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Sample records for extreme population subdivision

  1. Landscape genetics of alpine Sierra Nevada salamanders reveal extreme population subdivision in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Wesley K; Fremier, Alexander K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2010-08-01

    Quantifying the influence of the landscape on the genetic structure of natural populations remains an important empirical challenge, particularly for poorly studied, ecologically cryptic species. We conducted an extensive microsatellite analysis to examine the population genetics of the southern long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum) in a naturally complex landscape. Using spatially explicit modelling, we investigated the influence of the Sierra Nevada topography on potential dispersal corridors between sampled populations. Our results indicate very high-genetic divergence among populations, high within-deme relatedness, and little evidence of recent migration or population admixture. We also discovered unexpectedly high between-year genetic differentiation (F(ST)) for breeding sites, suggesting that breeding groups vary over localized space and time. While environmental factors associated with high-elevation montane habitats apparently play an important role in shaping population differentiation, additional, species-specific biological processes must also be operating to account for observed deviations from temporal, among-year panmixia. Our study emphasizes the population-level insights that can be gained from high-density sampling in space and time, and the highly substructured population biology that may characterize amphibians in extreme montane habitats.

  2. Quantifying the role of population subdivision in evolution on rugged fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Schwab, David J

    2014-08-01

    Natural selection drives populations towards higher fitness, but crossing fitness valleys or plateaus may facilitate progress up a rugged fitness landscape involving epistasis. We investigate quantitatively the effect of subdividing an asexual population on the time it takes to cross a fitness valley or plateau. We focus on a generic and minimal model that includes only population subdivision into equivalent demes connected by global migration, and does not require significant size changes of the demes, environmental heterogeneity or specific geographic structure. We determine the optimal speedup of valley or plateau crossing that can be gained by subdivision, if the process is driven by the deme that crosses fastest. We show that isolated demes have to be in the sequential fixation regime for subdivision to significantly accelerate crossing. Using Markov chain theory, we obtain analytical expressions for the conditions under which optimal speedup is achieved: valley or plateau crossing by the subdivided population is then as fast as that of its fastest deme. We verify our analytical predictions through stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that subdivision can substantially accelerate the crossing of fitness valleys and plateaus in a wide range of parameters extending beyond the optimal window. We study the effect of varying the degree of subdivision of a population, and investigate the trade-off between the magnitude of the optimal speedup and the width of the parameter range over which it occurs. Our results, obtained for fitness valleys and plateaus, also hold for weakly beneficial intermediate mutations. Finally, we extend our work to the case of a population connected by migration to one or several smaller islands. Our results demonstrate that subdivision with migration alone can significantly accelerate the crossing of fitness valleys and plateaus, and shed light onto the quantitative conditions necessary for this to occur.

  3. [Genetic structure, subdivision, and population differentiation in Stankewiczii pine Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin from Mountain Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Gorlova, E M

    2006-06-01

    In order to analyze the genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation within and between two small isolated populations of the Crimea relict endemic, Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin, electrophoretic analysis of the isozyme variation at nine enzymatic systems was carried out using 183 oldest trees. It was demonstrated that in populations of P. stankewiczii, 80% of the genes were in polymorphic state. Each tree was heterozygous at 19.1% loci, and at 21.6% loci in artificial 50-year-old plantation. The genetic structure of two populations was less differentiated (DN = 0.006), compared to their individual localities (DN = 0.008-0.009). Within-population subdivision of the diffusely dispersed populations was higher (FST-GST = 1.8-2.0%) than that of the populations themselves (0.8%).

  4. Distinguishing between population bottleneck and population subdivision by a Bayesian model choice procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M; Wegmann, Daniel; Excoffier, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Although most natural populations are genetically subdivided, they are often analysed as if they were panmictic units. In particular, signals of past demographic size changes are often inferred from genetic data by assuming that the analysed sample is drawn from a population without any internal subdivision. However, it has been shown that a bottleneck signal can result from the presence of some recent immigrants in a population. It thus appears important to contrast these two alternative scenarios in a model choice procedure to prevent wrong conclusions to be made. We use here an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach to infer whether observed patterns of genetic diversity in a given sample are more compatible with it being drawn from a panmictic population having gone through some size change, or from one or several demes belonging to a recent finite island model. Simulations show that we can correctly identify samples drawn from a subdivided population in up to 95% of the cases for a wide range of parameters. We apply our model choice procedure to the case of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and find conclusive evidence that Western and Eastern chimpanzee samples are drawn from a spatially subdivided population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Multiple Population Theory: Extreme helium population problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2009-01-01

    The spreads in chemical abundances inferred by recent precision observations suggest that some or possibly all globular clusters can no longer be considered as simple stellar populations. The most striking case is omega Cen in the sense that its bluest main-sequence despite its high metallicity demands an extreme helium abundance of Y > 0.4. I focus on this issue of "the extreme helium population problem" in this review.

  6. Disjunct distribution of highly diverged mitochondrial lineage clade and population subdivision in a marine bivalve with pelagic larval dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Drent, J; Baker, AJ

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 295 individuals of the marine bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) were collected from 10 sites across the European distribution, and from Alaska. The data were used to infer population subdivision history and estimate current levels of gene flow. Inferred historical biog

  7. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

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    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  8. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

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    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  9. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, Jenny R; Kashiwagi, Tom; Broderick, Damien; Giles, Jenny; Salini, John

    2009-02-12

    The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp.) and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.). Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini) were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci) revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may not be a predictor of population genetic structure, so

  10. A Solution for Extremely Bended Surface in Classic Subdivision Scheme%细分方法中对显著扭曲面片的校正处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林

    2012-01-01

    细分方法是一种从离散控制顶点集合生成曲线曲面的有效方法.经典细分方法如Doo-Sabin细分方法,Catmull细分方法,Loop细分方法等都具有便捷高效的优点而被广泛使用.这些方法对比较规则的初始网格能给出很好的细分结果,但在处理一些含有显著扭曲面片的不规则网格时得到的往往不是期望的结果.本文针对网格含有显著扭曲面片的情况,提出了一种保形性较好的面片扭曲校正方法,使得经典Doo-Sabin细分方法在处理网格中的显著扭曲面片时能够得到很好的结果.%Subdivision scheme is a powerful scheme to generate curves and surfaces from discrete sets of initial vertex. Classic subdivision scheme like Doo -Sabin scheme, Catmull scheme and LOOP scheme are convenient, efficient and widely used. Most of these classic subdivision schemes assume the initial meshes are regular without extreme surfaces. For example, classic subdivision scheme is unexpected when processes a strongly bended surface. This paper introduced a solution to keep the strongly bended surface's character. The solution can evolve the Doo -Sabin result on the mesh which has strongly bended surfaces.

  11. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  12. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  13. An extreme Population II dwarf without lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Thorburn, J.A.; Welty, D.E. (Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI (USA) Chicago, University, IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    G186 - 26 is an apparently normal, Population II dwarf with Fe/H = {minus} 2.9 and Te = 6220 K. A high-dispersion spectrogram of this extreme halo star recorded at the Li I 6707 line shows no detectable surface lithium, at an abundance upper limit N(Li) = 12 + log (Li/H) not greater than 1.23. In comparison with the uniform lithium abundance N(Li) of about 2.17 found previously in 11 other halo dwarfs with Fe/H less than about {minus}2.6, the minimum deficiency of surface lithium in G 186 {minus} 26 therefore exceeds a factor of 8. 19 refs.

  14. Lichenicolous fungi show population subdivision by host species but do not share population history with their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Silke; Millanes, Ana María; Wedin, Mats; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Lichenicolous fungi are a species-rich biological group growing on lichen thalli. Here, we analyze the genetic structure of the lichenicolous basidiomycete Tremella lobariacearum and three host species (Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobaria macaronesica, and Lobaria immixta) in Macaronesia. We used ordination and analysis of molecular variance to investigate the structuring of genetic variation, and a simulation test to investigate whether rDNA haplotypes of T. lobariacearum were significantly associated with host species. To investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of the lichenicolous fungus and its hosts, we used coalescent samplers to generate trees, and Bayesian skyline plots. We found that the hosts were most important in structuring populations of the lichenicolous species. Despite their wide geographic distribution, the same haplotypes of T. lobariacearum consistently associated with a given host species. Our results suggest that the Lobaria hosts create a selective environment for the lichenicolous fungus. Both the pathogen and the host populations exhibited substantial genetic structure. However, evolutionary and demographic histories differed between the parasite and its hosts, as evidenced by different divergence times and tree topologies.

  15. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

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    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  16. Extreme genetic diversity in asexual grass thrips populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, A; Dumas, Z; Schwander, T

    2016-05-01

    The continuous generation of genetic variation has been proposed as one of the main factors explaining the maintenance of sexual reproduction in nature. However, populations of asexual individuals may attain high levels of genetic diversity through within-lineage diversification, replicate transitions to asexuality from sexual ancestors and migration. How these mechanisms affect genetic variation in populations of closely related sexual and asexual taxa can therefore provide insights into the role of genetic diversity for the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluate patterns of intra- and interpopulation genetic diversity in sexual and asexual populations of Aptinothrips rufus grass thrips. Asexual A. rufus populations are found throughout the world, whereas sexual populations appear to be confined to few locations in the Mediterranean region. We found that asexual A. rufus populations are characterized by extremely high levels of genetic diversity, both in comparison with their sexual relatives and in comparison with other asexual species. Migration is extensive among asexual populations over large geographic distances, whereas close sexual populations are strongly isolated from each other. The combination of extensive migration with replicate evolution of asexual lineages, and a past demographic expansion in at least one of them, generated high local clone diversities in A. rufus. These high clone diversities in asexual populations may mimic certain benefits conferred by sex via genetic diversity and could help explain the extreme success of asexual A. rufus populations.

  17. Horizontal Gene Transfer Can Rescue Prokaryotes from Muller’s Ratchet: Benefit of DNA from Dead Cells and Population Subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Nobuto; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Koonin, Eugene V

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major factor in the evolution of prokaryotes. An intriguing question is whether HGT is maintained during evolution of prokaryotes owing to its adaptive value or is a byproduct of selection driven by other factors such as consumption of extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a nutrient. One hypothesis posits that HGT can restore genes inactivated by mutations and thereby prevent stochastic, irreversible deterioration of genomes in finite populations known as Muller’s r...

  18. Potentially Extreme Population Displacement and Concentration in the Tropics Under Non-Extreme Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests that as climate warms, some plant, animal, and human populations may move to preserve their environmental temperature. The distances they must travel to do this depends on how much cooler nearby surfaces temperatures are. Because large-scale atmospheric dynamics constrain surface temperatures to be nearly uniform near the equator, these displacements can grow to extreme distances in the tropics, even under relatively mild warming scenarios. Here we show that in ...

  19. Identifying covariates of population health using extreme bound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, Fabrizio; Shankar, Sriram; Tan, Eng Joo; Tang, Kam Ki

    2014-06-01

    The literature is full of lively discussion on the determinants of population health outcomes. However, different papers focus on small and different sets of variables according to their research agenda. Because many of these variables are measures of different aspects of development and are thus correlated, the results for one variable can be sensitive to the inclusion/exclusion of others. We tested for the robustness of potential predictors of population health using the extreme bounds analysis. Population health was measured by life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate. We found that only about half a dozen variables are robust predictors for life expectancy and infant mortality rate. Among them, adolescent fertility rate, improved water sources, and gender equality are the most robust. All institutional variables and environment variables are systematically non-robust predictors of population health. The results highlight the importance of robustness tests in identifying predictors or potential determinants of population health, and cast doubts on the findings of previous studies that fail to do so.

  20. Subdivision for Generating Quadrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guofu; Feng Yuyu; Chen Falai

    2002-01-01

    Quadrics are of basic importance in Computer Graphics and Computer Aided Design. In this paper,we design a subdivision scheme based on the method suggested by G. Morin and J. Warren to generate conics and quadrics conveniently. Given the control polygon(poly-hedron),the corresponding ellipse (ellipsoid)can be generated. The hyperbolas and hyperboloids are generated based on the generation of ellipses and ellipsoids by a simple transformation. The method in this paper is much simpler and easier to apply than those given by Eugenia Montiel et al.

  1. Potentially Extreme Population Displacement and Concentration in the Tropics Under Non-Extreme Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2016-06-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests that as climate warms, some plant, animal, and human populations may move to preserve their environmental temperature. The distances they must travel to do this depends on how much cooler nearby surfaces temperatures are. Because large-scale atmospheric dynamics constrain surface temperatures to be nearly uniform near the equator, these displacements can grow to extreme distances in the tropics, even under relatively mild warming scenarios. Here we show that in order to preserve their annual mean temperatures, tropical populations would have to travel distances greater than 1000 km over less than a century if global mean temperature rises by 2 °C over the same period. The disproportionately rapid evacuation of the tropics under such a scenario would cause migrants to concentrate in tropical margins and the subtropics, where population densities would increase 300% or more. These results may have critical consequences for ecosystem and human wellbeing in tropical contexts where alternatives to geographic displacement are limited.

  2. Potentially Extreme Population Displacement and Concentration in the Tropics Under Non-Extreme Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Solomon M; Sobel, Adam H

    2016-06-09

    Evidence increasingly suggests that as climate warms, some plant, animal, and human populations may move to preserve their environmental temperature. The distances they must travel to do this depends on how much cooler nearby surfaces temperatures are. Because large-scale atmospheric dynamics constrain surface temperatures to be nearly uniform near the equator, these displacements can grow to extreme distances in the tropics, even under relatively mild warming scenarios. Here we show that in order to preserve their annual mean temperatures, tropical populations would have to travel distances greater than 1000 km over less than a century if global mean temperature rises by 2 °C over the same period. The disproportionately rapid evacuation of the tropics under such a scenario would cause migrants to concentrate in tropical margins and the subtropics, where population densities would increase 300% or more. These results may have critical consequences for ecosystem and human wellbeing in tropical contexts where alternatives to geographic displacement are limited.

  3. Local Routing in Convex Subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Durocher, Stephane; Mondal, Debajyoti;

    2015-01-01

    In various wireless networking settings, node locations determine a network’s topology, allowing the network to be modelled by a geometric graph drawn in the plane. Without any additional information, local geometric routing algorithms can guarantee delivery to the target node only in restricted...... classes of geometric graphs, such as triangulations. In order to guarantee delivery on more general classes of geometric graphs (e.g., convex subdivisions or planar subdivisions), previous local geometric routing algorithms required Θ(logn) state bits to be stored and passed with the message. We present...... the first local geometric routing algorithm using only one state bit to guarantee delivery on convex subdivisions and the first local geometric memoryless routing algorithm that guarantees delivery on edge-augmented monotone subdivisions (including all convex subdivisions) when the algorithm has knowledge...

  4. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  5. Recursively-regular subdivisions and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafel Jaume

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We generalize regular subdivisions (polyhedral complexes resulting from the projection of the lower faces of a polyhedron introducing the class of recursively-regular subdivisions. Informally speaking, a recursively-regular subdivision is a subdivision that can be obtained by splitting some faces of a regular subdivision by other regular subdivisions (and continue recursively. We also define the finest regular coarsening and the regularity tree of a polyhedral complex. We prove that recursively-regular subdivisions are not necessarily connected by flips and that they are acyclic with respect to the in-front relation. We show that the finest regular coarsening of a subdivision can be efficiently computed, and that whether a subdivision is recursively regular can be efficiently decided. As an application, we also extend a theorem known since 1981 on illuminating space by cones and present connections of recursive regularity to tensegrity theory and graph-embedding problems.     

  6. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  7. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  8. Wavelet subdivision methods gems for rendering curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW Curve representation and drawing Free-form parametric curves From subdivision to basis functions Wavelet subdivision and editing Surface subdivision BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR CURVE REPRESENTATION Refinability and scaling functions Generation of smooth basis functions Cardinal B-splines Stable bases for integer-shift spaces Splines and polynomial reproduction CURVE SUBDIVISION SCHEMES Subdivision matrices and stencils B-spline subdivision schemes Closed curve rendering Open curve rendering BASIS FUNCTIONS GENERATED BY SUBDIVISION MATRICES Subdivision operators The up-sampling convolution ope

  9. Midcontinental Native American population dynamics and late Holocene hydroclimate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Broxton W.; Wilson, Jeremy J.; Gilhooly, William P., III; Steinman, Byron A.; Stamps, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Climate’s influence on late Pre-Columbian (pre-1492 CE), maize-dependent Native American populations in the midcontinental United States (US) is poorly understood as regional paleoclimate records are sparse and/or provide conflicting perspectives. Here, we reconstruct regional changes in precipitation source and seasonality and local changes in warm-season duration and rainstorm events related to the Pacific North American pattern (PNA) using a 2100-year-long multi-proxy lake-sediment record from the midcontinental US. Wet midcontinental climate reflecting negative PNA-like conditions occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (950–1250 CE) as Native American populations adopted intensive maize agriculture, facilitating population aggregation and the development of urban centers between 1000–1200 CE. Intensifying midcontinental socio-political instability and warfare between 1250–1350 CE corresponded with drier positive PNA-like conditions, culminating in the staggered abandonment of many major Native American river valley settlements and large urban centers between 1350–1450 CE during an especially severe warm-season drought. We hypothesize that this sustained drought interval rendered it difficult to support dense populations and large urban centers in the midcontinental US by destabilizing regional agricultural systems, thereby contributing to the host of socio-political factors that led to population reorganization and migration in the midcontinent and neighboring regions shortly before European contact.

  10. Midcontinental Native American population dynamics and late Holocene hydroclimate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Broxton W.; Wilson, Jeremy J.; Gilhooly III, William P.; Steinman, Byron A.; Stamps, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Climate’s influence on late Pre-Columbian (pre-1492 CE), maize-dependent Native American populations in the midcontinental United States (US) is poorly understood as regional paleoclimate records are sparse and/or provide conflicting perspectives. Here, we reconstruct regional changes in precipitation source and seasonality and local changes in warm-season duration and rainstorm events related to the Pacific North American pattern (PNA) using a 2100-year-long multi-proxy lake-sediment record from the midcontinental US. Wet midcontinental climate reflecting negative PNA-like conditions occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (950–1250 CE) as Native American populations adopted intensive maize agriculture, facilitating population aggregation and the development of urban centers between 1000–1200 CE. Intensifying midcontinental socio-political instability and warfare between 1250–1350 CE corresponded with drier positive PNA-like conditions, culminating in the staggered abandonment of many major Native American river valley settlements and large urban centers between 1350–1450 CE during an especially severe warm-season drought. We hypothesize that this sustained drought interval rendered it difficult to support dense populations and large urban centers in the midcontinental US by destabilizing regional agricultural systems, thereby contributing to the host of socio-political factors that led to population reorganization and migration in the midcontinent and neighboring regions shortly before European contact. PMID:28139698

  11. The Extremely Young Star Cluster Population In Haro 11

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Angela; Zackrisson, Erik; Hayes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a deep multi-band photometric analysis of the star cluster population of Haro 11. This starburst galaxy (log L_FUV = 10.3 L_sun) is considered a nearby analogue of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at high redshift. The study of the numerous star clusters in the systems is an effective way to investigate the formation and evolution of the starburst phase. In fact, the SED fitting models have revealed a surprisingly young star cluster population, with ages between 0.5 and 40 Myr, and estimated masses between 10^3 and 10^7 solar masses. An independent age estimation has been done with the EW(Halpha) analysis of each cluster. This last analysis has confirmed the young ages of the clusters. We noticed that the clusters with ages between 1 and 10 Myr show a flux excess in H (NIC3/F160W) and/or I (WFPC2/F814W) bands with respect to the evolutionary models. Once more Haro 11 represents a challenge to our understanding.

  12. Population exposure to heat-related extremes: Demographic change vs climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme heat events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity in the coming decades [1]. The physical effects of extreme heat on human populations are well-documented, and anticipating changes in future exposure to extreme heat is a key component of adequate planning/mitigation [2, 3]. Exposure to extreme heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we focus on systematically quantifying exposure to extreme heat as a function of both climate and population change. We compare exposure outcomes across multiple global climate and spatial population scenarios, and characterize the relative contributions of each to population exposure to extreme heat. We consider a 2 x 2 matrix of climate and population output, using projections of heat extremes corresponding to RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from the NCAR community land model, and spatial population projections for SSP 3 and SSP 5 from the NCAR spatial population downscaling model. Our primary comparison is across RCPs - exposure outcomes from RCP 4.5 versus RCP 8.5 - paying particular attention to how variation depends on the choice of SSP in terms of aggregate global and regional exposure, as well as the spatial distribution of exposure. We assess how aggregate exposure changes based on the choice of SSP, and which driver is more important, population or climate change (i.e. does that outcome vary more as a result of RCP or SSP). We further decompose the population component to analyze the contributions of total population change, migration, and changes in local spatial structure. Preliminary results from a similar study of the US suggests a four-to-six fold increase in total exposure by the latter half of the 21st century. Changes in population are as important as changes in climate in driving this outcome, and there is regional variation in the relative importance of each. Aggregate population growth, as well as redistribution of

  13. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  14. Continuous and discrete extreme climatic events affecting the dynamics of a high-arctic reindeer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Mysterud, Atle; Øritsland, Nils Are; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2005-10-01

    Climate at northern latitudes are currently changing both with regard to the mean and the temporal variability at any given site, increasing the frequency of extreme events such as cold and warm spells. Here we use a conceptually new modelling approach with two different dynamic terms of the climatic effects on a Svalbard reindeer population (the Brøggerhalvøya population) which underwent an extreme icing event ("locked pastures") with 80% reduction in population size during one winter (1993/94). One term captures the continuous and linear effect depending upon the Arctic Oscillation and another the discrete (rare) "event" process. The introduction of an "event" parameter describing the discrete extreme winter resulted in a more parsimonious model. Such an approach may be useful in strongly age-structured ungulate populations, with young and very old individuals being particularly prone to mortality factors during adverse conditions (resulting in a population structure that differs before and after extreme climatic events). A simulation study demonstrates that our approach is able to properly detect the ecological effects of such extreme climate events.

  15. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fabina, NS; Baskett, ML; K. Gross

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America. Extreme events, which have profound ecological consequences, are changing in both frequency and magnitude with climate change. Because extreme temperatures induce coral bleaching, we can explore the relative impacts of changes in frequency and magnitude of high temperature events on coral reefs. Here, we combined climate projections and a dynamic population model to determine how changing bleaching regimes influence coral persistence. We additional...

  16. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  17. Symmetry properties of subdivision graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkhah, Ashraf; Devillers, Alice; Praeger, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The subdivision graph $S(\\Sigma)$ of a graph $\\Sigma$ is obtained from $\\Sigma$ by `adding a vertex' in the middle of every edge of $\\Si$. Various symmetry properties of $\\S(\\Sigma)$ are studied. We prove that, for a connected graph $\\Sigma$, $S(\\Sigma)$ is locally $s$-arc transitive if and only if $\\Sigma$ is $\\lceil\\frac{s+1}{2}\\rceil$-arc transitive. The diameter of $S(\\Sigma)$ is $2d+\\delta$, where $\\Sigma$ has diameter $d$ and $0\\leqslant \\delta\\leqslant 2$, and local $s$-distance transi...

  18. Reverse Loop subdivision with sharp features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingxi; Ma Lizhuang; Mao Zhihong; Wu Xiaomao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new reverse Loop subdivision method. In contrast to current wavelets based Loop subdivision scheme, our method applies the same rules to both regular and extraordinary vertices and reconstructs the sharp features easily. Furthermore, our method runs faster because it does not need analysis and synthesis procedural. Our main goal is the design of a reverse subdivision method that can reconstruct the coarser mesh from a finer subdivision surface with sharp features for multiresolution representation. The proposed method only needs a little memory storage and brings little error, and it is easy to implement.

  19. How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese flora occupies a unique position in global plant diversity, but is severely threatened. Although biodiversity conservation in China has made significant progress over the past decades, many wild plant species have extremely small population sizes and therefore are in extreme danger of extinction. The concept of plant species with extremely small populations (PSESPs, recently adopted and widely accepted in China, lacks a detailed description of the methodology appropriate for conserving PSESPs. Strategies for seed sampling, reintroduction, protecting PSESP locations, managing interactions with the local human population, and other conservation aspects can substantially differ from those commonly applied to non-PSESPs. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed conservation methodology with realistic and easy-to-follow guidelines for PSESPs in China.

  20. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  1. Extreme polyandry aids the establishment of invasive populations of a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, G; Xu, H; Oldroyd, B P; Gloag, R S

    2017-08-23

    Although monandry is believed to have facilitated the evolution of eusociality, many highly eusocial insects have since evolved extreme polyandry. The transition to extreme polyandry was likely driven by the benefits of within-colony genetic variance to task specialization and/or disease resistance, but the extent to which it confers secondary benefits, once evolved, is unclear. Here we investigate the consequences of extreme polyandry on the invasive potential of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. In honey bees and other Hymenoptera, small newly founded invasive populations must overcome the genetic constraint of their sex determination system that requires heterozygosity at a sex-determining locus to produce viable females. We find A. cerana queens in an invasive population mate with an average of 27 males (range 16-42) that would result in the founding queen/s carrying 75% of their source population's sex alleles in stored sperm. This mating frequency is similar to native-range Chinese A. cerana (mean 29 males, range 19-46). Simulations reveal that extreme polyandry reduces the risk, relative to monandry or moderate polyandry, that colonies produce a high incidence of inviable brood in populations that have experienced a founder event, that is, when sex allele diversity is low and/or allele frequencies are unequal. Thus, extreme polyandry aids the invasiveness of A. cerana in two ways: (1) by increasing the sex locus allelic richness carried to new populations with each founder, thereby increasing sex locus heterozygosity; and (2) by reducing the population variance in colony fitness following a founder event.Heredity advance online publication, 23 August 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2017.49.

  2. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-28

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.

  3. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  4. The Effect of an Extreme and Prolonged Population Bottleneck on Patterns of Deleterious Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Grarup, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    to a markedly more extreme distribution of allele frequencies than seen for any other human population, making the Inuit the perfect population for investigating the effect of a bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation. When comparing proxies for genetic load that assume an additive effect of deleterious......The genetic consequences of population bottlenecks on patterns of deleterious genetic variation in human populations are of tremendous interest. Based on exome sequencing of 18 Greenlandic Inuit here we show that the Inuit have undergone a severe ~20,000 year long bottleneck. This has led...... alleles, the Inuit show, at most, a slight increase in load compared to European, East Asian, and African populations. Specifically, we observe

  5. Electromyographic analysis of the three subdivisions of gluteus medius during weight-bearing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Kieran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluteus medius (GM dysfunction is associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. Rehabilitation exercises aimed at strengthening GM appear to improve lower limb kinematics and reduce pain. However, there is a lack of evidence to identify which exercises best activate GM. In particular, as GM consists of three distinct subdivisions, it is unclear if GM activation is consistent across these subdivisions during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the activation of the anterior, middle and posterior subdivisions of GM during weight-bearing exercises. Methods A single session, repeated-measures design. The activity of each GM subdivision was measured in 15 pain-free subjects using surface electromyography (sEMG during three weight-bearing exercises; wall squat (WS, pelvic drop (PD and wall press (WP. Muscle activity was expressed relative to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Differences in muscle activation were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results The activation of each GM subdivision during the exercises was significantly different (interaction effect; p Discussion Posterior GM displayed higher activation across all three exercises than both anterior and middle GM. The WP produced the highest %MVIC activation for all GM subdivisions, and this was most pronounced for posterior GM. Clinicians may use these results to effectively progress strengthening exercises for GM in the rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries.

  6. Maternal tobacco use and extremely premature birth - a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, S; Gunnerbeck, A; Wikström, A-K; Cnattingius, S; Edstedt Bonamy, A-K

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal tobacco use (smoking or use of snuff) and risk of extremely preterm birth, and if tobacco cessation before antenatal booking influences this risk. To study the association between tobacco use and spontaneous or medically indicated onset of delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All live singleton births, registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1999-2012. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation), very preterm birth (28-31 weeks), moderately preterm birth (32-36 weeks). Maternal snuff use (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.14-2.21) and smoking (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39-1.87 and OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.53-2.39 for moderate and heavy smoking, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of extremely preterm birth. When cessation of tobacco use was obtained there was no increased risk of preterm birth. Snuff use was associated with a twofold risk increase of medically indicated extremely preterm birth, whereas smoking was associated with increased risks of both medically indicated and spontaneous extremely preterm birth. Snuff use and smoking in pregnancy were associated with increased risks of extremely preterm birth. Women who stopped using tobacco before the antenatal booking had no increased risk. These findings indicate that nicotine, the common substance in cigarettes and snuff, is involved in the mechanisms behind preterm birth. The use of nicotine should be minimized in pregnancy. Tobacco use increases risk of extremely preterm birth. Cessation is preventive. Avoid nicotine in pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. [Hygienic problems of population health maintenance under the extremal conditions of North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A I; Istomin, A V; Shushkova, T S; Ustiushin, B V; Iudina, T V; Maĭmulov, V G; Raengulov, B M; Shagdarova, A N

    2005-01-01

    A range of multi-sided studies, carried out in various regions of Far North (Jamalo-Nenets autonomous region, Komi republic, Sakha republic (Yakutia)) have established the leading hygienic risk factors of population health deterioration, including those characteristic of small nationalities of North. The consideration of the obtained data, including regional alimentary status peculiarities, the condition of metabolic processes and antioxidant balance of the organism, allowed establishment of effective approaches to the maintenance of notherners' health. These approaches are based upon the optimization of nutrition as an element of population health control under extremal conditions.

  8. Evidence of population resistance to extreme low flows in a fluvial-dependent fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rachel A.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme low streamflows are natural disturbances to aquatic populations. Species in naturally intermittent streams display adaptations that enhance persistence during extreme events; however, the fate of populations in perennial streams during unprecedented low-flow periods is not well-understood. Biota requiring swift-flowing habitats may be especially vulnerable to flow reductions. We estimated the abundance and local survival of a native fluvial-dependent fish species (Etheostoma inscriptum) across 5 years encompassing historic low flows in a sixth-order southeastern USA perennial river. Based on capturemark-recapture data, the study shoal may have acted as a refuge during severe drought, with increased young-of-the-year (YOY) recruitment and occasionally high adult immigration. Contrary to expectations, summer and autumn survival rates (30 days) were not strongly depressed during low-flow periods, despite 25%-80% reductions in monthly discharge. Instead, YOY survival increased with lower minimum discharge and in response to small rain events that increased low-flow variability. Age-1+ fish showed the opposite pattern, with survival decreasing in response to increasing low-flow variability. Results from this population dynamics study of a small fish in a perennial river suggest that fluvial-dependent species can be resistant to extreme flow reductions through enhanced YOY recruitment and high survival

  9. Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂清; 李华

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.

  10. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  11. Range of Motion of the Upper Extremity in a Healthy Pediatric Population: Introduction to Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Paz, Stephanie Nunes; Stalder, Andreas; Berger, Steffen; Ziebarth, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Objective In the pediatric population traumatic injuries of the upper extremity are common. After therapy a decision has to be made if the mobility of the joint lies within a normal range. The purpose of this study was to give an introduction to normative data. We investigate if there is a significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) between male and female probands and furthermore, if an effect of the age can be detected. Methods We performed an institutional review board-approved study of healthy girls and boys aged between 2 and 16 years without any medical history of an upper extremity fracture. We investigated the active ROM of the elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints. Furthermore, age, handedness, weight, and height were recorded. A total of 171 adolescents with a mean age of 10.6 years were included and separated into four cohorts by age: 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 13, and 14 to 16 years. Results We found significant differences between the genders in the age group from 11 to 13 years for the flexion of the elbow, the pronation, the flexion of the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, as well as the flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints of digitus II to V. Furthermore, a significant difference in the same joints except from the elbow flexion could be demonstrated between the genders. Conclusion Our study contributes normative data for upper extremity ROM in the pediatric population and presents a gender-related difference in certain joints. Clinical Relevance Normative data for the ROM of upper extremity joints in children is helpful for the evaluation of pediatric orthopedic patients and provides the framework for therapeutic resolution. Since a great number of traumatic injuries in children affect the upper extremity, this information may help the physician to estimate the impact of the injury and decide on the therapeutic management.

  12. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth E. Ross

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland. Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  13. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  14. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Corona, Erik; Sikora, Martin; Dudley, Joel T; Morgan, Alex A; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Ruau, David; Lincoln, Stephen E; Bustamante, Carlos D; Butte, Atul J

    2012-01-01

    Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may contribute to the observed

  15. Microsurgical Reconstruction of Traumatic Lower Extremity Defects in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Arash; Lanni, Michael; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Few reports focus exclusively on microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects in children. Hence, the authors felt it prudent to contribute to this area of clinical research. The authors hypothesized that reconstructive success would be comparable to success rates reported in adults, and that young age or concerns regarding vessel size or behavior do not negatively impact surgical outcome. A retrospective review of microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction cases at two academic medical centers was performed. All pediatric patients who underwent microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects between 1997 and 2012 were included for analysis. Forty flaps transferred in 40 patients with a mean age of 11.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years) were included for analysis. Muscle flaps were predominantly used [n = 23 (57.5 percent)]; however, there was a recent increase in use of fasciocutaneous flaps [n = 16 (40 percent)]. Postoperative complications were seen in 25 percent of patients, with a total flap loss rate of 5 percent. No donor-site complications were observed. The mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 12.9 days (range, 4 to 41 days), with patients returning to full weight-bearing after a mean of 2.6 months (range, 1 to 8 months). Microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects in the pediatric population is safe. Concerns related to patient age, vessel size, or vessel behavior (i.e., vasospasm) should not detract from offering free flap reconstruction, as they do not negatively impact outcomes. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. Recovery trends of Scrobicularia plana populations after restoration measures, affected by extreme climate events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelhos, T; Cardoso, P G; Dolbeth, M; Pardal, M A

    2014-07-01

    The Mondego estuary (Portugal) went through different ecological scenarios over the last decades. An eutrophication process led to a decline in the ecosystem quality. The ensuing restoration plan resulted into a gradual ecological recovery, which was impaired by the occurrence of successive extreme climate events that affected dynamics and productivity of key species. In this study we assess the response of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana to the impacts of these events in a recovery scenario, by comparing populations in two different intertidal habitats: a seagrass bed and a sandflat area. As a general tendency, S. plana, which was negatively affected by eutrophication, responded positively to restoration. However, the occurrence of extreme climate events seemed to affect recruitment success, biomass and production, impairing the recovery process. In the seagrass bed, S. plana maintained a stable and structured population, while in the sandflat area recovery clearly reverted into a decline, mainly concerning biomass and production values. This sequence of multiple stressors might have reduced S. plana resilience to further impacts and therefore, understanding the behavior of biological populations following restoration initiatives requires acknowledgement that some changes may not be easily reversible.

  17. Guillotine subdivisions approximate polygonal subdivisions: A simple new method for the geometric k-MST problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.S.B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We show that any rectilinear polygonal subdivision in the plane can be converted into a {open_quotes}guillotine{close_quote} subdivision whose length is at most twice that of the original subdivision. {open_quote}Guillotine{close_quotes} subdivisions have a simple recursive structure that allows one to search for {open_quotes}optimal{close_quotes} such subdivisions in polynomial time, using dynamic programming. In particular, a consequence of our main theorem is a very simple proof that the k-MST problem in the plane has a constant factor polynomial-time approximation algorithm, and the constant factor that we obtain is a substantial improvement over all previous bounds: We obtain a factor of 2 for the L{sub 1} metric, and a factor of 2{radical}2 for the L{sub 2} (Euclidean) metric.

  18. Basic calibrations of the photographic RGU system. III - Intermediate and extreme Population II dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, R.; Fenkart, R. P.

    1990-11-01

    This paper presents an extended calibration of the color-magnitude and two-color diagrams and the metal-abundance parameter for the intermediate Population II and the extreme halo dwarfs observed in the Basel Palomar-Schmidt RGU three-color photometric surveys of the galaxy. The calibration covers the metallicity range between values +0.50 and -3.00. It is shown that the calibrations presented are sufficiently accurate to be useful for the future analyses of photographic survey data.

  19. Loop Subdivision Surface Based Progressive Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Hua (Frank) Cheng; Feng-Tao Fan; Shu-Hua Lai; Cong-Lin Huang; Jia-Xi Wang; Jun-Hai Yong

    2009-01-01

    A new method for constructing interpolating Loop subdivision surfaces is presented. The new method is an extension of the progressive interpolation technique for B-splines. Given a triangular mesh M, the idea is to iteratively upgrade the vertices of M to generate a new control mesh M such that limit surface of M would interpolate M. It can be shown that the iterative process is convergent for Loop subdivision surfaces. Hence, the method is well-defined. The new method has the advantages of both a local method and a global method, i.e., it can handle meshes of any size and any topology while generating smooth interpolating subdivision surfaces that faithfully resemble the shape of the given meshes. The meshes considered here can be open or closed.

  20. Point Location in Disconnected Planar Subdivisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Let $G$ be a (possibly disconnected) planar subdivision and let $D$ be a probability measure over $\\R^2$. The current paper shows how to preprocess $(G,D)$ into an O(n) size data structure that can answer planar point location queries over $G$. The expected query time of this data structure, for a query point drawn according to $D$, is $O(H+1)$, where $H$ is a lower bound on the expected query time of any linear decision tree for point location in $G$. This extends the results of Collette et al (2008, 2009) from connected planar subdivisions to disconnected planar subdivisions. A version of this structure, when combined with existing results on succinct point location, provides a succinct distribution-sensitive point location structure.

  1. Extreme climate, rather than population history, explains mid-facial morphology of Northern Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evteev, Andrej; Cardini, Andrea L; Morozova, Irina; O'Higgins, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have examined mid-facial cold adaptation among either widely dispersed and genetically very diverse groups of humans isolated for tens of thousands of years, or among very closely related groups spread over climatically different regions. Here we present a study of one East Asian and seven North Asian populations in which we examine the evidence for convergent adaptations of the mid-face to a very cold climate. Our findings indicate that mid-facial morphology is strongly associated with climatic variables that contrast the temperate climate of East Asians and the very cold and dry climate of North Asians. This is also the case when either maxillary or nasal cavity measurements are considered alone. The association remains significant when mtDNA distances among populations are taken into account. The morphological contrasts between populations are consistent with physiological predictions and prior studies of mid-facial cold adaptation in more temperate regions, but among North Asians there appear to be some previously undescribed morphological features that might be considered as adaptive to extreme cold. To investigate this further, analyses of the seven North Asian populations alone suggest that mid-facial morphology remains strongly associated with climate, particularly winter precipitation, contrasting coastal Arctic and continental climates. However, the residual covariation among North Asian mid-facial morphology and climate when genetic distances are considered, is not significant. These findings point to modern adaptations to extreme climate that might be relevant to our understanding of the mid-facial morphology of fossil hominins that lived during glaciations.

  2. ESTIMATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR TERNARY SUBDIVISION CURVES/SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; Jiansong Deng

    2007-01-01

    We estimate error bounds between ternary subdivision curves/surfaces and their control polygons after k-fold subdivision in terms of the maximal differences of the initial control point sequences and constants that depend on the subdivision mask. The bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision.Our technique is independent of parametrization therefore it can be easily and efficiently implemented. This is useful and important for pre-computing the error bounds of subdivision curves/surfaces in advance in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection, mesh generation, NC machining, surface rendering and so on.

  3. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  4. Extremity vascular trauma in civilian population: a seven-year review from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menakuru, Somasekhar R; Behera, Arunanshu; Jindal, Ravul; Kaman, Lileswar; Doley, Rudraprasad; Venkatesan, Rajarajan

    2005-03-01

    This is a retrospective study of the experience with extremity vascular trauma at a tertiary level referral centre in North India where the majority of the population lives in villages and the incidence of high-speed automobile accidents and civilian violence is low. The aim was to study the aetiology, pattern of injuries and the mortality and morbidity rates due to vascular trauma in our population. Data relating to 148 patients presenting with vascular trauma requiring surgical intervention other than amputation between January 1996 and December 2002 were collected retrospectively. There were 132 males and 16 females with a mean age of 39 years presenting to the casualty with a median delay of 9.3 h after injury. Blunt trauma accounted for 84% of the injuries with extremities involved in 88%. The brachial artery was the most common artery injured with the femoral next most common. Repair without graft interposition was done in 74% and autogenous vein grafts were used in 23% of cases. Comparison of our results with those that would have been obtained, had the recommendations of Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) been followed, showed that this scoring system had low sensitivity and specificity for prediction of salvageability of limbs. Eight percent patients died due to associated visceral organ injuries. Complications occurred in 32% patients and amputation was required in 6% of patients after an initial surgical repair mainly due to inadequate functional recovery. Eighty-eight percent of the survivors with salvaged limbs were able to achieve full functional recovery. Judicious selection and appropriate intervention can result in satisfactory limb salvage with good functional outcomes even with delayed presentations.

  5. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  6. Deformable surface modeling based on dual subdivision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; SUN Hanqiu; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    Based on dual Doo-Sabin subdivision and the corresponding parameterization, a modeling technique of deformable surfaces is presented in this paper. In the proposed model, all the dynamic parameters are computed in a unified way for both non-defective and defective subdivision matrices, and central differences are used to discretize the Lagrangian dynamics equation instead of backward differences. Moreover, a local scheme is developed to solve the dynamics equation approximately, thus the order of the linear equation is reduced greatly. Therefore, the proposed model is more efficient and faster than the existing dynamic models. It can be used for deformable surface design, interactive surface editing, medical imaging and simulation.

  7. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  8. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  9. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A Pierce

    Full Text Available Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  10. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  11. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  12. Planet Map Generation by Tetrahedral Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  13. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Baskett, Marissa L; Gross, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Extreme events, which have profound ecological consequences, are changing in both frequency and magnitude with climate change. Because extreme temperatures induce coral bleaching, we can explore the relative impacts of changes in frequency and magnitude of high temperature events on coral reefs. Here, we combined climate projections and a dynamic population model to determine how changing bleaching regimes influence coral persistence. We additionally explored how coral traits and competition with macroalgae mediate changes in bleaching regimes. Our results predict that severe bleaching events reduce coral persistence more than frequent bleaching. Corals with low adult mortality and high growth rates are successful when bleaching is mild, but bleaching resistance is necessary to persist when bleaching is severe, regardless of frequency. The existence of macroalgae-dominated stable states reduces coral persistence and changes the relative importance of coral traits. Building on previous studies, our results predict that management efforts may need to prioritize protection of "weaker" corals with high adult mortality when bleaching is mild, and protection of "stronger" corals with high bleaching resistance when bleaching is severe. In summary, future reef projections and conservation targets depend on both local bleaching regimes and biodiversity.

  14. 29 CFR 1975.5 - States and political subdivisions thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subdivisions of a State: (5) The term “employer” means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who... “State or political subdivision of a State”, but unusual factors to the contrary in a particular case may... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false States and political subdivisions thereof. 1975.5...

  15. Population genomics of divergence among extreme and intermediate color forms in a polymorphic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Jason M; Dillon, Michael E; Strange, James P

    2016-02-01

    Geographic variation in insect coloration is among the most intriguing examples of rapid phenotypic evolution and provides opportunities to study mechanisms of phenotypic change and diversification in closely related lineages. The bumble bee Bombus bifarius comprises two geographically disparate color groups characterized by red-banded and black-banded abdominal pigmentation, but with a range of spatially and phenotypically intermediate populations across western North America. Microsatellite analyses have revealed that B. bifarius in the USA are structured into two major groups concordant with geography and color pattern, but also suggest ongoing gene flow among regional populations. In this study, we better resolve the relationships among major color groups to better understand evolutionary mechanisms promoting and maintaining such polymorphism. We analyze >90,000 and >25,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from transcriptome (RNAseq) and double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD), respectively, in representative samples from spatial and color pattern extremes in B. bifarius as well as phenotypic and geographic intermediates. Both ddRAD and RNAseq data illustrate substantial genome-wide differentiation of the red-banded (eastern) color form from both black-banded (western) and intermediate (central) phenotypes and negligible differentiation among the latter populations, with no obvious admixture among bees from the two major lineages. Results thus indicate much stronger background differentiation among B. bifarius lineages than expected, highlighting potential challenges for revealing loci underlying color polymorphism from population genetic data alone. These findings will have significance for resolving taxonomic confusion in this species and in future efforts to investigate color-pattern evolution in B. bifarius and other polymorphic bumble bee species.

  16. Microbial Diversity and Population Structure of Extremely Acidic Sulfur-Oxidizing Biofilms From Sulfidic Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Stoffer, T.; Lyon, E. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1) microbial biofilms called snottites form on the walls of sulfidic caves where gypsum replacement crusts isolate sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from the buffering action of limestone host rock. We investigated the phylogeny and population structure of snottites from sulfidic caves in central Italy using full cycle rRNA methods. A small subunit rRNA bacterial clone library from a Frasassi cave complex snottite sample contained a single sequence group (>60 clones) similar to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Bacterial and universal rRNA clone libraries from other Frasassi snottites were only slightly more diverse, containing a maximum of 4 bacterial species and probably 2 archaeal species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of snottites from Frasassi and from the much warmer Rio Garrafo cave complex revealed that all of the communities are simple (low-diversity) and dominated by Acidithiobacillus and/or Ferroplasma species, with smaller populations of an Acidimicrobium species, filamentous fungi, and protists. Our results suggest that sulfidic cave snottites will be excellent model microbial ecosystems suited for ecological and metagenomic studies aimed at elucidating geochemical and ecological controls on microbial diversity, and at mapping the spatial history of microbial evolutionary events such as adaptations, recombinations and gene transfers.

  17. Testing the AGB Scenario as the Origin of the Extreme-Helium Population in omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ena

    2008-01-01

    The most massive Galactic globular cluster, Omega centauri, appears to have multiple populations. Its bluest main sequence and extended horizontal branch stars are suggested to have the common origin, that is, an extremely high helium abundance of Y ~ 0.4. The high helium abundance is most often attributed to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this study we test the AGB hypothesis. We simulate the maximum-AGB models where the impact of AGB stars is maximised by assuming that supernova explosions do not affect the chemical evolution of the proto cloud. We compare the enrichment history of helium, metals, carbon and nitrogen to the observed values. Even under the most generous condition, the maximum-AGB models fail to reproduce the large values of helium Y ~ 0.4 and helium enrichment parameter Delta Y / Delta Z ~ 70 which were deduced from the colour-magnitude diagram fits. They also fail to reproduce the C and N contents of the blue population spectroscopically determined. We conclude that the AGB scenari...

  18. Estimating Subdivision Depth of Catmull-Clark Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Kai-Huai Qin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, both general and exponential bounds of the distance between a uniform Catmull-Clark surface and its control polyhedron are derived. The exponential bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision. Based on the exponential bound, we can predict the depth of subdivision within a user-specified error tolerance. This is quite useful and important for pre-computing the subdivision depth of subdivision surfaces in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection,mesh generation, numerical control machining and surface rendering.

  19. Present limits to heat-adaptability in corals and population-level responses to climate extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard M Riegl

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios suggest an increase in tropical ocean temperature by 1-3°C by 2099, potentially killing many coral reefs. But Arabian/Persian Gulf corals already exist in this future thermal environment predicted for most tropical reefs and survived severe bleaching in 2010, one of the hottest years on record. Exposure to 33-35°C was on average twice as long as in non-bleaching years. Gulf corals bleached after exposure to temperatures above 34°C for a total of 8 weeks of which 3 weeks were above 35°C. This is more heat than any other corals can survive, providing an insight into the present limits of holobiont adaptation. We show that average temperatures as well as heat-waves in the Gulf have been increasing, that coral population levels will fluctuate strongly, and reef-building capability will be compromised. This, in combination with ocean acidification and significant local threats posed by rampant coastal development puts even these most heat-adapted corals at risk. WWF considers the Gulf ecoregion as "critically endangered". We argue here that Gulf corals should be considered for assisted migration to the tropical Indo-Pacific. This would have the double benefit of avoiding local extinction of the world's most heat-adapted holobionts while at the same time introducing their genetic information to populations naïve to such extremes, potentially assisting their survival. Thus, the heat-adaptation acquired by Gulf corals over 6 k, could benefit tropical Indo-Pacific corals who have <100 y until they will experience a similarly harsh climate. Population models suggest that the heat-adapted corals could become dominant on tropical reefs within ∼20 years.

  20. Differences in the rotational properties of multiple stellar populations in M 13: a faster rotation for the "extreme" chemical subpopulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, M J; Pilachowski, C A; Balbinot, E; Johnson, C I; Varri, A L

    2016-01-01

    We use radial velocities from spectra of giants obtained with the WIYN telescope, coupled with existing chemical abundance measurements of Na and O for the same stars, to probe the presence of kinematic differences among the multiple populations of the globular cluster (GC) M13. To characterise the kinematics of various chemical subsamples, we introduce a method using Bayesian inference along with an MCMC algorithm to fit a six-parameter kinematic model (including rotation) to these subsamples. We find that the so-called "extreme" population (Na-enhanced and extremely O-depleted) exhibits faster rotation around the centre of the cluster than the other cluster stars, in particular when compared to the dominant "intermediate" population (moderately Na-enhanced and O-depleted). The most likely difference between the rotational amplitude of this extreme population and that of the intermediate population is found to be $\\sim$4 km s$^{-1}$, with a 98.4% probability that the rotational amplitude of the extreme popul...

  1. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Jon P; Reynolds, Alice M; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM) in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s) that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle) or two-thirds (liver) of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea) to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica.

  2. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P Costanzo

    Full Text Available Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle or two-thirds (liver of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica.

  3. Formation and erasure of population difference gratings in the coherent interaction of a resonant medium with extremely short optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2016-11-01

    In the regime of coherent interaction of short optical pulses with a resonant medium, which is implemented with a pulse duration shorter than the relaxation times in the medium, the formation of population gratings can occur without overlapping the pulses therein. In this case, there are new possibilities for controlling optical pulses, which are especially pronounced for extremely short pulses. It is shown that, with the proper choice of the parameters of a sequence of extremely short optical pulses, not only the formation of population gratings, but also their erasure are possible. It is demonstrated that this effect can be used for the creation of an ultrahigh-speed optical deflector.

  4. The spatial distribution of threats to plant species with extremely small populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Jizhong; Qu, Hong; Mu, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-04-01

    Many biological conservationists take actions to conserve plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China; however, there have been few studies on the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP. Hence, we selected distribution data of PSESP and made a map of the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP in China. First, we used the weight assignment method to evaluate the threat risk to PSESP at both country and county scales. Second, we used a geographic information system to map the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP, and explored the threat factors based on linear regression analysis. Finally, we suggested some effective conservation options. We found that the PSESP with high values of protection, such as the plants with high scientific research values and ornamental plants, were threatened by over-exploitation and utilization, habitat fragmentation, and a small sized wild population in broad-leaved forests and bush fallows. We also identified some risk hotspots for PSESP in China. Regions with low elevation should be given priority for ex- and in-situ conservation. Moreover, climate change should be considered for conservation of PSESP. To avoid intensive over-exploitation or utilization and habitat fragmentation, in-situ conservation should be practiced in regions with high temperatures and low temperature seasonality, particularly in the high risk hotspots for PSESP that we proposed. Ex-situ conservation should be applied in these same regions, and over-exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be prevented. It is our goal to apply the concept of PSESP to the global scale in the future.

  5. The spatial distribution of threats to plant species with extremely small populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Jizhong; Qu, Hong; Mu, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2017-03-01

    Many biological conservationists take actions to conserve plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China; however, there have been few studies on the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP. Hence, we selected distribution data of PSESP and made a map of the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP in China. First, we used the weight assignment method to evaluate the threat risk to PSESP at both country and county scales. Second, we used a geographic information system to map the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP, and explored the threat factors based on linear regression analysis. Finally, we suggested some effective conservation options. We found that the PSESP with high values of protection, such as the plants with high scientific research values and ornamental plants, were threatened by over-exploitation and utilization, habitat fragmentation, and a small sized wild population in broad-leaved forests and bush fallows. We also identified some risk hotspots for PSESP in China. Regions with low elevation should be given priority for ex- and in-situ conservation. Moreover, climate change should be considered for conservation of PSESP. To avoid intensive over-exploitation or utilization and habitat fragmentation, in-situ conservation should be practiced in regions with high temperatures and low temperature seasonality, particularly in the high risk hotspots for PSESP that we proposed. Ex-situ conservation should be applied in these same regions, and over-exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be prevented. It is our goal to apply the concept of PSESP to the global scale in the future.

  6. Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP in China: A seed and spore biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Merrett Wade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one fifth of the world's plants are at risk of extinction. Of these, a significant number exist as populations of few individuals, with limited distribution ranges and under enormous pressure due to habitat destruction. In China, these most-at-risk species are described as ‘plant species with extremely small populations’ (PSESP. Implementing conservation action for such listed species is urgent. Storing seeds is one of the main means of ex situ conservation for flowering plants. Spore storage could provide a simple and economical method for fern ex situ conservation. Seed and spore germination in nature is a critical step in species regeneration and thus in situ conservation. But what is known about the seed and spore biology (storage and germination of at-risk species? We have used China's PSESP (the first group listing as a case study to understand the gaps in knowledge on propagule biology of threatened plant species. We found that whilst germination information is available for 28 species (23% of PSESP, storage characteristics are only known for 8% of PSESP (10 species. Moreover, we estimate that 60% of the listed species may require cryopreservation for long-term storage. We conclude that comparative biology studies are urgently needed on the world's most threatened taxa so that conservation action can progress beyond species listing.

  7. An extreme paucity of second population AGB stars in the normal globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; De Silva, G M; Lattanzio, J; DOrazi, V; Simpson, J D; Momany, Y

    2016-01-01

    Galactic Globular clusters (GCs) are now known to harbour multiple stellar populations, which are chemically distinct in many light element abundances. It is becoming increasingly clear that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in GCs show different abundance distributions in light elements compared to those in the red giant branch (RGB) and other phases, skewing toward more primordial, field-star-like abundances, which we refer to as subpopulation one (SP1). As part of a larger program targeting giants in GCs, we obtained high-resolution spectra for a sample of 106 RGB and 15 AGB stars in Messier 4 (NGC 6121) using the 2dF+HERMES facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In this Letter we report an extreme paucity of AGB stars with [Na/O] > -0.17 in M4, which contrasts with the RGB that has abundances up to [Na/O] =0.55. The AGB abundance distribution is consistent with all AGB stars being from SP1. This result appears to imply that all subpopulation two stars (SP2; Na-rich, O-poor) avoid the AGB phase. Thi...

  8. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, P.R.; Benn, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 9330 men and women from the general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During 10 years of follow-up, 498 participants developed MI. In women, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for MI for elevated lipoprotein(a) levels were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1...... bias, and lack of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk...... observed a stepwise increase in risk of MI with increasing levels of lipoprotein(a), with no evidence of a threshold effect. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict a 3- to 4-fold increase in risk of MI in the general population and absolute 10-year risks of 20% and 35% in high-risk women and men...

  9. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight...

  10. Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Ens, Bruno J.; Heg, Dik; Brouwer, Lyanne; Krol, Johan; Maier, Martin; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Oosterbeek, Kees; Lok, Tamar; Eising, Corine M.; Koffijberg, Kees

    P>1. Climate change encompasses changes in both the means and the extremes of climatic variables, but the population consequences of the latter are intrinsically difficult to study. 2. We investigated whether the frequency, magnitude and timing of rare but catastrophic flooding events have changed

  11. Brief Report: No Association between Parental Age and Extreme Social-Communicative Autistic Traits in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…

  12. Identification of genetic variants associated with maize flowering time using an extremely large multi-genetic background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering time is one of the major adaptive traits in domestication of maize and an important selection criterion in breeding. To detect more maize flowering time variants we evaluated flowering time traits using an extremely large multi- genetic background population that contained more than 8000 l...

  13. Extreme winter cyclones and the extinction of a reindeer population (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. E.; Klein, D. R.; Shulski, M.

    2009-12-01

    While strong cyclones are not unusual are not unusual in the subpolar North Pacific storm track, an exceptional series of storm events in early 1964 decimated the reindeer population of St. Matthew Island in the central Bering Sea. This case illustrates how severe winter storms can lead to species extinction when overpopulated species are restricted to islands or fractured habitats where dispersal is not an option. The strongest storm occurred in early February when a surface low pressure system that originated over the warm waters offshore of Japan tracked eastward from the warm waters offshore of Japan. The intensification of the low then accelerated as the storm approached the Aleutians, where the central pressure decreased to 957 hPa, a pressure typical of Category 3 hurricanes. The track and intensity of the low were such that St. Matthew Island was in the storm’s northwest quadrant during the peak-intensity phase. The pressure difference between the intense cyclone and the Siberian high exceeded 100 hPa -- a pressure difference between these two locations that was the largest in the entire 60-year period of the NCEP reanalysis. This record pressure difference led to extremely strong northerly winds that brought bitterly cold arctic air over St. Matthew Island, which was in the storm’s northwest quadrant. The wind chill temperature dropped to -50°C and remained colder than -40°C almost continuously for a full week. In this presentation, we examine the storm’s evolution and place the winter of early 1964 into the context of the historical cyclone climatological of the North Pacific.

  14. Mean size formula of wavelet subdivision tree on Heisenberg group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-mao

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mean size formula of wavelet packets (wavelet subdivision tree) on Heisenberg group. The formula is given in terms of the p-norm joint spectral radius. The vector refinement equations on Heisenberg group and the subdivision tree on the Heisenberg group are discussed. The mean size formula of wavelet packets can be used to describe the asymptotic behavior of norm of the subdivision tree.

  15. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  16. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  17. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight individuals. We aimed to identify new loci associated with BMI and to ascertain whether using an extreme sampling design would identify the variants known to be associated with BMI in general populations.From two large Danish cohorts we selected all extremely overweight young men and women (n = 2,633, and equal numbers of population-based controls (n = 2,740, drawn randomly from the same populations as the extremes, representing ∼212,000 individuals. We followed up novel (at the time of the study association signals (p<0.001 from the discovery cohort in a genome-wide study of 5,846 Europeans, before attempting to replicate the most strongly associated 28 SNPs in an independent sample of Danish individuals (n = 20,917 and a population-based cohort of 15-year-old British adolescents (n = 2,418. Our discovery analysis identified SNPs at three loci known to be associated with BMI with genome-wide confidence (P<5×10(-8; FTO, MC4R and FAIM2. We also found strong evidence of association at the known TMEM18, GNPDA2, SEC16B, TFAP2B, SH2B1 and KCTD15 loci (p<0.001, and nominal association (p<0.05 at a further 8 loci known to be associated with BMI. However, meta-analyses of our discovery and replication cohorts identified no novel associations.Our results indicate that the detectable genetic variation associated with extreme overweight is very similar to that previously found for general BMI. This suggests that population-based study designs with enriched sampling of individuals with the extreme phenotype may be an efficient method for identifying common variants that influence quantitative traits and a valid alternative to genotyping all

  18. Reduced incidence of lower-extremity amputations in a Danish diabetes population from 2000 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Almdal, T P; Faerch, K

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot disease and amputations severely reduce quality of life and have major economic consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate time trends in the incidence of lower-extremity amputations in Danish people with diabetes.......Diabetic foot disease and amputations severely reduce quality of life and have major economic consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate time trends in the incidence of lower-extremity amputations in Danish people with diabetes....

  19. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, M; Daunt, F; Harris, M P; Wanless, S

    2008-09-01

    1. Most scenarios for future climate change predict increased variability and thus increased frequency of extreme weather events. To predict impacts of climate change on wild populations, we need to understand whether this translates into increased variability in demographic parameters, which would lead to reduced population growth rates even without a change in mean parameter values. This requires robust estimates of temporal process variance, for example in survival, and identification of weather covariates linked to interannual variability. 2. The European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (L.) shows unusually large variability in population size, and large-scale mortality events have been linked to winter gales. We estimated first-year, second-year and adult survival based on 43 years of ringing and dead recovery data from the Isle of May, Scotland, using recent methods to quantify temporal process variance and identify aspects of winter weather linked to survival. 3. Survival was highly variable for all age groups, and for second-year and adult birds process variance declined strongly when the most extreme year was excluded. Survival in these age groups was low in winters with strong onshore winds and high rainfall. Variation in first-year survival was not related to winter weather, and process variance, although high, was less affected by extreme years. A stochastic population model showed that increasing process variance in survival would lead to reduced population growth rate and increasing probability of extinction. 4. As in other cormorants, shag plumage is only partially waterproof, presumably an adaptation to highly efficient underwater foraging. We speculate that this adaptation may make individuals vulnerable to rough winter weather, leading to boom-and-bust dynamics, where rapid population growth under favourable conditions allows recovery from periodic large-scale weather-related mortality. 5. Given that extreme weather events are predicted to become

  20. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...

  1. Widening inequality in extreme macrosomia between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations of Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; Fon Sing, Mélanie; Lo, Ernest; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate trends in macrosomia by severity in Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous populations of Québec, Canada. We used a retrospective cohort of 2,298,332 singleton live births in the province of Québec, 1981-2008. Indigenous births were identified by community of residence (First Nations, Inuit, non-Indigenous) and language spoken (First Nations, Inuit, French/English). High birth weight (HBW) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were categorised by severity (moderate, very, extreme). Time trends in HBW and LGA, by severity, were estimated using odds ratios (OR) and rate differences for Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous births, adjusting for maternal characteristics. Relative to non-Indigenous, First Nations (but not Inuit) had higher rates of extreme HBW (1.3% vs. 0.1%) and extreme LGA birth (12.6% vs. 2.2%), and rates increased over time. First Nations had progressively elevated ORs with greater severity of macrosomia, and associations were strongest for extreme HBW >5,000 g (OR=12.4) and LGA >97th percentile (OR=7.2). Inequalities in extreme macrosomia between First Nations and non-Indigenous Quebecers are pronounced and widened between 1981 and 2008. Studies are needed to determine why macrosomia rates are increasing in Québec's First Nations, and how they compare with Indigenous sub-groups of demographically similar countries, including Australia and New Zealand. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Effect of extreme sea surface temperature events on the demography of an age-structured albatross population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Deborah; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-06-19

    Climate changes include concurrent changes in environmental mean, variance and extremes, and it is challenging to understand their respective impact on wild populations, especially when contrasted age-dependent responses to climate occur. We assessed how changes in mean and standard deviation of sea surface temperature (SST), frequency and magnitude of warm SST extreme climatic events (ECE) influenced the stochastic population growth rate log(λs) and age structure of a black-browed albatross population. For changes in SST around historical levels observed since 1982, changes in standard deviation had a larger (threefold) and negative impact on log(λs) compared to changes in mean. By contrast, the mean had a positive impact on log(λs). The historical SST mean was lower than the optimal SST value for which log(λs) was maximized. Thus, a larger environmental mean increased the occurrence of SST close to this optimum that buffered the negative effect of ECE. This 'climate safety margin' (i.e. difference between optimal and historical climatic conditions) and the specific shape of the population growth rate response to climate for a species determine how ECE affect the population. For a wider range in SST, both the mean and standard deviation had negative impact on log(λs), with changes in the mean having a greater effect than the standard deviation. Furthermore, around SST historical levels increases in either mean or standard deviation of the SST distribution led to a younger population, with potentially important conservation implications for black-browed albatrosses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  4. The $\\gamma$-vector of a barycentric subdivision

    CERN Document Server

    Nevo, Eran; Tenner, Bridget Eileen

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the $\\gamma$-vector of the barycentric subdivision of a simplicial sphere is the $f$-vector of a balanced simplicial complex. The combinatorial basis for this work is the study of certain refinements of Eulerian numbers used by Brenti and Welker to describe the $h$-vector of the barycentric subdivision of a boolean complex.

  5. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subdivision of Terminal Area. 93.55 Section 93.55 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... § 93.55 Subdivision of Terminal Area. The Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area is subdivided as follows: (a...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1219 - Dissolution of political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution of political subdivision. 404... Agreements Is Obtained and Continues § 404.1219 Dissolution of political subdivision. If a political... satisfactory evidence of its dissolution or nonexistence. The evidence must establish that the entity is not...

  7. Extreme prematurity in the UK and Denmark: population differences in viability

    OpenAIRE

    Field, D.; Petersen, S.; Clarke, M.; Draper, E

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies comparing different models of neonatal intensive care have generally not been population based. The objective of this study was to compare the perinatal services of two total populations.

  8. Improved Butterfly Subdivision Scheme for Meshes with Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; MA Yong-you; ZHANG Cheng; JIANG Shou-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the butterfly subdivision scheme and the modified butterfly subdivision scheme, an improved butterfly subdivision scheme is proposed. The scheme uses a small stencil of six points to calculate new inserting vertex, 2n new vertices are inserted in the 2n triangle faces in each recursion, and the n old vertices are kept, special treatment is given to the boundary, achieving higher smoothness while using small stencils is realized. With the proposed scheme, the number of triangle faces increases only by a factor of 3 in each refinement step. Compared with the butterfly subdivision scheme and the modified butterfly subdivision scheme, the size of triangle faces changes more gradually, which allows one to have greater control over the resolution of a refined mesh.

  9. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  10. Censusing natural microgametophyte populations: variable spatial mosaics and extreme fine-graininess in winter-flowering Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M

    2002-10-01

    Little is known about patterns and correlates of variation in microgametophyte populations for naturally pollinated plants, yet this information is critical for evaluating the prevalence and potential evolutionary significance of gametophyte competition in the wild. This paper analyzes spatial and temporal variation in microgametophyte populations (= number of pollen tubes per style) for the winter-flowering, perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae), based on data from 29 populations in three regions of the Iberian Peninsula collected over two consecutive years. Mean size of microgametophyte populations varied significantly at a wide range of spatial scales, including among regions, among populations within regions, among individual plants within populations, among flowers of the same plant, and among pistils of the same flower (H. foetidus flowers are apocarpous). Differences between regions were quantitatively negligible. Differences between populations in the same region were moderate to low, and their sign and magnitude were inconsistent between years. Roughly half of total variance in microgametophyte numbers was accounted for by variation within individual plants, and the largest part of this component was due to differences between the pistils of the same flower. These results reveal extreme spatial fine-graininess and marked stochasticity in the spatial variation of H. foetidus microgametophyte populations and suggest that opportunities for consistent selection on male gametophyte competitive ability are probably negligible in this species.

  11. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  12. Populating the Large-Wavevector Realm: Bloch Volume Plasmon Polaritons in Hyperbolic and Extremely Anisotropic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Optics of hyperbolic metamaterials is revisited in terms of large-wavevector waves, evanescent in isotropic media but propagating in presence of extreme anisotropy. Identifying the physical nature of these waves as Bloch volume plasmon polaritons, we derive their existence conditions and outline...... the strategy for tailoring their properties in multiscale metamaterials....

  13. Super Helium-Rich Population and the Origin of Extreme Horizontal-Branch Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y W; Han, S I; Chung, C; Ree, C H; Sohn, Y J; Kim, Y C; Yoon, S J; Yi, S K; Demarque, P; Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Chung, Chul; Ree, Chang H.; Sohn, Young-Jong; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Demarque, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations for the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the massive globular cluster Omega Centauri have shown that it has a striking double main sequence (MS), with a minority population of bluer and fainter MS well separated from a majority population of MS stars. Here we confirm, with the most up-to-date Y2 isochrones, that this special feature can only be reproduced by assuming a large variation (Delta Y = 0.15) of primordial helium abundance among several distinct populations in this cluster. We further show that the same helium enhancement required for this special feature on the MS can by itself reproduce the extreme horizontal-branch (HB) stars observed in Omega Cen, which are hotter than normal HB stars. Similarly, the complex features on the HBs of other globular clusters, such as NGC 2808, are explained by large internal variations of helium abundance. Supporting evidence for the helium-rich population is also provided by the far-UV (FUV) observations of extreme HB stars in these clusters, w...

  14. Morphological variations of wild populations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) living in extreme environmental conditions in the Kenyan Rift-Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, T.C.; Nyingi, D. W.; Claude, J.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use geometric morphometric method to establish morphological differences between natural populations of Nile tilapia from two extreme environmental conditions (high temperature and salinity) in Kenya, and compare them to two populations from regions experiencing less extreme conditions. To determine genetic influence on morphology, we correlated genetic data with morphological data. The study observed significant morphological differences between all studied populations, inc...

  15. Global and regional changes in exposure to extreme heat and the relative contributions of climate and population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Anderson, Bruce; Yan, Kai; Dong, Weihua; Liao, Hua; Shi, Peijun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme heat wave events have increased in the past several decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future under the influence of human-induced climate change. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Exposure to extreme heat and changes therein are not just determined by climate changes but also population changes. Here we analyze output for three scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic growth to estimate future exposure change taking account of both climate and population factors. We find that for the higher emission scenario (RCP8.5-SSP3), the global exposure increases nearly 30-fold by 2100. The average exposure for Africa is over 118 times greater than it has been historically, while the exposure for Europe increases by only a factor of four. Importantly, in the absence of climate change, exposure is reduced by 75–95% globally and across all geographic regions, as compared with exposure under the high emission scenario. Under lower emission scenarios RCP4.5-SSP2 and RCP2.6-SSP1, the global exposure is reduced by 65% and 85% respectively, highlighting the efficacy of mitigation efforts in reducing exposure to extreme heat.

  16. Global and regional changes in exposure to extreme heat and the relative contributions of climate and population change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Anderson, Bruce; Yan, Kai; Dong, Weihua; Liao, Hua; Shi, Peijun

    2017-03-07

    The frequency and intensity of extreme heat wave events have increased in the past several decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future under the influence of human-induced climate change. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Exposure to extreme heat and changes therein are not just determined by climate changes but also population changes. Here we analyze output for three scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic growth to estimate future exposure change taking account of both climate and population factors. We find that for the higher emission scenario (RCP8.5-SSP3), the global exposure increases nearly 30-fold by 2100. The average exposure for Africa is over 118 times greater than it has been historically, while the exposure for Europe increases by only a factor of four. Importantly, in the absence of climate change, exposure is reduced by 75-95% globally and across all geographic regions, as compared with exposure under the high emission scenario. Under lower emission scenarios RCP4.5-SSP2 and RCP2.6-SSP1, the global exposure is reduced by 65% and 85% respectively, highlighting the efficacy of mitigation efforts in reducing exposure to extreme heat.

  17. Temporal changes in allele frequencies in a small marble trout Salmo marmoratus population threatened by extreme flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Vincenzi, S; Zane, L; Crivelli, A J

    2016-03-01

    The effect of extreme floods on the genetic composition of marble trout Salmo marmoratus living in Lipovscek, a tributary of the Soca River in Slovenia, which has been affected by multiple destructive flood events for centuries was investigated. By monitoring genetic variability during the period 2004-2011, apparent signatures of genetic erosion including a decline in observed and expected heterozygosities and allelic richness were observed. Contemporary effective population size was estimated between 11 and 55 individuals, which is congruent with census data. The data suggest asymmetric gene flow between the two sections of the river. The existence of substantial downstream migration (15-19%) was confirmed by paternity analysis. A small (1-3%) upstream migration was also suggested, which was confirmed by tagging data. Overall, low genetic diversity has not prevented the survival of the Lipovscek population, which might be a common feature of salmonid freshwater populations.

  18. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  19. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  20. Semi-stationary subdivision operators in geometric modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the view of operator, a novel uniform subdivision construction method is proposed for free form curve and surface design. This method can give an appropriate manner of parameter change in the subdivision iteration with fewer parameters and better shape control, such as building local revolving surfaces. The convergent property of order 2 subdivision surface is elegantly analyzed using computing techniques of matrix. This method is promised to be valuable in Computer Aided Design and computer graphics, due to the simplicity both in mathematical theory and practical implementation, the similarity to the B-spline curve and surface, G1 continuity, the affine invariability and local flexible control.

  1. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  2. Extreme genetic differences among populations of Gazella granti, Grant's gazelle in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arctander, P; Kat, P W; Aman, R A

    1996-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from six Kenyan Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti) populations were highly divergent among locations. Neighbouring populations not separated by geographical or vegetational barriers exhibited and nucleotide sequence divergence about 14 per cent....... A similar level of divergence separates Grant's gazelles from a closely related species, the Soemmering's gazelle (G. soemmeringii). Nuclear microsatellite repeat number variation at two loci also indicated substantial population genetic differentiation. Despite high levels of sequence divergence...... populations of Grant's gazelles were more closely related to each other than to Soemmering's and Thompson's gazelles (G. thomsoni) as measured by nucleotide sequence divergence at the mtDNA protein coding cytochrome b gene and the nuclear alpha-lactalbumin gene. This pattern of extensive differentiation...

  3. Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K J; Gihring, T M; Banfield, J F

    1999-08-01

    Microbial populations, their distributions, and their aquatic environments were studied over a year (1997) at an acid mine drainage (AMD) site at Iron Mountain, Calif. Populations were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridizations with group-specific probes. Probes were used for the domains Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and the two species most widely studied and implicated for their role in AMD production, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Results show that microbial populations, in relative proportions and absolute numbers, vary spatially and seasonally and correlate with geochemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature, conductivity, and rainfall). Bacterial populations were in the highest proportion (>95%) in January. Conversely, archaeal populations were in the highest proportion in July and September ( approximately 50%) and were virtually absent in the winter. Bacterial and archaeal populations correlated with conductivity and rainfall. High concentrations of dissolved solids, as reflected by high conductivity values (up to 125 mS/cm), occurred in the summer and correlated with high archaeal populations and proportionally lower bacterial populations. Eukaryotes were not detected in January, when total microbial cell numbers were lowest (numbers of prokaryotes (10(8) to 10(9) cells/ml). T. ferrooxidans was in highest abundance (>30%) at moderate pHs and temperatures ( approximately 2.5 and 20 degrees C) in sites that were peripheral to primary acid-generating sites and lowest (0 to 5%) at low-pH sites (pH approximately 0.5) that were in contact with the ore body. L. ferrooxidans was more widely distributed with respect to geochemical conditions (pH = 0 to 3; 20 to 50 degrees C) but was more abundant at higher temperatures and lower pHs ( approximately 40 degrees C; pH approximately 0.5) than T. ferrooxidans.

  4. Spatial Ecology of the Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an Extremely Dense Population: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F.; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  5. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  6. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F Morrison

    Full Text Available The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  7. Modeling interacting dynamic networks: III. Extraordinary properties in a population of extreme introverts and extroverts

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wenjia; Bassler, Kevin E; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, Royce K P

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced dynamic networks with preferred degrees, showing that interesting properties are present in a single, homogeneous system as well as one with two interacting networks. While simulations are readily performed, analytic studies are challenging, due mainly to the lack of detailed balance in the dynamics. Here, we consider the two-community case in a special limit: a system of extreme introverts and extroverts - the XIE model. Surprising phenomena appear, even in this minimal model, where the only control parameters are the numbers of each subgroup: $N_{I,E}$. Specifically, an extraordinary transition emerges when $N_I$ crosses $N_E$. For example, the fraction of total number of I-E links jumps from $\\thicksim 0$ to $\\thicksim 1$. In a $N_I=N_E$ system, this fraction performs a pure random walk so that its distribution displays a flat plateau across most of $[0,1]$, with the edges vanishing as $(N_{I,E})^{-0.38}$ for large systems. Thus, we believe the XIE model exhibits an extreme Thouless...

  8. Extreme femoral shortening: an approach to the chronically dislocated hip in the nonambulatory pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawadia, Jay V; Patel, Ronak M; Jensen, Layne; Sarwark, John

    2014-09-01

    There are many surgical techniques for treating the chronically dislocated, painful hip in patients with neuromuscular spasticity, but each has significant complication rates. We conducted a study to examine the outcomes of a novel technique, an extreme varus femoral shortening osteotomy, used in nonambulatory patients with neuromuscular spasticity. Patients who underwent the procedure were identified retrospectively by surgical codes. Medical records were reviewed for range of motion, pain and functional assessment, surgical indications, complications, and results. In addition, preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed, and caretaker questionnaires reviewed. Between 2001 and 2010, 1 surgeon performed 6 femoral shortening osteotomies in 5 nonambulatory patients with neuromuscular spasticity. In all 5 cases, there were improvements in pain, sitting tolerance, ease of hygiene, and ease of transfers at a minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean, 3.4 years). Postoperative complications included asymptomatic heterotopic ossification and recurrent subluxation. Extreme femoral shortening is a reproducible surgical technique that alleviates pain and makes hygiene easier in nonambulatory children with symptomatic hip dislocations caused by neuromuscular spasticity. Our complication rate was comparable to that of other procedures.

  9. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations.

  10. Swift discoveries of new populations of extremely long duration high energy transient

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations with Swift have begun to uncover $\\gamma$-ray transients whose total energies are comparable to those of gamma-ray bursts (GRB), but have a duration an order of magnitude or more longer than the bulk of the GRB population. Some are suggested to form a new population of ultra-long GRBs, with a mean duration around $10^4$s, while a further population with $\\gamma-$ray durations $>10^5$ s may represent manifestations of relativistic outflows from stars shredded around massive black holes in tidal disruption flares (TDFs). Here I review the observations of these new classes of events, discuss progress towards identifying their progenitors and suggest how new observations may both hone our understanding of the outbursts, and allow them to be used as probes, that offer both complementary and additional tools to GRBs.

  11. The independence of initial vectors in the subdivision schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪荣; 李落清

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an initial vector λ = (λ(κ))κ∈z ∈ ep(Z), the subdivision scheme generates asequence (Snaλ)∞n=1 of vectors by the subdivision operator Saλ(κ) = ∑λ(j)a(k - 2j), k ∈ Z. j∈zSubdivision schemes play an important role in computer graphics and wavelet analysis. It is very interesting tounderstand under what conditions the sequence (Snaλ)∞n=1 converges to an Lp-function in an appropriate sense.This problem has been studied extensively. In this paper we show that the subdivision scheme converges forany initial vector in ep(Z) provided that it does for one nonzero vector in that space. Moreover, if the integertranslates of the refinable function are stable, the smoothness of the limit function corresponding to the vectorλ is also independent of λ.

  12. Cities, Towns and Villages, County subdivisions, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'County subdivisions'....

  13. Extreme differences in SLCO1B3 functional polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Agnes; Szalai, Renata; Magyari, Lili; Bene, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Melegh, Bela

    2015-05-01

    Variants in SLCO1B3 transporter are linked to disposition and uptake of drugs and show high degree of heterogeneity between populations. A total of 467 Roma and 448 Hungarian subjects were genotyped for SLCO1B3 c.334T>G and c.1683-5676A>G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of SLCO1B3 334GG (41.54% vs. 8.04%, pRomas and Hungarians. A significantly increased prevalence was found in SLCO1B3 1683-5676G allele frequency in Hungarians compared to the Roma population (15.07% vs. 3.43%, p≤0.001). The frequency of SLCO1B3 334G allele was significantly increased in Roma population compared to Hungarians (70.56% vs. 52.23%, p=0.001). The LD values between the examined SNPs were 80 and 90 in Roma and in Hungarian samples, respectively. Our results highlight notable pharmacogenetic differences between Roma and Hungarian populations, which may have therapeutic implications.

  14. Orthodontic treatment alternative to a class III subdivision malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies.

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-10 - Stability, subdivision, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability, subdivision, and strength. 42.09-10 Section..., subdivision, and strength. (a) All vessels. Where regulations in this part, or in part 46 of this subchapter... strength requirements are in §§ 42.09-1, 42.13-1, 42.13-5, and 42.15-1. The applicable flooded...

  16. Persistence of an extreme male-biased adult sex ratio in a natural population of polyandrous bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T

    2011-08-01

    In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR.

  17. Black Populations and Economic Growth: An Extreme Bounds Analysis of Mississippi County-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Andrew; Higgins, Matthew; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We use Mississippi county-level data on (per capita) income and the percentages of populations that are Black (henceforth "Black") to examine the relationship between race and economic growth. The analysis is also conditioned on 40 other economic and socio-demographic variables. Given a negative and statistically significant partial correlation between income growth and Black, we ask if it is robust to exhaustive combinations of other conditioning variables (taken 3 at a time). The evidence ...

  18. Extreme ("pathological") demand avoidance in autism: a general population study in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Gillberg, I Carina; Thompson, Lucy; Biskupsto, Rannvá; Billstedt, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Research into Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA), which has been suggested to be a subgroup within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is almost nonexistent in spite of the frequent reference to the condition in clinical practice. The total population of 15 to 24-year-olds in the Faroe Islands was screened for ASD, and 67 individuals were identified who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (corresponding to a general population prevalence of ASD of almost 1 %). Of these 67, 50 had parents who were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11) which contains 15 "PDA-specific" items. Nine individuals met criteria for "possible clinical diagnosis of PDA", meaning that almost one in five of all with ASD also had indications of having had PDA in childhood, and that 0.18 % of the total population had had the combination of ASD and PDA. However, at the time of assessment, only one of the 9 individuals with possible PDA still met "full criteria". PDA possibly constitutes a considerable minority of all cases with ASD diagnosed in childhood, but criteria for the condition are unlikely to be still met in later adolescence and early adult life.

  19. Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do short-lived gobies face demographic bottlenecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.

    2016-06-01

    The majority of coral reef goby species are short-lived, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 short-lived fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of short-lived, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other short-lived fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.

  20. Extreme genetic heterogeneity among the nine major tribal Taiwanese island populations detected with a new generation Y23 STR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoshu; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-09-01

    The Taiwanese aborigines have been regarded as the source populations for the Austronesian expansion that populated Oceania to the east and Madagascar off Africa to the West. Although a number of genetic studies have been performed on some of these important tribes, the scope of the investigations has been limited, varying in the specific populations examined as well as the maker systems employed. This has made direct comparison among studies difficult. In an attempt to alleviate this lacuna, we investigate, for the first time, the genetic diversity of all nine major Taiwanese aboriginal tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou and Yami) utilizing a new generation multiplex Y-STR system that allows for the genotyping of 23 loci from a single amplification reaction. This comprehensive approach examining 293 individuals from all nine main tribes with the same battery of forensic markers provides for the much-needed equivalent data essential for comparative analyses. Our results have uncovered that these nine major aboriginal populations exhibit limited intrapopulation genetic diversity and are highly heterogeneous from each other, possibly the result of endogamy, isolation, drift and/or unique ancestral populations. Specifically, genetic diversity, discrimination capacity, fraction of unique haplotypes and the most frequent haplotypes differ among the nine tribes, with the Tsou possessing the lowest values for the first three of these parameters. The phylogenetic analyses performed indicate that the genetic diversity among all nine tribes is greater than the diversity observed among the worldwide reference populations examined, indicating an extreme case of genetic heterogeneity among these tribes that have lived as close neighbors for thousands of years confined to the limited geographical area of an island.

  1. Exploring the active galactic nuclei population with extreme X-ray-to-optical flux ratios (fx/fo > 50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, R.; Carrera, F. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Corral, A.; Del Moro, A.; Mateos, S.; Ruiz, A.; Watson, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centres parallels that of star formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (fx/fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with fx/fo > 50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well-defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (˜70 per cent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) ≥ 1.5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) are associated with obscured AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterized by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime (e.g. well in excess to 1044 erg s-1). We did not find compelling evidence of Compton thick active galacic nuclei (AGN). Overall, the EXO50 type 2 QSOs do not seem to be different from standard X-ray-selected type 2 QSOs in terms of nuclear absorption; a very high AGN/host galaxy ratio seems to play a major role in explaining their extreme properties. Interestingly, three out of five EXO50 type 2 QSO objects can be classified as extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs, f24 μm/fR ≥ 2000), suggesting that a very high AGN/host ratios (along with the large amount of dust absorption) could be the natural explanation also for a part of the EDOG population. The remaining two EXO50 sources are classified as BL Lac objects, having rather extreme properties, and which are good candidates for TeV emission.

  2. Galactic Dark Matter Halos and Globular Cluster Populations. III. Extension to Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Harris, Gretchen L. H.

    2017-02-01

    The total mass {M}{GCS} in the globular cluster (GC) system of a galaxy is empirically a near-constant fraction of the total mass {M}h\\equiv {M}{bary}+{M}{dark} of the galaxy across a range of 105 in galaxy mass. This trend is radically unlike the strongly nonlinear behavior of total stellar mass M ⋆ versus M h . We discuss extensions of this trend to two more extreme situations: (a) entire clusters of galaxies and (b) the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) recently discovered in Coma and elsewhere. Our calibration of the ratio {η }M={M}{GCS}/{M}h from normal galaxies, accounting for new revisions in the adopted mass-to-light ratio for GCs, now gives {η }M=2.9× {10}-5 as the mean absolute mass fraction. We find that the same ratio appears valid for galaxy clusters and UDGs. Estimates of {η }M in the four clusters we examine tend to be slightly higher than for individual galaxies, but more data and better constraints on the mean GC mass in such systems are needed to determine if this difference is significant. We use the constancy of {η }M to estimate total masses for several individual cases; for example, the total mass of the Milky Way is calculated to be {M}h=1.1× {10}12 {M}ȯ . Physical explanations for the uniformity of {η }M are still descriptive, but point to a picture in which massive dense star clusters in their formation stages were relatively immune to the feedback that more strongly influenced lower-density regions where most stars form.

  3. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    , but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.......European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...... beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...

  4. The extremely populated globular cluster system of the lenticular galaxy NGC 6861

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Carlos G; Bassino, Lilia P; Calderon, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a relatively low density environment. It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, obtained under good seeing conditions. Analyzing the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams, we find a large number of GC candidates, which extends out to 100 kpc, and we estimate a total population of 3000+/-300 GCs. Besides the well known blue and red subpopulations, the colour distribution shows signs of the possible existence of a third subpopulation with intermediate colours. This could be interpreted as evidence of a past interaction or fusion event. Other signs of interactions presented by the galaxy, are the non-concentric isophotes and the asymmetric spatial distribution of GC candidates with colours (g'-i')_0>1.16. As observed in other galaxies, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. In addition, the spatial distributio...

  5. An Improved QTM Subdivision Model with Approximate Equal-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the defect of large area deformation in the traditional QTM subdivision model, an improved subdivision model is proposed which based on the “parallel method” and the thought of the equal area subdivision with changed-longitude-latitude. By adjusting the position of the parallel, this model ensures that the grid area between two adjacent parallels combined with no variation, so as to control area variation and variation accumulation of the QTM grid. The experimental results show that this improved model not only remains some advantages of the traditional QTM model(such as the simple calculation and the clear corresponding relationship with longitude/latitude grid, etc, but also has the following advantages: ①this improved model has a better convergence than the traditional one. The ratio of area_max/min finally converges to 1.38, far less than 1.73 of the “parallel method”; ②the grid units in middle and low latitude regions have small area variations and successive distributions; meanwhile, with the increase of subdivision level, the grid units with large variations gradually concentrate to the poles; ③the area variation of grid unit will not cumulate with the increasing of subdivision level.

  6. Low-energy Population III supernovae and the origin of extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.; Moriya, Takashi J.; Bromm, Volker; Woosley, S. E.

    2017-06-01

    Some ancient, dim, metal-poor stars may have formed in the ashes of the first supernovae (SNe). If their chemical abundances can be reconciled with the elemental yields of specific Population III (Pop III) explosions, they could reveal the properties of primordial stars. But multidimensional simulations of such explosions are required to predict their yields because dynamical instabilities can dredge material up from deep in the ejecta that would otherwise be predicted to fall back on to the central remnant and be lost in one-dimensional (1D) models. We have performed two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of two low-energy Pop III SNe, a 12.4 M⊙ explosion and a 60 M⊙ explosion, and find that they produce elemental yields that are a good fit to those measured in the most iron-poor star discovered to date, SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 (J031300). Fallback on to the compact remnant in these weak explosions accounts for the lack of measurable iron in J031300 and its low iron-group abundances in general. Our 2D explosions produce higher abundances of heavy elements (atomic number Z > 20) than their 1D counterparts due to dredge-up by fluid instabilities. Since almost no 56Ni is ejected by these weak SNe, their low luminosities will prevent their detection in the near-infrared with the James Webb Space Telescope and future 30-m telescopes on the ground. The only evidence that they ever occurred will be in the fossil abundance record.

  7. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  8. Divided Spheres Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Popko, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    This well-illustrated book-in color throughout-presents a thorough introduction to the mathematics of Buckminster Fuller's invention of the geodesic dome, which paved the way for a flood of practical applications as diverse as weather forecasting and fish farms. The author explains the principles of spherical design and the three main categories of subdivision based on geometric solids (polyhedra). He illustrates how basic and advanced CAD techniques apply to spherical subdivision and covers modern applications in product design, engineering, science, games, and sports balls.

  9. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...... conditions, assuring a high accuracy of prediction for the si factor....

  10. 24 CFR 1710.215 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... developer's proposed plans which includes a description of the system of collecting surface waters; a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subdivision characteristics and climate. 1710.215 Section 1710.215 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  11. Parity, cycle space, and K4-subdivisions in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    . Zang). We prove the new result that every $4$-connected graph with at least three triangles contains a totally odd $K_4$-subdivision if and only if it does notcontain a vertex whose deletion results in a bipartite graph.In particular, every $4$-connected planar graph contains a totally odd $K_4...

  12. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  13. Exploring the Active Galactic Nuclei population with extreme X-ray to optical flux ratios (Fx/Fo >50)

    CERN Document Server

    Della Ceca, R; Caccianiga, A; Severgnini, P; Ballo, L; Braito, V; Corral, A; Del Moro, A; Mateos, S; Ruiz, A; Watson, M G

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centers parallels that of star-formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (Fx/Fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with Fx/Fo >50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (about 70 percent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) > 1.5E-13 cgs) are associated with obscured AGN (Nh > 1.0E22 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterised by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime...

  14. Extreme variation in migration strategies between and within wandering albatross populations during their sabbatical year, and their fitness consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Delord, Karine; Guitteaud, Audrey; Phillips, Richard A; Pinet, Patrick

    2015-03-09

    Migratory behavior, routes and zones used during the non-breeding season are assumed to have been selected to maximize fitness, and can lead to genetic differentiation. Yet, here we show that migration strategies differ markedly between and within two genetically similar populations of wandering albatross Diomedea exulans from the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos in the Indian Ocean. Wandering albatrosses usually breed biennially if successful, and during the sabbatical year, all birds from Kerguelen migrate to the Pacific Ocean, whereas most from Crozet are sedentary. Instead of taking the shortest routes, which would involve a return against headwinds, migratory birds fly with the westerly winds, requiring detours of 10,000 s km. In total, migrants circumnavigate Antarctica 2 to 3 times, covering more than 120,000 km in a single sabbatical year. Our results indicate strong links between migratory behavior and fitness; all birds from Kerguelen breed biennially, whereas a significant proportion of those from Crozet, especially females, are sedentary and breed in consecutive calendar years. To breed annually, these females temporarily change mate, but return to their original partner in the following year. This extreme variation in migratory behavior has important consequences in term of life history evolution and susceptibility to climate change and fisheries.

  15. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Paphiopedilum spicerianum: An orchid with an extremely small population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paphiopedilum spicerianum  is listed as one of the country’s Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP. Procedures were developed for asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development aimed at producing seedlings for reintroduction. The highest germination was achieved in RECW with a 24 h dark cycle after pretreatment with 1% NaOCl for 40 min after 30 days from germination. However, these protocorms remained white and did not develop further. Although germination was lower under the same conditions in MSCW, it resulted in healthier and greener protocorms. Of four suitable media tested to promote seedling formation, Hyponex No 1 medium with 1.0mgl−1α-naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5gl−1 activated charcoal and 10% banana homogenate was the most effective. Advanced seedling development was seen in all six tested media during a 4 month growing period, with the highest leaf growth rate seen in the same media used for seedling formation, supplemented with 1.0mgl−16-benzyladenine added to promote leaf growth. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA tests on seeds showed that higher salt concentrations in the medium and longer duration of exposure to NaOCl reduce germination because of damaging effects on the testa and the embryo cells.

  16. Subdivision design and stewardship affect bird and mammal use of conservation developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Pejchar, Liba; Reed, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Developing effective tools for conservation on private lands is increasingly important for global biodiversity conservation; private lands are located in more productive and biologically diverse areas, and they face accelerated rates of land conversion. One strategy is conservation development (CD) subdivisions, which cluster houses in a small portion of a property and preserve the remaining land as protected open space. Despite widespread use, the characteristics that make CD more or less effective at achieving biodiversity conservation are not well understood. We investigated CD's ability to successfully protect animal populations by examining bird and mammal occurrences in 14 CD subdivisions and four undeveloped areas (range: 14-432 ha) in northern Colorado, USA. Using point count and camera trap data in an occupancy modeling framework, we evaluated the relative importance of nine subdivision design factors (e.g., housing density, proportion of CD protected) and 14 stewardship factors (e.g., presence of livestock, percent native vegetation cover) in influencing the overall community composition and the probability of use by 16 birds and six mammals. We found that habitat use by 75% of birds and 83% of mammals was associated with design characteristics that maximized the natural or undisturbed land area both within and near the development (e.g., proportion of CD protected, total area of protected open space, proportion of natural land cover in the surrounding landscape). These factors were also associated with an increasing dominance of human-sensitive bird species, larger-bodied mammals, and mammals with larger home ranges. Habitat use by birds was also influenced by local land use composition and quality, and use by several bird and mammal species decreased with increased localized disturbances. We found few differences in habitat use between sampling sites in undeveloped areas and in CD subdivisions. These similarities indicate that, if CDs are large enough

  17. Associating emergency room visits with first and prolonged extreme temperature event in Taiwan: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Li, Ming-Hsu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Liao, Chun-Hui; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2012-02-01

    The present study evaluated emergency room visit (ERV) risks for all causes and cardiopulmonary diseases associated with temperature and long-lasting extreme temperatures from 2000 to 2009 in four major cities in Taiwan. The city-specific daily average temperatures at the high 95th, 97th, and 99th percentiles, and the low 10th, 5th, and 1st percentiles were defined as extreme heat and cold. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) of ERV for morbidities associated with temperatures (0 to 3-day lags), extreme heat and cold lasting for 2 to 9 days or longer, and with the annual first extreme heat or cold event after controlling for covariates. Low temperatures were associated with slightly higher ERV risks than high temperatures for circulatory diseases. After accounting for 4-day cumulative temperature effect, the ERV risks for all causes and respiratory diseases were found to be associated with extreme cold at the 5th percentile lasting for >8 days and 1st percentile lasting for >3 days. The annual first extreme cold event of 5th percentile or lower temperatures was also significantly associated with ERV, with RRs ranging from 1.09 to 1.12 for all causes and from 1.15 to 1.26 for respiratory diseases. The annual first extreme heat event of 99th percentile temperature was associated with higher ERV for all causes and circulatory diseases. Annual first extreme temperature event and intensified prolonged extreme cold events are associated with increased ERVs in Taiwan.

  18. Curve interpolation based on Catmull-Clark subdivision scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for curve interpolation is proposed. The algorithm can produce a subdivision surface that can interpolate the predefined cubic B-spline curves by applying the Catmull-Clark scheme to a polygonal mesh containing "symmetric zonal meshes", which possesses some special properties. Many kinds of curve interpolation problems can be dealt with by this algorithm, such as interpolating single open curve or closed curve, a mesh of nonintersecting or intersecting curve. The interpolating surface is C2 everywhere excepting at a finite number of points. At the same time, sharp creases can also be modeled on the limit subdivision surface by duplicating the vertices of the tagged edges of initial mesh, i.e. the surface is only C0 along the cubic B-spline curve that is defined by the tagged edges. Because of being simple and easy to implement, this method can be used for product shape design and graphic software development.

  19. Vector subdivision schemes in (Lp(Rs))r(1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Song(

    2003-01-01

    [1]Chen, D. R., Jia, R. Q., Riemenschneider, S. D., Convergence of vector subdivision schemes in Sobolev spaces,Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 2002, 12: 128-149.[2]Jia, R. Q., Riemenschneider, S. D., Zhou, D. X., Vector subdivision schemes and multiple wavelets, Math.Comp., 1998, 67: 1533-1563.[3]Heil, C., Colella, D., Matrix refinement equations: existence and uniqueness, J. Fourier Anal. Appl., 1996, 2:363-377.[4]Jiang, Q. T., Multivariate matrix refinement functions with arbitrary matrix dilation, Tran. Amer. Math.Soc., 1999, 351: 2407-2438.[5]Cavaretta, A. S., Dahmen, W., Micchelli, C. A., Stationary subdivision, Memior Amer. Math. Soc., 1991, 93:1-186.[6]Goodman, T. N. T., Lee, S. L., Convergence of cascade algorithms, in Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces Ⅱ (eds. Daehlen, M., Lyche, T., Schumaker, L. L.) Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1998,191-212.[7]Strang, G., Nguyen, T., Wavelets and Filter Banks, Boston: Wellesley-Cambride Press, 1996.[8]Dyn, N., Gregory, J. A., Levin, D., Analysis of uniform binary subdivision schemes for cure design, Constr.Approx., 1991, 23: 127-147.[9]Jia, R. Q., Subdivision schemes in Lp spaces, Advances in Comp. Math., 1995, 3: 309-341.[10]Han, B., Jia, R. Q., Multivariate refinement equations and convergence of subdivision schemes, SIAM J. Math.Anal., 1998, 29: 1177-1199.[11]Strang, G., Eigenvalues of (↓ 2)H and convergence of cascade algorithm, IEEE. Trans. SP, 1996, 44: 233-238.[12]Lawton, W., Lee, S. L., Shen, Z. W., Convergence of multidimensional cascade algorithms, Numer. Math.,1998, 78: 427-438.[13]Long, R. L., Mo, Q., L2-convergence of vector cascade algorithm, Approx. Theory Appl., 1999, 15: 24-49.[14]Shen, Z. W., Refinable function vectors, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 1998, 29: 235-250.[15]Zhou, D. X., Norms concerning subdivision sequences and their applications in wavelets, Applied and Computationic Harmonic Analysis, 2001, 11: 329

  20. Memoryless Routing in Convex Subdivisions: Random Walks are Optimal

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dan; Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    A memoryless routing algorithm is one in which the decision about the next edge on the route to a vertex t for a packet currently located at vertex v is made based only on the coordinates of v, t, and the neighbourhood, N(v), of v. The current paper explores the limitations of such algorithms by showing that, for any (randomized) memoryless routing algorithm A, there exists a convex subdivision on which A takes Omega(n^2) expected time to route a message between some pair of vertices. Since this lower bound is matched by a random walk, this result implies that the geometric information available in convex subdivisions is not helpful for this class of routing algorithms. The current paper also shows the existence of triangulations for which the Random-Compass algorithm proposed by Bose etal (2002,2004) requires 2^{\\Omega(n)} time to route between some pair of vertices.

  1. Stellar subdivisions and Stanley-Reisner rings of Gorenstein complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Janko

    2009-01-01

    Unprojection theory aims to analyze and construct complicated commutative rings in terms of simpler ones. Our main result is that, on the algebraic level of Stanley-Reisner rings, stellar subdivisions of non-acyclic Gorenstein simplicial complexes correspond to unprojections of type Kustin-Miller. As an application, we inductively calculate the minimal graded free resolutions of Stanley-Reisner rings associated to stacked polytopes.

  2. Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanalysis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere maintaining the same order of continuity as B-spline surfaces.

  3. Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 王华维

    2000-01-01

    Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanaly-sis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere ma

  4. Recursive subdivision of urban space and Zipf’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang; Wang, Jiejing

    2014-02-01

    Zipf’s law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It has seldom been employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf’s law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts, four parts, eight parts, and so on, and form a hierarchy with cascade structure. If we rank these parts by size, the portions will conform to the Zipf distribution. By means of the GIS technique and remote sensing data, the model of recursive subdivision of urban space is applied to three cities in China. The results show that the intra-urban hierarchy complies with Zipf’s law, and the values of the rank-size scaling exponent are very close to 1. The significance of this study lies in three aspects. First, it shows that the strict subdivision of space is an efficient approach to revealing spatial order of urban form. Second, it discloses the relationships between the urban space-filling process and the rank-size rule. Third, it suggests a new way of understanding fractals, Zipf’s law, and spatial organization of urban evolution.

  5. A subdivision algorithm for phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Corazza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures have been a continuous challenge for scientists and engineers. Traditionally, this task has been performed by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations originating from isofugacity equations. The reliability and accuracy of the solutions are strongly dependent on the initial guess, especially due to the fact that the phase equilibrium problems frequently have multiple roots. This work is focused on the application of a subdivision algorithm for thermodynamic calculations at high pressures. The subdivision algorithm consists in the application of successive subdivisions at a given initial interval (rectangle of variables and a systematic test to verify the existence of roots in each subinterval. If the interval checked passes in the test, then it is retained; otherwise it is discharged. The algorithm was applied for vapor-liquid, solid-fluid and solid-vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as for phase stability calculations for binary and multicomponent systems. The results show that the proposed algorithm was capable of finding all roots of all high-pressure thermodynamic problems investigated, independent of the initial guess used.

  6. Extreme Elevations in Blood Pressure and All-Cause Mortality in a Referred CKD Population: Results from the CRISIS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, James; Rainone, Francesco; Green, Darren; Alderson, Helen; Chiu, Diana; Middleton, Rachel; O'Donoghue, Donal; Kalra, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension frequently complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), with studies showing clinical benefit from blood pressure lowering. Subgroups of patients with severe hypertension exist. We aimed to identify patients with the greatest mortality risk from uncontrolled hypertension to define the prevalence and phenotype of patients who might benefit from adjunctive therapies. 1691 all-cause CKD patients from the CRISIS study were grouped by baseline blood pressure-target (extreme (>190 and/or 100 mmHg). Groups were well matched for age, eGFR, and comorbidities. 77 patients had extreme hypertension at recruitment but no increased mortality risk (HR 0.9, P = 0.9) over a median follow-up period of 4.5 years. The 1.2% of patients with extreme hypertension at recruitment and at 12-months had a significantly increased mortality risk (HR 4.3, P = 0.01). This association was not seen in patients with baseline extreme hypertension and improved 12-month blood pressures (HR 0.86, P = 0.5). Most CKD patients with extreme hypertension respond to pharmacological blood pressure control, reducing their risk for death. Patients with extreme hypertension in whom blood pressure control cannot be achieved have an approximate prevalence of 1%. These patients have an increased mortality risk and may be an appropriate group to consider for further therapies, including renal nerve ablation.

  7. Demographic effects of extreme weather events: snow storms, breeding success, and population growth rate in a long-lived Antarctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Tarroux, Arnaud; Varpe, Øystein; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Tveraa, Torkild; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Weather extremes are one important element of ongoing climate change, but their impacts are poorly understood because they are, by definition, rare events. If the frequency and severity of extreme weather events increase, there is an urgent need to understand and predict the ecological consequences of such events. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of snow storms on nest survival in Antarctic petrels and assess whether snow storms are an important driver of annual breeding success and population growth rate. We used detailed data on daily individual nest survival in a year with frequent and heavy snow storms, and long term data on petrel productivity (i.e., number of chicks produced) at the colony level. Our results indicated that snow storms are an important determinant of nest survival and overall productivity. Snow storm events explained 30% of the daily nest survival within the 2011/2012 season and nearly 30% of the interannual variation in colony productivity in period 1985-2014. Snow storms are a key driver of Antarctic petrel breeding success, and potentially population dynamics. We also found state-dependent effects of snow storms and chicks in poor condition were more likely to die during a snow storm than chicks in good condition. This stresses the importance of considering interactions between individual heterogeneity and extreme weather events to understand both individual and population responses to climate change.

  8. Whole-genome sequencing of six Mauritian Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reveals a genome-wide pattern of polymorphisms under extreme population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-03-23

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates.

  9. The Residential Subdivision under the Influence of the Unfinished Densification (Case Study for Subdivisions in Setif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhia Eddine Zakaria Lacheheb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is necessary to be thrifty for its planet, on one hand the space being a rare, non-renewable resource, and on the other hand the ecological, economic and social cost of the urban sprawl. It is commonly asserted that the promotion of a more compact and dense city has a positive effect in terms of public costs of investment, functioning and costs for the citizens and the users of the city. It is clear that the modes of urban development management have to evolve profoundly, in particular towards a densification favorable to the raising of the urban quality through an ideal urban density on the scale of the individual housing estate. The lot as an individual housing estate was adopted as an alternative development model to the collective housing, thought in an anthropocentric perspective to emerge as a quality model where the density plays an important role, by being included in operations of a global coherence, in an optimal organization without forgetting the main importance of the deadlines of construction and the finalization of the works. The image of eternal construction site inflicted to our cities explains the renewed interest for the application of the regulatory framework and the completion of these limited operations without global coherence, which are summed up in our case to a ground cut in plots of land, sold then built independently without being finished, and support the relevance of the essential question of the improvement of the outside aspect bound to the appearance which can be revealed as a so important factor for a better use and a better acceptance of its housing environment, that the ratio of a number of houses on a plot of land or the number of square meters by house. To demonstrate the impact of the completion degree of the subdivision dwellings, roads system and urban public utilities on the density or the densification and therefore on the urban quality, we studied two residential subdivisions, the private

  10. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen

    2013-01-01

    -fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized...

  11. Population-based resequencing of APOA1 in 10,330 individuals: spectrum of genetic variation, phenotype, and comparison with extreme phenotype approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Christiane L; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Rare genetic variants, identified by in-detail resequencing of loci, may contribute to complex traits. We used the apolipoprotein A-I gene (APOA1), a major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) gene, and population-based resequencing to determine the spectrum of genetic variants, the phenotypic characteristics of these variants, and how these results compared with results based on resequencing only the extremes of the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) distribution. First, we resequenced APOA1 in 10,330 population-based participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The spectrum and distribution of genetic variants was determined as a function of the number of individuals resequenced. Second, apoA-I and HDL cholesterol phenotypes were determined for nonsynonymous (NS) and synonymous (S) variants and were validated in the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 45,239). Third, observed phenotypes were compared with those predicted using an extreme phenotype approach based on the apoA-I distribution. Our results are as follows: First, population-based resequencing of APOA1 identified 40 variants of which only 7 (18%) had minor allele frequencies >1%, and most were exceedingly rare. Second, 0.27% of individuals in the general population were heterozygous for NS variants which were associated with substantial reductions in apoA-I (up to 39 mg/dL) and/or HDL cholesterol (up to 0.9 mmol/L) and, surprisingly, 0.41% were heterozygous for variants predisposing to amyloidosis. NS variants associated with a hazard ratio of 1.72 (1.09-2.70) for myocardial infarction (MI), largely driven by A164S, a variant not associated with apoA-I or HDL cholesterol levels. Third, using the extreme apoA-I phenotype approach, NS variants correctly predicted the apoA-I phenotype observed in the population-based resequencing. However, using the extreme approach, between 79% (screening 0-1(st) percentile) and 21% (screening 0-20(th) percentile) of all variants were not identified; among these were variants

  12. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population : a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van Mec

  13. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population: A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van Mec

  14. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population : a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van

  15. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population: A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van Mec

  16. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population : a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van Mec

  17. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats.

  18. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  19. Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Marty; Husby, Arild; McFarlane, S Eryn; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in natural populations is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. One open question is whether quantitative traits are determined only by large numbers of genes with small effects, or whether variation also exists in large-effect loci. We conducted genomewide association analyses of forehead patch size (a sexually selected trait) on 81 whole-genome-resequenced male collared flycatchers with extreme phenotypes, and on 415 males sampled independent of patch size and genotyped with a 50K SNP chip. No SNPs were genomewide statistically significantly associated with patch size. Simulation-based power analyses suggest that the power to detect large-effect loci responsible for 10% of phenotypic variance was 0.8 for resequencing of extreme phenotypes (N = 243), but power remained 0.8 when analysing 415 randomly sampled phenotypes. However, power of the 50K SNP chip to detect large-effect loci was nearly 0.8 in simulations with a small effective population size of 1500. These results suggest that reliably detecting large-effect trait loci in large natural populations will often require thousands of individuals and near complete sampling of the genome. Encouragingly, far fewer individuals and loci will often be sufficient to reliably detect large-effect loci in small populations with widespread strong linkage disequilibrium.

  20. Recursive Subdivision of Urban Space and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanguang; Wang, Jiejing

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It was seldom employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf's law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts,...

  1. Classification and treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sara E; Jackson, Stona R; Turpin, David L; Ramsay, Douglas S; Spiekerman, Charles; Huang, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions are a challenge for clinicians because reestablishing symmetry in 1 arch or both arches is often a treatment goal. In patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, surgery is often a treatment option. However, patients may be unwilling to undergo surgery, and other options might have to be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and outcomes of Class II subdivision patients treated at the University of Washington graduate orthodontic clinic in Seattle from 1995 through 2011. A search of patients treated between 1995 and 2011 resulted in the identification of 110 consecutively treated Class II subdivision subjects with complete records. Ninety-eight subjects could be classified into 1 of 3 groups, based on midline position and dental or skeletal etiology. Initial and final models were used to measure the peer assessment rating scores, midlines, overjet, overbite, and molar positions. Initial and final cephalograms were traced and measured. Charts were reviewed for information regarding treatment. Twenty-five percent of the 98 subjects had their maxillary and mandibular midlines coincident with the facial midline; their asymmetries were due to a maxillary posterior dental asymmetry. Another 15% had maxillary midlines deviated from their facial midlines, caused by maxillary anterior and posterior dental asymmetry. About 50% of the subjects had mandibular midlines that were not coincident with their facial midlines, and most of them exhibited some degree of mandibular skeletal asymmetry. Over the past 15 years, treatment strategies used at the University of Washington indicated trends toward less surgery, fewer extractions, less use of headgear, and more reliance on fixed functional appliances. Ideal correction of midlines was not always achieved, especially in patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, with undercorrection occurring more commonly than overcorrection. Final peer assessment

  2. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Munshi-South

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity. A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA.

  3. Extreme patterns of variance in small populations: placing limits on human Y-chromosome diversity through time in the Vanuatu Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M

    2007-05-01

    Small populations are dominated by unique patterns of variance, largely characterized by rapid drift of allele frequencies. Although the variance components of genetic datasets have long been recognized, most population genetic studies still treat all sampling locations equally despite differences in sampling and effective population sizes. Because excluding the effects of variance can lead to significant biases in historical reconstruction, variance components should be incorporated explicitly into population genetic analyses. The possible magnitude of variance effects in small populations is illustrated here via a case study of Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity in the Vanuatu Archipelago. Deme-based modelling is used to simulate allele frequencies through time, and conservative confidence bounds are placed on the accumulation of stochastic variance effects, including diachronic genetic drift and contemporary sampling error. When the information content of the dataset has been ascertained, demographic models with parameters falling outside the confidence bounds of the variance components can then be accepted with some statistical confidence. Here I emphasize how aspects of the demographic history of a population can be disentangled from stochastic variance effects, and I illustrate the extreme roles of genetic drift and sampling error for many small human population datasets.

  4. A new subdivision technique for grating based on CMOS microscopic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yuan; Huimin Yan; Xiangqun Cao; Bin Lin

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new subdivision technique directly subdividing the grating stripe by using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microscopic imaging system combined with image processing. The corresponding optical system, subdivision principle, and image processing methods are illuminated. The relations of systemic resolution to subdivision number, grating period, magnifying power and tilt angle are theoretically discussed and experimentally checked on the Abbe comparator. The measurement precision for displacement of the proposed subdivision system is tested in the range of 5 mm and the maximum displacement error is less than 0.4μm. The factors contributing to the systemic error are also discussed.

  5. Upper extremity proprioception in healthy aging and stroke populations, and the effects of therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation therapies on proprioceptive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmayne Mary Lee Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The world’s population is aging, with the number of people ages 65 or older expected to surpass 1.5 billion people, or 16% of the global total. As people age, there are notable declines in proprioception due to changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the risk of stroke increases with age, with approximately two-thirds of stroke-related hospitalizations occurring in people over the age of 65. In this literature review we first summarize behavioral studies investigating proprioceptive deficits in normally aging older adults and stroke patients, and discuss the differences in proprioceptive function between these populations. We then provide a state of the art review the literature regarding therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity proprioceptive dysfunction in stroke populations and discuss avenues of future research.

  6. Upper extremity proprioception in healthy aging and stroke populations, and the effects of therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation therapies on proprioceptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Tommasino, Paolo; Budhota, Aamani; Campolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The world's population is aging, with the number of people ages 65 or older expected to surpass 1.5 billion people, or 16% of the global total. As people age, there are notable declines in proprioception due to changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the risk of stroke increases with age, with approximately two-thirds of stroke-related hospitalizations occurring in people over the age of 65. In this literature review, we first summarize behavioral studies investigating proprioceptive deficits in normally aging older adults and stroke patients, and discuss the differences in proprioceptive function between these populations. We then provide a state of the art review the literature regarding therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity proprioceptive dysfunction in stroke populations and discuss avenues of future research.

  7. Upper Extremity Proprioception in Healthy Aging and Stroke Populations, and the Effects of Therapist- and Robot-Based Rehabilitation Therapies on Proprioceptive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Tommasino, Paolo; Budhota, Aamani; Campolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is aging, with the number of people ages 65 or older expected to surpass 1.5 billion people, or 16% of the global total. As people age, there are notable declines in proprioception due to changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the risk of stroke increases with age, with approximately two-thirds of stroke-related hospitalizations occurring in people over the age of 65. In this literature review, we first summarize behavioral studies investigating proprioceptive deficits in normally aging older adults and stroke patients, and discuss the differences in proprioceptive function between these populations. We then provide a state of the art review the literature regarding therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity proprioceptive dysfunction in stroke populations and discuss avenues of future research. PMID:25784872

  8. Recursive Subdivision of Urban Space and Zipf's law

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It was seldom employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf's law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts, four parts, eight parts, and so on, and form a hierarchy with cascade structure. If we rank these parts by size, the portions will conform to the Zipf distribution. By means of GIS technique and remote sensing data, the model of recursive subdivision of urban space is applied to three cities of China. The results show that the intra-urban hierarchy complies with Zipf's law, and the values of the rank-size scaling exponent are very close to 1. The significance of this study lies in three aspects. First, it shows that the ...

  9. Censusing natural Microgametophyte populations:variable spatial mosaics and extreme fine-graininess in winter-flowering Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Herrera

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about patterns and correlates of variation in microgametophyte populations for naturally pollinated plants, yet this information is critical for evaluating the prevalence and potential evolutionary significance of gametophyte competition in the wild. This paper analyzes spatial and temporal variation in microgametophyte populations (= number of pollen tubes per style) for the winter-flowering, perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae), based on data from 29 populatio...

  10. Industrial Parks, Subdivision layer - Industrial parks are included in the subdivision layer, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Industrial Parks dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Subdivision...

  11. Cities, Towns and Villages, SubdivisionBndryAnno-The data set is the subdivision boundary text., Published in 1998, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1998. It is described as 'SubdivisionBndryAnno-The data...

  12. Pulse seedling recruitment on the population dynamics of a columnar cactus: Effect of an extreme rainfall event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cosultchi, Gabriel; Golubov, Jordan; Mandujano, María C.

    2016-02-01

    Demographic studies on the Cactaceae have highlighted several threats which are clearly human induced (e.g., disturbance) or intrinsic to their biology (e.g., infrequent recruitment). Most demographic studies suggest that early life stages of germination and seedling recruitment are crucial and often a limitation for population growth. The population dynamics of Neobuxbaumia polylopha (DC) Backeb. was modeled for a three-year period to assess the contribution of the early life cycle stages on population growth rate (λ). Two annual size-classified matrix population models were constructed for standard analysis, applied a life table response experiment (LTRE) analysis to explore the contributions of demographic processes, plant size, and temporal variability (years) to λ, and changes in the matrix elements were simulated including a seed bank, and seed-to-seedling transition using observed and experimental data. The population growth rates for 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 were 0.9916 (0.9906-0.9929) and 1.0216 (1.011-1.0280) respectively, suggesting two opposite growth rates for the studied period. The increase in λ in 2013-2014 was driven primarily by the increased growth and seedling recruitment and survival of small individuals. The rate of recruitment was higher in 2013-2014 with a left-skewed stable size distribution. Elasticity values were high for matrix entries corresponding to individuals remaining in the same category (stasis), followed by growth, retrogression and fecundity. The simulations show that the seed bank has a minor effect in comparison with the seed-seedling transition which became the population bottleneck under the assumption that seeds are not limited, so programs designed to preserve N. polylopha populations must focus on seedling establishment.

  13. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

  14. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  15. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  16. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  17. 48 CFR 702.170-8 - Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. As used in the FAR and AIDAR, these terms do... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. 702.170-8 Section 702.170-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  18. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-2 Political subdivision or local government. Political subdivision or local government means a local unit of government,...

  19. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  20. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. The political subdivision must comply with all terms and conditions in the Cooperative Agreement... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115...

  1. The Functional Characteristics of the Common Subdivisions from the Dewey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the normative architecture of the Dewey system, we meet the main determination of the common subdivisions which have specific forms of expressions. The referential values of the common subdivisions consist in the variety of reflection of different peculiar aspects of information.

  2. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    ), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander...... of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.......Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown...

  3. [Adaptive reactions of lipid metabolism in native and alien female representatives of Tofalaria population living under extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the state of lipid metabolism and of processes of lipid peroxidation--the antioxidant protection have been considered in female representatives of the native and alien population of Tofalaria in the age aspects. The obtained data indicate specificity of changes of level of parameters lipid metabolism not only in response to duration of effect of climatic factors, but also depending on belonging to different ethnic groups. Thus, in girls of the natural population of Tofalaria there is noted activation of adaptational-compensatory processes as compared with the alien ones, which is expressed as a significant decrease of atherogenic blood fractions and the general activation of the system of antioxidant protection. However, with age, in both ethnic groups a change of character of reactions of lipid peroxidation and lipid metabolism is noted, which is more expressed in the alien population.

  4. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  5. DUSTiNGS. III. Distribution of Intermediate-age and Old Stellar Populations in Disks and Outer Extremities of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Boyer, Martha; DUSTiNGS Team

    2017-06-01

    As part of the DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) survey, we have traced the spatial distributions of intermediate-age and old stars in nine dwarf galaxies in the distant parts of the Local Group. We find intermediate age stars are well mixed with the older populations and extend to large radii, indicating that chemical enrichment from these dust-producing stars may occur in the outer regions of galaxies with some frequency. Theories of structure formation in dwarf galaxies must account for the lack of radial gradients in intermediate-age populations and the presence of these stars in the outer extremities of dwarfs. We also identify the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm photometry. Unlike the constant TRGB in the I band, at 3.6 μm, the TRGB magnitude varies by ˜0.7 mag and is not a metallicity independent distance indicator.

  6. Population sequencing of two endocannabinoid metabolic genes identifies rare and common regulatory variants associated with extreme obesity and metabolite level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeted re-sequencing of candidate genes in individuals at the extremes of a quantitative phenotype distribution is a method of choice to gain information on the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. The endocannabinoid system mediates signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of energy balance, is highly active in obese patients, and represents a strong candidate pathway to examine for genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Results We sequenced two intervals (covering 188 kb) encoding the endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) in 147 normal controls and 142 extremely obese cases. After applying quality filters, we called 1,393 high quality single nucleotide variants, 55% of which are rare, and 143 indels. Using single marker tests and collapsed marker tests, we identified four intervals associated with BMI: the FAAH promoter, the MGLL promoter, MGLL intron 2, and MGLL intron 3. Two of these intervals are composed of rare variants and the majority of the associated variants are located in promoter sequences or in predicted transcriptional enhancers, suggesting a regulatory role. The set of rare variants in the FAAH promoter associated with BMI is also associated with increased level of FAAH substrate anandamide, further implicating a functional role in obesity. Conclusions Our study, which is one of the first reports of a sequence-based association study using next-generation sequencing of candidate genes, provides insights into study design and analysis approaches and demonstrates the importance of examining regulatory elements rather than exclusively focusing on exon sequences. PMID:21118518

  7. Population sequencing of two endocannabinoid metabolic genes identifies rare and common regulatory variants associated with extreme obesity and metabolite level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harismendy, Olivier; Bansal, Vikas; Bhatia, Gaurav; Nakano, Masakazu; Scott, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyun; Dib, Colette; Turlotte, Edouard; Sipe, Jack C; Murray, Sarah S; Deleuze, Jean Francois; Bafna, Vineet; Topol, Eric J; Frazer, Kelly A

    2010-01-01

    Targeted re-sequencing of candidate genes in individuals at the extremes of a quantitative phenotype distribution is a method of choice to gain information on the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. The endocannabinoid system mediates signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of energy balance, is highly active in obese patients, and represents a strong candidate pathway to examine for genetic association with body mass index (BMI). We sequenced two intervals (covering 188 kb) encoding the endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) in 147 normal controls and 142 extremely obese cases. After applying quality filters, we called 1,393 high quality single nucleotide variants, 55% of which are rare, and 143 indels. Using single marker tests and collapsed marker tests, we identified four intervals associated with BMI: the FAAH promoter, the MGLL promoter, MGLL intron 2, and MGLL intron 3. Two of these intervals are composed of rare variants and the majority of the associated variants are located in promoter sequences or in predicted transcriptional enhancers, suggesting a regulatory role. The set of rare variants in the FAAH promoter associated with BMI is also associated with increased level of FAAH substrate anandamide, further implicating a functional role in obesity. Our study, which is one of the first reports of a sequence-based association study using next-generation sequencing of candidate genes, provides insights into study design and analysis approaches and demonstrates the importance of examining regulatory elements rather than exclusively focusing on exon sequences. © 2010 Harismendy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  9. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. CONTEXT: Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation...... deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...

  10. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  11. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  12. Interactive Display of Surfaces Using Subdivision Surfaces and Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchaineau, M A; Bertram, M; Porumbescu, S; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-10-03

    Complex surfaces and solids are produced by large-scale modeling and simulation activities in a variety of disciplines. Productive interaction with these simulations requires that these surfaces or solids be viewable at interactive rates--yet many of these surfaced solids can contain hundreds of millions of polygondpolyhedra. Interactive display of these objects requires compression techniques to minimize storage, and fast view-dependent triangulation techniques to drive the graphics hardware. In this paper, we review recent advances in subdivision-surface wavelet compression and optimization that can be used to provide a framework for both compression and triangulation. These techniques can be used to produce suitable approximations of complex surfaces of arbitrary topology, and can be used to determine suitable triangulations for display. The techniques can be used in a variety of applications in computer graphics, computer animation and visualization.

  13. Processes and subdivisions in diogenites, a multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, T. A.; Hewins, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques used on diogenite orthopyroxene analyses show the relationships that occur within diogenites and the two orthopyroxenite components (class I and II) in the polymict diogenite Garland. Cluster analysis shows that only Peckelsheim is similar to Garland class I (Fe-rich) and the other diogenites resemble Garland class II. The unique diogenite Y 75032 may be related to type I by fractionation. Factor analysis confirms the subdivision and shows that Fe does not correlate with the weakly incompatible elements across the entire pyroxene composition range, indicating that igneous fractionation is not the process controlling total diogenite composition variation. The occurrence of two groups of diogenites is interpreted as the result of sampling or mixing of two main sequences of orthopyroxene cumulates with slightly different compositions.

  14. Extreme population differences in the human zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) are explained by positive selection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, Johannes; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Pybus, Marc; Andrews, Glen K; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Comas, David; Sekler, Israel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Stoneking, Mark; Valverde, Miguel A; Vicente, Rubén; Bosch, Elena

    2014-02-01

    Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val) in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4). By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372), with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg) that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency), was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk.

  15. Extreme population differences in the human zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4 are explained by positive selection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Engelken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4. By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372, with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency, was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk.

  16. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  17. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  18. A technical assistance on data collection on subdivision of wet-system apparatuses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    In the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, development on subdivision engineering system for abolition of nuclear fuel facilities has been promoted. However, data on subdivision of instruments and apparatuses to be carried out as a part of the abolition was insufficient. Therefore, here was intended to investigate data collections so as to use subdivision of a wet-system apparatuses of the smelting conversion facility begun on June, 2000, as a field of data collection as effectively as possible, on construction of the system rationally supporting abolition of nuclear fuel facility promoted at the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. This subdivision of the wet-system apparatuses of the facility is programmed to carry out the subdivision for two years of 2000 and 2001 fiscal years. Its working procedure is begun from non-polluted matters (electrics, instruments, and utility pipings) at every rooms to carry out appliances using uranium. Here were reported on present states survey of the subdivision, kinds and frequencies of data at the subdivision, data collection manual, and rationalization of data recording method. (G.K.)

  19. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  20. Enzymatic regulation of glycogenolysis in a subarctic population of the wood frog: implications for extreme freeze tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Clara F do Amaral

    Full Text Available The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at -16°C, a temperature 10-13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA. In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype's exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate.

  1. Enzymatic regulation of glycogenolysis in a subarctic population of the wood frog: implications for extreme freeze tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2013-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at -16°C, a temperature 10-13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA). In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold) increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype's exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate.

  2. Extreme population inversion in the fragments formed by UV photoinduced S-H bond fission in 2-thiophenethiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Rebecca A; Karsili, Tolga N V; Dennis, Gregg J; Staniforth, Michael; Stavros, Vasilios G; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-04-28

    H atom loss following near ultraviolet photoexcitation of gas phase 2-thiophenethiol molecules has been studied experimentally, by photofragment translational spectroscopy (PTS) methods, and computationally, by ab initio electronic structure calculations. The long wavelength (277.5 ≥ λ(phot) ≥ 240 nm) PTS data are consistent with S-H bond fission after population of the first (1)πσ* state. The partner thiophenethiyl (R) radicals are formed predominantly in their first excited Ã(2)A' state, but assignment of a weak signal attributable to H + R(X˜(2)A'') products allows determination of the S-H bond strength, D0 = 27,800 ± 100 cm(-1) and the Ã-X˜ state splitting in the thiophenethiyl radical (ΔE = 3580 ± 100 cm(-1)). The deduced population inversion between the à and X˜ states of the radical reflects the non-planar ground state geometry (wherein the S-H bond is directed near orthogonal to the ring plane) which, post-photoexcitation, is unable to planarise sufficiently prior to bond fission. This dictates that the dissociating molecules follow the adiabatic fragmentation pathway to electronically excited radical products. π* ← π absorption dominates at shorter excitation wavelengths. Coupling to the same (1)πσ* potential energy surface (PES) remains the dominant dissociation route, but a minor yield of H atoms attributable to a rival fragmentation pathway is identified. These products are deduced to arise via unimolecular decay following internal conversion to the ground (S0) state PES via a conical intersection accessed by intra-ring C-S bond extension. The measured translational energy disposal shows a more striking change once λ(phot) ≤ 220 nm. Once again, however, the dominant decay pathway is deduced to be S-H bond fission following coupling to the (1)πσ* PES but, in this case, many of the evolving molecules are deduced to have sufficiently near-planar geometries to allow passage through the conical intersection at extended S-H bond

  3. Distinct variants of extreme psychopathic individuals in society at large: evidence from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed.

  4. Laser Subdivision of the Genesis Concentrator Target Sample 60000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; McNamara, K. M.; See, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis Allocation Committee received a request for 1 square centimeter of the diamond-like-carbon (DLC) concentrator target for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The target consists of a single crystal float zone (FZ) silicon substrate having a thickness on the order of 550 micrometers with a 1.5-3.0 micrometer-thick coating of DLC on the exposed surface. The solar wind is implanted shallowly in the front side DLC. The original target was a circular quadrant with a radius of 3.1 cm; however, the piece did not survive intact when the spacecraft suffered an anomalous landing upon returning to Earth on September 8, 2004. An estimated 75% of the DLC target was recovered in at least 18 fragments. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, has been designated for this allocation and is the first sample to be subdivided using our laser scribing system Laser subdivision has associated risks including thermal diffusion of the implant if heating occurs and unintended breakage during cleavage. A careful detailed study and considerable subdividing practice using non-flight FZ diamond on silicon, DOS, wafers has considerably reduced the risk of unplanned breakage during the cleaving process. In addition, backside scribing reduces the risk of possible thermal excursions affecting the implanted solar wind, implanted shallowly in the front side DLC.

  5. Sex, Subdivision, and Domestic Dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineage I in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Costales, Jaime A.; Miles, Michael A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population. Conclusions/Significance These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease

  6. Research of subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motors in optical fiber positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    In fiber spectroscopic telescopes, optical fiber positioning units are used to position thousands of fibers on the focal plane quickly and precisely. Stepper motors are used in existing units, however, it has some inherent deficiencies, such as serious heating and low efficiency. In this work, the universally adopted subdivision driving technology for stepper motors is transplanted to brushless DC motors. It keeps the advantages of stepper motors such as high positioning accuracy and resolution, while overcomes the disadvantages mentioned above. Thus, this research mainly focuses on develop a novel subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motor. By the proving of experiments of online debug and subdivision speed and position, the proposed brushless DC motor subdivision technology can achieve the expected functions.

  7. 46 CFR 173.055 - Watertight subdivision and damage stability standards for existing sailing school vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... board (c) An existing sailing school vessel which is required to meet a one compartment subdivision..., be fitted with a collision bulkhead and sufficient air tankage or other internal buoyancy to...

  8. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  9. Slow-Growing Subdivisions in any Dimension: Towards Removing the Curse of Dimensionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci,V

    2001-06-25

    The efficient representation of volumetric meshes is a central problem in scientific visualization. The difference in performance between most visualization algorithm for rectilinear grids and for unstructured mesh is mostly due to fundamental difference in efficiency of their representations. In Computer Graphics the gap in performance between 2D rectilinear grids and unstructured mesh has been overcome with the development of representation schemes based on the concept of subdivision surfaces. This gap has not been bridged in the volumetric cases which is fundamental interest for Scientific Visualization. In this paper we introduce a slow-growing volumetric subdivision scheme for meshes of any topology, any intrinsic dimension d and composed of a general type of polyhedral cells (topological balls). The main feature of this approach is the ability to split in different stages cells of different dimensions. This allows to increase the resolution of the mesh slowly using small stencils for the smoothing rules. ''Sharp features'' of dimension lower than d are embedded naturally in the subdivision procedure. Automatic adaptation is provided for variable resolution. In the uniform case the slow subdivision doubles the number of vertices in the mesh at each refinement independent of its dimension d. The bisection of all the edges in a d-dimensional simplicial mesh requires d subdivision steps. Hence the slow subdivision is a d{radical}2 subdivision scheme. This algorithm generalizes a recently developed {radical}2 subdivision scheme to 3D and higher dimensional meshes where the vertex proliferation becomes increasingly problematic as d grows (the curse of dimensionality). We introduce a smoothing rule for both the domain mesh and for functions defined on it. Empirical evidence demonstrates the smoothness of the scheme directly on the mesh and indirectly on the isosurfaces of the functions.

  10. Stability Verification for Energy-Aware Hydraulic Pressure Control via Simplicial Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of dynamical systems with polynomial vector fields. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis based on subdivisioning to find a Lyapunov function. The subdivision-based method...... is proposed since it has better degree bounds than similar methods based on degree elevation. The proposed method is successfully applied to find a Lyapunov function for a pressure controlled water distribution system....

  11. DUSTiNGS III: Distribution of Intermediate-Age and Old Stellar Populations in Disks and Outer Extremities of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Mitchell, Mallory B; Skillman, Evan D; Gehrz, R D; Groenewegen, Martin A T; McDonald, Iain; Sloan, G C; van Loon, Jacco Th; Whitelock, Patricia A; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2016-01-01

    We have traced the spatial distributions of intermediate-age and old stars in nine dwarf galaxies in the distant parts of the Local Group, using multi-epoch 3.6 and 4.5 micron data from the DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) survey. Using complementary optical imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the 3.6 micron photometry, separating thermally-pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars from the larger red giant branch (RGB) populations. Unlike the constant TRGB in the I-band, at 3.6 micron the TRGB magnitude varies by ~0.7 mag, making it unreliable as a distance indicator. The intermediate-age and old stars are well mixed in two-thirds of the sample with no evidence of a gradient in the ratio of the intermediate-age to old stellar populations outside the central ~1-2'. Variable AGB stars are detected in the outer extremities of the galaxies, indicating that chemical enrichment from these dust-producing stars may occur in the outer re...

  12. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  13. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  14. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October–December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneley Getahun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. Methods: A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. Results: There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10 000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8–12.6 compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. Discussion: This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  15. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Aneley; Rafai, Eric; Tolosa, Maria Ximena; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Tabua, Anaseini Maisema; Tabua, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10,000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8-12.6) compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  16. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  17. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  18. Structure of African elephant populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion that there was a ......The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion...... that there was a significant differentiation at the continental level, but that "populations were not significantly subdivided at the regional levels." The data were reanalyzed by Monte-Carlo permutation tests where population subdivision was tested by using F statistics based on partitioning the total haplotype diversity...... among populations. This resulted in identical conclusions at the continental level, but revealed in addition a significant subdivision at the regional level indicating haplotype frequency differences among the populations....

  19. Metabolic rates in five animal populations after prolonged exposure to weak extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in nature. [Lambricus terrestris, L. rubellus, Arion sp. , Oniscus asellus, Plettrodon cinereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.; Ash, N.

    1976-08-01

    Five species of soil-dwelling animals were collected under or some distance from the Navy's Project Sanguine extremely low frequency experimental antenna in September 1974 and in summer 1975, and their oxygen consumption and respiratory quotient (RQ) were tested and compared. The species were: earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L. and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; slug, Arion sp.; wood louse, Oniscus asellus L.; and redbacked salamander, Plethodon cinereus cinereus (Green). Controls were collected on the same or next day, 6 to 13 miles from the nearest antenna. Test and control animals were tested simultaneously. In September 1974 there were no significant differences in O/sub 2/ consumption and RQ, except for a marginal difference (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.025) in O/sub 2/ consumption of L. rubellus; in 1975, there were no significant differences. Comparisons of metabolic rates between exposed and control groups in fall 1974 and between fall and summer (1973 and 1975) populations show no seasonally linked change in sensitivity to the electromagnetic fields. Controls showed an autumnal increase in metabolic rate of wood lice and salamanders. Oxygen consumption of wood lice is significantly (P less than 0.05) affected by method of shipment but there is no evidence that exposed and control animals react differently from each other to shipment by air or by car. Short-term (1 week) exposure of earthworms to the electromagnetic fields did not alter metabolic rate; however, confinement in nylon bags and translocation did, thereby limiting meaningful conclusions. No abnormalities in behavior, habitat selection, or external features and pigmentation have been observed in any of the exposed populations during 4 yr of collecting and observation.

  20. Generalized B-spline subdivision-surface wavelets for geometry compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Martin; Duchaineau, Mark A; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth I

    2004-01-01

    We present a new construction of lifted biorthogonal wavelets on surfaces of arbitrary two-manifold topology for compression and multiresolution representation. Our method combines three approaches: subdivision surfaces of arbitrary topology, B-spline wavelets, and the lifting scheme for biorthogonal wavelet construction. The simple building blocks of our wavelet transform are local lifting operations performed on polygonal meshes with subdivision hierarchy. Starting with a coarse, irregular polyhedral base mesh, our transform creates a subdivision hierarchy of meshes converging to a smooth limit surface. At every subdivision level, geometric detail can be expanded from wavelet coefficients and added to the surface. We present wavelet constructions for bilinear, bicubic, and biquintic B-Spline subdivision. While the bilinear and bicubic constructions perform well in numerical experiments, the biquintic construction turns out to be unstable. For lossless compression, our transform can be computed in integer arithmetic, mapping integer coordinates of control points to integer wavelet coefficients. Our approach provides a highly efficient and progressive representation for complex geometries of arbitrary topology.

  1. Improved Implementation of Point Location in General Two-Dimensional Subdivisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Michael; Halperin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present a major revamp of the point-location data structure for general two-dimensional subdivisions via randomized incremental construction, implemented in CGAL, the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library. We can now guarantee that the constructed directed acyclic graph G is of linear size and provides logarithmic query time. Via the construction of the Voronoi diagram for a given point set S of size n, this also enables nearest-neighbor queries in guaranteed O(log n) time. Another major innovation is the support of general unbounded subdivisions as well as subdivisions of two-dimensional parametric surfaces such as spheres, tori, cylinders. The implementation is exact, complete, and general; i.e., it can also handle non-linear subdivisions. Like the previous version, the data structure supports modifications of the subdivision, such as insertions and deletions of edges, after the initial preprocessing. A major challenge is to retain the expected O(n log n) preprocessing time while providing the above ...

  2. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  3. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Kroehne, Volker; Freudenreich, Dorian; Machate, Anja; Geffarth, Michaela; Braasch, Ingo; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio) pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish system as a model

  4. Study on the Protection Countermeasures to Extremely Small Population of Wild Plant of Guangxi%广西极小种群野生植物保护对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎德丘; 彭定人

    2009-01-01

    This paper gave a full description of the current situation of 20 extremely small population of wild plant of population quantities and distribution in Guangxi. Based on the threat analysis of population decline and habitat loss were faced, some countermeasures to strengthen protection was discussed.%全面阐述了广西分布的20种极小种群野生植物的种群数量、分布等现状,在分析其面临的种群衰退、生境丧失等主要威胁的基础上,探讨了加强保护的对策.

  5. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  6. Extrapolating Acceleration Algorithms for Finding B—Spline Intersections Using Recursive Subdivision Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 范刚; 等

    1994-01-01

    The new algorithms for finding B-Spline or Bezier curves and surfaces intersections using recursive subdivision techniques are presented,which use extrapolating acceleration technique,and have convergent precision of order 2.Matrix method is used to subdivide the curves or surfaces which makes the subdivision more concise and intuitive.Dividing depths of Bezier curves and surfaces are used to subdivide the curves or surfaces adaptively.Therefore the convergent precision and the computing efficiency of finding the intersections of curves and surfaces have been improved by the methods proposed in the paper.

  7. X-ray microbeam quantification of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.C.; Guvenilir, A.; McDowell, D.L.; Stock, S.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Polychromatic synchrotron x-ray microbeams offer a very efficient alternative to electron beam methods for quantifying the amount and character of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations. With a 0.01 mm diameter collimator, bending magnet radiation from a 3.0 GeV source and image storage plates, samples of copper with thicknesses greater than 0.1 mm have been studied. Results from an as-received sample and a sample deformed to 100% torsion are compared and illustrate how efficiently grain subdivision can be quantified with polychromatic microbeam diffraction.

  8. Constructing Measure by Repeated Infinite Subdivision%通过反复无限细分定义测度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严质彬

    2005-01-01

    This paper generalizes the method of constructing measure by repeated finite subdivision in fTactal geometry to that by infinite subdivision. Two conditions for the existing method are removed. A measure on the interval [0, 1] is constructed using this generalized method.

  9. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  10. A Preliminary Survey of Extremely Small Populations of Wild Plants in Bawangling,Hainan Island%海南岛霸王岭极小种群野生植物调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洋瑜; 罗文; 韩文涛; 彭慧

    2014-01-01

    According to the existing literature's analysis, there are 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants in Bawangling , through the survey of 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants, has got a preliminary understanding about the distribution of small populations in Bawangling ,and analyzed the correlation between the distribution of extremely small populations and the altitude, slope direction, slope, veg-etation habitat factors , the main threats factors. Found that the extremely small populations in Bawangling was at risk, which need protected timely, and at the same time put forward some suggestions for protection.%根据已有文献资料分析统计,霸王岭地区有分布记录的极小种群野生植物17种,通过对17种极小种群野生植物的调查,初步了解霸王岭地区极小种群的分布资源状况,并分析极小种群的分布与海拔、坡向、坡度、植被等生境因子的相关性以及所面临的主要威胁,据此可知霸王岭保护区的极小种群植物资源已处于亟待保护的危险状态,并提出了一些保护建议。

  11. Feature-Adaptive Rendering of Loop Subdivision Surfaces on Modern GPUs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄韵岑; 冯结青; 崔元敏; 杨宝光

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for real-time rendering Loop subdivision surfaces on modern graphics hardware. Our algorithm evaluates both positions and normals accurately, thus providing the true Loop subdivision surface. The core idea is to recursively refine irregular patches using a GPU compute kernel. All generated regular patches are then directly evaluated and rendered using the hardware tessellation unit. Our approach handles triangular control meshes of arbitrary topologies and incorporates common subdivision surface features such as semi-sharp creases and hierarchical edits. While surface rendering is accurate up to machine precision, we also enforce a consistent bitwise evaluation of positions and normals at patch boundaries. This is particularly useful in the context of displacement mapping which strictly requires matching surface normals. Furthermore, we incorporate efficient level-of-detail rendering where subdivision depth and tessellation density can be adjusted on-the-fly. Overall, our algorithm provides high-quality results at real-time frame rates, thus being ideally suited to interactive rendering applications such as video games or authoring tools.

  12. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...... simplifications can be taken without changing the Attained Index A significantly....

  13. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  14. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  15. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...

  16. 46 CFR 170.135 - Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel with Type III... Operating Personnel § 170.135 Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision. (a) In addition to the information required in 46 CFR 170.110, the stability booklet of a passenger vessel with...

  17. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  18. Wavelet-based multiresolution with n-th-root-of-2 Subdivision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsen, L; Pascucci, V; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2004-12-16

    Multiresolution methods are a common technique used for dealing with large-scale data and representing it at multiple levels of detail. The authors present a multiresolution hierarchy construction based on n{radical}2 subdivision, which has all the advantages of a regular data organization scheme while reducing the drawback of coarse granularity. The n{radical}2-subdivision scheme only doubles the number of vertices in each subdivision step regardless of dimension n. They describe the construction of 2D, 3D, and 4D hierarchies representing surfaces, volume data, and time-varying volume data, respectively. The 4D approach supports spatial and temporal scalability. For high-quality data approximation on each level of detail, they use downsampling filters based on n-variate B-spline wavelets. They present a B-spline wavelet lifting scheme for n{radical}2-subdivision steps to obtain small or narrow filters. Narrow filters support adaptive refinement and out-of-core data exploration techniques.

  19. 45 CFR 302.55 - Incentive payments to States and political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to States and political subdivisions. 302.55 Section 302.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.55 Incentive payments to States and...

  20. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through...

  1. 24 CFR 1715.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising disclaimers... REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Advertising Disclaimers § 1715.50 Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD. (a) The following...

  2. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the sam

  3. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A main transverse watertight bulkhead may not be stepped unless additional watertight bulkheads are located as shown in Figure...

  4. 46 CFR 171.067 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision. (a) For the purpose of this section— (1) The main transverse watertight bulkhead immediately forward of a stepped bulkhead is referred to...

  5. Simple Derivation of the Lifetime and the Distribution of Faces for a Binary Subdivision Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The iterative random subdivision of rectangles is used as a generation model of networks in physics, computer science, and urban planning. However, these researches were independent. We consider some relations in them, and derive fundamental properties for the average lifetime depending on birth-time and the balanced distribution of rectangle faces.

  6. Isogeometric finite element approximation of minimal surfaces based on extended loop subdivision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Chen, Chong; Xu, Guoliang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the formulation of isogeometric analysis for minimal surface models on planar bounded domains by extended Loop surface subdivision approach. The exactness of the physical domain of interest is fixed on the coarsest level of the triangular discretization with any topological structure, which is thought of as the initial control mesh of Loop subdivision. By performing extended Loop subdivision, the control mesh can be repeatedly refined, and the geometry is described as an infinite set of quartic box-spline while maintaining its original exactness. The limit function representation of extended Loop subdivision forms our finite element space, which possesses C1 smoothness and the flexibility of mesh topology. We establish its inverse inequalities which resemble the ones of general finite element spaces. We develop the approximation estimate with the aid of H1 convergence property of the corresponding linear models. It enables us to overcome the difficulty of proving the boundedness of the gradient of finite element solutions appearing in the coefficient of minimal surface models. Numerical examples are given with the comparison to the classical linear finite element method which is consistent with our theoretical results.

  7. Guide for subdivision of spent fuel pool. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP; Guia para subdivision de la piscina de combustible gastado. Proyecto UNESA MAAP5-SFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Barrios, M.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Martin, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of the UNESA MAAP5-SFP project is to analyze the capabilities of MAAP5 code and, particularly, the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) module in order to tackle its modeling and facilitate the development of specific SFP models of Spanish NPPs. Within the project, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is the responsible for the development of the Guide for the subdivision of the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP). This Guide includes a theoretical description of the model that is used by the code and a sequence of practical cases with the aim to evaluate the influence of specific parameters.

  8. Extremely low microsatellite diversity but distinct population structure in a long-lived threatened species, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane M; Schmidt, Daniel J; Huey, Joel A; Real, Kathryn M; Espinoza, Thomas; McDougall, Andrew; Kind, Peter K; Brooks, Steven; Roberts, David T

    2015-01-01

    The Australian lungfish is a unique living representative of an ancient dipnoan lineage, listed as 'vulnerable' to extinction under Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Historical accounts indicate this species occurred naturally in two adjacent river systems in Australia, the Burnett and Mary. Current day populations in other rivers are thought to have arisen by translocation from these source populations. Early genetic work detected very little variation and so had limited power to answer questions relevant for management including how genetic variation is partitioned within and among sub-populations. In this study, we use newly developed microsatellite markers to examine samples from the Burnett and Mary Rivers, as well as from two populations thought to be of translocated origin, Brisbane and North Pine. We test whether there is significant genetic structure among and within river drainages; assign putatively translocated populations to potential source populations; and estimate effective population sizes. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci genotyped in 218 individuals gave an average within-population heterozygosity of 0.39 which is low relative to other threatened taxa and for freshwater fishes in general. Based on FST values (average over loci = 0.11) and STRUCTURE analyses, we identify three distinct populations in the natural range, one in the Burnett and two distinct populations in the Mary. These analyses also support the hypothesis that the Mary River is the likely source of translocated populations in the Brisbane and North Pine rivers, which agrees with historical published records of a translocation event giving rise to these populations. We were unable to obtain bounded estimates of effective population size, as we have too few genotype combinations, although point estimates were low, ranging from 29 - 129. We recommend that, in order to preserve any local adaptation in the three distinct populations that

  9. Comparative analyses of genetic risk prediction methods reveal extreme diversity of genetic predisposition to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among ethnic populations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ankita; Basu, Analabha; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Kausik; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P; Basu, Priyadarshi

    2015-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a distinct pathologic condition characterized by a disease spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to steato-hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prevalence of NAFLD varies in different ethnic groups, ranging from 12% in Chinese to 45% in Hispanics. Among Indian populations, the diversity in prevalence is high, ranging from 9% in rural populations to 32% in urban populations, with geographic differences as well. Here, we wished to find out if this difference is reflected in their genetic makeup. To date, several candidate genes and a few genomewide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out, and many associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and NAFLD have been observed. In this study, the risk allele frequencies (RAFs) of NAFLD-associated SNPs in 20 Indian ethnic populations (376 individuals) were analysed. We used two different measures for calculating genetic risk scores and compared their performance. The correlation of additive risk scores of NAFLD for three Hapmap populations with their weighted mean prevalence was found to be high (R(2) = 0.93). Later we used this method to compare NAFLD risk among ethnic Indian populations. Based on our observation, the Indian caste populations have high risk scores compared to Caucasians, who are often used as surrogate and similar to Indian caste population in disease gene association studies, and is significantly higher than the Indian tribal populations.

  10. Comparative analyses of genetic risk prediction methods reveal extreme diversity of genetic predisposition to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among ethnic populations of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ankita Chatterjee; Analabha Basu; Abhijit Chowdhury; Kausik Das; Neeta Sarkar-Roy; Partha P. Majumder; Priyadarshi Basu

    2015-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a distinct pathologic condition characterized by a disease spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to steato-hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prevalence of NAFLD varies in different ethnic groups, ranging from 12% in Chinese to 45% in Hispanics. Among Indian populations, the diversity in prevalence is high, ranging from 9% in rural populations to 32% in urban populations, with geographic differences as well. Here, we wished to find out if this difference is reflected in their genetic makeup. To date, several candidate genes and a few genomewide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out, and many associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and NAFLD have been observed. In this study, the risk allele frequencies (RAFs) of NAFLD-associated SNPs in 20 Indian ethnic populations (376 individuals) were analysed. We used two different measures for calculating genetic risk scores and compared their performance. The correlation of additive risk scores of NAFLD for three Hapmap populations with their weighted mean prevalence was found to be high (2 = 0.93). Later we used this method to compare NAFLD risk among ethnic Indian populations. Based on our observation, the Indian caste populations have high risk scores compared to Caucasians, who are often used as surrogate and similar to Indian caste population in disease gene association studies, and is significantly higher than the Indian tribal populations.

  11. Urban population vulnerability to climate extremes: mitigating urban heat through technology and water-sensitive urban design in Australian cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Australia recently endured what was arguably its worst drought in 200 years. The 'Millennium Drought' lasted from 1999 until 2009, producing acute water shortages for several major Australian cities. Towards the end of the drought an extreme heat wave with temperatures approaching 50 C claimed the lives of several hundred people in Melbourne and Adelaide. One outcome of the extreme conditions was that the spectre of climate change and its impacts became very real for most Australians and contributed to the 2007 signing of the Kyoto Protocol by the Australian Government. Issues of extreme heat and water security also led to increased interest in adapting Australian cities to climate change. These concerns ultimately led to the establishment of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, a $110 million research initiative to utilise storm water in Australian cities to create cooler and more liveable environments with increased levels of water security. This paper provides an overview of the work being undertaken within the urban climate program of the CRC to identify heat-health vulnerability in our cities and to evaluate the efficacy of irrigated green infrastructure to produce more liveable environments. This papers discusses some of the early research outputs that involve measurement, modelling and remote sensing at a range of scales in Australian cities.

  12. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  13. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    two schemes for sampling points of the function: midpoint sampling and vertex sampling. The convergence of the algorithm is proved, and numerical results are presented for the two dimensional case, for which also a special initial covering is presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights......We consider the problem of optimizing a Lipshitzian function. The branch and bound technique is a well-known solution method, and the key components for this are the subdivision scheme, the bound calculation scheme, and the initialization. For Lipschitzian optimization, the bound calculations...... are based on the sampling of function values. We propose a branch and bound algorithm based on regular simplexes. Initially, the domain in question is covered with regular simplexes, and our subdivision scheme maintains this property. The bound calculation becomes both simple and efficient, and we describe...

  14. A New Solid Subdivision Scheme%一种新的体细分格式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; 刘雪峰

    2005-01-01

    近二十年来,对曲线和曲面的细分方法(Subdivision)的研究和应用在计算机图形学和造型领域中相当流行,然而对于实体的细分方法却研究得较少.在本文中,我们设计了一种基于六面体的逼近细分格式:在张量积网格上表现为张量积格式,在体网格上生成光滑的极限实体,并能在实体上引入边界和折痕.根据已有的在简单六面体网格上的基于六面体的逼近格式,如果不采用一些特殊规则,设计者很难得到实体模型.我们设计了一套针对实体模型的细分规则来简化细分过程.大体上,我们的细分过程结合了简单线性细分和二层平均,对网格的局部拓扑结构没有严格要求.特别地,我们的格式可以不加修改地应用到非流形拓扑网格上.同时,我们引入了用于控制模型形状的自由参数,使模型设计更具弹性.%Subdivision for curves and surfaces has gained popularity in computer graphics and shape modeling during the past two decades, yet solid/volumetric subdivision has received much less attention. In this paper, we design a subdivision scheme that reproduces the tensor product rule on tensor product meshes and yields smooth limit volumes for arbitrary volume meshes. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of model. It is a hexahedral-based, approximation scheme. According to the existing hexahedralbased,approximation scheme over simple or rough hexahedral meshes it is difficult to get the solid models which designers want to model without using some special rules. We devise a set of solid subdivision rules to facilitate a simple subdivision procedure. In principle, our solid subdivision process is a combination of simple linear subdivision and two rounds of averaging. This process makes no restrictions on the local topology of the meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes with non-manifold topology

  15. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia;

    2016-01-01

    and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, 9PD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs...

  16. An Optimization Model for Urban Readjustment and Subdivision Regulations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Turkey has resulted in various problems in urban spaces such as squatter houses, substandard subdivisions, and low-quality urban environment. In order to facilitate self-motivated developments, government has enacted various laws and bylaws and made amendments in current legal frameworks. The 18th Article (Dough Rule) of the Land and Building Development Law (İmar Kanunu) has various and extensive applications in regulating and restructuring cadastral properties. One of ...

  17. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Booij; Christos Livas

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  18. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Booij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  19. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC). The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Uk...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines, Centerlines based on newly platted subdivisions, Published in Not Provided, City of Aurora.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of Not Provided. It is described as 'Centerlines based on newly platted subdivisions'. Data by this...

  1. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  2. Exploring land developer perspectives on conservation subdivision design and environmentally sustainable land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  3. Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2000-01-05

    We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

  4. Integration and management of massive remote-sensing data based on GeoSOT subdivision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chengqi; Chen, Bo; Meng, Li

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the rapid development of earth observation technology, the volume of spatial information is growing rapidly; therefore, improving query retrieval speed from large, rich data sources for remote-sensing data management systems is quite urgent. A global subdivision model, geographic coordinate subdivision grid with one-dimension integer coding on 2n-tree, which we propose as a solution, has been used in data management organizations. However, because a spatial object may cover several grids, ample data redundancy will occur when data are stored in relational databases. To solve this redundancy problem, we first combined the subdivision model with the spatial array database containing the inverted index. We proposed an improved approach for integrating and managing massive remote-sensing data. By adding a spatial code column in an array format in a database, spatial information in remote-sensing metadata can be stored and logically subdivided. We implemented our method in a Kingbase Enterprise Server database system and compared the results with the Oracle platform by simulating worldwide image data. Experimental results showed that our approach performed better than Oracle in terms of data integration and time and space efficiency. Our approach also offers an efficient storage management system for existing storage centers and management systems.

  5. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  6. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  7. 现代媒体环境对流动人口反抗方式类型极端化趋向的影响%Effects of Types of Modern Media Environment on the Floating Population Against the Extreme Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马征

    2013-01-01

      新生代流动人口成长在不同于老一代流动人口的社会情境下,成为社会转型时期研究的关注点,而转型期的中国社会正在逐步适应和完成媒体环境的革新,当前媒体环境的多元化及其内涵特性正在使流动人口群体的反抗方式类型发生转变,新生代流动人口反抗信息获取优于老一代流动人口,反抗方式偏好差别大,有极端化发展倾向。%The new generation of migrant population, growing in different from the older generation of floating population's social context, becomes the research focus in the period of social transformation. And the transformation period of China society is being fit and finished the media environment innovation. The diversity and inclusion characteristics of current media environment is changing in the resistance of floating population type, the new generation of migrant population against information is overmatch than the old generation, and has the extreme development tendency.

  8. Resources calculation of cobalt-rich crusts with the grid subdivision and integral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of three geological models and several orebody boundaries, a method of grid subdivision and integral has been proposed to calculate and evaluate the resources of cobalt-rich crusts on the seamounts in the central Pacific Ocean. The formulas of this method are deduced and the interface of program module is designed. The method is carried out in the software "Auto mapping system of submarine topography and geomorphology MBChart". This method and program will possibly become a potential tool to calculate the resources of seamounts and determine the target diggings for China's next Five-year Plan.

  9. Subdivisions in digraphs of large out-degree or large dichromatic number

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 1985, Mader conjectured the existence of a function $f$ such that every digraph with minimum out-degree at least $f(k)$ contains a subdivision of the transitive tournament of order $k$. This conjecture is still completely open, as the existence of $f(5)$ remains unknown. In this paper, we show that if $D$ is an oriented path, or an in-arborescence (i.e., a tree with all edges oriented towards the root) or the union of two directed paths from $x$ to $y$ and a directed path from $y$ to $x$, ...

  10. Triangulations, Subdivisions, and Covers for Control of Affine Hypersurface Systems on Polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem for an affine hypersurface system to reach a polytopic target set starting from inside a polytope in the state space. We present an exhaustive solution which begins with a characterization of states which can reach the target by open-loop control and concludes with a systematic procedure to synthesize a feedback control. Our emphasis is on methods of subdivision, triangulation, and covers which explicitly account for the capabilities of the control system. In contrast with previous literature, the partition methods are guaranteed to yield a correct feedback synthesis, assuming the problem is solvable by open-loop control.

  11. Functional subdivision of group-ICA results of fMRI data collected during cinema viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siina Pamilo

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA can unravel functional brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. The number of the estimated components affects both the spatial pattern of the identified networks and their time-course estimates. Here group-ICA was applied at four dimensionalities (10, 20, 40, and 58 components to fMRI data collected from 15 subjects who viewed a 15-min silent film ("At land" by Maya Deren. We focused on the dorsal attention network, the default-mode network, and the sensorimotor network. The lowest dimensionalities demonstrated most prominent activity within the dorsal attention network, combined with the visual areas, and in the default-mode network; the sensorimotor network only appeared with ICA comprising at least 20 components. The results suggest that even very low-dimensional ICA can unravel the most prominent functionally-connected brain networks. However, increasing the number of components gives a more detailed picture and functionally feasible subdivision of the major networks. These results improve our understanding of the hierarchical subdivision of brain networks during viewing of a movie that provides continuous stimulation embedded in an attention-directing narrative.

  12. Effects of unilateral premolar extraction treatment on the dental arch forms of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ginu; Masoud, Ahmed I; Viana, Grace; Obrez, Ales; Kusnoto, Budi; Evans, Carla A

    2017-08-01

    A retrospective study evaluating posttreatment symmetry in dental arch form and midlines was carried out in Class II subdivision patients treated with unilateral and bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Using Geomagic (version 14; Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) and MATLAB (version 8.4; MathWorks, Natick, Mass) software, best-fit curves expressed as quartic polynomials were generated for 13 Class II subdivisions treated with unilateral extractions and 20 treated with bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Transverse and sagittal measurements were recorded to assess symmetry. Dental models were superimposed on constructed reference planes to generate average posttreatment arches. Statistical comparisons were performed with the significance level set at P ≤0.05. The unilateral extraction group showed significant differences in transverse arch forms between the right and left sides in the anterior, anterior-middle, and middle segments of the arch, and all regions other than the posterior segment in the sagittal dimension. Significant differences were found between groups in the anterior and anterior-middle segments of the arch transversely, the middle and middle-posterior segments sagittally, and the midline deviation relative to the midsagittal plane. Superimposed average arches showed similar results. Unilateral maxillary extraction treatment generally results in a narrower and more posteriorly displaced arch form on the extraction side, with a deviated maxillary midline toward the extraction side of the arch. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subdivision of the occipital lobes: an anatomical and functional MRI connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Urbanski, Marika; Valabregue, Romain; Bayle, Dimitri J; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    Exploring brain connectivity is fundamental to understanding the functional architecture of the cortex. In our study we employed tractography-based parcellation, combined with the principal component analysis statistical framework, to divide the occipital lobes into seven areas in a group of eighteen healthy participants. Tractography-based parcellation is a method based on diffusion imaging tractography, which segregates the living human brain into distinctive areas showing sharp differences in their anatomical connectivity. The results were compared to covarying functional networks involving distinct areas within the occipital lobes, that we obtained using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as well as to other existing subdivisions of the occipital lobes. Our results showed similarities with functional imaging data in healthy controls and cognitive profiles in brain-damaged patients, although several differences with cytoarchitectonic, myelogenetic, myeloarchitectonic and functional maps were reported. While the similarities are encouraging, the potential validity and limitations of the differences observed are discussed. Taken together these results suggest that tractography-based parcellation may provide a new promising anatomical subdivision of the living human brain based on its anatomical connectivity, which may benefit the understanding of clinical-neuroanatomical dissociations and functional neuroimaging results.

  14. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  15. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  16. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  17. Work conditions as risk factors for varicose veins of the lower extremities in certain professions of the working population of Rijeka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontosić I

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish the effect of working conditions on the appearance of varicose veins. The epidemiological study was carried out on 1,324 examinees, 530 males and 794 females, employed in 5 highly represented groups of professional activities in Rijeka (catering, trade, light industry, heavy industry and finances. The data were collected by survey and clinical examination. Varicose veins were more prevalent in the trade than in the office workers (odds ratio (OR = 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.31-3.31, and more prevalent in catering industries than in the office workers (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.001-2.43. chi 2-testing suggested that standing in the workplace (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.95-1.92, weight handling while working (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01-1.64 and working indoors (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.02-2.53 were risk factors for varicose veins. By multiple logistic regression, the following risk factors were isolated in the total population: female sex (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.37-2.67, workplace (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99, age (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, body mass index (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07 and family history of the disease (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55-2.57.

  18. Extremely low prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in frog populations from neotropical dry forest of Costa Rica supports the existence of a climatic refuge from disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado-Ulate, Héctor; Bolaños, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Puschendorf, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Population declines and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians, especially stream-breeding frogs, have been linked to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. In Central America, most of the 34 species of the Craugastor punctariolus species group have disappeared in recent years in high- and low-elevation rainforests. Distribution models for B. dendrobatidis and the continuous presence of the extirpated stream-dwelling species, Craugastor ranoides, in the driest site of Costa Rica (Santa Elena Peninsula), suggest that environmental conditions might restrict the growth and development of B. dendrobatidis, existing as a refuge from chytridiomycosis-driven extinction. We conducted field surveys to detect and quantify the pathogen using Real-time PCR in samples from 15 species of frogs in two locations of tropical dry forest. In Santa Elena Peninsula, we swabbed 310 frogs, and only one sample of the species, C. ranoides, tested positive for B. dendrobatidis (prevalence refuges from chytridiomycosis and highlights the importance of tropical dry forest conservation for amphibians in the face of epidemic disease.

  19. Osmoregulatory strategies in natural populations of the black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron exposed to extreme salinities in West African estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin-Nebel, Catherine; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Faivre, Nicolas; Wallon, Sophie; Charmantier, Guy; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-08-01

    The effect of salinity was studied in natural populations of the black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from West Africa. This euryhaline species colonizes nearly all coastal environments from bays to lagoons characterized by salinities ranging from fresh water to hypersaline water over 100 ‰. Individuals were sampled during the dry season at several locations characterized by different levels of salinity (3-102 ‰). Their osmotic status and their gills were analyzed. The branchial mitochondria-rich cells (MRC), localized at the basis of the filaments and along the lamellae in fish taken from the saline stations, showed a wide plasticity with significant differences in their number and size. The most striking results were a significant larger area (≈3x) and a higher number (≈55x) of MRC at high salinity (102 ‰) compared to low salinity (3 ‰). The major ion transporters and channels were localized by immunocytochemistry and different expression patterns have been recorded between stations. Despite an increased Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit expression and NKA activity, pointing to an increased monovalent ion excretion, a severe osmotic imbalance was recorded in animals living in hypersaline environments.

  20. 星的细分图的IC-着色%IC-coloring of the Subdivision of Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑峰

    2012-01-01

    研究了星的细分图的IC-着色问题,改进了星的细分图的IC-指数的下界,并且得到了两类图的IC-指数的一个下界。%This thesis researches the IC-coloring of the star subdivision graph,improved the lower IC-index of the star subdivision graph,and concluded two class graphs of the one lower IC-index.

  1. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  2. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  3. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  4. Simultaneous Task Subdivision and Allocation using Negotiations in Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a negotiations based approach for simultaneous task subdivision and assignment in hetero-geneous multi-robot systems. We first propose an abstraction of the concept of a task that allows for the generalizing of a variety of different problems. Based on such an abstraction, we have developed a negotiation protocol based on Rubinstein’s alternate offers protocol. This is extended to the multi-dimensional space and employs a heuristic search step for evaluating and generating offers. Furthermore, the issue of how to extend a bilateral negotiations protocol to more than two parties is taken into consideration. The protocol was first tested in numerical simulations with different scenarios and then applied to three real world missions.

  5. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for t

  6. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... On-Site Leased Workers of Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, TX; Amended Certification... Corporation, a subdivision of Zach System SPA, La Porte, Texas, including on-site leased workers from Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, Texas. The Department's notice of determination was published in...

  7. 20 CFR 1002.39 - Are States (and their political subdivisions), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and United States territories, considered... States (and their political subdivisions), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and.... The District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and territories...

  8. Acoustic boundary element method formulation with treatment of nearly singular integrands by element subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    of the integrand or the whole method. On the other hand, it is also possible to refine or improve the numerical integration, and maintain the standard BEM formulation. In this paper a numerical technique based on element subdivision, previously proposed by the authors, is made more general to cover most cases...

  9. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in colonization in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes da Rocha, U.; Elsas, van J.D.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the sam

  10. In vivo evidence of functional and anatomical stripe-based subdivisions in human V2 and V3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Harvey, Ben M; Fracasso, Alessio; Zuiderbaan, Wietske; Luijten, Peter R; Wandell, Brian A; Petridou, Natalia

    2017-04-07

    Visual cortex contains a hierarchy of visual areas. The earliest cortical area (V1) contains neurons responding to colour, form and motion. Later areas specialize on processing of specific features. The second visual area (V2) in non-human primates contains a stripe-based anatomical organization, initially defined using cytochrome-oxidase staining of post-mortem tissue. Neurons in these stripes have been proposed to serve distinct functional specializations, e.g. processing of color, form and motion. These stripes represent an intermediate stage in visual hierarchy and serve a key role in the increasing functional specialization of visual areas. Using sub-millimeter high-field functional and anatomical MRI (7T), we provide in vivo evidence for stripe-based subdivisions in humans. Using functional MRI, we contrasted responses elicited by stimuli alternating at slow and fast temporal frequencies. We revealed stripe-based subdivisions in V2 ending at the V1/V2 border. The human stripes reach into V3. Using anatomical MRI optimized for myelin contrast within gray matter, we also observe a stripe pattern. Stripe subdivisions preferentially responding to fast temporal frequencies are more myelinated. As such, functional and anatomical measures provide independent and converging evidence for functional organization into striped-based subdivisions in human V2 and V3.

  11. Comparative analysis of acidobacterial genomic fragments from terrestrial and aquatic metagenomic libraries, with emphasis on acidobacteria subdivision 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2010-10-01

    The bacterial phylum Acidobacteria has a widespread distribution and is one of the most common and diverse phyla in soil habitats. However, members of this phylum have often been recalcitrant to cultivation methods, hampering the study of this presumably important bacterial group. In this study, we used a cultivation-independent metagenomic approach to recover genomic information from soilborne members of this phylum. A soil metagenomic fosmid library was screened by PCR targeting acidobacterial 16S rRNA genes, facilitating the recovery of 17 positive clones. Recovered inserts appeared to originate from a range of Acidobacteria subdivisions, with dominance of subdivision 6 (10 clones). Upon full-length insert sequencing, gene annotation identified a total of 350 open reading frames (ORFs), representing a broad range of functions. Remarkably, six inserts from subdivision 6 contained a region of gene synteny, containing genes involved in purine de novo biosynthesis and encoding tRNA synthetase and conserved hypothetical proteins. Similar genomic regions had previously been observed in several environmental clones recovered from soil and marine sediments, facilitating comparisons with respect to gene organization and evolution. Comparative analyses revealed a general dichotomy between marine and terrestrial genes in both phylogeny and G+C content. Although the significance of this homologous gene cluster across subdivision 6 members is not known, it appears to be a common feature within a large percentage of all acidobacterial genomic fragments recovered from both of these environments.

  12. Ether- and ester-bound iso-diabolic acid and other lipids in members of Acidobacteria subdivision 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycer

  13. Point-in-convex polygon and point-in-convex polyhedron algorithms with O(1) complexity using space subdivision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Vaclav

    2016-06-01

    There are many space subdivision and space partitioning techniques used in many algorithms to speed up computations. They mostly rely on orthogonal space subdivision, resp. using hierarchical data structures, e.g. BSP trees, quadtrees, octrees, kd-trees, bounding volume hierarchies etc. However in some applications a non-orthogonal space subdivision can offer new ways for actual speed up. In the case of convex polygon in E2 a simple Point-in-Polygon test is of the O(N) complexity and the optimal algorithm is of O(log N) computational complexity. In the E3 case, the complexity is O(N) even for the convex polyhedron as no ordering is defined. New Point-in-Convex Polygon and Point-in-Convex Polyhedron algorithms are presented based on space subdivision in the preprocessing stage resulting to O(1) run-time complexity. The presented approach is simple to implement. Due to the principle of duality, dual problems, e.g. line-convex polygon, line clipping, can be solved in a similarly.

  14. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettay, D Tye; Lajeunesse, Todd C

    2013-01-01

    The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1), obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton) speciation in marine ecosystems.

  15. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tye Pettay

    Full Text Available The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1, obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton speciation in marine ecosystems.

  16. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  17. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa.

  18. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  19. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Julian; Mathys, Christian; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Südmeyer, Martin; Cieslik, Edna C.; Rubbert, Christian; Hartmann, Christian J.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Reetz, Kathrin; Grefkes, Christian; Michely, Jochen; Turowski, Bernd; Schnitzler, Alfons; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF) and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON). We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC) and left dorsal premotor region (PMd) in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part. PMID:28611616

  20. Differential reward coding in the subdivisions of the primate caudate during an oculomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kae; Santos, Gustavo S; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-07

    The basal ganglia play a pivotal role in reward-oriented behavior. The striatum, an input channel of the basal ganglia, is composed of subdivisions that are topographically connected with different cortical and subcortical areas. To test whether reward information is differentially processed in the different parts of the striatum, we compared reward-related neuronal activity along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis in the caudate nucleus of monkeys performing an asymmetrically rewarded oculomotor task. In a given block, a target in one position was associated with a large reward, whereas the other target was associated with a small reward. The target position-reward value contingency was switched between blocks. We found the following: (1) activity that reflected the block-wise reward contingency emerged before the appearance of a visual target, and it was more prevalent in the dorsal, rather than central and ventral, caudate; (2) activity that was positively related to the reward size of the current trial was evident, especially after reward delivery, and it was more prevalent in the ventral and central, rather than dorsal, caudate; and (3) activity that was modulated by the memory of the outcomes of the previous trials was evident in the dorsal and central caudate. This multiple reward information, together with the target-direction information, was represented primarily by individual caudate neurons, and the different reward information was represented in caudate subpopulations with distinct electrophysiological properties, e.g., baseline firing and spike width. These results suggest parallel processing of different reward information by the basal ganglia subdivisions defined by extrinsic connections and intrinsic properties.

  1. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of Acidobacteria Subdivision 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that occur ubiquitously in peat, soil, lakes, and hot springs. Here, we examined the lipid composition of seven phylogenetically divergent strains of subdivision 4 of the Acidobacteria, a bacterial group that is commonly encountered in soil. Acid hydrolysis of total cell material released iso-diabolic acid derivatives in substantial quantities (11 to 48% of all fatty acids). In contrast to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, 6 out of the 7 species of subdivision 4 (excepting “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum”) contained iso-diabolic acid ether bound to a glycerol in larger fractional abundance than iso-diabolic acid itself. This is in agreement with the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which showed the dominance of mixed ether-ester glycerides. iso-Diabolic acid-containing IPLs were not identified, because these IPLs are not released with a Bligh-Dyer extraction, as observed before when studying lipid compositions of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria. The presence of ether bonds in the membrane lipids does not seem to be an adaptation to temperature, because the five mesophilic isolates contained a larger amount of ether lipids than the thermophile “Ca. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum.” Furthermore, experiments with Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes did not reveal a major influence of growth temperature over the 50 to 69°C range. PMID:24928878

  2. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Sugárka Papp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area, and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribution patterns of BDA-positive fibers were mapped on serial sections between the hypothalamus and spinal cord in 22 rats. BDA-labeled fibers were observable over 100 different brainstem areas, nuclei or subdivisions. Injections into the 8 DLH subdivisions established distinct topographical patterns. In general, the density of labeled fibers was low in the lower brainstem. High density of fibers was seen only 4 of the 116 areas: in the lateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, the Barrington’s and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei. All of the biogenic amine cell groups in the lower brainstem (9 noradrenaline, 3 adrenaline and 9 serotonin cell groups received labeled fibers, some of them from all, or at least 7 DLH subdivisions, mainly from perifornical and ventral lateral hypothalamic neurons. Some of the tegmental nuclei and nuclei of the reticular formation were widely innervated, although the density of the BDA-labeled fibers was generally low. No definitive descending BDA-positive pathway, but long-run solitaire BDA-labeled fibers were seen in the lower brainstem. These descending fibers joined some of the large tracts or fasciculi in the brainstem. The distribution pattern of BDA-positive fibers of DLH origin throughout the lower brainstem was comparable to patterns of previously published orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive fibers with somewhat differences.

  3. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  4. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  5. The population genomics of begomoviruses: global scale population structure and gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna HC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly growing availability of diverse full genome sequences from across the world is increasing the feasibility of studying the large-scale population processes that underly observable pattern of virus diversity. In particular, characterizing the genetic structure of virus populations could potentially reveal much about how factors such as geographical distributions, host ranges and gene flow between populations combine to produce the discontinuous patterns of genetic diversity that we perceive as distinct virus species. Among the richest and most diverse full genome datasets that are available is that for the dicotyledonous plant infecting genus, Begomovirus, in the Family Geminiviridae. The begomoviruses all share the same whitefly vector, are highly recombinogenic and are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions where they seriously threaten the food security of the world's poorest people. Results We focus here on using a model-based population genetic approach to identify the genetically distinct sub-populations within the global begomovirus meta-population. We demonstrate the existence of at least seven major sub-populations that can further be sub-divided into as many as thirty four significantly differentiated and genetically cohesive minor sub-populations. Using the population structure framework revealed in the present study, we further explored the extent of gene flow and recombination between genetic populations. Conclusions Although geographical barriers are apparently the most significant underlying cause of the seven major population sub-divisions, within the framework of these sub-divisions, we explore patterns of gene flow to reveal that both host range differences and genetic barriers to recombination have probably been major contributors to the minor population sub-divisions that we have identified. We believe that the global Begomovirus population structure revealed here could

  6. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  7. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  8. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom

  9. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast, in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banne Nemeth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2 to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients.We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables, a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230, the area under the curve (AUC was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1 the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom with 784 cases and 523

  10. Ancient DNA assessment of tiger salamander population in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Sarah K; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recent data indicates that blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) in northern regions of Yellowstone National Park are declining due to climate-related habitat changes. In this study, we used ancient and modern mitochondrial haplotype diversity to model the effective size of this amphibian population through recent geological time and to assess past responses to climatic changes in the region. Using subfossils collected from a cave in northern Yellowstone, we analyzed >700 base pairs of mitochondrial sequence from 16 samples ranging in age from 100 to 3300 years old and found that all shared an identical haplotype. Although mitochondrial diversity was extremely low within the living population, we still were able to detect geographic subdivision within the local area. Using serial coalescent modelling with Bayesian priors from both modern and ancient genetic data we simulated a range of probable population sizes and mutation rates through time. Our simulations suggest that regional mitochondrial diversity has remained relatively constant even through climatic fluctuations of recent millennia.

  11. Ancient DNA assessment of tiger salamander population in Yellowstone National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K McMenamin

    Full Text Available Recent data indicates that blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum in northern regions of Yellowstone National Park are declining due to climate-related habitat changes. In this study, we used ancient and modern mitochondrial haplotype diversity to model the effective size of this amphibian population through recent geological time and to assess past responses to climatic changes in the region. Using subfossils collected from a cave in northern Yellowstone, we analyzed >700 base pairs of mitochondrial sequence from 16 samples ranging in age from 100 to 3300 years old and found that all shared an identical haplotype. Although mitochondrial diversity was extremely low within the living population, we still were able to detect geographic subdivision within the local area. Using serial coalescent modelling with Bayesian priors from both modern and ancient genetic data we simulated a range of probable population sizes and mutation rates through time. Our simulations suggest that regional mitochondrial diversity has remained relatively constant even through climatic fluctuations of recent millennia.

  12. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  13. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  14. Integrating orbitofrontal cortex into prefrontal theory: common processing themes across species and subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, G; Setlow, B

    2001-01-01

    Currently, many theories highlight either representational memory or rule representation as the hallmark of prefrontal function. Neurophysiological findings in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicate that both features may characterize prefrontal processing. Neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex encode information in working memory, and this information is represented when relevant to the rules governing performance in a task. In this review, we discuss recent reports of encoding in primate and rat orbitofrontal regions indicating that these features also characterize activity in the orbitofrontal subdivision of the prefrontal cortex. These data indicate that (1) neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex links the current incentive value of reinforcers to cues, rather than representing the physical features of cues or associated reinforcers; (2) this incentive-based information is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex when it is relevant to the rules guiding performance in a task; and (3) incentive information is also represented in the orbitofrontal cortex in working memory during delays when neither the cues nor reinforcers are present. Therefore, although the orbitofrontal cortex appears to be uniquely specialized to process incentive or motivational information, it may be integrated into a more global framework of prefrontal function characterized by representational encoding of performance-relevant information.

  15. Corticotropin releasing factor and catecholamines enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-07-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in many behaviors including anxiety, memory consolidation and cardiovascular responses. While these behaviors can be modulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and catecholamine signaling, the mechanism(s) by which these signals modify CeA glutamatergic neurotransmission remains unclear. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology recordings from neurons in the lateral subdivision of the CeA (CeAL), we show that CRF, dopamine (DA) and the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) all enhance the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) without altering sEPSC kinetics, suggesting they increase presynaptic glutamate release. The effect of CRF on sEPSCs was mediated by a combination of CRFR1 and CRFR2 receptors. While previous work from our lab suggests that CRFRs mediate the effect of catecholamines on excitatory transmission in other subregions of the extended amygdala, blockade of CRFRs in the CeAL failed to significantly alter effects of DA and ISO on glutamatergic transmission. These findings suggest that catecholamine and CRF enhancement of glutamatergic transmission onto CeAL neurons occurs via distinct mechanisms. While CRF increased spontaneous glutamate release in the CeAL, CRF caused no significant changes to optogenetically evoked glutamate release in this region. The dissociable effects of CRF on different types of glutamatergic neurotransmission suggest that CRF may specifically regulate spontaneous excitatory transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of prosomeric and intraprosomeric subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Gilbert; Söll, Iris; Hauptmann, Giselbert

    2013-04-01

    During development of the early neural tube, positional information provided by signaling gradients is translated into a grid of transverse and longitudinal transcription factor expression domains. Transcription factor specification codes defining distinct histogenetic domains within this grid are evolutionarily conserved across vertebrates and may reflect an underlying common vertebrate bauplan. When compared to the rich body of comparative gene expression studies of tetrapods, there is considerably less comparative data available for teleost fish. We used sensitive multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization to generate a detailed map of regulatory gene expression domains in the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon. The high resolution of this technique allowed us to resolve abutting and overlapping gene expression of different transcripts. We found that the relative topography of gene expression patterns in zebrafish was highly similar to those of orthologous genes in tetrapods and consistent with a three-prosomere organization of the alar and basal diencephalon. Our analysis further demonstrated a conservation of intraprosomeric subdivisions within prosomeres 1, 2, and 3 (p1, p2, and p3). A tripartition of zebrafish p1 was identified reminiscent of precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) pretectal domains of tetrapods. The constructed detailed diencephalic transcription factor gene expression map further identified molecularly distinct thalamic and prethalamic rostral and caudal domains and a prethalamic eminence histogenetic domain in zebrafish. Our comparative gene expression analysis conformed with the idea of a common bauplan for the diencephalon of anamniote and amniote vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  17. Family of 2n-Point Ternary Non-Stationary Interpolating Subdivision Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHWISH BARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article offers 2n-point ternary non-stationary interpolating subdivision schemes, with the tension parameter, by using Lagrange identities. By choosing the suitable value of tension parameter, we can get different limit curves according to our own choice. Tightness or looseness of the limit curve depends upon the increment or decline the value of tension parameter. The proposed schemes are the counter part of some existing parametric and non-parametric stationary schemes. The main purpose of this article is to reproduce conics and the proposed schemes reproduce conics very well such that circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. We also establish a deviation error formula which is useful to calculate the maximum deviation of limit curve from the original limit curve. The presentation and of the proposed schemes are verified by closed and open figures. The given table shows the less deviation of the limit curves by proposed scheme as compare to the existing scheme. Graphical representation of deviation error is also presented and it shows that as the number of control points increases, the deviation error decreases.

  18. Subdivision based isogeometric analysis technique for electric field integral equations for simply connected structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Dault, Daniel; Liu, Beibei; Tong, Yiying; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic scattering has long been performed on a discrete representation of the geometry. This representation is typically continuous but not differentiable. The need to define physical quantities on this geometric representation has led to development of sets of basis functions that need to satisfy constraints at the boundaries of the elements/tessellations (viz., continuity of normal or tangential components across element boundaries). For electromagnetics, these result in either curl/div-conforming basis sets. The geometric representation used for analysis is in stark contrast with that used for design, wherein the surface representation is higher order differentiable. Using this representation for both geometry and physics on geometry has several advantages, and is elucidated in Hughes et al. (2005) [7]. Until now, a bulk of the literature on isogeometric methods have been limited to solid mechanics, with some effort to create NURBS based basis functions for electromagnetic analysis. In this paper, we present the first complete isogeometry solution methodology for the electric field integral equation as applied to simply connected structures. This paper systematically proceeds through surface representation using subdivision, definition of vector basis functions on this surface, to fidelity in the solution of integral equations. We also present techniques to stabilize the solution at low frequencies, and impose a Calderón preconditioner. Several results presented serve to validate the proposed approach as well as demonstrate some of its capabilities.

  19. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Atiokeng Tatang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%, Trichuris (11.97%, Capillaria (6.16%, Toxocara (4.86%, Hook Worm (4.86%, and Eimeria (2.73%. The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27% of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%. The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%. Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99% as compared to those from kitchens (22.63% and houses (11.14%. Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision.

  20. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC. The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Ukraine for the period up to 2020. The existing tools are divided into direct and indirect action tools. As of 2016, the tasks that were relevant to the corresponding targeted programs have not been implemented on any item, except for the milk productivity of cows. Still the productivity indicator of 4500 kg/year of milk from a cow is low enough and does not correspond to the general world-wide tendencies. This suggests the need for further assessment of the existing list of tools with a view to adjusting them and defining priorities for the State support of the DPS of AIC.

  1. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  2. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  3. Hierarchical Representation of Time-Varying Volume Data with Fourth-Root-of-Two Subdivision and Quadrilinear B-Spline Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsen, L; Pascucci, V; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2002-11-19

    Multiresolution methods for representing data at multiple levels of detail are widely used for large-scale two- and three-dimensional data sets. We present a four-dimensional multiresolution approach for time-varying volume data. This approach supports a hierarchy with spatial and temporal scalability. The hierarchical data organization is based on 4{radical}2 subdivision. The n{radical}2-subdivision scheme only doubles the overall number of grid points in each subdivision step. This fact leads to fine granularity and high adaptivity, which is especially desirable in the spatial dimensions. For high-quality data approximation on each level of detail, we use quadrilinear B-spline wavelets. We present a linear B-spline wavelet lighting scheme based on n{radical}2 subdivision to obtain narrow masks for the update rules. Narrow masks provide a basis for out-of-core data exploration techniques and view-dependent visualization of sequences of time steps.

  4. A Feature-adaptive Subdivision Method for Real-time 3D Reconstruction of Repeated Topology Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Sun, Honghai

    2017-03-01

    It's well known that rendering for a large number of triangles with GPU hardware tessellation has made great progress. However, due to the fixed nature of GPU pipeline, many off-line methods that perform well can not meet the on-line requirements. In this paper, an optimized Feature-adaptive subdivision method is proposed, which is more suitable for reconstructing surfaces with repeated cusps or creases. An Octree primitive is established in irregular regions where there are the same sharp vertices or creases, this method can find the neighbor geometry information quickly. Because of having the same topology structure between Octree primitive and feature region, the Octree feature points can match the arbitrary vertices in feature region more precisely. In the meanwhile, the patches is re-encoded in the Octree primitive by using the breadth-first strategy, resulting in a meta-table which allows for real-time reconstruction by GPU hardware tessellation unit. There is only one feature region needed to be calculated under Octree primitive, other regions with the same repeated feature generate their own meta-table directly, the reconstruction time is saved greatly for this step. With regard to the meshes having a large number of repeated topology feature, our algorithm improves the subdivision time by 17.575% and increases the average frame drawing time by 0.2373 ms compared to the traditional FAS (Feature-adaptive Subdivision), at the same time the model can be reconstructed in a watertight manner.

  5. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki

    2017-01-01

    only over the WM region. Both high-intensity precipitation extremes and annual precipitation trends feature east−west contrast, suggesting significant increase over the WM and CH region but decrease over the EM and CM regions. Further, a significant positive trend in the number of consecutive dry days but significant negative trend in the number of wet (rainy days are observed over the whole of Nepal, implying the prolongation of the dry spell across the country. Overall, the intensification of different precipitation indices over distinct parts of the country indicates region-specific risks of floods, landslides and droughts. The presented findings, in combination with population and environmental pressures, can support in devising the adequate region-specific adaptation strategies for different sectors and in improving the livelihood of the rural communities in Nepal.

  6. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  7. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  8. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%.

  9. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  10. Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (Porifera, Homoscleromorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Gazave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homoscleromorpha is the fourth major sponge lineage, recently recognized to be distinct from the Demospongiae. It contains <100 described species of exclusively marine sponges that have been traditionally subdivided into 7 genera based on morphological characters. Because some of the morphological features of the homoscleromorphs are shared with eumetazoans and are absent in other sponges, the phylogenetic position of the group has been investigated in several recent studies. However, the phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unexplored by modern methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the first molecular phylogeny of Homoscleromorpha based on nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA and complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data that focuses on inter-generic relationships. Our results revealed two robust clades within this group, one containing the spiculate species (genera Plakina, Plakortis, Plakinastrella and Corticium and the other containing aspiculate species (genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium, thus rejecting a close relationship between Pseudocorticium and Corticium. Among the spiculate species, we found affinities between the Plakortis and Plakinastrella genera, and between the Plakina and Corticium. The validity of these clades is furthermore supported by specific morphological characters, notably the type of spicules. Furthermore, the monophyly of the Corticium genus is supported while the monophyly of Plakina is not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As the result of our study we propose to restore the pre-1995 subdivision of Homoscleromorpha into two families: Plakinidae Schulze, 1880 for spiculate species and Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 for aspiculate species that had been rejected after the description of the genus Pseudocorticium. We also note that the two families of homoscleromorphs exhibit evolutionary stable, but have drastically distinct mitochondrial genome organizations that differ in gene content

  11. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  12. Crystallization sequence of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion: revised subdivision and implications for chamber-scale magma homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Although it is one of the best-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world, the crystallization sequence of the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, remains in debate. In particular, it has been argued that the crystallization sequence in the Upper Border Series, which crystallized downwards from the roof of the magma chamber, differs from that in the Layered Series formed at the floor. The proposed deviation would require chemical stratification of the magma, and a reexamination of the crystallization sequence therefore has important implications for understanding the dynamics of the system. Here, we examine a new sample set from the Upper Border Series, combining field observations, petrography and anorthite contents of plagioclase with bulk rock Ti, V, P, Cu and Mn concentrations. We demonstrate that the first phases on the liquidus were plagioclase and olivine followed by augite, then ilmenite and magnetite (simultaneously), sulfides, apatite and finally ferrobustamite (now inverted to hedenbergite). This crystallization sequence represents extreme differentiation along the tholeiitic trend, and it mirrors those at the floor (Layered Series) and walls (Marginal Border Series). We therefore propose a revised subdivision of the Upper Border Series into equivalents of the subzones in the Layered Series denoted by apostrophes (LZa', LZb', etc.). Moreover, the first appearance of each of the cumulus phases occurs at similar plagioclase core anorthite contents. The mirror images of the crystallization sequences and the anorthite contents of plagioclase cores in the three series imply that the Skaergaard magma chamber solidified by in situ crystallization along the floor, walls and roof from one, largely homogenous, convecting magma body.

  13. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  14. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  15. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  16. Methods and Techniques for Conserving Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations%极小种群野生植物保护的主要内容和技术要点*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文忠; 康洪梅; 向振勇; 张珊珊; 彭宗妮

    2014-01-01

    Saving wild plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) is crucial in biodiversity conserva-tion since it is a way to save many other ecologically-linked species .The first inventory of national key protected wild plant resources in 1997~2003 revealed that there was an urgent need to strengthen the protection of species on the brink of extinction in China .Thereafter PSESP concept , name list , and relevant measures were proposed to protect those species .In this paper we reviewed the processes of formation of PSESP concept , identification of PSESP name list , and formulation of conservation plans , along with the research progresses in rare and endangered plant conservation .We summarized main methods and techniques to conserve PSESP based in particular on experi -ences learnt from conservation practices of Nyssa yunnanensis and other species .Technical measures for rescuing and saving PSESP covers not only germplasm resources preservation through in situ, ex situ and in vitro conserva-tion , but also population rehabilitation and reestablishment through regeneration promoting , seedling raising , qua-si in situ conservation , reintroduction , and reinforcement .Our summarization attempts to provide guidance for for-mulating and implementing action plans of PSESP conservation .%拯救与保护极小种群野生植物是生物多样性保护的重要内容。在完成第一次全国重点保护野生植物资源调查后,为适应珍稀濒危植物保护的迫切需要,提出了极小种群野生植物的概念、名录和相关的保护措施。本文在回顾我国极小种群野生植物相关概念形成、物种名录确定和拯救保护计划制定过程的基础上,结合开展云南蓝果树毛枝五针松等的种群调查分析及拯救保护行动实践,基于国内外珍稀濒危野生植物保护的研究和实践,提出了极小种群野生植物保护的主要内容和技术要点。极小种群野生植物的拯救保护,

  17. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  18. Rome III functional dyspepsia subdivision in PDS and EPS: recognizing postprandial symptoms reduces overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, F; Holvoet, L; Tack, J

    2015-08-01

    nausea were considered as PDS symptoms, the 'adapted' subdivision identified 48% pure PDS, 16% pure EPS, and 36% overlapping PDS-EPS patients. EPS and PDS symptoms frequently coexist in FD patients, with postprandial symptoms substantially contributing to the overlap. A more rigorous linking of postprandially occurring symptoms to PDS, regardless of their qualitative nature, may improve the separation between PDS and EPS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS%体模型的一种细分格式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; 刘雪峰

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed.The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models.It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models.The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joys.This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes.Particularly,it can be applied without any change to meshes of non-manifold topology.

  20. 常平均曲率细分曲面的构造%Construction of Constant Mean Curvature Subdivision Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘青; 徐国良

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces with constant mean curvature always arise as interfaces in many physical problems,and are the mathematical abstraction of physical soap films and soap bubbles. The flexibility and high quality of subdivision surfaces make them to be a powerful tool for designing surfaces. In this paper,we construct the constant mean curvature subdivision surfaces with given boundaries using a forthorder geometric partial differential equation deduced from a second-order energy functional and a second-order geometric partial differential equation. These equations are solved by a finite element method. We adopt the limit functions of the extended Loop's subdivision scheme as the finite element space because this scheme can treat surfaces with boundaries. The constant mean curvature subdivision surfaces can be approximately constructed with any topology of the control mesh and any shaped boundaries.%常平均曲率曲面经常作为界面出现在许多物理问题当中,是物理膜泡的一种数学抽象,而细分曲面的灵活性及其高质量的特性使得它成为一种强有力的曲面设计工具.通过给定边界,使用由一个二阶能量范函导出的四阶几何偏微分方程和一个二阶几何偏微分方程来构造常平均曲率细分曲面,这2个方程采用有限元方法求解;由于扩展的Loop细分规则能处理带边界的曲面问题,所以采用其极限形式作为有限元空间.实验结果显示,采用文中方法能够近似地构造出具有任意拓扑结构控制网格和任意形状边界的常平均曲率曲面.

  1. Hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic responses of Brewery Creek to construction of a residential subdivision, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Jopke, Peter L.; Marhshall, David W.; Sorge, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Dane County Land Conservation Department (LCD) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), investigated the instream effects from construction of a residential subdivision on Brewery Creek in Dane County, Wisconsin. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether a variety of storm-runoff and erosion-control best-management practices (BMPs) would effectively control the overall sediment load, as well as minimize any hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic stresses to Brewery Creek.

  2. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W;

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing...... and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  3. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  4. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  5. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  6. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  7. Statistics of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbel, E J

    2012-01-01

    This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.

  8. Estudo da subdivisão genética da raça Mangalarga Marchador Study on genetic subdivision of the Mangalarga Marchador horse breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Costa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as informações de 233.214 animais inscritos no arquivo zootécnico da Associação Brasileira dos Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador, descendentes de 16 ancestrais com contribuição genética mínima de até 1% para a população atual. Análises de componentes principais foram feitas com o intuito de agrupar animais geneticamente semelhantes e o de avaliar a subdivisão da raça em famílias ou grupos genéticos distintos. A média do coeficiente de parentesco entre animais da atual população e os ancestrais de maior contribuição genética variou de 4,7%, para a égua Herdade Alteza, a 0,7%, para o garanhão Tabatinga Fanfarra. A atual população da raça Mangalarga Marchador é constituída, em ordem de importância, por cinco grupos genéticos descendentes dos animais Herdade Alteza e Seta Caxias, Providência Itu e Tabatinga Predileto, Abaíba Marengo, Tabatinga Cossaco e Angaí Miron.Pedigree information on 233,214 animal from the studbook of the Associação Brasileira dos Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador, related to 16 ancestors with, at least, 1% of genetic contribution to the actual population were used to describe the genetic structure of breed population. Principal component analyses were used to classify animals of the same genetic basis and to identify possible subdivision of the breed in families or genetics groups. The average relationship coefficient between each one of the ancestors and the actual breed population vary from 4.7%, for the mare Herdade Alteza, to .7%, for the stallion Tabatinga Fanfarra. The actual breed population can be subdivided into five families, represented, in order of importance, by animals related to the ancestors Herdade Alteza and Seta Caxias, Providência Itu and Tabatinga Predileto, Abaíba Marengo, Tabatinga Cossaco and Agaí Miron.

  9. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4m2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  10. Genetic subdivision of chemosynthetic endosymbionts of Solemya velum along the Southern New England coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frank J; Baik, Alan Hyun Y; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2009-09-01

    Population-level genetic diversity in the obligate symbiosis between the bivalve Solemya velum and its thioautotrophic bacterial endosymbiont was examined. Distinct populations along the New England coast shared a single mitochondrial genotype but were fixed for unique symbiont genotypes, indicating high levels of symbiont genetic structuring and potential symbiont-host decoupling.

  11. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  12. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  13. Molecular and quantitative trait variation within and among populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, Suzanne; Harrison, J Scott

    2003-10-01

    While molecular and quantitative trait variation may be theoretically correlated, empirical studies using both approaches frequently reveal discordant patterns, and these discrepancies can contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Here, we assessed genetic variation in six populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Molecular variation was estimated using five polymorphic microsatellite loci, and quantitative variation was measured using 22-life history and morphometric characters. Within populations, no correlation was found between the levels of molecular variation (heterozygosity) and quantitative variation (heritability). Between populations, quantitative subdivision (Q(ST)) was correlated with molecular subdivision when measured as F(ST) but not when measured as R(ST). Unlike most taxa studied to date, the overall level of molecular subdivision exceeded the level of quantitative subdivision (F(ST) = 0.80, R(ST) = 0.89, Q(ST) = 0.30). Factors that could contribute to this pattern include stabilizing or fluctuating selection on quantitative traits or accelerated rates of molecular evolution.

  14. Population dynamics of Anopheles nuneztovari in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Correa, Margarita M

    2016-11-01

    Anopheles nuneztovari is an important Colombian malaria vector widespread on both sides of the Andean Mountains, presenting morphological, behavioral and genetic heterogeneity throughout the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the population structure and distribution of An. nuneztovari in Colombia are associated with ecological and physical barriers present in a heterogeneous landscape. Further, differences in behavior were addressed. A total of 5392 specimens of An. nuneztovari were collected. Mitochondrial and nuclear marker analyses detected subdivision among the northwest-west, northeast and east populations. For both markers, isolation by distance (~53%) and isolation by resistance (>30%) were determinants of population genetic differentiation. This suggests that physical barriers, geographical distance and ecological differences on both sides of the Andean Mountains promoted the genetic differentiation and population subdivision of An. nuneztovari in Colombia. This species showed the highest biting activity after 20:00h; indoor and outdoor preferences were found in all localities. These results indicated that the most effective interventions for controlling vector populations on both sides of the Andes need to be region-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding relations between breeding bird species and extreme weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, A.; Bateman, B.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Radeloff, V.; Vavrus, S. J.; Keuler, N.; Clayton, M.; Albright, T.; Thogmartin, W.; Heglund, P.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events are increasing in frequency due to climate change. Extreme weather events like periods of drought or cold snaps may impose hardship on many animal and plant populations. However, little is known about biotic response to extreme events. For example, some species experience population size changes in association with extreme weather, and some do not. However the mechanisms responsible for observed declines in avian abundance following heat waves and drought are not clear. Our goal was to characterize the population changes of North American bird species in relation to temperature and precipitation extremes using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. We derived standardized measures of extreme precipitation and air temperature based on phase 2 NASA Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), an hourly 1/8 degree resolution land surface forcing dataset, and modeled population responses, during the breeding season, of 363 bird species. Of those species in which a change was observed, many demonstrated decreases in total population size, suggesting either mortality or reproductive failure (or both) are the causative mechanisms of this decline. A greater proportion of population changes were associated with extreme conditions in the same year than in the previous year. Some species exhibited population decreases in areas of extreme weather and increases in areas with environmental conditions more favorable to breeding while overall abundance remained relatively constant, which might indicate movement. The patterns of bird population changes in relation to extreme weather events provide insight for planners as they consider modifications to our national protected area network that will limit threats posed by climate change to bird populations.

  16. Not All Larvae Stay Close to Home: Insights into Marine Population Connectivity with a Focus on the Brown Surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A. Eble

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports of localized larval recruitment in predominately small-range fishes are countered by studies that show high genetic connectivity across large oceanic distances. This discrepancy may result from the different timescales over which genetic and demographic processes operate or rather may indicate regular long-distance dispersal in some species. Here, we contribute an analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b diversity in the widely distributed Brown Surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus; N=560, which revealed significant genetic structure only at the extremes of the range (ΦCT=0.452; P<.001. Collections from Hawaii to the Eastern Indian Ocean comprise one large, undifferentiated population. This pattern of limited genetic subdivision across reefs of the central Indo-Pacific has been observed in a number of large-range reef fishes. Conversely, small-range fishes are often deeply structured over the same area. These findings demonstrate population connectivity differences among species at biogeographic and evolutionary timescales, which likely translates into differences in dispersal ability at ecological and demographic timescales. While interspecific differences in population connectivity complicate the design of management strategies, the integration of multiscale connectivity patterns into marine resource planning will help ensure long-term ecosystem stability by preserving functionally diverse communities.

  17. Mathematical model for the spread of extreme ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model to understand the spread of extreme ideology in a closed population will be discussed in this paper. Human population divided into five sub-population, i.e virgin sub-population, semi fanatic sub-population, fanatic sub-population, aware sub-population and recovered sub-population. Intervention to rehabilitate first three sub-population (virgin, semi fanatic and fanatic) included in this model as an effort by the government to control the spread of the ideology. Equilibrium points and their threshold conditions are shown analytically. Some numerical simulation are given to support the analytic results. It is shown that isolate fanatic people and educate them is a better solution rather than to give an education about the danger of the extreme ideology to source population.

  18. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  20. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  1. Weather and Climate Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Antarctica’s highest (New Zealand Antarctic Society, 1974). This extreme exceeded the record of 58°F (14.4°C) that occurred on 20 October 1956 at Esperanza ... Esperanza (also known as Bahia Esperanza , Hope Bay) was in operation from 1945 through the early 1960s. Meteorological/Climatological Factors: This extreme...cm) Location: Grand Ilet, La R’eunion Island [21°00’S, 55°30’E] Date: 26 January 1980 WORLD’S GREATEST 24-HOUR RAINFALL 72 in (182.5 cm

  2. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  3. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  4. International spinal cord injury upper extremity basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft.......iscos.org.uk). CONCLUSION: The International SCI Upper Extremity Basic Data Set will facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population....... of a SCI Upper Extremity Data Set was developed by an international working group. This was reviewed by many different organisations, societies and individuals over several months. A final version was created. VARIABLES: The final version of the International SCI Upper Extremity Data Set contains variables...

  5. FLORAE MALESIANAE PRAECURSORES XVI ON THE TAXONOMIC SUBDIVISION OF THE GLEICHENIACEAE, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW MALAYSIAN SPECIES AND VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. HOLTTUM

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available A new subdivision is given of the fern family Gleicheniaceae. Thegenus Platyzoma R. Br is excluded from the family. The genus Stroma-topteris from New Caledonia is arranged in a distinct subfamily. In theremainder of the family, subfamily Gleichenioideae, two genera are recognized, Gleichenia (with subgenera Diplopterygium, Gleichenia, andMertensia and Dicranopteris (with subgenera Acropterygium and Dicra-nopteris . The problem of subdividing the family is discussed withreference to former treatments and to new data, and a conspectus of thenew system, with synonymy and key to the genera and subgenera, is given. A number of new species, new varieties, and new combinations is made both in Gleichenia and Dicranopteris.

  6. The Canarian Camel: A Traditional Dromedary Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The domestic camel (dromedary is the most important livestock species in the Canary Islands and the most important autochthonous European camel population. After six centuries of a successful adaptation process to the particular environment of the Canary Islands, the abandonment of traditional agriculture has led this population to a major bottleneck. Along with a lack of foreign genetic interchanges, this could lead the population to the brink of extinction. Genetic analysis using 13 microsatellites showed the closest genetic proximity to the North African (Tindouf, Algeria camel population and a certain degree of sub-division, with significant genetic differences among breeders. An important level of genetic differentiation among the different populations analyzed was found with a global FST value of 0.116.

  7. On extreme points of the diffusion polytope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. J.; Schiff, J.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-05-01

    We consider a class of diffusion problems defined on simple graphs in which the populations at any two vertices may be averaged if they are connected by an edge. The diffusion polytope is the convex hull of the set of population vectors attainable using finite sequences of these operations. A number of physical problems have linear programming solutions taking the diffusion polytope as the feasible region, e.g. the free energy that can be removed from plasma using waves, so there is a need to describe and enumerate its extreme points. We review known results for the case of the complete graph Kn, and study a variety of problems for the path graph Pn and the cyclic graph Cn. We describe the different kinds of extreme points that arise, and identify the diffusion polytope in a number of simple cases. In the case of increasing initial populations on Pn the diffusion polytope is topologically an n-dimensional hypercube.

  8. Loss of genetic diversity and increased subdivision in an endemic Alpine Stonefly threatened by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Steve; Giersch, Jonathan J.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hotalling, Scott; Fanning, Liz; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the genetic status and population connectivity of high-elevation and high-latitude freshwater invertebrates, which often persist near snow and ice masses that are disappearing due to climate change. Here we report on the conservation genetics of the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana (Ricker) of Montana, USA, a cold-water obligate species. We sequenced 1530 bp of mtDNA from 116 L. tumana individuals representing “historic” (>10 yr old) and 2010 populations. The dominant haplotype was common in both time periods, while the second-most-common haplotype was found only in historic samples, having been lost in the interim. The 2010 populations also showed reduced gene and nucleotide diversity and increased genetic isolation. We found lower genetic diversity in L. tumana compared to two other North American stonefly species, Amphinemura linda (Ricker) and Pteronarcys californica Newport. Our results imply small effective sizes, increased fragmentation, limited gene flow, and loss of genetic variation among contemporary L. tumana populations, which can lead to reduced adaptive capacity and increased extinction risk. This study reinforces concerns that ongoing glacier loss threatens the persistence of L. tumana, and provides baseline data and analysis of how future environmental change could impact populations of similar organisms.

  9. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet-Nales, D.A. van; Doeve, M.E.; Nicia, A.E.; Teerenstra, S.; Notenboom, K.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bemt, B.J.F van den

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. METHODS: Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand brea

  10. 13,16-Dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid), a common membrane-spanning lipid of Acidobacteria subdivisions 1 and 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Foesel, B.U.; Overmann, J.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid

  11. 一种新的基于四面体的体细分方法%A New Volumetric Subdivision Scheme of Tetrahedral Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 潘日晶

    2012-01-01

    A new subdivision scheme for tetrahedral meshes is proposed. Previous tetra-hedral subdivision schemes encoded directional preferences, or subdivided a tetrahedron into tetrahedrons and octahedrons, which result increased complexity in representation and operation to the meshes. The proposed method solves the problems to a certain extent. For the volumetric meshes of tetrahedron, the inners of the meshes are subdivided by using the volumetric subdivision, and the surfaces of the meshes are subdivided by using a quasi-Loop surface subdivision with a parameter to control the shapes of the solids.%提出了一种新的四面体网格细分方法,之前的体细分方法存在着对角线选择或者四面体细分成四面体和八面体的问题,增加了表示和处理的复杂性.新方法较好地解决了上述问题,对一个由四面体单元组成的网格实体,体内进行体细分,细分后的体网格全部由四面体单元组成,而实体的表面,采用一种带参数的类Loop曲面细分,用于控制实体的形状.

  12. Functional subdivisions in the left angular gyrus where the semantic system meets and diverges from the default network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Fagan, Elizabeth; Price, Cathy J

    2010-12-15

    The left angular gyrus (AG) is reliably activated across a wide range of semantic tasks, and is also a consistently reported component of the so-called default network that it is deactivated during all goal-directed tasks. We show here that there is only partial overlap between the semantic system and the default network in left AG and the overlap defines a reliable functional landmark that can be used to segregate functional subdivisions within AG. In 94 healthy human subjects, we collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during fixation and eight goal directed tasks that involved semantic matching, perceptual matching or speech production in response to familiar or unfamiliar stimuli presented in either verbal (letters) or nonverbal (pictures) formats. Our results segregated three different left AG regions that were all activated by semantic relative to perceptual matching: (1) a midregion (mAG) that overlapped with the default network because it was deactivated during all tasks relative to fixation; (2) a dorsomesial region (dAG) that was more activated by all tasks relative to fixation; and (3) a ventrolateral region (vAG) that was only activated above fixation during semantic matching. By examining the effects of task and stimuli in each AG subdivision, we propose that mAG is involved in semantic associations regardless of the presence or absence of a stimulus; dAG is involved in searching for semantics in all visual stimuli, and vAG is involved in the conceptual identification of visual inputs. Our findings provide a framework for reporting and interpreting AG activations with greater definition.

  13. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable ext

  14. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tend to impact at arterial bifurcations, the commonest site being the ... Other ominous signs of advanced ischaemia include bluish ... Recommended standards for lower extremity ischaemia*. Doppler signals ... of the embolectomy procedure. An ... in a cath-lab or angio-suite under local ... We serially measure the aPTT and.

  15. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  16. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  17. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  18. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  19. Interpretation of Extreme Scattering Events

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    2000-01-01

    Extreme Scattering Events are sometimes manifest in the light-curves of compact radio-quasars at frequencies of a few GHz. These events are not understood. The model which appears to offer the best explanation requires a new population of AU-sized, neutral gas clouds; these clouds would then make up a large fraction of the Galaxy's dark matter. Independent of the question of which theoretical model is correct, if we extrapolate the observed behaviour to low radio-frequencies, we expect that the sky should be criss-crossed by a network of narrow caustics, at frequencies below about 700 MHz. Consequently at these frequencies sources should typically manifest additional, faint images which are substantially delayed with respect to the primary image. Although some examples of this type of behaviour are already known, it is expected that these are just the tip of the iceberg, with strong selection biases having been imposed by the instrumentation employed to date.

  20. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  1. Analysis of multivariate extreme intakes of food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.; Voet, van der H.; Wood, J.C.; Marion, G.R.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A recently published multivariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) model [Heffernan, J.E., Tawn, J.A., 2004. A conditional approach for multivariate extreme values (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 66 (3), 497¿546] is applied to the estimation of population risks associa

  2. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  3. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  4. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  5. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  6. Extremal periodic wave profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Groesen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to deterministic investigations into extreme fluid surface waves, in this paper wave profiles of prescribed period that have maximal crest height will be investigated. As constraints the values of the momentum and energy integrals are used in a simplified description with the KdV model. The result is that at the boundary of the feasible region in the momentum-energy plane, the only possible profiles are the well known cnoidal wave profiles. Inside the feasible region the extremal profiles of maximal crest height are "cornered" cnoidal profiles: cnoidal profiles of larger period, cut-off and periodically continued with the prescribed period so that at the maximal crest height a corner results.

  7. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  8. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  9. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  10. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  11. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  12. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  13. Biological Extreme Events - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschick, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    Biological extreme events span wide ranges temporally and spatially and in type - population dieoffs, extinctions, ecological reorganizations, changes in biogeochemical fluxes, and more. Driving variables consist in meteorology, tectonics, orbital changes, anthropogenic changes (land-use change, species introductions, reactive N injection into the biosphere), and evolution (esp. of diseases). However, the mapping of extremes in the drivers onto biological extremes as organismal responses is complex, as laid out originally in the theoretical framework of Gutschick and BassiriRad (New Phytologist [2003] 100:21-42). Responses are nonlinear and dependent on (mostly unknown and) complex temporal sequences - often of multiple environmental variables. The responses are species- and genotype specific. I review extreme events over from past to present over wide temporal scales, while noting that they are not wholly informative of responses to the current and near-future drivers for at least two reasons: 1) the current combination of numerous environmental extremes - changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation, reactive N, land fragmentation, O3, etc. -is unprecedented in scope, and 2) adaptive genetic variation for organismal responses is constrained by poorly-characterized genetic structures (in organisms and populations) and by loss of genetic variation by genetic drift over long periods. We may expect radical reorganizations of ecosystem and biogeochemical functions. These changes include many ecosystem services in flood control, crop pollination and insect/disease control, C-water-mineral cycling, and more, as well as direct effects on human health. Predictions of such changes will necessarily be very weak in the critical next few decades, given the great deal of observation, experimentation, and theory construction that will be necessary, on both organisms and drivers. To make the research efforts most effective will require extensive, insightful planning, beginning

  14. Genetic subdivision and candidate genes under selection in North American grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Rena M; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Harrigan, Ryan; Knowles, James C; Musiani, Marco; Coltman, David; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of the highly mobile grey wolf (Canis lupus) found population structure that coincides with habitat and phenotype differences. We hypothesized that these ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) should exhibit signatures of selection in genes related to morphology, coat colour and metabolism. To test these predictions, we quantified population structure related to habitat using a genotyping array to assess variation in 42 036 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 111 North American grey wolves. Using these SNP data and individual-level measurements of 12 environmental variables, we identified six ecotypes: West Forest, Boreal Forest, Arctic, High Arctic, British Columbia and Atlantic Forest. Next, we explored signals of selection across these wolf ecotypes through the use of three complementary methods to detect selection: FST /haplotype homozygosity bivariate percentilae, bayescan, and environmentally correlated directional selection with bayenv. Across all methods, we found consistent signals of selection on genes related to morphology, coat coloration, metabolism, as predicted, as well as vision and hearing. In several high-ranking candidate genes, including LEPR, TYR and SLC14A2, we found variation in allele frequencies that follow environmental changes in temperature and precipitation, a result that is consistent with local adaptation rather than genetic drift. Our findings show that local adaptation can occur despite gene flow in a highly mobile species and can be detected through a moderately dense genomic scan. These patterns of local adaptation revealed by SNP genotyping likely reflect high fidelity to natal habitats of dispersing wolves, strong ecological divergence among habitats, and moderate levels of linkage in the wolf genome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  16. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric JIGUET; Lluis BROTONS; Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-01-01

    Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. Soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes) have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate.

  17. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution...... of polymorphism at the selected loci at equilibrium, and to compare the results with those expected for a neutral locus. The results show that the expected number of alleles maintained, and numbers of nucleotide differences between alleles, are relatively insensitive to the migration rate, and differentiation...... remains low even under very restricted migration. However, nucleotide divergence between copies of functionally identical alleles increases sharply when migration decreases. These results are discussed in relation to published surveys of allelic diversity in MHC and plant self-incompatibility systems...

  18. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  19. Changes in the bacterial populations of the highly alkaline saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico) following flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    Flooding an extreme alkaline-saline soil decreased alkalinity and salinity, which will change the bacterial populations. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were generated of three soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. soil with EC 1.7 dS m(-1) and pH 7.80 (LOW soil), with EC 56 dS m(-1) and pH 10.11 (MEDIUM soil) and with EC 159 dS m(-1) and pH 10.02 (HIGH soil), using universal bacterial oligonucleotide primers, and 463 clone 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. Library proportions and clone identification of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi showed that the bacterial communities were different. Species and genera of the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Xanthomonadales orders of the alpha- and gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria were found at the three sites. Species and genera of the Rhodospirillales, Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales, Oscillatoriales and Caldilineales were found only in the HIGH soil, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the MEDIUM soil, Myxococcales in the LOW soil, and Actinomycetales in the MEDIUM and LOW soils. It was found that the largest diversity at the order and species level was found in the MEDIUM soil as bacteria of both the HIGH and LOW soils were found in it.

  20. Management system for the budgetary exercise of the subdivision of technology and professional development (STDP) of Petroleos Mexicanos; Sistema de administracion para el ejercicio presupuestal de la subdivision de tecnologia y desarrollo profesional (STDP) de Petroleos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava Lara, Eric Rafael; Santos Dominguez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera Lavin, Jesus Xavier [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Management System for the Budgetary Exercise (SAEP) arises from the necessity of supporting the programming processes for the budget allocation to the technological projects of the Subdivision of Technology and Profesional Development (STPD). This system allows recovering the budget partial or complete information facilitating the adjustments to this same one before integrating them to the budget assignation system (SAP). It also allows to control the expenses of the projects as well as of the exercise of the budget, and orchestrates an internal control for the technical and financial approval of the countable commitments and the budget expenses before taking the proceeding through the mechanisms of registry with the SAP. [Spanish] El Sistema de Administracion para el Ejercicio Presupuestal (SAEP) surge de la necesidad de apoyar los procesos de programacion para la asignacion del presupuesto a los proyectos tecnologicos de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (STPD). Este sistema permite recuperar la informacion parcial o completa del presupuesto facilitando las adecuaciones a este mismo antes de integrarlas al Sistema de Asignacion de Presupuesto (SAP). Tambien permite controlar los gastos, tanto de los proyectos como de los ejercicios del presupuesto e instrumenta un control interno para la aprobacion tecnica y financiera de los compromisos contables y las erogaciones del presupuesto antes de llevar el tramite a traves de los mecanismos de registro con el (SAP).

  1. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  2. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  3. Mycetoma of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahariah S

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of mycetoma of the lower extremity were seen and treated at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India, during the years 1973 to 1975. Six were treated by conservative method e.g. antibiotics, sulfonamides and immobilization of the part while remaining four were submitted t o surgery. Four out o f six from the first group had recurrence and has been put on second line of therapy. Recurrence occurred in only one case from the second group and he required an above knee amputation while the remaining three are free of disease and are well rehabilitated.

  4. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles.

  5. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  6. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  7. Entorhinal cortex of the rat: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and the origin and distribution of cortical efferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, R; Herrero, M T; Witter, M P

    1997-01-01

    The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory), occipital (visual), cingulate, retrosplenial, insular, and perirhinal cortices. Anterograde tracer injections were placed in various parts of the rat entorhinal cortex to demonstrate the laminar and topographical distribution of the cortical projections of the entorhinal cortex. The retrograde experiments showed that each cortical area explored receives projections from a specific set of entorhinal neurons, limited in number and distribution. By far the most extensive entorhinal projection was directed to the perirhinal cortex. This projection, which arises from all layers, originates throughout the entorhinal cortex, although its major origin is from the more lateral and caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Projections to the medial frontal cortex and olfactory structures originate largely in layers II and III of much of the intermediate and medial portions of the entorhinal cortex, although a modest component arises from neurons in layer V of the more caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Neurons in layer V of an extremely laterally located strip of entorhinal cortex, positioned along the rhinal fissure, give rise to the projections to lateral frontal (motor), parietal (somatosensory), temporal (auditory), occipital (visual), anterior insular, and cingulate cortices. Neurons in layer V of the most caudal part of the entorhinal cortex originate projections to the retrosplenial cortex. The anterograde experiments confirmed these findings and showed that in general, the terminal fields of the entorhinal-cortical projections were densest in layers I, II, and III, although particularly in the more densely

  8. 江浙沪地区历史重大洪涝灾害情景下的人口和GDP物理暴露量分析%EXPOSURE OF GDP AND POPULATION UNDER THE SCENARIOS OF HISTORICAL EXTREME FLOOD YEARS IN JIANGSU-ZHEJIANG-SHANGHAI AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红铸; 崔玉娟; 叶瑜; 方修琦

    2013-01-01

    The research of flood disasters in history could provide analogies for better understanding the mechanism and impacts of the current and future floods.Today the research of historical flood is playing a more and more important role in the risk assessment and prediction.During the recent 300 years,there were lots of floods in China,especially in the southeast China,which can be given evidences by lots of historical documents before the instrumental meteorological observation.It can help to make sure the advantage of doing research on historical floods in China.This paper selected Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanghai provinces as the study area and constructed the historical floods database from 1644 to 1949AD according to historical document.The historical extreme flood years were identified according to the statistic analysis of annual floods counties.Then the paper analyzed the exposure of population and GDP of this area in 2010 under the scenarios of these historical extreme floods years without caring about the changes of the characters of hazard-affected bodies and margin of exposure.Results are as follow.(1) The worst-hit year in recent 300 years in Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai area was 1931AD,and the frequency of this flood was once in 300 years,which involved about eighty-six counties.The worse-hit years were 1823 and 1849AD and their frequency were between once in 100 years and once in 300 years,which involved about eighty counties.In 1670,1683,1804AD,the frequency were between once in 50 years and once in 100 years,which involved about sixty to seventy counties.(2) The paper recovered the spatial distribution of these historical extreme floods through the GIS tool and statistics.It is found that disastrous areas were mainly distributed in the Yangtze River Delta Area,including shanghai,the southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang.(3) It calculated the exposure of GDP and population in Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai area in 2010 under the scenario of these extreme floods,it is

  9. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife

    OpenAIRE

    van Riet-Nales, D.A.; Doeve, M.E.; Nicia, A.E.; Teerenstra, S; Notenboom, K.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bemt, B.J.F. van den

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. METHODS: Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand breaking, tablet splitter, kitchen knife. A best case drug (paracetamol), tablet (round, flat, uncoated, 500 mg) and operator (24-year student) were applied. Hundred tablets were subdivided by hand and...

  10. 一种平面点集Voronoi图的细分算法%A Subdivision Algorithm for Voronoi Diagram of Planar Point Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿华好; 袁子薇; 缪永伟; 王丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Voronoi diagram is one of the most important concepts in computational geometry, It is applied widely in computer graphics, computational geometry, computer aided geometric design, finite element grid partition, robot trajectory control, pattern recognition, meteorology and geology. Based on quadtree data structure and interval arithmetic technique, a new subdivision algorithm for Voronoi diagram of a planar point set is proposed. A comparison of this subdivision algorithm with the well known incremental algorithm and grid expansion method is conducted. Test results show that the subdivision algorithm is more efficient. The most important is that the idea of subdivision algorithm is very simple and therefore it is easy to implement.%Voronoi图是计算几何中的重要概念之一,在计算机图形学、计算几何、计算机辅助几何设计、有限元网格划分、机器人轨迹控制、模式识别、气象学和地质学研究中得到广泛应用.借助于四又树和区间算术,提出了一种新的构造平面点集Voronoi图的细分算法,并且和经典的增量算法、栅格扩张法进行了比较,结果显示新细分算法更为有效.最重要的是细分算法原理简单,很容易编程实现.

  11. Three Novel Species with Peptidoglycan Cell Walls form the New Genus Lacunisphaera gen. nov. in the Family Opitutaceae of the Verrucomicrobial Subdivision 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Patrick; Glöckner, Ines; Boedeker, Christian; Jeske, Olga; Wiegand, Sandra; Reinhardt, Richard; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Glöckner, Frank O.; Jogler, Christian; Jogler, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall of free-living bacteria consists of peptidoglycan (PG) and is critical for maintenance of shape as dissolved solutes cause osmotic pressure and challenge cell integrity. Surprisingly, the subdivision 4 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia appears to be exceptional in this respect. Organisms of this subdivision are described to be devoid of muramic or diaminopimelic acid (DAP), usually found as components of PG in bacterial cell walls. Here we describe three novel bacterial strains from a freshwater lake, IG15T, IG16bT, and IG31T, belonging to a new genus in the subdivision 4 of Verrucomicrobia which we found to possess PG as part of their cell walls. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of DAP not only in these novel strains, but also in Opitutus terrae PB90-1T, the closest described relative of strains IG15T, IG16bT, and IG31T. Furthermore, we found that nearly all genes necessary for peptidoglycan synthesis are present in genomes of subdivision 4 members, as well as in the complete genome sequence of strain IG16bT. In addition, we isolated and visualized PG-sacculi for strain IG16bT. Thus, our results challenge the concept of peptidoglycan-less free-living bacteria. Our polyphasic taxonomy approach places the novel strains in a new genus within the family Opitutaceae, for which the name Lacunisphaera gen. nov. is proposed. Strain designations for IG15T, IG16bT and IG31T are Lacunisphaera parvula sp. nov. (=DSM 26814 = LMG 29468), L. limnophila sp. nov. (=DSM 26815 = LMG 29469) and L. anatis sp. nov. (=DSM 103142 = LMG 29578) respectively, with L. limnophila IG16bT being the type species of the genus. PMID:28243229

  12. RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT SUBDIVISIONS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern transport systems are not stable and can not stand up to the destabilizing factors. Global track record in the economic and commercial management systems is the use of the concept of sustainable development. It is necessary on the basis of analysis of literary sources to define the directions of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions from the point of view of sustainable development. Methodology. To achieve the purpose the features of the use of sustainable development conception and its realization were investigated at a management of the complex systems. The existent models were also analyzed in the field of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions. Findings. On the basis of literary sources analysis, keeping up the conceptual essence of the sustainable development, the main directions of efficiency increase of subdivisions functioning were selected. They take into account the basic requirements of steady development and should be considered as a complex. Originality. New directions to consider the efficiency increase issues from position of sustainable development were offered by the author. Three components of conceptions of sustainable development (economic, ecological and social should be examined in a balanced way. Thus, the above mentioned theoretical studies can promote the forming of new economy model corresponding to the purposes and principles of sustainable development. Practical value. The conducted analysis development confirms the necessity of researches on perspective directions of development of railway transport subdivisions, which are marked by the guidance of Ukrzaliznytsia. It enables to select basic directions for further research in the area of efficiency increase.

  13. Microsatellite DNA analysis of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) populations: insights into the genetic structure and demographic history of a genetically depauperate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    The northern pike Esox lucius L. is a freshwater fish exhibiting pronounced population subdivision and low genetic variability. However, there is limited knowledge on phylogeographical patterns within the species, and it is not known whether the low genetic variability reflects primarily current...

  14. Strong Edge Coloring of the Subdivision Graph of Lattices Graphs%网格图的剖分图的强边染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄会芸

    2012-01-01

    The strong edge coloring of the subdivision graph of three kinds of lattices graphs is discussed. The subdivision graph of one lattice graph is achieved by replacing every edge of the lattice graph with one route which has a distance of two. This paper introduces one method of coloring for the subdivision graph of hexagonal lattice graph, quadrangular lattice graph and trigngnlar net graph, and then proves that Sχ'(Г6s)=4,Sχ'(Г4s)=5,Sχ'(Г3S)=7.%研究了3种网格图的剖分图的强边着色.网格图的剖分图是指用一个长为2的路去替换网格图的每条边.具体给出了六边形、四边形、三角形的网格剖分图的一种着色方法,以此为基础证明了Sχ'(Г6s)=4,Sχ'(Г4s)=5,Sχ'(Г3S)=7.

  15. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  16. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Orlov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Explicit dyonic dilaton black holes of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for two particular values of the dilaton coupling constant $a =1,\\sqrt{3}$, while for other $a$ numerical evidence was presented earlier about existence of extremal dyons in theories with the discrete sequence of dilaton couplings $a=\\sqrt{n(n+1)/2}$ with integer $n$. Apart from the lower members $n=1,\\,2$, this family of theories does not have motivation from supersymmetry or higher dimensions, and so far the above quantization rule has not been derived analytically. We fill this gap showing that this rule follows from analyticity of the dilaton at the $AdS_2\\times S^2$ event horizon with $n$ being the leading dilaton power in the series expansion. We also present generalization for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  17. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  18. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  19. Extremely Red Quasars in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual "wingless" line profiles, large NV/Lya, NV/CIV, SiIV/CIV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [OIII] 5007. Here we present a new catalog of CIV and NV emission-line data for 216,188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR color, secondarily on REW(CIV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a "core" sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 > 4.6 (AB) and REW(CIV) > 100 A at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity log L (ergs/s) ~ 47.1, sk...

  20. Comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the Pacific hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Okuyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masato; Abe, Osamu; Arai, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. In this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. Phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and green turtles in the Pacific probably underwent very similar patterns and processes of population dynamics over the last million years, with population subdivision during the early Pleistocene and population expansion after the last glacial maximum. These significant contemporary historical events were suggested to have been caused by climatic and sea-level fluctuations. On the other hand, comparing our results to long-term population dynamics in the Atlantic, population subdivisions during the early Pleistocene were specific to Pacific hawksbill and green turtles. Therefore, regional differences in historical population dynamics are suggested. Despite limited sampling locations, these results are the first step in estimating the historical trends in Pacific sea turtles by using phylogenetics and population genetics.

  1. Study on subdivision index model for scene-based RS data%遥感分景数据的剖分索引模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亚平; 程承旗; 耿晓晖

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of space technology and earth observation technology, modern remote sensing technology has been able to provide worldwide observed data collected in many means in a dynamic, fast and accurate manner. In this stage, remote sensing data increase rapidly accordingly, and how to manage and retrieve these data efficiently has become a major issue in both academic and application areas. Global Subdivision System opens up new avenues for solution to this problem. This peper studies the characteristics of scene-based remote sensing data and the features of the EMD Global Subdivision Model, and then in regard to the disadvantages of the existing index methods for remote sensing data, three index models are put forward based on the EMD Global Subdivision Model: an index model based on the mapping relationships of images and meshes, an index model based on EMD data model and an index model for global subdivision data identifiers. These three index models explore the solution to the issue in three aspects. And an application example is given to create the index of linear objects and planar objects by use of the scene-based RS data subdivision index model. This study mainly addresses the following aspects. (1) This research studies the characteristics of scene-based remote sensing data and the features of the EMD Global Subdivision Model, as well as the map- ping relationships and corresponding criteria between them. (2) In regard to the lack of space-time recording capabilities in the current storage and index methods for remote sens- ing data, an index model based on the mapping relationships of images and meshes is put forward. (3) In regard to the lack of support for multi-scale data of the current index models for remote sensing data, an index model based on EMD data model is established. (4) In regard to the lack of a unified index framework for multi-source remote sensing data, an index model for global subdivision data

  2. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  3. Conservative management of Beta-thalassemia major cases in the sub-division level hospital of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Kundu, Dipankar; Sinha, Arijit; Banerjee, Kallol; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Mandal, Tridibeshwar; Ray, Debes

    2013-01-01

    The ideal management of thalassemia involves a multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach and should be preferably done at a comprehensive thalassemia care center with all sorts of specialists and the backup of a well-equipped blood bank. However, in developing country like ours, these facilities are not available in rural set up. So, a situation where conservative therapy with regular blood transfusion is the only choice left to innumerable thalassemic children. To evaluate the existing conservative management protocol of Beta-thalassemia major patients in the setup of a subdivision level Government Hospital of rural West Bengal, India. The study was performed between December 2009 and December 2011. Beta-thalassemia major patients, registered in blood bank for moderate transfusion regimen, were taken in study. All the patients were screened for Transfusion Transmittable Infections at the time of registration and thereafter periodically every six months. Iron chelation therapy was given simultaneously with transfusion at a dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for six days. The patients were advised to follow up with chelation therapy at home by daily infusion with a goal of maintaining serum ferritin level below 1000 ng/ml. Over this long period of study, the patients were periodically evaluated for complications. The average blood requirement (ml/kg/year) in 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-15 years were 110, 150, and 180, respectively. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in 1-5 years and 6-10 years were 1.75% and 2.08%, respectively. It is well seen that serum ferritin level increase with ascending age as does the blood consumption. Conservative management may be the best alternative and at times the only hope for patients in developing country like ours. However, in order to decrease the disease load, steps need to be taken to introduce preventive measures.

  4. [Genetic diversity and subdivision parameters of Colias crocea Fourc. and C. erate Esp. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Crimea according to allozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, A E; Simchuk, A P

    2008-01-01

    Some parameters of genetic diversity and subdivision were tested in syntopic Crimean populations of two species of the sulfur butterllies, Colias crocea Fourc. and C. erate Esp. by allozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses. Genetic diversity in each of the species compared appeared to be approximately equal: the portion of polimorphic loci P95 (99) is 67% for C. crocea and is 61% for C. erate. Paratypic forms of both species do not differ from nominative ones by parameters of genetic diversity. The mean expected heterozygosities (H'(e)) in the C. crocea, C. erate and their paratypic forms by the RAPD-PCD data are 24.3 +/- 4.4%, 21.7 +/- 4.2%, 26.4 +/- 4.1%, respectively. The observed heterozygosities by the allozyme data in other samples are considerably less than theoretically expected ones (H(o) = 15.6 +/- 3.3%, H(e) = 50.5 +/- 4.5% for C. crocea; H(o) = 17.95 +/- 6.15%, H(e) = 50.8 +/- 8% for C. erate, and H(o) = 24.2 +/- 7.5%, H(e) = 50.9 +/- 8.7% for paratypic forms, respectively). The mean observed heterozygosity in the paratypic forms of C. erate (f. androconiata, f. chrysodona, f. edusoides) is almost two times higher than that of the f. chlorodona and f. eratoides. Paratypic forms of both species differ from nominative ones (particularly from that of C. crocea) by the level of intrapopulation inbreeding and by the degree of gene flow (F = 0.691 for C. crocea, 0.646 for C. erate, and 0.524 for paratypic forms). One can suppose a significant gene exchange among adjacent populations of C. crocea and C. erate (Wright's F(ST) = 0.155 for 6 allozyme and 18 RAPD loci, Nm = 1.363). Nei's similarity coefficients (S) varies from 0.7554 among nominative C. crocea and C. erate (D(N) = 0.28) to 0.8092 among C. crocea and paratypic forms (D = 0.21) and to 0.8936 among C. erate and paratypic forms of both species (D(N) = 0.11). Paratypic forms with rounded valve margin preliminarily identified as C. crocea revealed a considerable degree of similarity to the paratypic forms of C

  5. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  6. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Magdalena; Calvo, Jorge H; Martínez, Marta; Marcos-Carcavilla, Ane; Cuevas, Javier; González, Carmen; Jurado, Juan J; de Tejada, Paloma Díez

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008) consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08) mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will facilitate the

  7. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  8. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...

  9. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  10. Extremal almost-Kahler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lejmi, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of the Futaki invariant and extremal vector field to the general almost-Kahler case and we prove the periodicity of the extremal vector field when the symplectic form represents an integral cohomology class modulo torsion. We give also an explicit formula of the hermitian scalar curvature which allows us to obtain examples of non-integrable extremal almost-Kahler metrics saturating LeBrun's estimates.

  11. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  12. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  13. Microhabitats reduce animal's exposure to climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Brett R; Edwards, David P; Diesmos, Arvin; Williams, Stephen E; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-02-01

    Extreme weather events, such as unusually hot or dry conditions, can cause death by exceeding physiological limits, and so cause loss of population. Survival will depend on whether or not susceptible organisms can find refuges that buffer extreme conditions. Microhabitats offer different microclimates to those found within the wider ecosystem, but do these microhabitats effectively buffer extreme climate events relative to the physiological requirements of the animals that frequent them? We collected temperature data from four common microhabitats (soil, tree holes, epiphytes, and vegetation) located from the ground to canopy in primary rainforests in the Philippines. Ambient temperatures were monitored from outside of each microhabitat and from the upper forest canopy, which represent our macrohabitat controls. We measured the critical thermal maxima (CTmax ) of frog and lizard species, which are thermally sensitive and inhabit our microhabitats. Microhabitats reduced mean temperature by 1-2 °C and reduced the duration of extreme temperature exposure by 14-31 times. Microhabitat temperatures were below the CTmax of inhabitant frogs and lizards, whereas macrohabitats consistently contained lethal temperatures. Microhabitat temperatures increased by 0.11-0.66 °C for every 1 °C increase in macrohabitat temperature, and this nonuniformity in temperature change influenced our forecasts of vulnerability for animal communities under climate change. Assuming uniform increases of 6 °C, microhabitats decreased the vulnerability of communities by up to 32-fold, whereas under nonuniform increases of 0.66 to 3.96 °C, microhabitats decreased the vulnerability of communities by up to 108-fold. Microhabitats have extraordinary potential to buffer climate and likely reduce mortality during extreme climate events. These results suggest that predicted changes in distribution due to mortality and habitat shifts that are derived from macroclimatic samples and that assume

  14. Exploring local perceptions and attributions of 'extreme' wildfire impacts in Rural Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M.; Paveglio, T.; Kallman, D.

    2013-12-01

    To date there have been few systematic efforts to uncover the criteria that local stakeholders use to perceive of and make judgments about the severity of wildfire impacts to the social-ecological systems they are a part of. The study presented here sought to uncover expanded understandings of perceived social and ecological impacts from a wildfire in rural Montana and the underlying causes for those perceived impacts. Such efforts could lead to more comprehensive social impact assessment concerning wildfires or other hazards and help better understand how local perceptions might influence residents' ongoing attitudes toward fire risk or mitigation efforts. The study presented here explored local perceptions of impact from the 2012 Dahl fire near Roundup, MT. The Dahl Fire burned 73 permanent structures, 150 outbuilding and 22,000 acres of predominantly private lands in the rural Bull Mountains. Members of the project team interviewed approximately 50 stakeholders impacted by or involved in the management for the Dahl Fire. Interviews took place in the summer of 2013 and included a variety of residents, emergency personnel, firefighters, local community officials and land management professionals. Results suggest that residents considered the Dahl fire especially impactful given the number of private residences and structures that were burned and the number of people displaced or disrupted by the event (either directly, through efforts to help those affected, or through indirect impacts to community function). The extremity of the firefighting conditions (e.g. wind, relative humidity, terrain), the rapidity of fire spread through populated areas and the damages sustained given previous fires in the area all surprised stakeholders and contributed to their perceptions of impact severity. Conflicts over access to properties during and immediately following the fire, and the variable perception that personal wildfire mitigations did little to reduce damages from the

  15. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  16. [Genetic structure, variability and differentiation of Pinus sylvestris L. populations in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Rastoch'e].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of electrophoretic analysis of 9 enzymous systems encoded by 20 gene loci the level of intra- and inter-population variation of two relict populations of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Ukrainian Carpathians and two ones in Rastochiye was studied. The less allele representation and the lower level of heterozygosity are typical for the Carpathian populations. Fst and Gst, parameters of populations subdivision, were not high--0.020 and 0.022 correspondingly and the coefficient DN was 0.008 in average. The results of the cluster analysis showed that only the populations of Rastochiye were united in one group indicating their genetic affinity.

  17. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  18. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  19. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  20. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Chang; Liqun Liang; Haitao Ma; Jianguo He; Xiaowen Sun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has higher commercial value as food source than any other species of Eriocheir in China.To evaluate the germplasm resources and characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of the crabs in different water systems,two stocks and two farming populations were assessed with 25 polymorphic microsallite loci available in public GenBank.Basic statistics showed that the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) amongst populations ranged from 0.5789 to 0.6824.However,a remarkable presence of inbreeding and heterozygote deficiencies were observed.To analyze population structure,pairwise FST coefficients explained only ~10.3% variability from the subdivision of mitten crab populations,the remaining variability stems from the subdivision within subpopulations.Although the four populations had slight differentiation,different allelic frequencies resulted in distinct population structures.Two stocks and one farming population were clustered together to the phylogenetic branch of Yangtze crab,with an approximate membership of 95%.Whereas,another fanning population was clustered singly to the phylogenetic branch of the Liaohe crab,with a membership of 97.1%.The tests for individual admixture showed that Yangtze crab had probably been contaminated with individuals from other water systems.Genetic relationships between populations also supported the conclusion that Yangtze crab and Liaohe crab had different gene pools in spite of the origins of the same species.

  1. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  2. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  3. Massachusetts hydrologic unit subdivisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Impervious surfaces such as paved roads, parking lots, and building roofs can affect the natural streamflow patterns and ecosystems of nearby streams. This data set...

  4. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  5. The CcrM DNA methyltransferase is widespread in the alpha subdivision of proteobacteria, and its essential functions are conserved in Rhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R; Stephens, C; Shapiro, L

    1997-09-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus DNA methyltransferase CcrM (M.CcrMI) methylates the adenine residue in the sequence GANTC. The CcrM DNA methyltransferase is essential for viability, but it does not appear to be part of a DNA restriction-modification system. CcrM homologs are widespread in the alpha subdivision of gram-negative bacteria. We have amplified and sequenced a 258-bp region of the cerM gene from several of these bacteria, including Rhizobium meliloti, Brucella abortus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that these proteins constitute a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase family. Isolation of the full-length ccrM genes from the aquatic bacterium C. crescentus, the soil bacterium R. meliloti, and the intracellular pathogen B. abortus showed that this sequence conservation extends over the entire protein. In at least two alpha subdivision bacteria, R. meliloti and C. crescentus, CcrM-mediated methylation has important cellular functions. In both organisms, CcrM is essential for viability. Overexpression of CcrM in either bacterium results in defects in cell division and cell morphology and in the initiation of DNA replication. Finally, the C. crescentus and R. meliloti ccrM genes are functionally interchangeable, as the complemented strains are viable and the chromosomes are methylated. Thus, in both R. meliloti and C. crescentus, CcrM methylation is an integral component of the cell cycle. We speculate that CcrM-mediated DNA methylation is likely to have similar roles among alpha subdivision bacteria.

  6. Molecular subdivision of the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula in relation to geographic distribution, genome size, and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittaker Kerry A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine phytoplankton drift passively with currents, have high dispersal potentials and can be comprised of morphologically cryptic species. To examine molecular subdivision in the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula, variations in rDNA sequence, genome size, and growth rate were examined among isolates collected from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Analyses of rDNA included T. gravida because morphological studies have argued that T. rotula and T. gravida are conspecific. Results Culture collection isolates of T. gravida and T. rotula diverged by 7.0 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and by 0.8 ± 0.03% at the 28S. Within T. rotula, field and culture collection isolates were subdivided into three lineages that diverged by 0.6 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and 0% at the 28S. The predicted ITS1 secondary structure revealed no compensatory base pair changes among lineages. Differences in genome size were observed among isolates, but were not correlated with ITS1 lineages. Maximum acclimated growth rates of isolates revealed genotype by environment effects, but these were also not correlated with ITS1 lineages. In contrast, intra-individual variation in the multi-copy ITS1 revealed no evidence of recombination amongst lineages, and molecular clock estimates indicated that lineages diverged 0.68 Mya. The three lineages exhibited different geographic distributions and, with one exception, each field sample was dominated by a single lineage. Conclusions The degree of inter- and intra-specific divergence between T. gravida and T. rotula suggests they should continue to be treated as separate species. The phylogenetic distinction of the three closely-related T. rotula lineages was unclear. On the one hand, the lineages showed no physiological differences, no consistent genome size differences and no significant changes in the ITS1 secondary structure, suggesting there are no barriers to interbreeding among lineages. In contrast, analysis of intra

  7. 基于 CUDA 的细分曲面阴影体算法%CUDA based shadow volume algorithm for subdivision surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰伊; 唐敏; 童若锋

    2012-01-01

    为了在虚拟现实、电脑游戏等图形应用中更快速生成和实时绘制细分曲面的阴影,提出采用CUDA架构的GPU阴影体生成算法.该算法采用基于CUDA的曲面细分算法,通过CUDA共享内存结构使表面细分过程更加高效.采用基于CUDA的阴影体算法产生阴影轮廓线以及拉伸出阴影体.通过基于CUDA的流式缩减算法对阴影体数组进行压缩.通过优化CUDA和OpenGL的互操作,将绘制过程从以往算法的3步减少为2步.该算法在具有CUDA硬件的标准PC上进行测试.实验结果表明,与之前的GPU的算法相比,该算法可以生成更复杂细分曲面的阴影体,阴影体数组占用显存空间降低到2%以下,并可获得高达4倍的绘制速度提升.%A new GPU based shadow volume generation algorithm based on CUDA structure was proposed for fast generation and real-time rendering of shadow of subdivision surfaces in computer games and virtual reality applications. The algorithm introduces CUDA-based surface subdivision algorithm. Generation of surface subdivisions can run faster by using shared memory structure. CUDA-based shadow volume algorithm was introduced to generate the shadow silhouette line and extrude the shadow volume. CUDA-based stream reduction algorithm was introduced to reduce the shadow volume array. An optimized interopera-tion between CUDA and OPENGL was introduced to simplify the rendering step of the algorithm from three steps to two steps. Implemented on a standard PC with CUDA hardware, experiments show that the algorithm can generate the shadow volume of more complex subdivision surfaces compared with former GPU-based ones. The algorithm needs smaller video memory for the shadow volume array to less than 2%, and the rendering performance can gain acceleration up to more than four times.

  8. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  9. Extreme Thrombocytosis and Cardiovascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thrombocytosis is a major risk factor for excessive bleeding and for thrombosis, either of which can complicate cardiovascular surgical and interventional procedures. Extreme thrombocytosis can also cause an unusual syndrome, erythromelalgia, that results in a type of chronic microvascular occlusive arterial disease. We present the differential diagnosis of conditions that may lead to extreme thrombocytosis, 3 cases (each of which illustrates a different potential complication), and a review of the pertinent medical literature. Correcting excessive thrombocytosis is typically not difficult, whether electively or acutely, and effective therapy usually controls thrombosis and excessive hemorrhage postprocedurally. PMID:23304015

  10. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Jeremy S; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 Msun Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 10^51 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 Msun, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blastwave deposited metals on...

  11. Extreme hypertriglyceridemia managed with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuzar, Moe; Shenoy, Vasant V; Malabu, Usman H; Schrale, Ryan; Sangla, Kunwarjit S

    2014-01-01

    Extreme hypertriglyceridemia can lead to acute pancreatitis and rapid lowering of serum triglycerides (TG) is necessary for preventing such life-threatening complications. However, there is no established consensus on the acute management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of extreme hypertriglyceridemia with mean serum TG on presentation of 101.5 ± 23.4 mmol/L (8982 ± 2070 mg/dL) managed with insulin. Serum TG decreased by 87 ± 4% in 24 hours in those patients managed with intravenous insulin and fasting and 40 ± 8.4% in those managed with intravenous insulin alone (P = .0003). The clinical course was uncomplicated in all except 1 patient who subsequently developed a pancreatic pseudocyst. Thus, combination of intravenous insulin with fasting appears to be an effective, simple, and safe treatment strategy in immediate management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  13. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  14. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  15. Deformations of extremal toric manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact toric extremal K\\"ahler manifold. Using the work of Sz\\'ekelyhidi, we provide a simple criterion on the fan describing $X$ to ensure the existence of complex deformations of $X$ that carry extremal metrics. As an example, we find new CSC metrics on 4-points blow-ups of $\\C\\P^1\\times\\C\\P^1$.

  16. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  17. Observed Statistics of Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    9 Figure 5. An energy stealing wave as a solution to the NLS equation . (From: Dysthe and...shown that nonlinear interaction between four colliding waves can produce extreme wave behavior. He utilized the NLS equation in his numerical ...2000) demonstrated the formation of extreme waves using the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) equation , which is valid in shallow water. It was shown in the

  18. Weather Extremes Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    or ever has occurred. According to M. A. Arkin, "... record extremes must be taken with a grain of salt .... Ř He explains that news of an extreme...the edge of the Danakil Depression, a salt desert. By averaging the annual mean daily maximum temperature of 106°F36 atid the annual mean daily...increased by orographic lifting.1" Asa result of these monsoon disturbances, which are still not fully understood, the eastern Himalayan 105 106

  19. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Quattrochi, Dale; Runkle, Jennifer; Schreck, Carl J., III

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  20. CURRENT STATUS, TRENDS AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE STATE INSPECTION FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. ERMOLAEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state, trends and contradictions in organization of the work of the Russian traffic police subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior, following the requirements of the President regarding education of law-abiding citizens. After the road accident that had occurred in Khabarovsk region on August 5, 2015, when 68 people were injured, 15 people died, Vladimir Putin conducted a session of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the session, the President assigned the task to develop additional measures of safety on the roads. The complex plan, proposed by I. Shuvalov and aimed at reducing deaths on the roads, includes some different aspects: interaction with information agencies for publishing the data on dangerous sections of roads; strengthening of requirements to organizations engaged in transporting citizens; the use of helicopters to provide medical aid for victims of traffic accidents. The First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation paid special attention to education of road users, introduction of norms of driver’s behavior, emergence of the term «dangerous driving» and strengthening of the responsibility for driving while intoxicated. For many years, the educational function has been assigned to police officers, namely to the traffic police. However, in some regions of the Russian Federation there is a reduction of police regular staff officers, including the State Inspection for road traffic safety of territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation. 

  1. Different cortical projections from three subdivisions of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus: a single-neuron tracing study with viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    The lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LP) is one of the components of the extrageniculate pathway in the rat visual system, and is cytoarchitecturally divided into three subdivisions--lateral (LPl), rostromedial (LPrm), and caudomedial (LPcm) portions. To clarify the differences in the dendritic fields and axonal arborisations among the three subdivisions, we applied a single-neuron labeling technique with viral vectors to LP neurons. The proximal dendrites of LPl neurons were more numerous than those of LPrm and LPcm neurons, and LPrm neurons tended to have wider dendritic fields than LPl neurons. We then analysed the axonal arborisations of LP neurons by reconstructing the axon fibers in the cortex. The LPl, LPrm and LPcm were different from one another in terms of the projection targets--the main target cortical regions of LPl and LPrm neurons were the secondary and primary visual areas, whereas those of LPcm neurons were the postrhinal and temporal association areas. Furthermore, the principal target cortical layers of LPl neurons in the visual areas were middle layers, but that of LPrm neurons was layer 1. This indicates that LPl and LPrm neurons can be categorised into the core and matrix types of thalamic neurons, respectively, in the visual areas. In addition, LPl neurons formed multiple axonal clusters within the visual areas, whereas the fibers of LPrm neurons were widely and diffusely distributed. It is therefore presumed that these two types of neurons play different roles in visual information processing by dual thalamocortical innervation of the visual areas.

  2. Prediction and error growth in the daily forecast of precipitation from the NCEP CFSv2 over the subdivisions of Indian subcontinent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruva Kumar Pandey; Shailendra Rai; A K Sahai; S Abhilash; N K Shahi

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the forecast skill and predictability of various indices of south Asian monsoon as well as the subdivisions of the Indian subcontinent during JJAS season for the time domain of 2001–2013 using NCEP CFSv2 output. It has been observed that the daily mean climatology of precipitation over the land points of India is underestimated in the model forecast as compared to observation. The monthly model bias of precipitation shows the dry bias over the land points of India and also over the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Himalayan and Arabian Sea regions show the wet bias. We have divided the Indian landmass into five subdivisions namely central India, southern India, Western Ghat, northeast and southern Bay of Bengal regions based on the spatial variation of observed mean precipitation in JJAS season. The underestimation over the land points of India during mature phase was originated from the central India, southern Bay of Bengal, southern India and Western Ghat regions. The error growth in June forecast is slower as compared to July forecast in all the regions. The predictability error also grows slowly in June forecast as compared to July forecast in most of the regions. The doubling time of predictability error was estimated to be in the range of 3–5 days for all the regions. Southern India and Western Ghats are more predictable in the July forecast as compared to June forecast, whereas IMR, northeast, central India and southern Bay of Bengal regions have the opposite nature.

  3. Prediction and error growth in the daily forecast of precipitation from the NCEP CFSv2 over the subdivisions of Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhruva Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Shahi, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the forecast skill and predictability of various indices of south Asian monsoon as well as the subdivisions of the Indian subcontinent during JJAS season for the time domain of 2001-2013 using NCEP CFSv2 output. It has been observed that the daily mean climatology of precipitation over the land points of India is underestimated in the model forecast as compared to observation. The monthly model bias of precipitation shows the dry bias over the land points of India and also over the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Himalayan and Arabian Sea regions show the wet bias. We have divided the Indian landmass into five subdivisions namely central India, southern India, Western Ghat, northeast and southern Bay of Bengal regions based on the spatial variation of observed mean precipitation in JJAS season. The underestimation over the land points of India during mature phase was originated from the central India, southern Bay of Bengal, southern India and Western Ghat regions. The error growth in June forecast is slower as compared to July forecast in all the regions. The predictability error also grows slowly in June forecast as compared to July forecast in most of the regions. The doubling time of predictability error was estimated to be in the range of 3-5 days for all the regions. Southern India and Western Ghats are more predictable in the July forecast as compared to June forecast, whereas IMR, northeast, central India and southern Bay of Bengal regions have the opposite nature.

  4. 安氏Ⅱ类亚类错畸形的病因及其矫治%Etiology and treatment of Angle class Ⅱ subdivision malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静; 白丁

    2013-01-01

    Angle class Ⅱ subdivision malocclusion is one of the most common malocclusions in orthodontics. It also is one of the most complicated and difficult situations in treatment. We can use many ways to improve the molar relationship. To achieve the best results, we should always choose methods based on patients’ age, severity, compliance, and so on. This paper summarizes the etiology, clinical features and treatment planning of Angle classⅡ subdivision malocclusion.%  安氏Ⅱ类亚类错畸形是临床中较为常见的一种错畸形,是在临床治疗中最为复杂和困难的错类型之一。临床中可以通过多种方法,来协调以使双侧达到良好磨牙关系。正畸医师应根据患者年龄、错的严重程度、合并的错类型、患者配合程度等选择不同的方法,以达到最佳效果。本文就近年来对安氏Ⅱ类亚类错畸形的病因、临床表现及治疗方法等的相关研究作一综述。

  5. Augmented Zagreb Index of Line,Total and Subdivision Graphs%线图、全图和细分图的 augmented Zagreb 指数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓玲; 高玉斌; 杜建伟

    2015-01-01

    图的 augmented Zagreb 指数是化学图论中一种新的拓扑指数,在化学中有着许多的应用。研究表明该指数能有效地预测辛烷和庚烷的能量信息。对线图、全图和细分图的 augmented Zagreb 指数进行了研究。采用分析结构的方法,得到了线图、全图和细分图的 augmented Zagreb 指数的上界和下界,并且刻画了达到上界和下界时的图类。%The augmented Zagreb index of a graph,which is proven to be a valuable predictive index in the study of the heat information of octanes and heptanes,is a novel topological index in chemical graph theory.It has a lot of applications in chemistry.The augmented Zagreb index of line,total and subdivi-sion graphs was investigated.By using the method of analyzing graph structure,the tight upper and lower bounds on augmented Zagreb index of line,total and subdivision graphs were presented,and the graphs which augmented Zagreb index and satisfied these tight bounds were characterized.

  6. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  7. Evaluation of Subdivision of Warfarin Sodium Tablets from 3 Enterprises%3厂家华法林钠片分剂量的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 邓欣; 詹金陶; 刘其东

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rationality of splitting warfarin sodium tablets from 3 enterprises. METHODS: Tablet cutter, scissor and knife were used to divide whole tablet from enterprise A (imported uncoated tablets), B (domestic sugar-coated tablets) and C (domestic film-coated tablets) into half and quarter parts by a student. For one third and one fifth parts, the method scissor by 2 students and pulverizing by 2 pharmacists were applied (n=30) , meanwhile European Pharmacopeia 6.0(EP 6.0) and other standards were adopted to evaluate the accuracy of subdivision of half and quarter parts and friability of all the subdivision. The disintegration time of tablets from 3 enterprises was investigated. RESULTS: The accuracy of subdivision of Warfarin sodium tablets from 3 enterprises could not met the requirement specified in EP 6.0. There was no significant difference in the pass rate of subdivision of half and quarter parts among 3 methods, there was no significant difference in the pass rate of subdivision between 2 students (except fifth parts) or 2 pharmacists. As to friability test for equal parts, enterprise A met the standard while enterprises B and C not. The disintegration time were 3, 29 and 23 min for 3 enterprises. CONCLUSION: It is not rational to subdivide Warfarin sodium tablets by above methods.%目的:评价3厂家华法林钠片分剂量的合理性.方法:对A(进口,未包衣)、B(国产,糖衣片)、C(国产,薄膜衣片)厂家的华法林钠片进行分剂量,分别由1名学生用切药器、剪刀、小刀将整片进行二、四等分;由另外2名学生用剪刀和2名药师用磨粉分包将整片进行三、五等分(n=30).参照《欧洲药典》第6版,对二、四等分片进行分剂量准确性评价,对二、三、四、五等分片进行等分片脆碎度评价,并考察3厂家片剂的崩解时限.结果:3厂家二、三、四、五等分分剂量准确性均不符合《欧洲药典》规定.3种方法二、四等分分

  8. Coyotes demonstrate how habitat specialization by individuals of a generalist species can diversify populations in a heterogeneous ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Bannasch, Danika L; Chomel, Bruno B; Ernest, Holly B

    2008-07-01

    The tendency for individuals to disperse into habitat similar to their natal habitat has been observed in a wide range of species, although its population genetic consequences have received little study. Such behavior could lead to discrete habitat-specific population subdivisions even in the absence of physical dispersal barriers or habitat gaps. Previous studies of coyotes have supported this hypothesis in a small region of California, but its evolutionary significance ultimately depends on the extent and magnitude of habitat-specific subdivision. Here, we investigated these questions using autosomal, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial markers and >2,000 coyotes from a broad region, including 2 adjacent ecoregions with contrasting levels of habitat heterogeneity--the California Floristic Province (CFP) (heterogeneous landscape) and the Desert-Prairie ecoregion (DPE) (homogeneous landscape). Consistent with predictions, we found a close correspondence between population genetic structure and habitat subdivisions throughout the CFP and virtual panmixia over the larger DPE. Conversely, although genetic diversity was similar in these 2 ecoregions overall, it was lower within sites of the CFP, as would be the expected consequence of greater genetic drift within subregions. The magnitude of habitat-specific genetic subdivisions (i.e., genetic distance) in the CFP varied considerably, indicating complexity (e.g., asymmetric gene flow or extinction/recolonization), but, in general, was higher than that due to geographic distance or recent human-related barriers. Because habitat-specific structure can enhance a species' adaptive potential and resilience to changing environments, these findings suggest the CFP may constitute an evolutionarily important portion of the range for coyotes and sympatric species exhibiting habitat-specific population structure.

  9. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    As noted by the Bureau of Meteorology, Canada, to examine whether such ... their local climate, a threshold considered extreme in one part of Australia could be ... (extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events.

  10. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  11. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  12. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  13. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  14. Functional metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under extreme conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from extreme environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to extreme environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest.

  15. Mitochondriogenesis genes and extreme longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catalina; Garatachea, Nuria; Yvert, Thomas; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Genes of the proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A, also termed PGC1-α)-nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-mitochondrial transcription Factor A (TFAM) mitochondriogenesis pathway can influence health/disease phenotypes, yet their association with extreme longevity is not known. We studied the association of five common polymorphisms in genes of this pathway (rs2267668, rs8192678, rs6949152, rs12594956, rs1937) and extreme longevity using a case (107 centenarians)-control (284 young adults) design. We found no between-group differences in allele/genotype frequencies, except for CC genotype in rs1937 (p=0.003), with no representation in controls (0%), versus 2.8% in centenarians (2 men, 1 woman). In summary, the studied genetic variants of the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway were not associated with extreme longevity, yet a marginal association could exist for rs1937.

  16. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  17. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  18. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  19. Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...