William B.; Clatterbuck, Glen W.

    A study investigated the relationship between social style and a number of dimensions of person perception and interpersonal attraction. Social style was defined as a two-dimensional construct of assertiveness and responsiveness, which combined to reflect four social styles. Five hypotheses predicted that differences in social style would result…

  20. Evaluation of dimensions Responsiveness and Requirement of grandparents perceived for teen grandchildren: Adaptation of an instrument to classification of grandparent styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro Ventura Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study show the adaptation of the instrument characterized for Likert scales to assess the responsiviness and requirement dimensions. The instrument was applicated to 28 adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 to 19 years old with grandchildren of grandparents school students from Ceilândia (DF. The classification of grandparents styles was realized through the results obtained by the grandparents participants of the study in the responsiviness and requirement dimensions. The proportion of grandparents styles observed in the sample was 10,3 authoritarian, 39,3 authoritative, 10,3 indulgent, 93,3 negligent.  

  1. Estimation of Extreme Responses and Failure Probability of Wind Turbines under Normal Operation by Controlled Monte Carlo Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    order statistical moments. The results obtained by extrapolation of the extreme values to the stipulated design period of the wind turbine depend strongly on the relevance of these adopted extreme value distributions. The problem is that this relevance cannot be decided from the data obtained....... The solution of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation for systems governed by a stochastic differential equation driven by Gaussian white noise will give the sought time variation of the probability density function. However the analytical solution of the FPK is available for only a few dynamic systems...... and the numerical solution is difficult for dynamic problem of more than 2-3 degrees of freedom. This confines the applicability of the FPK to a very narrow range of problems. On the other hand the recently introduced Generalized Density Evolution Method (GDEM), has opened a new way toward realization...

  2. Response of Key Soil Parameters During Compost-Assisted Phytostabilization in Extremely Acidic Tailings: Effect of Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A.; White, Scott A.; Hutter, Travis Borrillo; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    Phytostabilization of mine tailings acts to mitigate both eolian dispersion and water erosion events which can disseminate barren tailings over large distances. This technology uses plants to establish a vegetative cover to permanently immobilize contaminants in the rooting zone, often requiring addition of an amendment to assist plant growth. Here we report the results of a greenhouse study that evaluated the ability of six native plant species to grow in extremely acidic (pH ~ 2.5) metallif...

  3. Bacterial responses to fluctuations and extremes in temperature and brine salinity at the surface of Arctic winter sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W

    2014-08-01

    Wintertime measurements near Barrow, Alaska, showed that bacteria near the surface of first-year sea ice and in overlying saline snow experience more extreme temperatures and salinities, and wider fluctuations in both parameters, than bacteria deeper in the ice. To examine impacts of such conditions on bacterial survival, two Arctic isolates with different environmental tolerances were subjected to winter-freezing conditions, with and without the presence of organic solutes involved in osmoprotection: proline, choline, or glycine betaine. Obligate psychrophile Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H suffered cell losses under all treatments, with maximal loss after 15-day exposure to temperatures fluctuating between -7 and -25 °C. Osmoprotectants significantly reduced the losses, implying that salinity rather than temperature extremes presents the greater stress for this organism. In contrast, psychrotolerant Psychrobacter sp. strain 7E underwent miniaturization and fragmentation under both fluctuating and stable-freezing conditions, with cell numbers increasing in most cases, implying a different survival strategy that may include enhanced dispersal. Thus, the composition and abundance of the bacterial community that survives in winter sea ice may depend on the extent to which overlying snow buffers against extreme temperature and salinity conditions and on the availability of solutes that mitigate osmotic shock, especially during melting.

  4. LEARNING STYLES AND SATISFACTION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning styles in DE. The following is the research question for this study. Are students’ learning styles based on the visual, auditory, tactile model correlated to satisfaction of course format in an online undergraduate course? The participants of this study were students enrolled in three sections of the Contemporary Worldviews course at a private higher education institution (HEI. Learning styles were determined by a variant of the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK framework. Satisfaction of course format was determined from one composite question with responses based on a Likert scale. The response rate was 53.5%. Statistical analysis determined that learning styles was not correlated to satisfaction of course format in this current study. There are implications from this study that curriculum can be designed for a single course that leaves students highly satisfied. Educators should saturate DE courses with as much variance as feasible given technology and cost limitations to account for possible learning style differences.

  5. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  6. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  7. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  8. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  9. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  10. Assessing learning styles of Saudi dental students using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M

    2014-06-01

    Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.

  11. Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Historical extreme storms that struck the Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast regions of the United States caused several different styles of morphological response and resulted in a wide range of washover penetration distances. The post- storm erosional responses included dune scarps, channel incisions, and washouts, whereas depositional responses included perched fans, washover terraces, and sheetwash lineations. Maximum inland extent of washover penetration ranged from approximately 100 to 1000 m and estimated sediment volumes associated with these deposits ranged from about 10 to 225 m 3/m of beach. Unusual styles of morphological response (sheetwash lineations and incised channels) and maximum washover penetration distances are closely correlated, and they also correspond to storm intensity as denned by the Saffir-Simpson wind-speed scale. The regional morphological responses and washover penetration distances are controlled primarily by the interactions among heights and durations of storm surge relative to adjacent land elevations, differences in water levels between the ocean and adjacent lagoon, constructive and destructive interference of storm waves, and alongshore variations in nearshore bathymetry. For barrier segments that are entirely submerged during the storm, impacts can be enhanced by the combined influences of shallow water depths and organized flow within the wind field. The greatest washover penetrations and sediment accumulations are products of shallow water, confined flow, and high wind stress. Transport and deposition of washover sediments across barrier islands and into the adjacent lagoon are common processes along the Gulf of Mexico but not along the western Atlantic Ocean. This fundamental difference in storm impact underscores how microtidal and mesotidal barriers respond respectively to extreme storms, and provides insight into how different types of barrier islands will likely respond to future extreme storms and to a relative rise in sea

  12. Leading Leadership style to motivate cultural-oriented female employees in the I.T sector of developing country: I.T Sectors responses from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Zehra, Nasreen; Baloch, Akhtar; Nadda, Vipin; Riaz, Fayyaz

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study explores different Leadership styles' dimensions influencing culturaloriented female employees' motivation in rapidly improving Pakistan's I.T sector. Hypothetico-Inductive-Deductive model was adapted to construct theoretical framework by opting mixed method under realism philosophy. Sample size is 357 female employees working in software houses of Pakistan's 10 cities selected by combining convenience sampling and stratified sampling techniques. Survey que...

  13. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  14. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    TELEMETRY GROUP DOCUMENT 125-15 XML STYLE GUIDE DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE XML Style Guide 5a. CONTRACT...standard was prepared by the Data Multiplex Committee of the Telemetry Group, Range Commanders Council. The XML Style Guide defines rules and guidelines

  15. Determinants of nursing students' healthy life style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Özyazıcıoğlu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} This descriptive research was carried out to determine the demographic characteristics that effect of healthy life style behavior of the students at Uludağ University. The study sample included 336 students in School of Health. The healthy life style behavior scale (HLSB-II was used to measure healthy life style behaviors.          The total scores HLSB scale-II of students (128.97 ±16.40, subscales health responsibility (29.75 ± 4.19, physical activity (16.60 ± 4.24, nutrition (19.40 ± 3.73, spiritual growth (26.93 ± 4.06, interpersonal relationships (26.16 ± 4.25 and stress management (19.44 ± 3.57 were found. The student nurses performed the best in health responsibility but the worst in physical activity. It was also found that girls more than men have a high average in total average. Students' income level is found to influence the ability to deal with the nutrition.          As a result, healthy life style behavior of students was generally found to be medium level in this study. Students should be empowered to make healthy choices, and appropriate health education interventions should be developed.

  16. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  17. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  18. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  19. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  20. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  1. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  2. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  3. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  4. Goleman's Leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith

    2017-09-19

    With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.

  5. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  6. The RosR transcription factor is required for gene expression dynamics in response to extreme oxidative stress in a hypersaline-adapted archaeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kriti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that the hypersaline-adapted archaeon, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, is highly resistant to oxidative stress caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, UV, and gamma radiation. Dynamic alteration of the gene regulatory network (GRN has been implicated in such resistance. However, the molecular functions of transcription regulatory proteins involved in this response remain unknown. Results Here we have reanalyzed several existing GRN and systems biology datasets for H. salinarum to identify and characterize a novel winged helix-turn-helix transcription factor, VNG0258H, as a regulator required for reactive oxygen species resistance in this organism. This protein appears to be unique to the haloarchaea at the primary sequence level. High throughput quantitative growth assays in a deletion mutant strain implicate VNG0258H in extreme oxidative stress resistance. According to time course gene expression analyses, this transcription factor is required for the appropriate dynamic response of nearly 300 genes to reactive oxygen species damage from paraquat and hydrogen peroxide. These genes are predicted to function in repair of oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. In vivo DNA binding assays demonstrate that VNG0258H binds DNA to mediate gene regulation. Conclusions Together these results suggest that VNG0258H is a novel archaeal transcription factor that regulates gene expression to enable adaptation to the extremely oxidative, hypersaline niche of H. salinarum. We have therefore renamed VNG0258H as RosR, for reactive oxygen species regulator.

  7. Mechanisms for concurrent low-latitude circulation anomalies responsible for persistent extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-08-01

    Concurrent position shifts of the mid-level western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the upper-level South Asia high (SAH) are regarded as significant precursors for persistent extreme precipitation events (PEPEs) in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). By performing composite analyses, accountable vorticity genesis and dissipation are diagnosed based on a potential vorticity-diabatic heating theory. The results indicate that about 1 week preceding precipitation onset, a wave-like pattern of anomalous diabatic heating (Q) initiates its northwestward propagation from equatorial central Pacific. Subsequently, this wave-like pattern induces substantial changes in both horizontal and vertical structure of local Q along the propagating route. Forced negative vorticities in key areas result in the zonal approach between the SAH and the WPSH. During PEPEs, two thermal-induced vertical circulation cells take shape, with common strong ascent centered in the YRV. These anomalous cells are capable of self-maintaining for a few days via positive feedback processes. The WPSH and the SAH are therefore anchored in respective favorable positions for PEPEs. Simultaneously, descending motion of these two cells increases local solar radiation and decreases upward latent heat flux from surface, facilitating warmer underlying surface and swift accumulation of lower-level moisture. Correspondingly, enhanced heating to the north and rapid developing cyclone over warmer sea surface to the south combine to terminate above positive feedback processes. Finally, both the WPSH and the SAH retreat to their normal positions, accompanied by a quick decay of PEPEs.

  8. ISO investigates the nature of extremely-red hard X-ray sources responsible for the X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, A; Césarsky, C J; Elbaz, D; Flores, H; Granato, G L; Franceschini, Alberto; Fadda, Dario; Cesarsky, Catherine; Elbaz, David; Flores, Hector; Granato, Gian Luigi

    2001-01-01

    We analyse very deep X-ray and mid-IR surveys in common areas of the Lockman Hole and the HDF North to study the sources of the X-ray background (XRB) and to test the standard obscured accretion paradigm. We detect with ISO a rich population of X-ray luminous sources with red optical colours, including a fraction identified with Extremely Red Objects (R-K > 5) and galaxies with SEDs typical of normal massive ellipticals or spirals at z ~ 1. The high 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosities of these objects (1E43-1E45 erg/s) indicate that the ultimate energy source is gravitational accretion, while the X-ray to IR flux ratios and the X-ray spectral hardness show evidence of photoelectric absorption at low X-ray energies. An important hint on the physics comes from the mid-IR data at 6.7 and 15 um, well reproduced by model spectra of completely obscured quasars under standard assumptions and l.o.s. optical depths tau ~ 30-40. Other predictions of the standard XRB picture, like the distributions of intrinsic bolometric lum...

  9. A combination mode of climate variability responsible for extremely poor recruitment of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San

    2017-03-01

    Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel’s spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch.

  10. Dynamic metabolic adjustments and genome plasticity are implicated in the heat shock response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    Approximately one-third of the open reading frames encoded in the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome were differentially expressed within 5 min following an 80 to 90 degrees C temperature shift at pH 4.0. This included many toxin-antitoxin loci and insertion elements, implicating a connection between genome plasticity and metabolic regulation in the early stages of stress response.

  11. Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two Mediterranean rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): Analysis of controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Margherita; Surian, Nicola; Wohl, Ellen; Marchi, Lorenzo; Comiti, Francesco; Amponsah, William; Borga, Marco

    2017-08-01

    A high-magnitude, low-frequency flash flood affected two ungauged rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy) on 18 November 2013. This study investigates the response of channel reaches in a Mediterranean environment featuring different morphological settings (i.e., alluvial, semialluvial, and bedrock boundaries) with the aims of (i) detecting the morphological effects of this large flood and (ii) analyzing a range of morphological and hydraulic variables as potential controlling factors of channel response. Channel widening was the dominant geomorphic response observed, and it occurred at different magnitudes among the study subreaches. Within individual subreaches, channel width increased from 1.1 to 6.2 times the pre-flood width. A significant trend in channel widening is observed, especially in alluvial subreaches where the narrowest channels were prone to enlarge more compared to the widest channels. Considerable erosion of valley sides also occurred in confined and partly confined semialluvial and bedrock subreaches. A range of parameters influenced the geomorphic role of the flood, and a series of selected morphological and hydraulic controlling factors showed robust correlations with changes in channel width, although correlations were stronger in alluvial subreaches. Analysis and documentation of channel response and its variability through different morphological settings is crucial to provide a basis from which to forecast future river sensitivity to geomorphic adjustment to high-magnitude floods and improve flood management strategies.

  12. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  13. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  14. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing's center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace. Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches o...

  15. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing’s center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace, Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches of new products.

  16. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  17. A PerR-like protein involved in response to oxidative stress in the extreme bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengzhi; Wang, Liangyan; Li, Tao; Lin, Lin; Dai, Shang; Tian, Bing, E-mail: tianbing@zju.edu.cn; Hua, Yuejin, E-mail: yjhua@zju.edu.cn

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We report a novel PerR-like protein of Fur family in D. radiodurans that is not annotated in the current database. • drperR responses to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and functions as a negative regulator of katE and dps. • We provided implications on how to utilize sequenced genome data and the importance of genome data mining. • This study adds knowledge to complicated regulatory network that responds to ROS stress in D. radiodurans. - Abstract: Response and defense systems against reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the remarkable resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans to oxidative stress induced by oxidants or radiation. However, mechanisms involved in ROS response and defense systems of D. radiodurans are not well understood. Fur family proteins are important in ROS response. Only a single Fur homolog is predicted by sequence similarity in the current D. radiodurans genome database. Our bioinformatics analysis demonstrated an additional guanine nucleotide in the genome of D. radiodurans that is not in the database, leading to the discovery of another Fur homolog DrPerR. Gene disruption mutant of DrPerR showed enhanced resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and increased catalase activity in cell extracts. Real-time PCR results indicated that DrPerR functions as a repressor of the catalase gene katE. Meanwhile, derepression of dps (DNA-binding proteins from starved cells) gene under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress by DrPerR point to its regulatory role in metal ions hemostasis. Thus, DrPerR might function as a Fur homolog protein which is involved in ROS response and defense. These results help clarify the complicated regulatory network that responds to ROS stress in D. radiodurans.

  18. Response of key soil parameters during compost-assisted phytostabilization in extremely acidic tailings: effect of plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; White, Scott A; Hutter, Travis Borrillo; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2012-01-17

    Phytostabilization of mine tailings acts to mitigate both eolian dispersion and water erosion events which can disseminate barren tailings over large distances. This technology uses plants to establish a vegetative cover to permanently immobilize contaminants in the rooting zone, often requiring addition of an amendment to assist plant growth. Here we report the results of a greenhouse study that evaluated the ability of six native plant species to grow in extremely acidic (pH ∼ 2.5) metalliferous (As, Pb, Zn: 2000-3000 mg kg(-1)) mine tailings from Iron King Mine Humboldt Smelter Superfund site when amended with a range of compost concentrations. Results revealed that three of the six plant species tested (buffalo grass, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) are good candidates for phytostabilization at an optimum level of 15% compost (w/w) amendment showing good growth and minimal shoot accumulation of metal(loid)s. A fourth candidate, quailbush, also met all criteria except for exceeding the domestic animal toxicity limit for shoot accumulation of zinc. A key finding of this study was that the plant species that grew most successfully on these tailings significantly influenced key tailings parameters; direct correlations between plant biomass and both increased tailings pH and neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were observed. We also observed decreased iron oxidizer counts and decreased bioavailability of metal(loid)s mainly as a result of compost amendment. Taken together, these results suggest that the phytostabilization process reduced tailings toxicity as well as the potential for metal(loid) mobilization. This study provides practical information on plant and tailings characteristics that is critically needed for successful implementation of assisted phytostabilization on acidic, metalliferous mine tailings sites.

  19. Response of Key Soil Parameters During Compost-Assisted Phytostabilization in Extremely Acidic Tailings: Effect of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A.; White, Scott A.; Hutter, Travis Borrillo; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    Phytostabilization of mine tailings acts to mitigate both eolian dispersion and water erosion events which can disseminate barren tailings over large distances. This technology uses plants to establish a vegetative cover to permanently immobilize contaminants in the rooting zone, often requiring addition of an amendment to assist plant growth. Here we report the results of a greenhouse study that evaluated the ability of six native plant species to grow in extremely acidic (pH ~ 2.5) metalliferous (As, Pb, Zn: 2000–3000 mg kg−1) mine tailings from Iron King Mine Humboldt Smelter Superfund site when amended with a range of compost concentrations. Results revealed that three of the six plant species tested (buffalo grass, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) are good candidates for phytostabilization at an optimum level of 15% compost (w/w) amendment showing good growth and minimal shoot accumulation of metal(loid)s. A fourth candidate, quailbush, also met all criteria except for exceeding the domestic animal toxicity limit for shoot accumulation of zinc. A key finding of this study was that the plant species that grew most successfully on these tailings significantly influenced key tailings parameters; direct correlations between plant biomass and both increased tailings pH and neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were observed. We also observed decreased iron oxidizer counts and decreased bioavailability of metal(loid)s mainly as a result of compost amendment. Taken together, these results suggest that the phytostabilization process reduced tailings toxicity as well as the potential for metal(loid) mobilization. This study provides practical information on plant and tailings characteristics that is critically needed for successful implementation of assisted phytostabilization on acidic, metalliferous mine tailings sites. PMID:22191663

  20. Meeting of the Minds: Recognizing Styles of Conflict Management Helps Students Develop "People Skills."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, William P.

    1992-01-01

    When faced with conflict, people respond in one of three styles: dominating, appeasing, or cooperating. Teaching students to recognize styles and choose appropriate responses can help them deal with conflict in the workplace. (SK)

  1. Dynamic Metabolic Adjustments and Genome Plasticity Are Implicated in the Heat Shock Response of the Extremely Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the open reading frames encoded in the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome were differentially expressed within 5 min following an 80 to 90°C temperature shift at pH 4.0. This included many toxin-antitoxin loci and insertion elements, implicating a connection between genome plasticity and metabolic regulation in the early stages of stress response. PMID:16740961

  2. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  3. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  4. Learning Styles: Humpty Dumpty Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stan D.

    2009-01-01

    What is a learning style? No one seems to know for sure. The language used by learning style theorists is filled with ambiguities. Price (2004) maintains that "learning style is often used as a metaphor for considering the range of individual differences in learning" (p. 681). Is learning style merely a fanciful metaphor or is it the wave of the…

  5. Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Margherita; Surian, Nicola; Wohl, Ellen; Amponsah, William; Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors Margherita Righini (1), Nicola Surian (1), Ellen Wohl (2), William Amponsah (3, 4), Lorenzo Marchi (3), Marco Borga (4) (1) Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Italy, (2) Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, (3) CNR IRPI, Padova, Italy, (4) Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, Italy. The investigation of geomorphic effectiveness of extreme floods is crucial to improve tools for assessing channel dynamics and our capability of forecasting geomorphological hazard. This work deals with geomorphic response of two mountain rivers in the Posada catchment (northeastern Sardinia, Italy), considering a range of morphological (i.e., lateral channel confinement, channel gradient, channel sinuosity, sediment sources, and vegetation) and hydraulic variables (i.e., cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power, flow duration and total energy expenditure) as possible controlling factors. On November 18th 2013, northeastern Sardinia was affected by an extreme meteorological event with hourly rainfall intensities up to 100 mm/h and a peak in rain accumulation up to 450 mm in 24 hours, with 18 casualties and damages to infrastructure and buildings. In the Posada and Mannu di Bitti Rivers, the geomorphic response (i.e., bank erosion, channel aggradation and incision, vegetation and wood dynamics, hillslope failure) was analyzed at different spatial scales. The observed dominant geomorphic change was channel widening. Therefore, channel width changes have been analyzed in detail by remote sensing and GIS tools integrated by field surveys. The study focuses on reaches (i.e., 22.5 km in the Posada River, upstream of Maccheronis dam; 18.2 km in the Mannu di Bitti River) affected by evident and significant geomorphic responses in terms

  6. The effect of rainfall and competition intensity on forest response to drought: lessons learned from a dry extreme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Michael; Perevolotsky, Avi; Sarris, Dimitrios; Svoray, Tal

    2015-04-01

    We investigated forest responses to global warming by observing: (1) planted Pinus halepensis forests, (2) an aridity gradient-with annual precipitation (P) ranging from ~300 to ~700 mm, and (3) periods of wet and dry climate that included the driest period during at least the last 110 years. We examined: (1) how the length of climatic integration periods to which trees are most responsive varies in space and time, (2) the extent to which competition modulates growth decline during drought (2011) and subsequent recovery (2012) years. The temporal scale of rainfall that was most influential on growth shortened in progressing southward, and in the drier than in the wetter period. Long-term underground water storage, as reflected in the relationship of growth to multiple-year rainfall, remained significant up to the point where P ≈ 500 mm. Under drier conditions (P Competition appeared to set an upper limit to growth, while growth variation among individual trees increased as competition-intensity decreased. That upper limit increased in 2012 compared with 2011. The observed insensitivity of slow-growing trees to competition implies that mortality risk may be density independent, when even any potential for higher soil moisture availability in open stands is lost to evapotranspiration before it can benefit tree growth.

  7. Terrestrial atmospheric responses on Svalbard to the 20 March 2015 Arctic total solar eclipse under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J M; Peñaloza-Murillo, M A; Carter, A L; Roman, M T

    2016-09-28

    This article reports on the near-surface atmospheric response at the High Arctic site of Svalbard, latitude 78° N, as a result of abrupt changes in solar insolation during the 20 March 2015 equinox total solar eclipse and notifies the atmospheric science community of the availability of a rare dataset. Svalbard was central in the path of totality, and had completely clear skies. Measurements of shaded air temperature and atmospheric pressure show only weak, if any, responses to the reduced insolation. A minimum in the air temperature at 1.5 m above the ground occurred starting 2 min following the end of totality, though this drop was only slightly beyond the observed variability for the midday period. Eclipse-produced variations in surface pressure, if present, were less than 0.3 hPa.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  8. Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, amorphous InGaZnO ultraviolet photo thin-film transistors have exhibited great potential for application in future display technologies. Nevertheless, the transmittance of amorphous InGaZnO (~80% is still not high enough, resulting in the relatively large sacrifice of aperture ratio for each sensor pixel. In this work, the ultraviolet photo thin-film transistor based on amorphous InGaMgO, which processes a larger bandgap and higher transmission compared to amorphous InGaZnO, was proposed and investigated. Furthermore, the effects of post-deposition annealing in oxygen on both the material and ultraviolet detection characteristics of amorphous InGaMgO were also comprehensively studied. It was found that oxygen post-deposition annealing can effectively reduce oxygen vacancies, leading to an optimized device performance, including lower dark current, higher sensitivity, and larger responsivity. We attributed it to the combined effect of the reduction in donor states and recombination centers, both of which are related to oxygen vacancies. As a result, the 240-min annealed device exhibited the lowest dark current of 1.7 × 10−10 A, the highest photosensitivity of 3.9 × 106, and the largest responsivity of 1.5 × 104 A/W. Therefore, our findings have revealed that amorphous InGaMgO photo thin-film transistors are a very promising alternative for UV detection, especially for application in touch-free interactive displays.

  9. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  10. Infertility practice management. I. Leadership and management style: results from the 2002 survey of 374 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Steven C; Kemp, Denise E; Balser, David P; Masler, Steve N; Hart, Brad; Bubka, Andrea; Bonato, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    To identify current trends in management and leadership styles in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) member infertility centers; and to understand the similarities and disparities that exist in physicians', administrators', and staff perceptions of management and leadership styles in these centers. Questionnaires were developed to collect information on the leadership and management styles in place in SART member infertility centers. Survey instruments were distributed to the 374 SART centers. Survey instruments for one physician, the center administrator, and six staff members (two each in nursing, laboratory, and administration) were issued to the SART liaison in each of the SART member centers. Respondents included physicians, practice administrators, nurses, technicians, patient services, billing, and support staff. Analysis of respondents' answers revealed that surveyed staff members reported a fairly high degree of job satisfaction. Physician and administrator management styles seemed to fall between interactive and directive styles; however, physicians and administrators perceived themselves as being more interactive than other staff members viewed them. Overall, extreme differences were unlikely, given the reported high degree of job satisfaction. Finally, survey outcome data were compared with responding centers' ART outcome rates as published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Overall, although employee job satisfaction seemed to be high, there were statistical differences between groups for several questions; the disparities in responses for these questions are indicators for potential management and leadership consideration. In addition, statistical correlations were found between the responses for several questions and the centers' respective CDC-published ART outcome rates.

  11. In situ real-time evaluation of radiation-responsive promoters in the extremely radioresistant microbe Deinococcus radiodurans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narasimha Anaganti; Bhakti Basu; Shree Kumar Apte

    2016-06-01

    A third generation promoter probe shuttle vector pKG was constructed, using the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, for in situ evaluation of Deinococcal promoter activity in Escherichia coli or Deinococcus radiodurans. The construct yielded zero background fluorescence in both the organisms, in the absence of promoter sequences. Fifteen deinococcal promoters, either harbouring Radiation and Desiccation Response Motif (RDRM) or not, were cloned in vector pKG. Only the RDRM-promoter constructs displayed (i) gamma radiation inducible GFP expression in D. radiodurans, following gamma irradiation, (ii) DdrO-mediated repression of GFP expression in heterologous E. coli, or (iii) abolition in GFP induction following gamma irradiation, in pprI mutant of D. radiodurans. Utility of pKG vector for real-time in situ assessment of deinococcal promoter function was, thus, successfully demonstrated.

  12. Resection of Residual Disease Following Isolated Limb Infusion (ILI) is Equivalent to a Complete Response Following ILI Alone in Advanced Extremity Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J; Chen, YA; Fisher, KJ; Beasley, GM; Tyler, DS; Zager, JS

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a limb-preserving treatment for in-transit extremity melanoma. The benefit of resecting residual disease following ILI is unclear. Methods A multi-institutional experience was analyzed comparing patients who underwent ILI plus resection of residual disease (ILI+RES) versus ILI-alone. Results 176 patients were included: 154 ILI-alone and 22 ILI+RES. There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, age, extremity affected, or time from diagnosis to ILI. All surgical resections were performed as an outpatient procedure, separate from the ILI. Within the ILI+RES group, fifteen (68%) had a partial response (PR), two (9%) stable disease (SD), and 5 (23%) progressive disease (PD). The ILI-alone group had 52 (34%) CR, 30 (19%) PR, 15 (10%) SD, and 46 (30%) PD. Eleven (7%) ILI-alone patients did not have 3-month response available for review. Evaluating overall survival (OS) from date of ILI, the ILI-alone group had a median OS of 30.9 months, whereas the ILI+RES group had not reached median OS, p=0.304. Although the ILI+RES group had a slightly longer disease free survival (DFS) compared to those with a CR after ILI-alone (12.4 vs. 9.6), this was not statistically significant, p=0.978. Within the ILI+RES group, those with an initial PR following ILI had improved DFS vs. those with SD or PD following ILI, pILI offers a DFS and OS similar to those who have a CR after ILI-alone, and may offer a treatment strategy that benefits more patients undergoing ILI. PMID:24162840

  13. Visual or Auditory Processing Style and Strategy Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Keri; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    In a study that investigated differences in the processing styles of beginning readers, a Pictograph Sentence Memory Test (PSMT) was administered to first and second grade students to determine their processing style as well as to assess instructional effects. Based on their responses to the PSMT, the children were classified as either visual or…

  14. Construction and Validation of Scale of Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gafor, K.; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and standardization of a measure of perceived parenting style. The four styles namely authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and negligent proposed by Baumrind (1971) are scaled based on a quadrant of high and low levels of parental responsiveness and control suggested by Maccoby and Martin (1983). The items…

  15. Responses of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, to temperature extremes and dehydration: levels of tolerance, rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, J B; Lopez-Martinez, G; Teets, N M; Phillips, S A; Denlinger, D L

    2009-12-01

    This study of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, examines tolerance of adult females to extremes in temperature and loss of body water. Although the supercooling point (SCP) of the bed bugs was approximately -20 degrees C, all were killed by a direct 1 h exposure to -16 degrees C. Thus, this species cannot tolerate freezing and is killed at temperatures well above its SCP. Neither cold acclimation at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks nor dehydration (15% loss of water content) enhanced cold tolerance. However, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. a 1-h exposure to 0 degrees C improved their subsequent tolerance of -14 and -16 degrees C. In response to heat stress, fewer than 20% of the bugs survived a 1-h exposure to 46 degrees C, and nearly all were killed at 48 degrees C. Dehydration, heat acclimation at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks and rapid heat hardening at 37 degrees C for 1 h all failed to improve heat tolerance. Expression of the mRNAs encoding two heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, was elevated in response to heat stress, cold stress and during dehydration and rehydration. The response of Hsp90 was more pronounced than that of Hsp70 during dehydration and rehydration. Our results define the tolerance limits for bed bugs to these commonly encountered stresses of temperature and low humidity and indicate a role for Hsps in responding to these stresses.

  16. Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2012-09-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are frequently reported among elite athletes of outdoor endurance winter sports, particularly in cross-country and biathlon skiers. The pathogenesis of EIA is related to water loss and heat-loss through the increased respiration during exercise, leading to mediator release, airways inflammation and increased parasympathetic nervous activity in the airways, causing bronchial constriction and BHR. In the competing elite athlete this is presently considered to be due to the frequently repeated increased ventilation during training and competitions in combination with the repeated environmental exposure to cold air in outdoor winter sports. It is important that athletes at risk of asthma and BHR are monitored through regular medical control with assessment of lung function and BHR, and when BHR or asthma is diagnosed, optimal controlling treatment through anti-inflammatory treatment by inhaled steroids should be started and relieving treatment (inhaled ipratropium bromide and inhaled β2-agonists) should be used to relieve bronchial constriction if present.

  17. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  18. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  19. Conflict resolution styles in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked

  20. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  1. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overall...... shape which makes the general analysis and retrieval of such shapes more challenging. Also there is no single way of defining the style as this depends much on the context of the family of shapes used for the analysis. That is why the definition needs to be given through the examples. The straight...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  2. Eastern Australian Coastal Behaviour in Response to Extreme Storm Climate Between 1600-1900 AD, Determined from a Coupled Climate Reconstruction and Coastal Morphodynamic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, I. D.; Browning, S. A.; Mortlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    A sustained morphodynamic reorganisation of the east Australian coast occurred over a large latitudinal gradient from subtropical Queensland (S 25°) to mid-latitude Bass Strait (S 40°) between ~1600 to 1900 CE. These changes indicate that a large-scale shift in the modal climate occurred together with changes in extreme storm frequency or clustering of East Coast Cyclones (ECC), when compared to the past century. ECC are complex subtropical weather systems that form off the east coast of Australia and/or travel parallel to the coast of Australia from south-east Queensland to Victoria. We investigate coastal evolution and the associated climate drivers using a novel combination of methods, including: LIDAR DEM and field mapping of coastal geology; a decadal-scale climate reconstruction of sea-level pressure, marine windfields, and paleo-storm synoptic type and frequency, using a paleoclimate data assimilation approach; together with wave transformation and coastal planform modelling for paleo-wave directions, and historical bathymetry. We present the morphodynamic response to changes in directional wave power, by linking the paleo-windfield reconstruction to wave transformation models. The combined methodology has illuminated the 'ultimate' storm impacts not seen in the past century, and defines the multi-decadal coastal system response and recovery to extreme storm sequences. Increased embaymentisation and anticlockwise rotation of embayed and barrier coast planform geometry; shifts in barrier-estuary-inlet configuration; and a ubiquitous foredune transgression, are shown to have occurred between ~1600 to 1800 CE. This was in response to a poleward shift in the subtropics and frequency of tradewind-driven wave climate, and tropical-origin storms. From 1800 to 1900 CE, an equatorward shift in the subtropics, and clustering of extratropical-origin storms drove an increase in the shoreface-littoral sediment budget and a clockwise coastline progradation. This

  3. Lack of Cortical Correlates of Response Inhibition in 6-Year-Olds Born Extremely Preterm – Evidence from a Go/NoGo Task in Magnetoencephalographic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihko, Elina; Lönnberg, Piia; Lauronen, Leena; Wolford, Elina; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Metsäranta, Marjo; Nevalainen, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    Children born extremely preterm (EPT) may have difficulties in response inhibition, but the neural basis of such problems is unknown. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a somatosensory Go/NoGo task in 6-year-old children born EPT (n = 22) and in children born full term (FT; n = 21). The children received tactile stimuli randomly to their left little (target) and index (non-target) finger and were instructed to squeeze a soft toy with the opposite hand every time they felt a stimulus on the little finger. Behaviorally, the EPT children performed worse than the FT children, both in responding to the target finger stimulation and in refraining from responding to the non-target finger stimulation. In MEG, after the non-target finger stimulation (i.e., during the response inhibition), the sensorimotor alpha oscillation levels in the contralateral-to-squeeze hemisphere were elevated in the FT children when compared with a condition with corresponding stimulation but no task (instead the children were listening to a story and not attending to the fingers). This NoGo task effect was absent in the EPT children. Further, in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the tactile stimulation, the post-stimulus suppression was less pronounced in the EPT than FT children. We suggest that the missing NoGo task effect and lower suppression of sensorimotor oscillations are markers of deficient functioning of the sensorimotor networks in the EPT children. PMID:28111544

  4. Match the Style of Instruction to the Style of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many reading problems are caused by using the wrong teaching methods. This article advocates using a reading style inventory and matching the teaching method to the student's reading style. The author holds copyright to this article. (Contains 3 figures.)

  5. DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model traits as maladaptive extreme variants of the five-factor model: An item-response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takakuni; Samuel, Douglas B; Pahlen, Shandell; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Over the past two decades, evidence has suggested that personality disorders (PDs) can be conceptualized as extreme, maladaptive variants of general personality dimensions, rather than discrete categorical entities. Recognizing this literature, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) alternative PD model in Section III defines PDs partially through 25 maladaptive traits that fall within 5 domains. Empirical evidence based on the self-report measure of these traits, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), suggests that these five higher-order domains share a structure and correlate in meaningful ways with the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality. In the current study, item response theory was used to compare the DSM-5 alternative PD model traits to those from a normative FFM inventory (the International Personality Item Pool-NEO [IPIP-NEO]) in terms of their measurement precision along the latent dimensions. Within a combined sample of 3,517 participants, results strongly supported the conclusion that the DSM-5 alternative PD model traits and IPIP-NEO traits are complimentary measures of 4 of the 5 FFM domains (with perhaps the exception of openness to experience vs. psychoticism). Importantly, the two measures yield largely overlapping information curves on these four domains. Differences that did emerge suggested that the PID-5 scales generally have higher thresholds and provide more information at the upper levels, whereas the IPIP-NEO generally had an advantage at the lower levels. These results support the general conceptualization that 4 domains of the DSM-5 alternative PD model traits are maladaptive, extreme versions of the FFM. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. A modelling approach to assess the hydrological response of small Mediterranean catchments to the variability of soil characteristics in a context of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study aiming at quantifying the possible impact of soil characteristics on the hydrological response of small ungauged catchments in a context of extreme events. The study focuses on the September 2002 event in the Gard region (South-Eastern France, which led to catastrophic flash-floods. The proposed modeling approach is able to take into account rainfall variability and soil profiles variability. Its spatial discretization is determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a soil map. The model computes infiltration, ponding and vertical soil water distribution, as well as river discharge. The model is set up without any calibration and the soil parameter specification is based on an existing soil database. To perform the simulations, radar rainfall estimations are used at a 1 km2 and 5 min resolution. To specify the soil hydraulic properties, two types of pedotransfer function (PTF are compared. It is shown that the PTF including information about soil structure reflects better the spatial variability that can be encountered in the field. The study is focused on four small ungauged catchments of less than 10 km2, which experienced casualties. Simulated specific peak discharges are found to be in agreement with estimations from a post-event in situ investigation. Examining the dynamics of simulated infiltration and saturation degrees, two different behaviors are shown which correspond to different runoff production mechanisms that could be encountered within catchments of less than 10 km2. They produce simulated runoff coefficients that evolve in time and highlight the variability of the infiltration capacity of the various soil types. Therefore, we propose a cartography distinguishing between areas prone to saturation excess and areas prone only to infiltration excess mechanisms. The questions raised by this modeling study will be useful to improve field observations, aiming at

  7. Morphological and transcriptional response of an anhydrobiotic insect to ionizing radiation and desiccation: steps forward in understanding molecular background of extreme radioresistance in higher eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Mukae, Kyosuke

    2012-07-01

    Life in extreme or drastically changing environments in many cases leads to evolutionary evolvement of mechanisms of cross-resistance to different abiotic stresses, often never actually faced by the organism in its natural habitat. Larvae of the sleeping chironomidPolypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) are able to resist complete desiccation and in the dry form survive under excess of various abiotic stresses, including exposure to space environment. One of the most intriguing features of the anhydrobiotic larvae is resistance to extremely high doses of different types of ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We find that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated after anhydrobiosis larvae were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions (4He+). In comparison, low-LET radiation (gamma rays) of the same dose causes less initial damage to the larvae, and recovery of DNA repair is complete within 24 h. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in the larvae revealed that a large group of genes (including antioxidants, anhydrobiosis-specific biomolecules and protein-reparation enzymes) showed a similar patterns of activity in response to both desiccation and ionizing radiation. We conclude that t one of the factors explaining the relationship between the resistance to ionizing radiation and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid would be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted proteins and nuclear DNA damage.

  8. Learning styles vary among general surgery residents: analysis of 12 years of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Joshua M V; Fischer, David R; Anderson, Andrea; James, Laura E; Nussbaum, Michael S; Bower, Robert H; Pritts, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the learning styles of individuals may assist in the tailoring of an educational program to optimize learning. General surgery faculty and residents have been characterized previously as having a tendency toward particular learning styles. We seek to understand better the learning styles of general surgery residents and differences that may exist within the population. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was administered yearly to general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati from 1994 to 2006. This tool allows characterization of learning styles into 4 groups: converging, accommodating, assimilating, and diverging. The converging learning style involves education by actively solving problems. The accommodating learning style uses emotion and interpersonal relationships. The assimilating learning style learns by abstract logic. The diverging learning style learns best by observation. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance were performed to determine significance. Surveys from 1994 to 2006 (91 residents, 325 responses) were analyzed. The prevalent learning style was converging (185, 57%), followed by assimilating (58, 18%), accommodating (44, 14%), and diverging (38, 12%). At the PGY 1 and 2 levels, male and female residents differed in learning style, with the accommodating learning style being relatively more frequent in women and assimilating learning style more frequent in men (Table 1, p learning style did not seem to change with advancing PGY level within the program, which suggests that individual learning styles may be constant throughout residency training. If a resident's learning style changed, it tended to be to converging. In addition, no relation exists between learning style and participation in dedicated basic science training or performance on the ABSIT/SBSE. Our data suggests that learning style differs between male and female general surgery residents but not with PGY level or ABSIT/SBSE performance. A greater

  9. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  10. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  11. Terrace styles and timing of terrace formation in the Weser and Leine valleys, northern Germany: Response of a fluvial system to climate change and glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Roskosch, Julia; Polom, Ulrich; Böhner, Utz; Brandes, Christian; Glotzbach, Christoph; Frechen, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In glaciated continental basins accommodation space is not only controlled by tectonics and sea-level but also by the position of ice-sheets, which may act as a regional base-level for fluvial systems. Although the Pleistocene terrace record of major river systems in northwestern Europe has been investigated by many authors, relatively little attention has been paid to base-level changes related to glacier advance-retreat cycles and how these regional changes in base-level interacted with river catchment processes. This study provides a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terraces in the upper Weser and middle Leine valley in northern Germany and links it to glaciation, climate and base-level change. The depositional architecture of the fluvial terrace deposits has been reconstructed from outcrops and high-resolution shear wave seismic profiles. The chronology is based on luminescence ages, 230Th/U ages, 14C ages and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. The drainage system of the study area developed during the Early Miocene. During the Pleistocene up to 170 m of fluvial incision took place. A major change in terrace style from strath terraces to cut-and-fill terraces occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene before Marine Isotope Stage MIS 12, which may correlate with climate deterioration and the onset of glaciation in northern central Europe. During this time a stable buffer zone was established within which channels avulsed and cut and filled freely without leaving these vertical confines. Climate was the dominant driver for river incision and aggradation, whereas the terrace style was controlled by base-level changes during ice-sheet growth and decay. A major effect of glacio-isostatic processes was the post-Elsterian re-direction of the River Weser and River Leine. The Middle Pleistocene fluvial terraces are vertically stacked, indicating a high aggradation to degradation ratio, corresponding

  12. Exploring Cultural Effects on Teaching Styles of Chinese and American Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ginny Q.; Moodie, Douglas R.; Wang, Bailing

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines cultural effects on college professors' teaching styles. Ninety-four Chinese university instructors participated in the study. A 40-item teaching style inventory was used in the study. The responses were compared with American professors' teaching styles reported by Grasha (2006). Results show that the Chinese…

  13. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves.

  14. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  15. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  16. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  17. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  18. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  19. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  20. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  1. A modeling approach to assess the hydrological response of small mediterranean catchments to the variability of soil characteristics in a context of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study aiming at quantifying the possible impact of soil characteristics on the hydrological response of small ungauged catchments in a context of extreme events. The study focuses on the September 2002 event in the Gard region (South-Eastern France, which led to catastrophic flash-floods. The proposed modeling approach is able to take into account rainfall variability and soil profiles variability. Its spatial discretization is determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a soil map. The model computes infiltration, ponding and vertical soil water distribution, as well as river discharge. In order to be applicable to ungauged catchments, the model is set up without any calibration and the soil parameter specification is based on an existing soil database. The model verification is based on a regional evaluation using 17 estimated discharges obtained from an extensive post-flood investigation. Thus, this approach provides a spatial view of the hydrological response across a large range of scales. To perform the simulations, radar rainfall estimations are used at a 1 km2 and 5 min resolution. To specify the soil hydraulic properties, two types of pedotransfer function (PTF are compared. It is shown that the PTF including information about soil structure reflects better the spatial variability that can be encountered in the field. The study is focused on four small ungauged catchments of less than 10 km2, which experienced casualties. Simulated specific peak discharges are found to be in agreement with estimations from a post-event in situ investigation. Examining the dynamics of simulated infiltration and saturation degrees, two different behaviors are shown which correspond to different runoff production mechanisms that could be encountered within catchments of less than 10 km2. They produce simulated runoff coefficients that evolve in time and highlight the variability of the

  2. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  3. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  4. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  5. Communicating with Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Judy

    1992-01-01

    To develop strong channels of communication with teachers, principals must first determine which communication style (intuitor, thinker, sensor, or feeler) each individual favors. Then principals can open one-to-one communication channels, establish effective teaching teams, form more productive committees, and solve problems efficiently. Also,…

  6. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  7. Teaching Styles and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Using 24 college and university teachers, this study investigated the effect of teaching styles on adult student learning and analyzed the results of a factor breakdown, interactions between teacher behavior and class and student characteristics, and profiles of teacher effectiveness. Gains in factual information were positively related to teacher…

  8. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  9. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  10. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  11. Gender Difference in Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳

    2008-01-01

    This article mainly focused on learning styles and its relative influence on language learning proficiency,as well as gender difference in terms of learning style.Through a litemture review,I found many learning style models.Also,there were many variations among the students in use of these models.The acquaintances of learning style may benefit students and language instructors to adapt teaching and learning to individual differences among students.This can enhance education effectiveness.

  12. Dissociating Indifferent, Directional, and Extreme Responding in Personality Data: Applying the Three-Process Model to Self- and Observer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert-style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three-process model, to data of self- and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. We applied the three-process model to personality data of 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; Lee & Ashton, ) of Dutch and German undergraduate respondents. First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three-process model. Second, we show that the various response processes show a pattern of correlations across traits and rating sources which is in line with the idea that indifferent and extreme responding are person-specific tendencies, whereas directional responding is content-specific. Third, we report findings supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process.

  13. Japanese Management Styles: Can Academic Libraries Learn from Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the three main characteristics of Japanese management style and discusses its applicability to academic library management in the United States. Responses from 10 readers of advance copies of the article are included. (6 references) (MES)

  14. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  15. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...

  16. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  17. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  18. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cumming; G. Fleming; A. Schwienbacher

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  19. The Myth of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Cedar; Willingham, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. In this article, the authors begin by defining "learning styles"; then they address the claims made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what the authors consider the valid claims of learning-styles theorists. But in separating the wheat from the…

  20. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  1. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  2. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  3. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  4. The endocrine stress response is linked to one specific locus on chromosome 3 in a mouse model based on extremes in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonik Mariya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is essential to control physiological stress responses in mammals. Its dysfunction is related to several mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to identify genetic loci underlying the endocrine regulation of the HPA axis. Method High (HAB and low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour mice were established by selective inbreeding of outbred CD-1 mice to model extremes in trait anxiety. Additionally, HAB vs. LAB mice exhibit comorbid characteristics including a differential corticosterone response upon stress exposure. We crossbred HAB and LAB lines to create F1 and F2 offspring. To identify the contribution of the endocrine phenotypes to the total phenotypic variance, we examined multiple behavioural paradigms together with corticosterone secretion-based phenotypes in F2 mice by principal component analysis. Further, to pinpoint the genomic loci of the quantitative trait of the HPA axis stress response, we conducted genome-wide multipoint oligogenic linkage analyses based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach as well as parametric linkage in three-generation pedigrees, followed by a two-dimensional scan for epistasis and association analysis in freely segregating F2 mice using 267 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which were identified to consistently differ between HAB and LAB mice as genetic markers. Results HPA axis reactivity measurements and behavioural phenotypes were represented by independent principal components and demonstrated no correlation. Based on this finding, we identified one single quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 3 showing a very strong evidence for linkage (2ln (L-score > 10, LOD > 23 and significant association (lowest Bonferroni adjusted p -28 to the neuroendocrine stress response. The location of the linkage peak was estimated at 42.3 cM (95% confidence interval: 41.3 - 43.3 cM and was shown to be in

  5. Radiography students' clinical learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patti; Makela, Carole

    2010-01-01

    To examine the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Descriptive research methodology, using a single self-report questionnaire, helped to identify common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. The results indicated that 3 learning styles predominate among radiography students during clinical practice: task oriented, purposeful and tentative. Insight into clinical practice learning styles can help students understand how they learn and allow them to recognize ways to maximize learning. It also heightens awareness among clinical instructors and technologists of the different learning styles and their relevance to clinical practice education.

  6. Determinants of nursing students' healthy life style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Özyazıcıoğlu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive research was carried out to determine the demographic characteristics that effect of healthy life style behavior of the students at Uludağ University. The study sample included 336 students in School of Health. The healthy life style behavior scale (HLSB-II was used to measure healthy life style behaviors. The total scores HLSB scale-II of students (128.97 ±16.40, subscales health responsibility (29.75 ± 4.19, physical activity (16.60 ± 4.24, nutrition (19.40 ± 3.73, spiritual growth (26.93 ± 4.06, interpersonal relationships (26.16 ± 4.25 and stress management (19.44 ± 3.57 were found. The student nurses performed the best in health responsibility but the worst in physical activity. It was also found that girls more than men have a high average in total average. Students' income level is found to influence the ability to deal with the nutrition. As a result, healthy life style behavior of students was generally found to be medium level in this study. Students should be empowered to make healthy choices, and appropriate health education interventions should be developed.

  7. Extreme river response to climate-induced aggradation in a forested, montane basin, Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to

  8. Response of the extremely halophilic Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4 to UV radiation and space conditions in the EXPOSE -ADAPT project on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrihan, Sergiu; Grosbacher, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    The international project ADAPT focuses on the response of different microorganisms to outer space conditions. In 2007, the European Space Agency (ESA) has installed the Columbus laboratory and the exposure facility EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station (ISS). One of the microorganisms that were exposed for 18 months on the ISS is Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4, an extremely halophilic archaeon which was isolated from about 250 million years old alpine salt deposits (1). Ground experiments with Hcc. dombrowskii included irradiation with different wavelengths and doses of UV, using a Hg low pressure lamp, a solar simulator SOL2 (both at the DLR, Cologne) and a Mars UV simulation lamp (2). Cells were embedded in halite crystals which were formed on quartz discs by evaporation of high salt buffers. Methods for analyzing the effects of exposure on Hcc. dombrowskii include the estimation of colony forming units (CFUs), staining for viability with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit (2), establishing long term liquid cultures and determination of the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) with specific antibodies (3). Counting of viable (green) and dead (red) cells showed an apparent preservation of viability following exposure to about 21 kJ/m2 in ground experiments, but the calculated D37 (dose of 37 % survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii was about 400 kJ/m2 in salt crystals (2). CPDs were detected in about 6-8% of cells of Hcc. dombrowskii following exposure to a dose of 3000 kJ/m2 (200-400 nm). Preliminary results with the samples of Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS suggested preservation of cellular morphology and stainability with the fluorescent dyes of the LIVE/DEAD kit, as well as formation of CPDs in about 2-3 % of the cells. The determination of the survival of cells by measuring proliferation requires months of incubation; data can be expected in May or June 2010. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus

  9. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  11. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  12. Personality type, perceptual style preferences, and strategies for learning English as a foreign language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mei-Ling; Hung, Li-Mei

    2012-01-01

    ... learning style preference, language learning strategies, English as a foreign language, individual differences. In response to the demands of globalization, the people of Taiwan seem to have an...

  13. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  14. Style in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-10-15

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed.

  15. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  16. Bite without bark: How the socioeconomic context of the 1950s U.S. drought minimized responses to a multiyear extreme climate event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Wiener

    2016-03-01

    American agriculture at the time. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the implications of this event, and the attendant responses, might provide guidance to future assessments of extremes such as severe drought in the context of a changing climate.

  17. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    quantities of biochemical compounds which appear in blood vessels with the activation of acute phase response pathways. The mechanisms underlying the subsidence in α1-AGP content as well as its consequences for the organism are not clear now. Nevertheless, an ascertainment of concentration changes of α1-AGP and other APPs, their time courses at the early stages of APR, stimulated by extreme impacts, requires additional experiments.

  18. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  19. Le style Louis XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Kivland, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    A small catalogue of Louis XVI furniture, which makes a rapport between style and revolution, furniture and its naming, femininity and the neo-classical. The ambience is welcoming, despite its sobriety and a whiff of the Terror. The book contains six duo-tone photographic plates, tipped-in by hand. The book is published in a edition of 50 copies at the kind invitation of AM Bruno on the occasion of the 16th International Contemporary Artists' Book Fair, Leeds.

  20. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  1. Learning styles of undergraduate nutrition and dietetics students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Etherington, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    It has been identified that health science students, and in particular undergraduate nutrition and dietetics (N&D) students, have distinctive learning needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning styles of undergraduate N&D students enrolled at a large Australian university. An awareness of the learning styles of undergraduate N&D students will assist university educators in providing appropriate learning opportunities and developing curricula to equip N&D graduates with the essential skills they need to work effectively in the modern practice environment. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (K-LSI), Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and Success Types Learning Style Type Indicator (STLSTI) were distributed to 162 students enrolled in a Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics program at one metropolitan university. One hundred twenty-nine questionnaires were returned, providing a response rate of 79.6%. The K-LSI showed that students were inclined toward converging (practical) and assimilating (reasoning) learning styles while the ILS identified the students as intuitive (innovative). The STLSTI results indicated an intraverted, sensing, feeling, judging approach to learning. It is recommended N&D educators take into consideration the learning styles of dietetics students when developing curricula and evaluating teaching approaches. Analysis of learning styles can inform the planning, implementation, and assessment of teaching and learning activities to create effective learning environments, appropriate learning opportunities, and a contemporary curriculum for N&D students.

  2. Style comparisons in calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafen; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    Calligraphic style is considered, for this research, visual attributes of images of calligraphic characters sampled randomly from a "work" created by a single artist. It is independent of page layout or textual content. An experimental design is developed to investigate to what extent the source of a single, or of a few pairs, of character images can be assigned to the either same work or to two different works. The experiments are conducted on the 13,571 segmented and labeled 600-dpi character images of the CADAL database. The classifier is not trained on the works tested, only on other works. Even when only a few samples of same-class pairs are available, the difference-vector of a few simple features extracted from each image of a pair yields over 80% classification accuracy for a same-work vs. different-work dichotomy. When many pairs of different classes are available for each pair, the accuracy, using the same features, is almost the same. These style-verification experiments are part of our larger goal of style identification and forgery detection.

  3. Staff and patient's perceptions of each other's interpersonal style: relationship with severity of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffern, Michael; Duggan, Conor; Huband, Nick; Thomas, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Extreme and varied reactions are often encountered when working with patients with personality disorders. Similarly, patients with personality disorder may also hold polarised opinions of the staff involved in their treatment. This study explored the relationship between severity of personality disorder and interpersonal style in patients admitted for treatment to a secure psychiatric unit. Up to four nurses rated each patient's interpersonal style using the Impact Message Inventory, a self-report transactional inventory. Patients then rated the interpersonal style of these same staff. Contrary to expectations, severity of personality disorder was not associated with patients' interpersonal style or to variance in nurses' assessments of patients' interpersonal style. However, patients with more severe personality disorder tended to show greater variability in their assessment of nurses' interpersonal style, specifically their appraisal of staff members' interpersonal dominance. Implications for the assessment of offenders admitted for treatment of their personality disorder are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  5. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  6. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.

  7. The Effects of Total Physical Response by Storytelling and the Traditional Teaching Styles of a Foreign Language in a Selected High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Patrick N. K.; Bush, Elizabeth Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Total Physical Response by Storytelling and the traditional teaching method on a foreign language in a selected high school. The sample consisted of 30 students who were randomly selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control group. The experimental group was taught using Total…

  8. Testing the predictions of coping styles theory in threespined sticklebacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensky, Miles K.; Paitz, Ryan; Pereira, Laura; Bell, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments. Here, we assess evidence for coping styles within a natural population of threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We developed a criterion-based learning paradigm to evaluate individual variation in initial and reversal learning. We observed strong individual differences in boldness, cortisol production, and learning performance. Consistent with coping styles, fish that released more cortisol were more timid in response to a predator attack and slower to learn a color discrimination task. However, there was no evidence that reactive individuals performed better when the environment changed (when the rewarded color was reversed). The failure to detect trade-offs between behavioral routinization and flexibility prompts other explanations for the maintenance of differing coping styles. PMID:28017848

  9. Parenting styles and alcohol consumption among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Fernando Santana; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Maternal, but not paternal, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles were directly related to adolescent alcohol intake. The style that mothers use to interact with their children may influence uptake of high-risk behaviors.

  10. Learning styles of postgraduate and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H

    2013-01-01

    To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of learning style was pragmatist in both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.

  11. Assessing the continuity of the upland sediment cascade, fluvial geomorphic response of an upland river to an extreme flood event: Storm Desmond, Cumbria, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Hillslope erosion and accelerated lake sedimentation are often viewed as the source and main storage elements in the upland sediment cascade. However, the continuity of sediment transfer through intervening valley systems has rarely been evaluated during extreme events. Storm Desmond (4th - 6th December, 2015) produced record-breaking rainfall maximums in the UK: 341.4 mm rainfall was recorded in a 24 hour period at Honister Pass, Western Lake District, and 405 mm of rainfall was recorded in a 38 hour period at Thirlmere, central Lake District. The storm was the largest in a 150 year local rainfall series, and exceeded previous new records set in the 2005 and 2009 floods. During this exceptional event, rivers over topped flood defences, and caused damage to over 257 bridges, flooded over 5000 homes and businesses, and caused substantial geomorphic change along upland rivers. This research quantifies the geomorphic and sedimentary response to Storm Desmond along a regulated gravel-bed river: St John's Beck. St John's Beck (length 7.8 km) is a channelised low gradient river (0.005) downstream of Thirlmere Reservoir, which joins the River Greta, and flows through Keswick, where major flooding has occurred, before discharging into Bassenthwaite Lake. St John's Beck has a history of chronic sediment aggradation, erosion and reports of historic flooding date back to 1750. During Storm Desmond, riverbanks were eroded, coarse sediment was deposited across valuable farmland and access routes were destroyed, including a bridge and footpaths, disrupting local business. A sediment budget framework has been used to quantify geomorphic change and sedimentary characteristics of the event along St John's Beck. The volume and sediment size distribution of flood deposits, channel bars, tributary deposits, floodplain scour, riverbank erosion and in-channel bars were measured directly in the field and converted to mass using local estimates of coarse and fine sediment bulk densities

  12. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  13. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  14. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  15. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    JavaTemplate.java. In addition useful tools are provided in the directories under $PTII/util/ to help enforce the standards. • lisp /ptjavastyle.el is a... lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...key by inserting spaces rather than the tab character. To set up Emacs to follow the Ptolemy II indentation style, see $PTII/util/ lisp /ptemacs.el. To

  16. Spatiotemporal changes of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and response to climate extremes and ecological restoration in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Anzhou; Zhang, Anbing; Liu, Xianfeng; Cao, Sen

    2017-03-01

    Extreme drought, precipitation, and other extreme climatic events often have impacts on vegetation. Based on meteorological data from 52 stations in the Loess Plateau (LP) and a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the third-generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset, this study investigated the relationship between vegetation change and climatic extremes from 1982 to 2013. Our results showed that the vegetation coverage increased significantly, with a linear rate of 0.025/10a (P < 0.001) from 1982 to 2013. As for the spatial distribution, NDVI revealed an increasing trend from the northwest to the southeast, with about 61.79% of the LP exhibiting a significant increasing trend (P < 0.05). Some temperature extreme indices, including TMAXmean, TMINmean, TN90p, TNx, TX90p, and TXx, increased significantly at rates of 0.77 mm/10a, 0.52 °C/10a, 0.62 °C/10a, 0.80 °C/10a, 5.16 days/10a, and 0.65 °C/10a, respectively. On the other hand, other extreme temperature indices including TX10p and TN10p decreased significantly at rates of -2.77 days/10a and 4.57 days/10a (P < 0.01), respectively. Correlation analysis showed that only TMINmean had a significant relationship with NDVI at the yearly time scale (P < 0.05). At the monthly time scale, vegetation coverage and different vegetation types responded significantly positively to precipitation and temperature extremes (TMAXmean, TMINmean, TNx, TNn, TXn, and TXx) (P < 0.01). All of the precipitation extremes and temperature extremes exhibited significant positive relationships with NDVI during the spring and autumn (P < 0.01). However, the relationship between NDVI and RX1day, TMAXmean, TXn, and TXx was insignificant in summer. Vegetation exhibited a significant negative relationship with precipitation extremes in winter (P < 0.05). In terms of human activity, our results indicate a strong correlation between the cumulative afforestation area and NDVI in Yan

  17. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  18. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its c

  19. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  20. Integrating Teaching Styles with Students' Learning Styles (Series of 14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitt, Linda; And Others

    This document begins with a report of a study of the learning styles of American Indian students at the Sante Fe Indian School (New Mexico). Santa Fe Indian School is a secondary school of 550 students, primarily from the Pueblo communities of New Mexico. A learning style assessment instrument was administered to 459 students, Grades 7-12, in 4…

  1. Quantitative and qualitative responses of soil organic carbon to six years of extreme soil warming in a subarctic grassland in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks to global warming are expected, but constitute a major uncertainty in climate models. Soils in northern latitudes store a large proportion of the total global biosphere carbon stock and might thus become a strong source of CO2 when warmed. Long-term in situ observations of warming effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are indispensable for an in depth understanding of the involved processes. We investigated the effect of six years of soil warming on SOC quantity and quality in a geothermally heated grassland soil in Iceland. We isolated five fractions of SOC along an extreme soil warming gradient of +0 to +40°C. Those fractions vary conceptually in turnover time from active to passive in the following order: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC in sand and stable aggregates (SA), SOC in silt and clay (SC-rSOC) and resistant SOC (rSOC). Soil warming of 1°C increased bulk SOC by 22% (0-10 cm) and 27% (20-30 cm), while further warming led to exponential SOC depletion of up to 79% (0-10 cm) and 74% (20-30) in the most heated plots (~ +40°C). Only the SA fraction was more sensitive than the bulk soil, with 93% (0-10 cm) and 86% (20-30 cm) losses and with the highest relative enrichment in 13C (+1.6‰ in 0-10 cm and +1.3‰ in 20-30 cm). In addition, the mass of the SA fraction did significantly decline along the warming gradient, which we explained by devitalization of aggregate binding mechanisms. As a consequence, the fine SC fraction mass increased with warming which explained the relative enrichment of presumably more slow-cycling SOC (R2=0.61 in 0-10 cm and R2=0.92 in 20-30 cm). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed between the responses of SC-rSOC (slow-cycling) and rSOC (passive) to warming. Furthermore, the 13C enrichment by trophic fractionation in the passive rSOC fraction was equal to this in the bulk soil. We therefore conclude that the sensitivity of SOC to warming was not a

  2. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  3. Style in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    2013-11-01

    There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.

  4. Anger management style moderates effects of attention strategy during acute pain induction on physiological responses to subsequent mental stress and recovery: a comparison of chronic pain patients and healthy nonpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether high trait anger-out chronic low back (CLBP) patients would show exceptionally large symptom-specific lower paraspinal (LP) responses, compared with healthy nonpatients, during pain induction, a subsequent mental stressor, and recovery when they were urged to suppress awareness of pain and suffering. CLBP patients (n = 93) and nonpatients (n = 105) were assigned randomly to one of four attention strategy conditions for use during pain induction: sensory-focus, distraction, suppression, or control. All participants underwent a cold pressor, and then performed mental arithmetic. They completed the anger-out (AOS) and anger-in (AIS) subscales of the Anger Expression Inventory. General Linear Model procedures were used to test Attention Strategy Condition x Patient/Nonpatient Status x AOS (or AIS) x Period interactions for physiological indices. Significant interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the greatest LP reactivity during the mental arithmetic followed by the slowest recovery compared with other conditions; b) high trait anger-out patients and nonpatients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the slowest systolic blood pressure recoveries compared with other conditions. Results extend previous work by suggesting that an anger-out style moderates effects of how attention is allocated during pain on responses to and recovery from a subsequent mental stressor. Results provide further evidence that trait anger-out and trait anger-in among CLBP patients are associated with increased LP muscle tension during and after pain and mental stress.

  5. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  6. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...

  7. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  8. ‘‘Cool’’ governance of a ‘‘hot’’ climate issue: public and private responsibilities for the protection of vulnerable citizens against extreme heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    In cities in temperate climate zones, the elderly, disabled and socially deprived are most vulnerable to extreme heat, as witnessed by increased mortality rates during heat waves in Europe and North America. Many cities, however, lag behind in the protection of vulnerable citizens against heat stres

  9. Climatic and biotic extreme events moderate long-term responses of above- and belowground sub-Arctic heathland communities to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Berg, Matty P.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Kirby-Lambert, Christopher; Bjerke, Jarle W.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change impacts are not uniform across the Arctic region because interacting factors causes large variations in local ecosystem change. Extreme climatic events and population cycles of herbivores occur simultaneously against a background of gradual climate warming trends and can redirect ecos

  10. Analysis of students’ nervous system’s typological properties, in aspect of response to extreme situation, with the help of multi-dimensional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Z.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of objective and subjective characteristics of students’ with different properties of nervous system fear of heights. Material: In the research 10 students of 18-19 years old age, who did not practice sports, participated. The students fulfilled one exercises: passing suspended ferriage in hiking. This exercise gives subjective perception of height and creates artificial conditions for appearing of fear. He exercise was fulfilled under all required safety measures and supervised by experienced instructor. Cluster and discriminant analysis were used. Results: we have shown that is possible to divide people into groups by indicators of functional changes in extreme situation in combination with indicators of psycho-physiological potentials and properties of nervous system. We have found that the most significant indicators for distribution of students into groups by individual typological properties are speed and accuracy of passing of psycho-physiological tests with different modes of signals’ supply as well as functional changes before exercise of extreme character. Conclusions: It was determined that students with strong type of nervous system had confidently less heart beats rate before fulfillment of extreme exercise than the students with weak type of nervous system. Subjective feeling of fear before fulfillment of extreme exercise was also confidently less in representatives of strong type of nervous system.

  11. Western-style diet modulates contractile responses to phenylephrine differently in mesenteric arteries from senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and resistant (SAMR1) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Onetti, Yara; Heras, Magda; Dantas, Ana P; Vila, Elisabet

    2013-08-01

    The influence of two known cardiovascular risk factors, aging and consumption of a high-fat diet, on vascular mesenteric artery reactivity was examined in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Five-month-old SAM prone (SAMP8) and resistant (SAMR1) female mice were fed a Western-type high-fat diet (WD; 8 weeks). Mesenteric arteries were dissected, and vascular reactivity, protein and messenger RNA expression, superoxide anion (O 2 (·-) ) and hydrogen peroxide formation were evaluated by wire myography, immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, ethidium fluorescence and ferric-xylenol orange, respectively. Contraction to KCl and relaxation to acetylcholine remained unchanged irrespective of senescence and diet. Although similar contractions to phenylephrine were observed in SAMR1 and SAMP8, accelerated senescence was associated with decreased eNOS and nNOS and increased O 2 (·-) synthesis. Senescence-related alterations were compensated, at least partly, by the contribution of NO derived from iNOS and the enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase 1 to maintain vasoconstriction. Administration of a WD induced qualitatively different alterations in phenylephrine contractions of mesenteric arteries from SAMR1 and SAMP8. SAMR1 showed increased contractions partly as a result of decreased NO availability generated by decreased eNOS and nNOS and enhanced O 2 (·-) formation. In contrast, WD feeding in SAMP8 resulted in reduced contractions due to, at least in part, the increased functional participation of iNOS-derived NO. In conclusion, senescence-dependent intrinsic alterations during early stages of vascular senescence may promote vascular adaptation and predispose to further changes in response to high-fat intake, which may lead to the progression of aging-related cardiovascular disease, whereas young subjects lack the capacity for this adaptation.

  12. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina I M Martins

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum.

  13. On Ernest Hemingway's "Iceberg Style"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰凤

    2009-01-01

    Hemingway is a great stylist and one of the most important writers of the 20th-century America. His influence is world-wide and his distinctive writing style---the "Iceberg Style" even caused a stylistic revolution in the field of literature all over the world.Hemingway always tries his best to avoid using kinds of ways to depict things or piling big words and gorgeous adjectives.On the contrary, he always adopts direct description and short sentences which are precise, laconic, bright and vivid.Therefore, his "Iceberg Principle" is also called "Telegraphic Style". His writing style only serves his particular characters and theme. The uniqueness of Hemingway's "Iceberg Style" will be emphasized in this paper.

  14. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  15. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...... inspectors’ enforcement styles as consisting of multiple components, rather than a single continuum. We show that inspectors’ enforcement styles comprise the degree of formalism and the degree of coercion that they exercise when carrying out inspections. A second contribution is in showing the relationship...... of different types of enforcement styles to the two underlying dimensions of the concept. A third contribution is an examination of the ways in which inspectors’ enforcement styles relate to their enforcement actions. The consistency of our findings with those of other studies suggests that the dimensions...

  16. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization......Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... lower value on the teambuilding and strategic competencies than is required for business excellence. By contrast, their "ideal" leader is heavily characterized by being a creative, inspiring, and active problem-solver....

  18. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...

  19. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  20. Cognitive styles, cultural pluralism and effective teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. R.

    1988-09-01

    In a pluralistic society, there is a need for increased sensitivity in the selection of teaching styles. This paper considers evidence which shows that future responses to teaching and learning style are determined in pre-school years by the child's socio-cultural environment. The teaching methods in common use in Britain, however, presuppose cognitive styles current in white middle-class culture, which may be inappropriate to children from other backgrounds. While some will respond only to co-operative, social methods, others will act analytically and competitively. Factors of social class are also considered. The paper argues that curriculum, methodology and materials should allow all children to identify with the educational process, and should enable them eventually to function bi-cognitively. Teachers will therefore need to recognize the range of cognitive and learning styles among their pupils.

  1. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  2. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  3. Modeling of Hydrologic Responses on Extreme Land Cover Scenarios%极端土地覆被情景下的水文响应模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟春玲; 余钟波; 杨传国; 鞠琴

    2011-01-01

    Using the distributed hydrology model system (HMS) and Gographical Information System and the technology of remote sensing for data spatial analysis, a land surface-hydrology coupled model (LSX-HMS) was constructed in the Huaihe river basin. Measured hydrologic data were used to calibrate and validate the model. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for hydrologic simulations ranges from 0. 791 to 0. 854, indicating that LSX-HMS can be used for studying hydrologic processes responses to land use and cover change (LUCC) in the Huaihe river basin. Five extreme land cover scenarios are constructed with each comprising of one single type of land cover in the Huaihe river basin. The hydrologic processes for each cover scenario are simulated by using LSX-HMS. The simulated results indicate that evergreen broa-dleaf forest cover scenarios can significantly alter evapotranspiration and streamflow in the studied basin. The annual evapotranspiration increases 5. 6% and the annual depth of streamflow decreases 6. 7% ; the annual depth of streamflow under grass cover scenario increases 6. 9%. In dry years, the soil moisture content varies most rapidly under the grass cover scenarios. The modeling of streamflow s spacial distribution with LSX-HMS model shows that there is a great difference under various scenarios. This research provides a basis for developing, utilizing, allocating and managing water and soil resources in the Huaiheriver basin.%以淮河流域为研究对象,选择分布式水文模型HMS,结合GIS技术,构建了分布式陆面-水文耦合模型(LSX-HMS).利用实测水文资料进行参数率定和模型验证,确定性系数达0.791 ~0.854,表明该耦合模型在淮河流域具有较好的适用性,能进行土地覆被变化下的水文响应研究.采用极端土地利用/覆被法构建了5种土地覆被情景,利用LSX-HMS模型分析了各情景下的水文过程.结果表明:常绿阔叶林覆被情景下的蒸散发量和径流量变化最为

  4. Raising Competent Kids: The Authoritative Parenting Style. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the authoritative parenting style without physical punishment produces more positive results and fewest children's problems. Identifies age-appropriate authoritative responses: demanding and responsive; controlling but not restrictive; high parent involvement; participating actively with child's life; communicating openly; following…

  5. Raising Competent Kids: The Authoritative Parenting Style. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the authoritative parenting style without physical punishment produces more positive results and fewest children's problems. Identifies age-appropriate authoritative responses: demanding and responsive; controlling but not restrictive; high parent involvement; participating actively with child's life; communicating openly; following…

  6. Attribution style of patients with delusion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attribution style represents a tendency to explain events by our own actions, or actions of forces and causes, persons or surroundings, which are external. Objective. The objective of our study was the analysis of specific way in which patients with delusion disorders ascribe meanings to events. Method. The test group included 30 patients with delusional disorder, of both sexes, aged between 30 and 53, without serious organic or somatic disorders. In order to determine the specific attribution system, through a wider frame of cognitive style, Rorschach’s cognitive techniques was applied. RESULTS An average value of MMSE score amounted to 28.43 and IQ - to 103.86. The data were evaluated by Comprehensive interpretation system of John Exner, and only those parameters were used that were the most indicative for this analysis. Patients with delusional disorder belonged to ambitent experience type, which pointed to inconsistency because the role of emotions varied during the process of decision making. Processing quality was temporarily significantly reduced to less mature and unsophisticated level, especially in complex situations. Thinking was strongly fixed and inflexible. More than other people, they applied intellectualization in order to annihilate affective experiences, leading thus to delusional thinking disorder in extreme cases. Sometimes, internal conflicts between high self value and awareness that it might not be valid, could lead to delusional expressions, if the environment was especially unsupportive. Conclusion. Attribution style of patients with DD is externalized and implies the ascribing of negative experiences to another person’s action. Marked self-centering and experience of increased personal value dominate over the perception of the environment in these patients, while discrepancy between real self and an ideal is decreased by specific ascribing.

  7. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being.

  8. Physiological Responses to Microclimate Cooling Used By the Air Soldier Dressed at MOPP 4 in an Extreme Desert Condition: Effects of Six Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    4. Durnin, JVGA and J Womersley. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness : measurements on 481 men and... TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE DISCLAIMER STATEMENTS... Table 1. All tests were performed in a simulated extreme desert environment (51.7°C dry bulb (Tdb), 16.6°C dew point (Tdp) (14% rh), 1.3 m∙sec-1

  9. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  10. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment. 

  11. Summary Report on Parents' and Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Halpenny, Ann Marie; NIXON, ELIZABETH; Watson, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises key findings from two studies on parenting styles and discipline in Ireland. The first of these studies provides a focus on parents’ perspectives while the second study draws on children’s perspectives on parenting practices. Parents Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline A large body of research literature in the UK, USA and Australia has focused on the links between parenting styles, parental discipline responses, child behaviourand children’s psychological w...

  12. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  13. Response Style Contamination of Student Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grun, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    Student evaluation surveys provide instructors with feedback regarding development opportunities and they form the basis of promotion and tenure decisions. Student evaluations have been extensively studied, but one dimension hitherto neglected is the actual measurement aspect: which questions to ask, how to ask them, and what answer options to…

  14. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study: e0141102

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanxue Zhai; Kun Liu; Lin Zhang; Han Gao; Zhuo Chen; Siyi Du; Lili Zhang; Yu Guo

    2015-01-01

    .... However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post...

  15. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    .... However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post...

  16. Proposal of Enhanced Extreme Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme programming is one of the commonly used agile methodologies in software development. It is very responsive to changing requirements even in the late phases of the project. However, quality activities in extreme programming phases are implemented sequentially along with the activities that work on the functional requirements. This reduces the agility to deliver increments continuously and makes an inverse relationship between quality and agility. Due to this relationship, extreme programming does not consume enough time on making extensive documentation and robust design. To overcome these issues, an enhanced extreme programming model is proposed. Enhanced extreme programming introduces parallelism in the activities' execution through putting quality activities into a separate execution line. In this way, the focus on delivering increments quickly is achieved without affecting the quality of the final output. In enhanced extreme programming, the quality concept is extended to include refinement of all phases of classical extreme programming and creating architectural design based on the refined design documents.

  17. Style Management and Behavioral Finance

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 孝雄

    2006-01-01

    This is a short essay giving the author's view on recent discussions on the economic rationale of equity style management. The essay will be printed in "Perspectives" of the Security Analysts Journal, January 2006.

  18. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  19. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  20. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Different Styles of Hearing Aids In-the-Canal (ITC) and ...

  1. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  2. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  3. Assessing and Validating a Learning Styles Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCapua, Andrea; Wintergerst, Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    How can learning styles best be measured? Reid's (1984) Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire has been widely used in ESL/EFL research to investigate learning styles. Previous research revealed concerns with the reliability and validity of the PLSPQ, leading the researchers to devise a new Learning Styles Indicator (LSI), based on…

  4. Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengle; Zhou, Jiazu

    2017-01-01

    The Wulff isoperimetric inequality is a natural extension of the classical isoperimetric inequality (Green and Osher in Asian J. Math. 3:659-676 1999). In this paper, we establish some Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities. Those inequalities obtained are extensions of known Bonnesen-style inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style inequalities.

  5. Spatial rainfall variability and runoff response during an extreme event in a semi-arid catchment in the South Pare Mountains, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Mul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an extreme flood event that occurred in the South Pare Mountains in northern Tanzania. A high spatial and temporal resolution data set was gathered in a previously ungauged catchment. This data was analysed using a multi-method approach, to gather information about the processes that resulted in the flood event. On 1 March 2006, extreme rainfall occurred in the Makanya catchment, (300 km2, where up to 100 mm were recorded in Bangalala village in only 3 h. Runoff was devastating, inundating large parts of the flood plain. The spatial variability of the rainfall during the event was very large, even in areas with the same altitude. The Vudee sub-catchment (25.8 km2 was in the centre of the rainfall event, receiving about 75 mm in 3 h divided over the two upstream tributaries: the Upper-Vudee and Ndolwa. The peak flow at the weir site has been determined using the slope-area method and gradually varied flow calculations, indicating a peak discharge of 32 m3 s−1. Rise and fall of the flood was very sharp, with the peak flow occurring just one hour after the peak of the rainfall. The flow receded to 1% of the maximum flow within 24 h. Hydrograph separation using hydrochemical parameters indicates that at the peak of the flow 50% was generated by direct surface runoff (also indicated by the large amount of sediments in the samples, whereas the recession originated from displaced groundwater (>90 %. The subsequent base flow in the river remained at 75 l s−1 for the rest of the season, which is substantially higher than the normal base flow observed during the previous rainy seasons (15 l s−1 indicating significant groundwater recharge during this extreme event.

  6. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  7. Responses of extreme energy consumption of typical office building to climate in Tianjin%天津市典型办公建筑极端能耗气候响应特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史珺; 李明财; 曹经福; 郭军; 熊明明

    2016-01-01

    利用TRNSYS软件模拟了1981—2010年天津市典型办公建筑采暖和制冷能耗,采用百分位法确定逐日和逐时的能耗极端值,分析了极端能耗对气候响应的特征,以期为办公建筑采暖和制冷节能提供依据。结果表明:1981—2010年天津市典型办公建筑采暖极端能耗日数呈下降的趋势,而制冷极端能耗日数呈上升的趋势,均未通过显著性检验。此外,极端能耗占总能耗的比例也没有显著的变化趋势。采暖日极端能耗主要受温度和风速影响,而制冷日极端能耗则受温度、湿度和辐射的共同影响。干球温度、湿球温度、风速及辐射对采暖小时极端能耗均有影响,其中采暖小时极端能耗对风速和辐射的响应存在延迟;制冷小时极端能耗主要受湿球温度和辐射影响,对辐射的响应没有延迟,而对湿球温度的响应存在2—3h的延迟。可见,天津市典型办公建筑采暖和空调制冷系统节能设计及安全运行需考虑不同气象因子的影响。%The study simulated heating and cooling energy consumption of typical office building during 1981 to 2010 in Tianjin based on a TRNSYS energy simulation software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by a percentile method and the response of extreme energy consumption to climate was analyzed in or-der to provide references for energy conservation of typical office building. The results show that the number of ex-treme heating energy consumption days is in a decreasing trend,while that of the cooling is in an increasing trend. Both are not significant at a confidence test. Also,the percentage of extreme energy consumption to the total does not change significantly. The extreme heating energy consumption is mainly influenced by temperature and wind, whereas the cooling is dominantly related to temperature,moisture and solar radiation. The dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature,wind speed

  8. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Belousova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assumed by each participant: function of generating ideas, the function of selection (review and evaluation of information, functions of sense transfer and function of implementation. Thinking of adult, acting as a complex self-organizing system, combines the same functions: generation, selection, sense transfer and implementation. In this connection, we believe that the thinking style is defined as a characteristic set of functions actualized by a person in different situations of the problem solving. Domination of generation function determines the development of initiative thinking style, selection - critical, sense transfer - administrative, implementation - practical. The results of testing the reliability and validity of a new questionnaire for the thinking style diagnostics on a representative sample of Russians are given. The author’s version of the questionnaire is presented.

  10. Gelotophobia and thinking styles in Sternberg's theory'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Hai; Liu, Yong

    2012-02-01

    A hypothesis was examined, that gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) was negatively related to Type I thinking styles and positively related to Type II thinking styles as defined in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government. 431 university students (250 women, 181 men; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.2) completed self-report measures of gelotophobia (GELOPH ) and thinking styles (Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised). Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that gelotophobia was negatively and significantly related to four Type I thinking styles (legislative, judicial, liberal, and hierarchical thinking styles) and a Type III thinking style (external), while it was positively and significantly related to a Type II thinking style (conservative). Thinking styles uniquely explained 18% of the total variance in gelotophobia scores. Possible interventions from the perspective of thinking styles in the treatment of gelotophobia were discussed.

  11. Characterization and assessment of HTML style guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, J.; Grose, E.M.; Forsythe, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a study in which HTML style guides were characterized, compared to established HCI style guides, and evaluated against findings from HCI reviews of web paces and applications. Findings showed little consistency among the 21 HTML style guides assessed, with 75% of recommendations appearing in only one style guide. While there was some overlap, only 20% of HTML relevant recommendations from established style guides were found in HTML style guides. HTML style guides emphasized common look and feel, information display, and navigation issues with little mention of many issues prominent in established style guides such as help, message boxes and data entry. This difference is reinforced by other results showing that HTML style guides addressed concerns of web information content pages with much greater success than web-based applications. It is concluded that while the WWW represents a unique HCI environment, development of HTML style guides has been less rigorous, with issues associated with web-based applications largely ignored.

  12. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p 2 (p Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects.

  13. Effect of starving and feeding on some haematological and physiological responses of the Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to copper at extreme seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameid, Nassr-Allah H

    2011-12-01

    The lethal concentration for 50% of fish for 96h (96h LC(50)) of copper (Cu(2+)) was estimated for the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in extreme seasons, winter and summer, 4.31 and 4.79 mg/l, respectively. The Nile catfish was exposed to 96h LC(50) of copper for 7 days in extreme winter and summer. The body indices, haematological parameters as well as some plasma and liver enzyme activities and metabolite level were significantly differed in fish exposed to copper over than those of the control fish. Most of the tested parameters were not significantly different between the control fish of winter and summer (winter, water temperature 18 ± 2°C and summer, 27 ± 2°C). The effect of two ration sizes on copper toxicity in two different seasons on C. gariepinus was justified. It was found that the haematological parameters and the tested plasma activities of enzymes were significantly valid due to season differences. The blood parameters as well as plasma activities of enzymes were significantly differed in fishes fed elevated ration (3%) and exposed to copper challenge. On the other hand, the exploit of low feeding ration (0.5%) along with copper exposure during the examined seasons induced non-significant differences of the tested parameters, from those of the corresponding control. Therefore, the low feeding ration provides some tolerance against the possible water-borne copper exposure.

  14. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  15. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  16. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista Salman Guraya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students′ learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1 st -5 th year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist and 40 items. Results: Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%. No single learning style predominated; 96 (25% reflectors, 78 (20% theorists, 68 (17% pragmatists, and 37 (9% activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7% students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071 indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each, depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The students in the study preferred diverse learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students′ learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.

  17. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A; Khoshhal, Khalid I

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students' learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1(st)-5(th) year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students' learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.

  18. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  19. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  20. [Control or involvement? Relationship between parenting style and adolescent depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.

  1. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2016-03-21

    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  2. A Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal and Vascular Trauma Protocol in a Children's Hospital May Improve Treatment Response Times and Appropriate Microvascular Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Itai; Baldwin, Keith D; Levin, L Scott; Nance, Michael L; Chang, Benjamin; Kovach, Stephen J; Serletti, Joseph M; Flynn, John M

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric lower extremity (LE) vascular injuries present many issues: microvascular surgeons are usually unavailable to stand-alone pediatric institutions, and the rate of morbidity including limb loss can be high if revascularization is delayed beyond the critical period of 8 hours. We assessed if time to revascularization was impacted by institution of a lower extremity vascular trauma protocol (LEVP). Level II retrospective prognostic. Level I pediatric trauma center. Pediatric patients presenting with ischemic lower extremities requiring urgent management (2000-2013). LEVP-a team of specialized microvascular surgeons, who have developed and manage a call schedule for our pediatric trauma center to offer care 24 h-1·d-1, 7 d-1·wk-1, and 365 d-1·y-1 to our children's hospital. Treatment team expertise, time to revascularization, and use of time-delaying preoperative radiographic vascular studies performed before and after initiation of LEVP. We identified 22 patients with ischemic LEs (16 patients treated before/6 patients treated after LEVP initiation). Mean time from admission to definitive vascular care was 6.4 hours preprotocol (20% > 8 hours)/4.6 hours postprotocol (0% > 8 hours). Before protocol initiation, 38% of LE vascular injuries were treated by LE microvascular repair-capable surgeons, and 37.5% had a preoperative radiographic vascular study compared with 100% and 0%, respectively, postprotocol initiation. Before protocol initiation, 37.5% had a preoperative radiographic vascular study compared with 0% after protocol initiation. Since LEVP initiation, we have required no preoperative radiographic vascular studies, there has not been a revascularization delay of >8 hours, and with appropriate staff surgeon coverage, the flow of care has improved with the new ability to address and care for these challenging injuries. To potentially improve the timeliness of vascular care and better match the skills of the practitioner to the injury, pediatric

  3. The Responsiveness and Correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in Chronic Stroke with Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation Robotic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi-Jun; Tong, Kai-yu; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2011-01-01

    Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA),…

  4. The Responsiveness and Correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in Chronic Stroke with Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation Robotic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi-Jun; Tong, Kai-yu; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2011-01-01

    Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA),…

  5. A Match or Mismatch Between Learning Styles of the Learners and Teaching Styles of the Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study learning styles because recent studies have shown that a match between teaching and learning styles helps to motivate students´ process of learning. That is why teachers should identify their own teaching styles as well as their learning styles to obtain better results in the classroom. The aim is to have a balanced teaching style and to adapt activities to meet students´ style and to involve teachers in this type of research to assure the results found in this research study. Over 100 students complete a questionnaire to determine if their learning styles are auditory, visual, or kinesthetic. Discovering these learning styles will allow the students to determine their own personal strengths and weaknesses and learn from them. Teachers can incorporate learning styles into their classroom by identifying the learning styles of each of their students, matching teaching styles to learning styles for difficult tasks, strengthening weaker learning styles. The purpose of this study is to explain learning styles, teaching styles match or mismatch between learning and teaching styles, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles among Iranian learners, and pedagogical implications for the EFL/ESL classroom. A review of the literature along with analysis of the data will determine how learning styles match the teaching styles.

  6. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  7. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Associations between Maternal Disciplinary Strategies and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Cook, Emily C.; Madison, Karis J.; Bridges, Tracey H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether parental use of punitive discipline and yielding to coercion varies in levels and associated child outcomes for mothers with different parenting styles. Participants were fourth-grade children (N = 370) and their mothers. Maternal parenting style was determined based on levels of responsiveness and demandingness.…

  8. The Self-Perceived Leadership Styles of Chief State School Officers and Models of Educational Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the leadership styles of the chief state school officers of the United States and the District of Columbia. The entire population of 51 chief state school officers was surveyed and a response rate of 60% was obtained. The study examined the relationship between the leadership style, select demographic variables, and the…

  9. The Self-Perceived Leadership Styles of Chief State School Officers and Models of Educational Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the leadership styles of the chief state school officers of the United States and the District of Columbia. The entire population of 51 chief state school officers was surveyed and a response rate of 60% was obtained. The study examined the relationship between the leadership style, select demographic variables, and the…

  10. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  11. Improving Children's Written Grammar and Style: Revising and Editing with HARRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdich, C. E.; Chung, P. W. H.; Holdich, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    Children usually improve their writing in response to teacher comments. HARRY is a computer tutor, designed to assist children improve their narrative writing, focusing particularly upon grammar and style. Providing assistance involved identifying aspects of grammar and style on which to concentrate, including ways to enable the computer to detect…

  12. Learning and Teaching Styles in Management Education: Identifying, Analyzing, and Facilitating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provitera, Michael J.; Esendal, Esin

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the learning theory of the Felder-Silverman model (2002), and the work of A.F. Grasha, this paper provides a brief review of teaching and learning styles used in management education. Professors, like students, demonstrate a number of learning styles and a professor has some responsibility to organize and present a course to satisfy…

  13. Learning Style-Based Teaching Harvests a Superior Comprehension of Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, M.; Rajkumar, G.; Krishnakumar, S.; Rajendran, P.; Venkatesan, R.; Dinesh, T.; Mohan, J.; Venkidusamy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Students entering medical college generally show vast diversity in their school education. It becomes the responsibility of teachers to motivate students and meet the needs of all diversities. One such measure is teaching students in their own preferred learning style. The present study was aimed to incorporate a learning style-based…

  14. Understanding Style, Language and Etiquette in Email Communication in Higher Education: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Jones, Jenny; Mason, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates academic staff and student attitudes to style and etiquette of emails. Data were collected through two online staff and student surveys. Reported use and acceptability of particular features of email style were assessed. Open-ended responses yielded four themes: the balance between formality and informality, relationships,…

  15. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  16. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  17. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  18. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  19. Potential Use of Food/Activity, Parenting Style, and Caregiver Feeding Style Measurement Tools with American Indian Families: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.

  20. Teaching Physics at Advanced Level: A Question of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Leonard; Rogers, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether didactic methods employed for teaching physics at the advanced level can adequately match the variety of needs of students in the contemporary context. Offers a framework for promoting a style of teaching that is responsive and versatile. Contains 14 references. (Author/JRH)

  1. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  2. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-28

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  3. Solar Eclipse, STEREO Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    There was a transit of the Moon across the face of the Sun - but it could not be seen from Earth. This sight was visible only from the STEREO-B spacecraft in its orbit about the sun, trailing behind the Earth. NASA's STEREO mission consists of two spacecraft launched in October, 2006 to study solar storms. The transit starts at 1:56 am EST and continued for 12 hours until 1:57 pm EST. STEREO-B is currently about 1 million miles from the Earth, 4.4 times farther away from the Moon than we are on Earth. As the result, the Moon will appear 4.4 times smaller than what we are used to. This is still, however, much larger than, say, the planet Venus appeared when it transited the Sun as seen from Earth in 2004. This alignment of STEREO-B and the Moon is not just due to luck. It was arranged with a small tweak to STEREO-B's orbit last December. The transit is quite useful to STEREO scientists for measuring the focus and the amount of scattered light in the STEREO imagers and for determining the pointing of the STEREO coronagraphs. The Sun as it appears in these the images and each frame of the movie is a composite of nearly simultaneous images in four different wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light that were separated into color channels and then recombined with some level of transparency for each.

  4. Solar Eclipse, STEREO Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    There was a transit of the Moon across the face of the Sun - but it could not be seen from Earth. This sight was visible only from the STEREO-B spacecraft in its orbit about the sun, trailing behind the Earth. NASA's STEREO mission consists of two spacecraft launched in October, 2006 to study solar storms. The transit starts at 1:56 am EST and continued for 12 hours until 1:57 pm EST. STEREO-B is currently about 1 million miles from the Earth, 4.4 times farther away from the Moon than we are on Earth. As the result, the Moon will appear 4.4 times smaller than what we are used to. This is still, however, much larger than, say, the planet Venus appeared when it transited the Sun as seen from Earth in 2004. This alignment of STEREO-B and the Moon is not just due to luck. It was arranged with a small tweak to STEREO-B's orbit last December. The transit is quite useful to STEREO scientists for measuring the focus and the amount of scattered light in the STEREO imagers and for determining the pointing of the STEREO coronagraphs. The Sun as it appears in these the images and each frame of the movie is a composite of nearly simultaneous images in four different wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light that were separated into color channels and then recombined with some level of transparency for each.

  5. The Comparison of Oprah Shows from the Theory of Conversational Styles and Preference Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to compare the conversational styles and the preference structure between Oprah shows in FRIENDS which is in a group guest and J.K. Rowling in a single guest. The data were taken from two different videos of Oprah transcribed and analysed. In FRIENDS edition, the conversational style is high considerateness style and in J.K. Rowling edition is high-involvement style. The conversation in FRIENDS edition is relatively slower than in J.K. Rowling edition. Oprah as the host uses high-involvement style in both editions. In FRIENDS edition, the first part of pairs that mostly occurs is question which the second part is expected answer, while J.K. Rowling is assessment which the second part is agreement. It means that they prefer using positive response rather than negative response.

  6. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....

  7. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  8. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  9. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  10. Learning Styles and Teaching Styles in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mai

    2011-01-01

    Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analyzing and visualizing. Teaching methods also should vary accordingly. How much a student can learn is also determined by the compatibility of the student's learning styles and the…

  11. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...

  12. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  13. Revisiting a neglected construct: parenting styles in a child-feeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.

  14. Consistency analysis of parenting styles in Thailand during children's first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphaibul, Rutja; Wittayasooporn, Jariya; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2012-09-01

    This descriptive study identifies and examines the consistency of parenting styles during the first year of their children's lives. The data were collected from interviewing 4088 parents or primary care takers of the 6 month old infants during the third wave of data collection of The Prospective Cohort of Thai Children project. The instrument used was the Infant Parenting Styles Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, which reflected parental responses to infant care in five different situations. After the answers were categorized into controlling, reasoning, overprotection, and neglectful parenting styles, the weighted kappa was used for the consistency analysis. The findings revealed that during the first 6 months of life, the overprotection style was the most common, followed by the reasoning style. The controlling and neglectful styles were very seldom used. The consistency of the parental styles in the same care givers using the kappa values showed that agreement between each of the styles was very low (-0.0419 to 0.0688). This suggests that parenting styles during the first year of life seem to occur in random patterns.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  16. Monthly extreme high-temperature response to atmospheric oscillation in China%中国月极端高温对大气涛动的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万仕全; 顾承华; 康建鹏; 邹建新; 胡玉玲; 徐莎莎

    2010-01-01

    利用广义帕雷托分布(GPD)模型研究了中国19600-2007年740站月极端高温(monthly extreme high-temperature,MEHT)对大气涛动响应的分布特征.通过构建空间GPD模型,分别将北大西洋涛动(NAO)和南方涛动(SO)作为强迫因子引入模型,考察了9种情景下MEHT响应的区域规律.结果表明NAO和SO对MEHT分布有潜在强迫作用,MEHT产生响应的空间分布主要集中在东北、青藏高原东部及长江、黄河流域和华南部分地区.具体表现为:1)MEHT明显依赖于NAO的敏感区为东北,其次为青藏高原东部;对SO有明显响应的中心区域集中在青藏高原东部、长江流和黄河流域.2)NAO与SO对MEHT的非线性叠加强迫不明显,各自的影响以单独传播为主,即两者同时作为强迫源时,MEHT受强迫的范围未出现明显减弱或增强.其原因可能与SO和NAO的时空分布差异有关.

  17. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  18. LEADERSHIP STYLES IN SMES: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu OGARCĂ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The manager’s leadership styles define the way a manager acts behaves and takes decisions in certain situations and has a direct influence upon the employees’ well-being. In a small and medium enterprise setting, unlike in a large enterprise, the employees are feeling the influence of the leadership style in a much more direct and personal way, due to the small number of hierarchical levels and the constant interaction between the owner/manager and the employees. The present paper focuses on analyzing how the employees of SMEs from Oltenia and Muntenia Regions of Romania perceive their superiors’ leadership styles. In order to meet this goal, we have used a 21 question survey, based on which we could determine the leadership style (Autocratic, Democratic or Laissez-faire of the superior, as it is perceived by each respondent. The survey has been applied on a sample of cca. 300 employees from small and medium enterprises from Oltenia, and approximately 130 responses have been used in the actual research. The results of this study will be used in a further research, in which we aim to compare the way the managers perceive their own leadership style and how it is perceived by their employees.

  19. Modeling Leadership Styles in Human-Robot Team Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gerardo E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent proliferation of robotic systems in our society has placed questions regarding interaction between humans and intelligent machines at the forefront of robotics research. In response, our research attempts to understand the context in which particular types of interaction optimize efficiency in tasks undertaken by human-robot teams. It is our conjecture that applying previous research results regarding leadership paradigms in human organizations will lead us to a greater understanding of the human-robot interaction space. In doing so, we adapt four leadership styles prevalent in human organizations to human-robot teams. By noting which leadership style is more appropriately suited to what situation, as given by previous research, a mapping is created between the adapted leadership styles and human-robot interaction scenarios-a mapping which will presumably maximize efficiency in task completion for a human-robot team. In this research we test this mapping with two adapted leadership styles: directive and transactional. For testing, we have taken a virtual 3D interface and integrated it with a genetic algorithm for use in &le-operation of a physical robot. By developing team efficiency metrics, we can determine whether this mapping indeed prescribes interaction styles that will maximize efficiency in the teleoperation of a robot.

  20. Leadership styles in ethical dilemmas when head nurses make decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydziunaite, V; Lepaite, D; Suominen, T

    2013-06-01

    The overlooked aspect in Lithuania is the dearth of leaders among head nurses, who bear the responsibility for decisions in ethical dilemmas. Understanding the application of leadership styles is fundamental to ensuring head nurses' abilities to influence outcomes for healthcare providers and patients. To identify the leadership styles applied by head nurses in decision making in ethical dilemmas on hospital wards. The data were collected by questionnaires completed by head nurses (n = 278) working in five major state-funded hospitals in each of the five regions of Lithuania. The data were analysed using SPSS 16.0, calculating descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Head nurses apply democratic, affiliative, transformational and sustainable leadership styles when resolving ethical dilemmas. The application of leadership styles is associated not only with specific situations, but also with certain background factors, such as years of experience in a head nurse's position, ward specialization and the incidence of ethical dilemmas. Nurses having been in a head nurse's position over 10 years use primitive leadership styles, notably bureaucratic leadership, more often than do those head nurses with only a few years of experience in such a position. The results highlight the need for head nurses to reflect on their practices and to find new ways of learning from practice, colleagues and patients. Head nurses' managerial decisions due to their 'executive power' can turn into a new state-of-the-art leadership in nursing. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.